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PHONOLOGY AND WRITING

Alphabet (Alfabet) Pronunciation (Prononciacion)


Vowels (Vocalas) Consonants (Consonantas)

Accentuation (Accentuacion)

MORPHOLOGY

Noun (Nom)
General Notions Feminine (Femenim) Plural

Adjective (Adjectiu)
Gender of the Adjectives (Genre dels Adjectius) Adjectives of two forms Adjectives of one form Plural of the Adjectives (Plural dels Adjectius) Degree of the Adjectives (Gra dels Adjectius) Comparative degree (Gra Comparatiu) Superlative degree (Gra Superlatiu) Irregular Degrees (Comparatius e Superlatius irregulars)

Adverb (Advrb)
List of Basic Adverbs Derived Adverbs Degree of the Adverbs (Gra dels Advrbs) Comparative Degree (Gra Comparatiu) Superlative Degree (Gra Superlatiu) Adverbials (Locucions adverbialas)

Determiners (Determinants)
Articles (Articles) Possessive Adjectives (Adjectius Possesius) Demonstrative Adjectives (Adjectius Demonstratius) Interrogative Adjectives (Adjectius Interrogatius) Exclamatives Indefinite Adjectives (Adjectius Indefinits) Negative Adjectives (Adjectius Negatius)

Pronouns (Pronums)
Personal and Reflexive Pronouns (Pronoms Personals e Reflexius) Possessive Pronouns (Pronoms Possessius) Demonstrative Pronouns (Pronoms Demonstratius) Relative Pronouns (Pronoms Relatius)

Interrogative Pronouns (Pronoms Interrogatius) Indefinite Pronouns (Pronoms Indefinits) Negative Pronouns (Pronoms Negatius)

Pronominal adverbs Numerals (Numerals) Verb (Verb)


Auxiliary verbs Aver | Tner (Tenir) | sser (stre) Tenses (Tempses) Reflexive Verbs Irregular Verbs Negation

Prepositions (Preposicions) Conjunctions (Conjonccions) Tematic Glossary welcome family house city transport Post Geography climate nature animal food fruit vegetable body clothes sport colors numbers time day month pronouns question ?

Occitan Language
General Overview

Area of Distribution and Number of Speakers


Occitan language (also called Provenal or Languedoc) is a Romance language spoken by about 1,500,000 people in southern France. All Occitan speakers use French as their official and cultural language, but Occitan dialects are used for everyday purposes and show no signs of extinction. The name Occitan is derived from the geographical name Occitania, which is itself patterned after Aquitania and the characteristic word oc and includes the regions of Limousin, Languedoc, the old Aquitaine, and the southern part of the French Alps, all of the populations of which are Occitan-speaking. The name Languedoc comes from the term langue d' oc, which denoted a language using oc for yes (from Latin hoc), in contrast to the French language, the langue d' ol, which used ol (modern oui) for yes (from Latin hoc ille). Languedoc refers to a linguistic and political-geographical region of the southern Massif Central in France. The name Provenal originally referred to the Occitan dialects of the Provence region and is used also to refer to the standardized medieval literary language based on the dialect of Provence.

