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Joel Betke Mr. Murray U.S. History December 18 2011 Extra Credit Study Guide 1. Q: Explain the economic, religious, and political motivations for European colonization of the Americas. A: The people in Britain were oppressed politically and religiously by the king. As for economic gain, anyone in all of Europe who was not financially well of, could go live in America, and have a shot at a new life. 2. Q: Analyze the impact of Columbus voyage to the Americas. A: America was already known by very few people around the world before Columbus. His voyage was a wakeup call. He made reports back saying that there was an entire country ready to be removed from its inhabitants and reaped. 3. Q: Describe the land conflicts between the British and French colonies in North America which led to the French and Indian war. A: The British and French countries were both very interested in the Ohio River Valley. This inevitably led to imperialistic conflict. 4. Q: Compare and contrast the advantages and disadvantages of the colonists and the British during the Revolutionary War. A: The colonists had advantages such as fighting for freedom and knowing the land. Later, they would also gain French alliance. As for negatives, they had an inexperienced military, and a very weak navy. The Brits had the strongest military and navy in the world, however, they did not know the land, and their fighting tactics did not serve them well.

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5. Q: Which of the colonial advantages do you think was most important in winning the Revolutionary War? A: The French Alliance. 6. Q: Explain the significance of the battles at Yorktown and Saratoga. A: Yorktown was where the Brits finally surrendered. America was aided heavily by French navy. Saratoga was an American victory, and the turning point of the war, as France jumped on board. 7. Q: Explain the Treaty of Paris (1783). How did it create significant change in the colonies? A: The Treaty of Paris made America completely independent of Britain. America became nationalized, and was forced to create their own governmental system. 8. Q: Analyze how the supreme court case of Marbury vs. Madison is an example of the fed government growing in power. A: It established the power of judicial review. 9. Q: Summarize the nations developing foreign policy in the late 1700s. A: They were very cautious, being a new country, this caused them to make such decisions as becoming neutral in the war between Britain and France. 10. Q: Explain nullification and how it is an example of sectionalism. A: Nullification is the ability of a state to declare an act of congress void. Taken to an extreme this would basically mean every state was its own country, obviously not good for that nation. 11. Q: Explain the religious and womens rights reforms of the 19th century. A: The second great awakening occurred, changing the deterministic viewpoints of many. Women were not very successful at creating reform in the 19th century. Although voting rights, equal pay rights, and educational rights were fought for. 12. Q: Describe the slave experience and attempts at resistance. A: As a slave your entire life was owned. You were dehumanized and worked to the bone daily. Many slaves tried to escape to the free north. The fugitive slave act was in place to try to pull them back,

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although it was sort of ignored in the north. 13. Q: Define abolition. A: The desire to end something, in this case, slavery. 14. Q: Name some of the key abolitionists and describe their plans. A: Harriet Tubman helped lead an underground railroad. Others like Frederick Douglass suggested a rise to power by education. Abraham could be viewed as an abolitionist, enacting the emancipation proclamation. 15. Q: Assess the effectiveness of the abolitionist movement. A: There was a great gain of freedom for many years to come for a very large group of people who still exist today. There was also a huge loss of American life, and potential destruction of that life as a whole for the country. It was effective enough. 16. Q: Explain the arguments made in support of slavery. A: Some slaveowners would compare slave life to paid factory life and state it as better. Some would create a fake happy slave idea for themselves. Others would just call the slaves inferior. 17. Q: Explain the reasons for Manifest Destiny and its effects. A: Manifest Destiny is basically the John Brown in slavery equivalent of America in imperialism. They believed it was their born right to expand to the coast and become a beacon of freedom. The major effect of course, was just that happening. 18. Q: Explain the effects the Gold Rush had on California. A: It became so quickly populated that it skipped the territory phase and became a state within years. 19. Q: Explain how the technological innovation led to the development of a national market economy. A: Specialization occurred, with trade at the ready, many people became buyers/sellers. Railroads were built. Mass production was developed. 20. Q: Explain the Dred Scott Decision, and the effects it had on the institution of slavery

