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NDSU

Root Locus in the z-Domain

ECE 461

Root Locus in the z-Domain


Objectives:
Sketch a root locus in the z-plane

Discussion:
Relative to the microcontroller, a feedback system looks like it's a discrete-time system. It looks like is's in the z-domain. The goal is to find the compensator, K(z), which gives a 'good' response.

E k G(z)

Mathematically, the open-loop transfer function is

Y = G(z)K(z)E
giving a closed-loop transfer function
GK Y = 1+GK R

If GK has zeros and poles:


z GK = k p

the closed-loop transfer function becomes


kz Y = p+kz E

The roots of the closed-loop system are then just as they were in the s-plane:

p(z) + kz(z) = 0
Mathematically, the roots to this polynomial don't care if the variable is 's', 'z', or anything else. The roots (and hence root locus plot) behave just the same in the s-plans as they do in the z-plane. The only difference in the z-plans is how you interprit the meaning of the pole locations. Recall the relationship between the s-pland and the z-plane is

z = e sT
This causes the damping lines in the s-plane to spiral in the z-plane as follows:
JSG 1 rev August 21, 2007

NDSU

Root Locus in the z-Domain

ECE 461

90

Unstable Stable

0.8
75

0.6
60

0.4
45 30 15

0.2

-1

-0.8

-0.6

-0.4

-0.2

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

The point you want to pick in the z-plane for a good response is then: The dominant pole is the pole closest to s=0. In the z-plane, it's the pole closest to z=1. Pick 'k' so that you are stable. All poles are inside the unit circle. Better yet, pick 'k' so that the dominant pole has a desired damping ratio. Example: A microcontroller is used to control a system with the following dynamics
100 Y = (s+10)(s+20) U

Assume a sampling rate of 10ms. Find the maximum 'k' for stability and 'k' for a damping ratio of 0.5. Solution: First, convert G(s) to G(z).

s = 10 z = e sT = 0.9048 s = 20 z = e sT = 0.8187
Define G(z) to have poles at {0.9048, 0.8187}. Add a gain to make the DC gain match G(s)
0.0173z G(z) = (z0.9048)(z0.8187)

Next, sketch the root locus. Include in the root-locus plot the 60 degree damping ratio line

JSG

rev August 21, 2007

NDSU

Root Locus in the z-Domain

ECE 461

90

Stable

Unstable

0.8
75

0.6
60

0.4
45 z=0.8183+j0.2212 30 15

0.2

-1

-0.8

-0.6

-0.4

-0.2

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

For a damping ratio of 0.5, search along the line

s = 120 0 z = e sT
until the angles add up to 180 degrees:

z = 0.8318 + j0.2212 G(z) = 0.2886 \


Pick k to make the gain equal to -1 at this point on the z-plane

k = 3.46
Verifying that this does result in a damping ratio of 0.5 (meaning you should have 16.3% overshoot), simulate this in VisSim. The plant is in the s-domain (it's a continuous time system.) The contrller sees the error, sampled every 10ms:

JSG

rev August 21, 2007

NDSU

Root Locus in the z-Domain

ECE 461

Just to verify that the control input is a discrete signal from the microcontroller (i.e. it's sampled every 10ms), plot the input as well:

JSG

rev August 21, 2007