Origin and History


Occitan's medieval ancestor, usually called either Provenal or Langue d'Oc, was the first literary dialect of high culture in the territory now encompassed by France. It developed, as did Francien (ancestor of modern French), from the Vulgar Latin transmitted by Roman soldiers and traders to local populations. According to Encyclopdie Occitane, Provenal was actually the first Romance language to emerge from the mix of Roman and "barbarian" tongues; the earliest surviving texts in Langue d'Oc can be definitively attributed to the tenth century (a refrain attached to a Latin poem), and the 12th-century Donat provenal was the first grammar of a modern European language. The best-known ambassadors of Occitan were the troubadours, traveling minstrels who created enduring lyric poetry and canso, inventing and disseminating the idea of courtly love. Although Occitania was composed of small feudal polities, the Langue d'Oc benefited in medieval times from a common orthography, serving admirably as a language of philosophy, science, law and the arts, as well as the everyday dialect of its speakers. This usage continued well into the 14th century, and Occitan's eventual decline is closely tied to the evolution of royal power and the French state. Although most of Occitania was added to the territory of the French crown by the 15th century (excepting English holdings), the French language did not begin to supplant Occitan for some time. The Edict of Villers-Cotterts (1539) made French the official language of government and legal documents, superseding Latin as well as the more than 30 diverse Celtic and Romance local dialects spoken by the majority of the populace This set the stage for the association of French with privilege and power, as bourgeoisie, nobles and courtiers alike were drawn to French, the language of king and government; French also came to be the language of culture for the Occitan elite, lending words of politesse to the Occitan vocabulary. However, the Ancien Rgime did not invest much effort in the enforcement of this edict. The official policy of at least the earliest Capetian rulers of Occitania allowed translation of documents on a local level, proving that the royal authority was not bent on

imposing its own language.The encroachment of French began slowly, following trade routes and, like the shift from "tu" to "vous" pronoun usage, filtering from highest to lowest elements of society. Courtiers wishing to curry favor with the new crown in Ile-de-France chose to speak French; bourgeoisie, entrepreneurs, and the burgeoning class of governmental functionaries also found French bilingualism to be in their best interest.

Dialects
The modern dialects of Occitan are little changed from the speech of the Middle Ages, although they are being affected by their constant exposure to French. The dialects are classified in three major groups: Northern Occitan, which encompasses the three main dialects of Limousin (higher), Auvergnat (lower), and Provenal Alpine. Southern or Middle Occitan, which is divided primarily into Languedocien with northern, southern, eastern and western dialects, and Provenal to the east with three main subdivisions of Rhodanian around Arles, Avignon and Nmes, and Provencal Maritime spoken around the Cote d'Azur, and Niart spoken around Nice. Gascon spoken primarily in southwestern France; it is sometimes considered a distinct language because it differs a great deal from the other, more or less uniform, Occitan dialects.

Occitan is closely related to Catalan, and, although strongly influenced in the recent past by French, its phonology and grammar are more closely related to Spanish than to French.

Standardization
In spite of the various dialects, attempts were made to create an Occitan standard. One of the earliest and most famous movements was founded by Frdric Mistral, the region's best-known author, who was awarded the 1905 Nobel Prize in Literature for the poem "Mirilha" in his native Provenal dialect. Mistral, together with a group of intellectuals known as the Flibrige, proposed in the 19th century a standard based upon modern Provenal (one of the Occitan dialects). The Flibrigians' preoccupation with purity and the past meant that the "corrupted, bastardized form of the frenchified patois of the streets' could not provide a suitable linguistic model for their poetry. That had to be found elsewhere, in the countryside." They re-worked the language, systematically pruning "frenchified"terms and replacing them with "older and more genuine" forms. The Flibrigians are most often accused of passisme, of wishing to preserve, from the safety of their ivory tower of intellectualism, the picturesque backwardness of Occitania, and of seeking in folkloric traditions a force to unite Occitania. A post-World War II effort at standardization took as its model the Languedocien dialect; like the Flibrigian standard, the choice of one dialect as a model for all could only have overruled dialectical loyalty in a few urban intellectuals whose linguistic ties to the region were more symbolic or political than quotidian and authentic. There have been a confusing array of other standardizations, many of which have suffered in some degree from the crucial gap between urban intellectuals who seek to preserve and standardize Occitan, and rural paysans, the last remaining autochthonous native speakers, whose goals are more concrete and practical. The Flibrigian spelling is still in use, primarily in the Provenal region, but current Occitan texts tend to favor Los Alibrt's Languedocien-based Gramatica occitana. His system, based upon the spelling and Latin derivations of historical Langue d'Oc, is sufficiently universal to enable the expression of every Occitan dialect, as well as autochthonic neologisms. The graphie alibertine is on its way to unite the dialects of Occitan; transcriptional conventions can now be

regularized, and the historical roots of the system lend modern writing historical continuity and even a sense of the prestige of the medieval precedent. In Saussurean terms, Alibert's norms permit both synchronic communication, throughout Occitania, and diachronic communication back to the origins of Occitan culture.

