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BORRE In Partial fulfillment of the requirements For Technical Report Writing to be submitted to Professor Giselda, Bonsol Technological University of the Philippines, College of Liberal Arts September, 2011

Acknowledgements The Author would like to thank Professor Bonsol, who gave me an opportunity to write this research paper. Without her teaching and support, I wont be able to write this. The writers of Experience Baking, Mrs. Celia E. Carino and Amor S. Lazaro deserve special thanks. the author manage to learn all of other techniques in baking. The Author would like to express their deepest gratitude and sincerest thanks to GOD for all the blessings and wisdom bestowed to the author.

Introduction Through the years, today in the future, bread will be the most dependable food. Such popularity is behind its versatility. Bread is always kept space of the old and the modern world. People nowadays want fast and convenient way on eating food. Baking foods like bread, cake and pastry usually buy at local stores so a lot of people dont know how to bake (pastry, bread, cookies, etc.) Even though its very easy to make and can save up more money than buying at the convenience stores.

Objective We want to show that baking is not a hard deal if you have an oven you can bake all kinds of pastry. The author would like to show what the history of baking is, how baking is popular in other country and to know or be familiarize in baking utensils and to learn how to bake like a true baker.

History In ancient history, the first evidence of baking occurred when humans took wild grass grains, soaked them in water, and mixed everything together, mashing it into a kind of broth-like paste. The paste was cooked by pouring it onto a flat, hot rock, resulting in a bread-like substance. Later, this paste was roasted on hot embers, which made bread-making easier, as it could now be made anytime fire was created. Baking flourished in the Roman Empire. In about 300 BC, the pastry cook became an occupation for Romans (known as the pastillarium). This became a respected profession because pastries were considered decadent, and Romans loved festivity and celebration. Thus, pastries were often cooked especially for large banquets, and any pastry cook who could invent new types of tasty treats was highly prized. Around 1 AD, there were more than three hundred pastry chefs in Rome, and Cato wrote about how they created all sorts of diverse foods, and flourished because of those foods. Cato speaks of an enormous amount of breads; included amongst these are the libum (sacrificial cakes made with flour), placenta (groats and cress), spira (our modern day flour pretzels), scibilata (tortes), savaillum (sweet cake), and globus apherica (fritters). A great selection of these, with many different variations, different ingredients, and varied patterns, were often found at banquets and dining halls. The Romans baked bread in an oven with its own chimney, and had mills to grind grain into flour. Eventually, because of Rome, the art of baking became known throughout Europe, and eventually spread to the eastern parts of Asia. Bakers often baked goods at home and then sold them in the streets. This scene was so common that Rembrandt illustrated a work that depicted a pastry chef selling pancakes in the streets of Germany, with children clamoring for a sample. In London, pastry chefs sold their goods from handcarts. This developed into a system of delivery of baked goods to households, and demand increased greatly as a result. In Paris, the first open-air caf of baked goods was developed, and baking became an established art throughout the entire world.

History of the Baking in the Philippines Wheat was cultivated in the Philippines particularly in the provinces of Batangas, Laguna, Cavite, and Cagayan as early as the seventeenth century for the purpose of making Eucharistic wafers during the Spanish era. With coming of the Americans, the

importations of the wheat flour in the United States began. When flour mills were established in the late fifties, importations shifted from flour to wheat grains. Baking as a trade in the Philippines began to flourish in 1960s. The U.S. Wheat Associates established its office here in 1962 mainly to disseminate information on baking and to help Filipinos develop their skills in the trades. Eight flour mills, namely, General Milling Corporation, Liberty Flour Mills, Philippine Flour Mill, Pillsburry Mindanao Flour Milling Corporation supply demand for flour all over the country as bread continues to be a major food on the Filipinos table

Definition of Terms BAKE : To cook in an oven or oven-type appliance. This term typically applies to pastries, cookies, breads, casseroles, and occasionally fish and poultry. BATTER : A semi liquid mixture of liquid, eggs, and starch used to make pancakes, cookies, or a coating for foods to be fried. DOUGH : A mixture of liquid, flour, etc., that is stiff enough to be handled or kneaded, rolled and shaped. Example bread dough. CUPCAKE : A small cake baked in a cuplike mold. MACAROON : A small cake made of egg white, sugar, and ground almonds or desiccated coconut. MUFFIN : Light quick bread made from a drop batter. Baked in a pan that has 6 - 12 wells or cups. Looks like cupcakes but of coarser texture, slightly heavier, pebbly crust and less sweet in flavor. PASTRY : Sweet baked food made with a flour-shortening-liquid dough. Example tarts, pies. BISCUIT : In baked goods, a small roll (either yeast or quick bread). COOKIE : Small sweet cakes chiefly used as snack items. OVEN: An oven is a thermally insulated chamber used for the heating, baking or drying of a substance.

Review of related literature Ingredients in Baking A. Flour The main ingredient of baked goods is flour which is usually milled from wheat. It contains the proteins gliadin and gluten, which when combined with liquid, forms gluten. When expanded and heated, gluten gives structure to the baked product. GLIADIN & GLUTENIN + LIQUID = BASIC GLUTEN + HEAT = STRUCTURE OF BAKED PRODUCT

B. Leaveners A leavening agent is any one of a number of substances used In doughs and batter that cause a foaming action which lightens and softens the finished product. The leavening agent incorporates gas bubbles into the dough this may be air incorporated by mechanical means, but usually it is carbon dioxide produced by biological agents, or by chemical agents reacting with moisture, heat, acidity, or other triggers. When a dough or batter is mixed, the starch in the flour mixes with the water in the dough to form a matrix (often supported further by proteins like gluten or other polysaccharides like pentosans or xanthan gum), then gelatinizes and "sets"; the holes left by the gas bubbles remain. C. Other Ingredients y y y y y Water: Proper amount of liquid will help prolong the storage life of baked product Shortening: is any fat which is solid at room temperature and used to make crumbly pastry Egg: are available to bakers in different forms: fresh unopened egg, frozen egg product Salt: to balance the taste and improves general quality of the product Sweeteners: it improves nutrition, flavor and aroma, give a richer crust and increase the tenderness and loaf volume of finished product.

Technique in Baking These are techniques or method have their specifi purposes, so it is wise that you follow what the recipe requires. A. Preparation of Baking Ingredients

y y y y y y y y y y y y

Measuring dry ingredients Measuring liquid ingredients Sifting Separating egg Creaming Beating Cutting in Folding Kneading Whipping Cutting and folding Dissolving

B. Preparation of Baking Pans y Greasing pans y Sprinkling Pans with Flour y Lining loaf and rectangular pans y Lining circular pans Summary In baking there are 2 important ingredients flour and leavener. The preparation directions measuring dry ingredients needs to be accurately use a spatula or spoon press the dry ingredient in the cup and scrape the excess ingredients to be sure that its accurate in a recipe indicate exactly how to mix the ingredients. It is important to know the difference between words such as beat, cream, fold, and stir. They do not produce the same results. For example, recipe directions say to fold when it is necessary to mix a light, airy food with a heavier one, whereas beating makes a mixture very smooth. Likewise, recipe directions say to cream when it is necessary to work the food until it is soft and creamy, whereas stirring combines the ingredients in a mixture until they are evenly distributed.

Reference: http://www.four-h.purdue.edu/foods/Level%20A%20%20Bite%204%20Kitchen%20Talk%20Solutions%20Frames.htm http://www.ochef.com/baking_techniques1.htm http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ http://www.joyofbaking.com/other/glossaryindex.html Carino, Celia and Lazaro, Amor, Experience Baking. MINDSHAPPERS CO.,INC Intramuros, Manila

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