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in America. A: The Dred Scott Decision said that the Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional, and that slaves were property protected by the constitution, so slavery could be legal anywhere. 21. Q: Describe the following attempts that were intended to preserve the union. I: Missouri Compromise- The line for slavery was drawn down the middle of the country, Missouri was admitted as a slave state, and Maine as a free state. II: Compromise of 1850-California admitted as a free state. New territories were subject to popular sovereignty. A new, more effective fugitive slave law was enacted. III: Kansas Nebraska act- The Missouri compromise was repealed. In all new territories popular sovereignty decided the fate of slavery vs. not. 22. Q: Describe the viewpoints of slavery as expressed by Abraham Lincoln and Stephen Douglass. A: Lincoln would not come out as an abolitionist before he was president. He claimed at first to want to stop the spread of it. Stephen Douglass was in favor of letting the people in each state decide. 23. Q: Explain the actions of John Brown at Harpers Ferry. A: John Brown attempted to start a widespread slave revolt. After he made the government mad by directly attacking them, he was hanged for treason. 24: Q: Explain why Southern Secession occurred following Lincolns election. A: With a republican president, the south was worried that slavery would be ended. 25. Q: Compare the advantage and disadvantages of the North/South. A: The north had far more industry and people. They had to fight an offensive war though. The south was fighting on home turf, however they lacked the resources and self-sufficiency needed to fight the war.

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26. Q: Explain how the civil war affected the lives of Confederate and Union soldiers. A: Many died. Many were torn from families. Many were traumatized. 27. Q: Explain how the Union and Confederacy met the demands for a fighting force. A: The north had a large enough population to rely almost entirely on volunteers. The south also had many volunteers, but a drat was also enacted in both areas. 28. Q: Name Major battles the south won. A: Bull Run, Fort Sumter. 29. Q: Describe the results of the Civil War and how the north and the south were permanently changed. A: Slavery was abolished. This was the cornerstone of the southern economy. They would be setback much. Central Government won out over state government. 30. Q: Explain the 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments. A: They abolished slavery, gave blacks citizenship rights, and voting rights respectively. This however, was not fully enacted for another century. 31. Q: Describe reconstruction. A: Attempts were made at assimilating African Americans, they mostly failed. The South was kept weak politically by the north with the IronClad Oath, and other radical republican movements. As for mending the nation, it didnt really happen. Reconstruction failed. 32. Q: How did Lincolns plan differ from Congress plan? How did Johnsons plan differ from Lincoln? From Congress? A: Lincoln and Johnson had looser plans intended for a speedy mending. Congress however, saw the south as a threat with the addition of many slaves to their population count. They enacted more strict plans. 33. Q: Explain support provided for African Americans. A: The 40 acres and a mule plan was enacted. The 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments were passed. These plans didnt help

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much in reality. 34. Q: Explain attempts to prevent African American assimilation. A: The KKK killed and threatened many. Share cropping and tenant farming were forms of legal slavery. Segregation laws were enacted. 35. Q: Explain the factors which motivated Americans to push west. A: As always economic gain and a new life was the goal for many. There was also much free land offered by the government. 36. Q: Describe the cultural changes for Native Americans that came with Spanish contact. A: They were brushed with the modern world. They acquired horses and guns. 37. Q: Identify the different methods the U.S. government used to deal with the Great Plains Native Americans. A: There were attempts at transforming Indians into civilized white Christians. Their skins couldnt exactly change color though. In the end force was used, as always. 38. Q: Trace the development of the cattle industry in the great plains as well as its effects. A: Railroads and a demand for meat goods can be stated as factors of cattle industry development. It was major cash flow for the west. 39. Q: Explain the Homestead Act. A: The government offered 160 acres to any head of household moving west, however this land was often claimed with the intent to be resold once there was none left.