Present Situation
The situation of present-day Occitan is rather paradoxical. On the one hand, there are people, mainly old, who still use it in every day life as their natural way of communication, at work or at home. Yet those people, for the most, are unable to read or write it as they never learned to do so. On the other hand, due to the movements and associations supporting the revival of minority languages in Europe and in France, Occitan is more and more taught in bilingual associative schools (Calandretas), in state-run primary schools, in high schools and Universities. Yet what is at issue now, is whether those people, who will be able to read and write Occitan, will use it in everyday life.

Phonology
The main features of the Occitan vocal system are the following (we use French and Spanish examples as references):

Features
Absence or rarety of closed vowels No diphthongization of Vulgar Latin vowels Maintenance of the Latin stressed a Maintenance of the Latin final unstressed a

Latin
rosa rose mele(m) honey bene well tres three fede(m) faith cabra goat porta door catna chain

Occitan
rose [r z ] mel be tres fe cabra (chabra) porta cadena una petita femna sus la finestra

French
rose [ oz] miel bien trois foi chvre porte [p chaine [ t] n]

Spanish
rosa miel bien tres fe cabra puerta cadena

Preservation of the unstressed vowels

une petite femme sur la fentre

No nasalized vowels

vinum wine bene well

['yn p'tit [yn ptit fam sy 'femla fn t ] n sys la fi'nestr ] (6 syllables) (12 syllables) vin vin ben bien

Spanish uses words of different etymologies

vino bien

Grammar
Like Old French, from the 9th to the 13th century, Old Occitan preserved the two-case system of Vulgar Latin, subjective and objective, and it seems that until the middle of the 12th century, the written and spoken languages were identical. Then, the distinction between the cases disappeared in spoken usage, though they still persisted in the written texts of the Trobadors. This period can be qualified as the Golden Age or the time of the Trobadors. A second period ranges from the beginning of the 14th century to the middle of the 16th. It is characterized by the dropping altogether of the flexions in witten texts, by the beginning of dialectization, the dropping of courteous vocabulary and the use of learned words borrowed from Latin and Greek to express law, medecine, philosophy and theology. Occitan was no longer a literary language, but it was used to write the deeds, the accounts, the chronicles and the resolutions of local communities. Since the second half of the 16th century to our days, Occitan was banned from written documents, and reduced to oral usage only, mainly by country and working people, in their everyday life, at work or at home. All along its history, Occitan has remarkably retained its fundamental features: plurals marked by the addition of -s or -es , generally preserved in speech, the agreement of adjectives with nouns, and the conjugations of verbs.The latter, like Italian, Spanish, Catalan and Portuguese, but unlike French, do not require any personal pronoun to indicate the persons, the verb endings being pronounced differently to that effect: canti I sing, cantas you sing, canta he sings; cantam we sing, cantatz you sing, cantan they sing.

There are 4 moods (indicative, imperative, subjunctive and conditional), 4 simple tenses (present, preterite, imperfect, future), and compound tenses. The latter are formed by adding to the infinitive (used as a stem) the present and imperfect indicative endings, respectively, of aver to have. The perfect, pluperfect and future perfect are usually constructed with aver, but some intransitive and all reflexive verbs use sser (L esse) to be; in this Occitan is quite similar to French and Italian. Yet, some syntaxic features are proper to Occitan like the extensive use of the subjunctive imperfect, no longer used in French, or the expression of progressive aspect by means of the periphrastic form, as in sser + a + infiniive: Es a legir He is reading (cf. Portuguese estar + a + infinitive).

Vocabulary
Occitan vocabulary is derived mainly from Vulgar Latin (pistillum => peile lock, mespilam => mspla medlar), and also from Germanic (bastir to build, fanga mud, tropl flock, herd), Greek (amtla almond, raums cold ), pre-Latin languages (truc summit, top, estalviar to save), especially Gaulish (carri cart, bruga heather).

Alphabet (Alfabet)
Occitan is written with the Latin alphabet. In the Occitan words are used 23 letters: Letter Phonetic Value Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh

[a], [ ] [b], [] [s], [k] [d]

[ ], [e] [f]

[g], [d ], [...] [t ] Pp [p] Qq [k]

Letter Phonetic Value Letter Phonetic Value

Ii [i]

Jj [d ]

Ll [l]

Mm

Nn

Oo [u]

[m], [n] [n]

Rr

Ss

Tt

Uu [y]

Vv

Xx

Zz [z]

[ ], [ ], [s], [z] [t] [...]

[b], [] [gz]

Occitan orthography uses acute and grave accents (as in and ) and a few letter combinations (ch, tg, tj, lh, nh, tz, gn, rr and mp) for some specific sounds. The cedile (,) is used under the letter c to mark its pronunciation as [s] in front of a, o and u. Three other letters -- K, W and Y -- are used in names and words of foreign origin.

Pronunciation
Vowels
Sign Sound
a, a e, i, o, u, a O O e E i U O y casal tumbledown house annada year veni he was coming sec dry vengut he came tiri I pull Tolosa Toulouse aqu that luna moon

Examples
[ka'zal] far he'll do [fa'ra] ['kabrO] [farma'sjO] [es'pes] [a'prEs] [a'ki] [y'rUs] ['pOrti] [de'sys]

[annadO] cabra she-goat [be'njO] [sek] farmaci pharmacy esps thick

[Ben'GEt] aprs afterwards ['tiri] [tU'lUzO] [a'kO] ['lynO] aqu here urs happy prti I wear desss above, over

Diphthongs
Sign Sound
ai au ei, i i eu u oi, i aj aw ej Ej ew Ew Uj paire father laurar to plough veire to see ime [good] sense deute debt nu snow coire copper

Examples
['pajre] [law'ra] ['Bejre] ['Ejme] ['dewte] [nEw] ['kUjre] faire to do, make causa thing crisser to grow pira stone beure to drink tune thin conisser to know ['fajre] ['kawza] ['krejse] ['pEjrO] ['bewre] ['tEwne] [kU'nUjse]

i u iu

Oj Ow iw

cire to cook plure to rain viure to live

['kOjre] ['plOwre] ['Biwre]

fire to hoe mure to move siure cork

['fOjre] ['mOwre] ['siwre]

Consonants
Sign Position Sound
g g j m n n r v before e, i final all positions final all positions final final all positions dJ tS dJ n n roge red freg cold mija half f.

Examples
[r'UdJe] [fretS] ['miEdJO] fum smoke [fyn] fugs he runs away[fu'dJis] pug hill [puEtS]

clarum clearness [kla'ryn] vent wind [ben] [ma[n]] [kan'ta] ['BilO], ['bi-]

...
camin way

...
[ka'mi[n]]

often man hand mute mute b/B cantar to sing vila town

professor teacher [prUfe'sU] aver to have [a'Be], [a'be]

Consonantic Digraphs
Sign Position Sound
ch lh lh nh nh tj tz all positions initial & middle final initial & middle final all positions all positions tS L l N n tS ts quichar to press palha straw talh cutting edge vinha vine planh moan vilatjon hamlet dotze twelve

Examples
[ki'tSa] ['paLO] [tal] ['BiNO] [plan] [bila'tSU] ['dUtse] cht owl balhar to give telh lime-tree [tSOt] [ba'La] [tel]

banhar to bathe, to [ba'Na] wet banh bath [ban]

...
cantatz you sing [pl.]

...
[kan'tats]

Pronunciation of consonnant clusters in final syllables

Cluster
-rn

Sound
[rt], [r], [n] or [] [ks], [ts], [tS], [s] or [] [ts], [tS], [s] or [] [ps], [ts], [tS], [s] or [] [ns], [s], or [] [ns], [n] [ns], [nks], [n] [ls], [j] [ts], [tS], [s] or [] [s] or [r] [bEls] or [bEs] [nk] or [n] [nt] or [n] [mp] or [n] [rk] or [r] [rt] or [r] [rp] or [r]

Examples
carn meat sacs bags cantats sung taps corks pans loaves of bread rams boughs banhs baths embolhs quarrels lachs milks; gaug joys cors lecture; tr bent bls tall or beautiful banc bench; reng row cant song; redond round bomb bound berc notch; larg wide

-cs -ts -ps -ns -ms -nhs -elhs -chs, -gs* -rs, -r -ls -nc, -ng, -nt, -nd, -mp, -mb -rc, rg, -rt, -rd, -rp, -rb, -rv

srp snake; srv serf

Note: There is a tendancy to form the plural in -ches, and -ges [laches, gauges] =>[etses], [etSes].

Accentuation
The stress position in Occitan may be recognized in spelling according to three simple rules:
1. Words terminated by a vowel, an s or an n (only in conjugation) are

stressed on the antepenultimate syllable, cf. mecanica mechanics, voler to want, cantan (they) sing. 2. Words terminated by a consonant (save s) or a diphthong are stressed on the ultimate syllable, cf. gaton cat. 3. All the exceptions are marked by a written accent on the stressed syllable, cf. culher, pens. The above rules are almost the same as in Spanish.

Noun
General Notions
Nouns in Occitan are classified as masculine and feminine.

The Feminine
As a rule, all nouns ending in -a are feminine, and the others are masculine. Note that this final -a is pronounced [ ]. There are however many exceptions: words in -ista can be masculine as well as feminine: ecologista is either a man or a woman; and there are many simple feminine words ending in a consonant, like mar sea, for instance. Generally, the feminine forms of nouns and adjectives are derived by adding an -a at the end of the words (as in Spanish), cf.:

un parent a relative => una parenta; un obrir a worker => una obrira; un jogaire a player => una jogaira.

The final consonant of the derived feminines is usually voiced, cf.:

un lop a wolf => una loba a she-wolf. lo conhat the brother-in law => la conhada the sister-in-law; un polit nebot a beautiful nephew => una polida neboda a beautiful niece.

In some cases the feminines restore a consonant that is vocalized in masculine, or add special suffixes, cf.:

nu (from L. novus, v => u) new => nova; viu (from L. vivus, v => u) alive => viva; un institutor a male-teacher => una institutritz (from L. institutor : institutrix).

Plural
Generally, the plural is made by adding -s to the nouns and adjectives. There exist, however, a lot of varieties concerning the different types of word endings as well as the dialects. In the following lines we'll make an overview of the plural forms in the main Occitan dialects, Languedocian (Lengadocian) and Vivaro-Alpine (Central Alpine):

General rule: The suffix -s is added to the words, cf.: me : mes color : colors femna : femnas

There occur a lot of particularities in dependence of the various word terminations: 1. Words terminated in sg. by -s, -, -sc, -st, -x, -xt, -tz, -ch, -g [=Engl. sh], -sh, -z form plural by adding -es, cf.: o mas : mases o ris : rises. Note that according to the rules of the graphic accentuation -s, -s, -s, -s, -s are transformed into -ases -eses -ises -oses -uses, cf.:
o o o

angls : angleses, precs : precises, fams : famoses.

In some cases the final -s is doubled in plural (-sses), cf.:

o o o

pas : passes, rus : russes, congrs : congrsses.

According to the rules of the graphic accentuation -s -s -s -s -s become in plural -asses -esses -isses -osses -usses, cf.:
o o o

moveds : movedisses, grands : grandasses, esps : espesses.

There occur also the following orthographic modifications in plural: - => -ces, cf.:
o o o

atr : atrces, br : brces, do : doces.

-sc => -sques, cf.:


o o o

gigantesc : gigantesques, bsc : bsques, risc : risques.

-st => -stes, cf.:


o o o

arbust : arbustes, cst : cstes, gost : gostes.

-x => -xes, cf.:


o o o o

apendix : apendixes, ortodx : ortodxes, fax : faxes, fix : fixes.

-xt => -xtes, cf.:


o o

txt : txtes, mixt : mixtes.

-tz => -ses, cf.:


o o o

calculatritz : calculatrises crotz : croses, prtz : prses.

-ch => -ches, cf.:

o o o o

romanch : romanches nuch : nuches, fach : faches, dich : diches.

-g [=E. sh] => -ges, cf.:


o o o o o

assag : assages, estug : estuges, pug : puges, gaug : gauges, baug : bauges.

Note that in a few words the final -g is pronounced [k] and then the plural is formed according to the general rule, i.e. by adding -s, cf.:
o o o o o

larg : largs, long : longs, catalg : catalgs, estratg : estratgs, centrifug : centrifugs.

-sh => -shes, cf.:


o o

malgash : malgashes, brush : brushes

The words in -sh are rare and are borrowed recently. -z => -zes, cf.:
o o

merguz : merguzes, quirguiz : quirguizes.

The words in -z are rare and are borrowed recently; note that the final -z is pronounced [s].

2. The words terminated in sg. by -as, -es, -is, -os, -us and stressed on the penultimate syllable remain unchanged in plural, cf.: o autofcus : autofcus, o csmos : csmos, o virus : virus, o tnis : tnis, o iris : iris. 3. A few adjectives and pronouns form irregular plural by -es, cf.: o qualqu'un : qualques unes, o certan : certanes, o aquel : aqueles, o plan : planes, o tant : tantes, o crt : crtes,

o o o

un : unes, tot : totes, el : eles.

The Plural of Nouns and Adjectives in Central Provenal (Rhodanian and Maritime)
General rule: plural is derived by adding -s to the words, cf.: femna : femnas, me : mes, color : colors, bsc : bscs, txt : txts, fach : fachs. 2. The words terminated in singular by -s - -tz -x -z remain unchanged in plural, cf.: o precs : precs, o virus : virus, o br : br, o crotz : crotz, o fix : fix, o merguz : merguz.
o o o o o o

1. The feminine adjectives in -a and the adjectives in -e, when in front of a

noun, develop into: 1. -ei (pronounced [ej] or [i]) before a consonant, cf.: granda femna : grandei femnas, brave garon : bravei garons. 2. -eis (pronounced [ejz] or [iz]) before a vowel, cf.: granda illa : grandeis illas, brave amic : braveis amics. Note that when the adjective follows the noun, it forms plural according to the general rule, cf.: femna granda : emnas grandas, amic brave : amics braves.
1. A few adjectives and pronouns have an irregular plural in -ei(s), cf.:
o o o o o o

tot : totei(s), crt : crtei(s), certan : certanei(s), aqueu : aquelei(s), eu : elei(s), un : unei(s),

quauqu'un : quauqueis unei.

The Plural of Nouns and Adjectives in Rhodanian and Maritime Provenal


In both dialects, the nouns are invariable. The qualificative adjectives are invariable when placed after the nouns; when they are placed in front of the nouns, the plural is formed with -ei / -i (for Maritime and Rhodanian, respectively) regardless the gender (masculine or feminine), cf.:

la brave chato => lei brvei chato / li brvi chato, la chato bravo => lei chato bravo / li chato bravo.

The Plural of Nouns and Adjectives in Gascon, Limousin, Auvergnat


General rule: plural is made by adding -s to the words, cf.:
o o o o o o o o

rota : rotas, acte : actes, color : colors, bsc : bscs,

txt : txts, romanch : romanchs, malgash : malgashs. 2. The words terminated in singular by -s, -, -tz, -x, -z remain unchanged in plural, cf.: o precs : precs, o virus : virus, o bra : bra, o crotz : crotz, o fix : fix, o merguz : merguz (in Limousin merguez : merguez).

In Limousin and Northern Auvergnat the plural mark -s is mute, but it modifies the pronunciation of the final syllable, cf.:

rota ['utO] : rotas ['ut], me [O'me] : mes [O'mej], etc.

Some Vivaro-Alpine dialects form plural in the same manner as Limousin and Auvergnat. Some others are influenced by Provenal, Pieedmontese and Ligurian. The Gascon of Val d'Aran forms feminine plural in -es (rota : rotes) and some masculine plurals in -i (which corresponds to -es in Languedocian, cf. arans : aranesi versus Langedocien arans : araneses).

The Plural of Nouns and Adjectives in Niois dialect


1. General rule: plural is made by adding -s to the words, cf.:
o o o o o o

femna : femnas, me : mes, color : colors, bsc : bscs, txt : txts, fach : fachs.

2. The words terminated in singular by -s, -, -tz, -x, -z remain unchanged

in plural, cf.: o precs : precs, o virus : virus, o br : br, o crotz : crotz, o fix : fix, o merguz : merguz.

3. The feminine adjectives in -a form plural in -i, cf.:


o o

granda frema : grandi fremas, frema granda : fremas grandi.

Note that:
1.after

a, , u is written - to be marked the hiatus, cf.: famoa : famo,

europa : europ, assidua : assidu; 2.the finale -a, -ja, -tja, -ga, -ca give -ci, -gi, -tgi, -gui, -qui, cf.: fugaa : fugaci, roja : rogi, ferotja : ferotgi, larga : largui, magica : magiqui.
2. A few masculine adjectives and pronouns form plural in -u or -i, cf.:
1.aqueu

: aquelu, aquest : aquestu, eu : elu; 2.tot : toi, pichon : pichoi.

Adjective (Adjectiu)
As in the other Romance languages (and unlike in English), the adjectives in Occitan agree in gender and number with the nouns they refer to, cf.:

drlle educat educated boy : drlles educats educated boys; drlla educada educated girl : drllas educadas educated girls.

Gender of the Adjectives (Genre dels Adjectius)


As a rule, the feminine of the adjective is obtained by adding -a to the masculine, cf.:

novl : novla new; fresc : fresca fresh, cool; sord : sorda deaf; tardir : tardira late.

Adjectives of two forms


Adjectives ending in the masculine by -e or -u change -e or -u to -a to form their feminine, cf.:

nble : nbla noble; contemporanu : contemporana contemporary.

Adjectives ending in the masculine by a voiceless consonant voice that consonant before adding -a to form their feminine, cf.:

pesuc polit mut corts mig

: pesuga heavy : polida beautiful : muda dumb : cortesa courteous : mija half

Some adjectives ending in the masculine by -u change that -u to -v before adding -a to form their feminine, cf.:

nu : nva new; suau : suava mild; viu : viva alive.

Some adjectives have a suffix for either gender -dor, -doira, -tor, -tritz, cf.:

volador : voladoira which can fly; conductor : conductritz conductive.

Adjectives of one form


Some adjectives have only one form for masculine and feminine. Except for the adjectives ended by -a, the majority of the other uniform adjectives was inherited in Occitan from the Latin adjectives of the third declension. They are no longer productive, and are only to be found in compound substantives, place names, or isolated adjectives. Masculine partit comunista communist party me jove young man

Feminine organizacion comunista communist organization femna jove young woman carrira mger high street ostal mger big(ger) house aigardent brandy, spirits La Parrquial place name

Plural of the Adjectives (Plural dels Adjectius)


Termination Plural
vowel + -s consonant + -s stressed vowel + -es

Examples
nble : nbles ; polida : polidas grand : grands; volador : voladors angls : angleses; gos : gosses dogs; tr : trces pieces

See for more details Plural of the Nouns.

Degree of the Adjectives (Gra dels Adjectius)


Comparative Degree
of Superiority of Equality of Inferiority .

Formation
mai (plus) + ADJ + que tant + ADJ + coma mens + ADJ. + que

Examples
Es mai bl que Joan. He is taller than Juan. Es tant biaissuda coma sa maire. She is as quick as her mother. Soi mens inteligent que tu. I am less inteligent than you.

Superlative Degree
Absolute Synthectic

Formation
sobre-, subre- + ADJ. (Literary usage) plan, fra, mai que mai + ADJ. reduplication of the ADJ.

Examples
sobrebl very big, very beautiful subrenaut very high plan grand very big fra mal very bad mai que mai pc very stupid picht picht very small Aqu es lo mai vilh It is the most ancient. Fogut la mai biaissuda She was the most skilful. Fogut la mens biaissuda She was the least skilful.

Absolute Analytical

Relative of Superiority Relativo of Inferiority

DEF. ART. + mai (plus) + ADJ. DEF. ART. + mens + ADJ.

Irregular Degrees (Comparatius e Superlatius irregulars) Comparative Regular Irregular


melhor piger mger mendre superior inferior

Adjective
bn good mal bad

Superlative Regular Irregular


plan bon fra mal mai que mai grand manit manit fra alt plan bas ---mnim (rare) suprm (rare) nfim (rare)

mai bn mai mal mai grand, mai grand, bl big bl manit little mai manit alt high mai alt bas low mai bas

Adverb (Advrb)
List of Basic Adverbs
Time
ara in this moment, now antan the last year passat ir the day before yesterday abans previously, preferably encara yet, still ir yesterday quand when despui after pui then ongan this year ui today jamai never lu soon deman tomorrow mentre while, whilst sempre , totjorn ever tard late d'ora, lu early pasmens still, yet ja already, by now, yet

Place
enbs, aval below, downstairs aic here, over here, this way ail thither, there dedins in defra outside aqu there, yonder ail there ail there, yonder abans before aic here amont above, on top, overhead, upstairs prs, prp close, near, nearby abans ahead, formerly, previously dedins inside darrir behind, after ont where ennaut above, on top, upstairs en fcia de in front of defra outside luenh away

Manner
exprs intentionally, on purpose naut aloud aviat, lu-lua fast, quickly, swiftly atal like this, so, that way, thus bas silently ben plan well gaireben, quasiment almost, nearly clar clearly coma as, like, such as rai see note (1) plan planet slowly dur hard excpt exceptedly mal badly lu soon frt strongly rude brutally tirat, levat with the exception of suau calmly See also Derived Adverbs.

Quantity
gaire some, not much apenas barely, hardly, only just pro enough gairebenalmost tant as much (many)

Affirmation
atal thus segur certainly, sure c, i yes tamben also de verai really, actually

Negation
jamai never ni neither non no tampauc also not, neither

trp too, much pro enough, sufficiently mai more mens less fra a lot of, much, ver pauc little tant, de tot tant that much

Doubt
benlu maybe, perhaps, possibly bensai maybe, perhaps, possibly saique maybe, perhaps, possibly

Exclusion
apenas barely, hardly, (only) just tirat, levat but, except, save titat, levat but sol only tampauc also not

Inclusion
de mai moreover apasmens still, yet fins a till, until meteis even tamben also, too

Order
aprs after

Designation
u behold! see! there! here!

Interrogation
ont? to where? d'ont? where? coma? how? quand, quora? when? quant? how much (many) perqu, perdequ? why?

1. Rai, mainly in aqo rai or rai d'aqu, can be loosely rendered by "It's OK!" or "No problem(s)!". It is used in the same way in Catalan: "Aix rai!" Go back to =>

Derived Adverbs
A lot of adverbs are derived regularly from the feminine forms of the adjectives by adding the suffix -ment (this pattern appeared in the Vulgar Latin), cf.

clar : clarament bl : belament trist : tristament

These adverbs correspond to the English adverbs formed by -ly. The derived adverbs are of:

manner (mainly): clarament clearly etc.; affirmation: efectivament effectively; doubt: possiblament possibly, probablament probably; exclusion: exclusivament exclusively, simplament simply, solament solely, unicament uniquely; order: primierament first, ultimament ultimately; etc.

Some adverbs are formed from the adjectives by the way of conversion (in other words their forms coincide with the masculine forms of the adjectives), cf.:

clar clear adj.; clearly adv. dur hard adj.; hard adv. lent slow adj.; slowly adv.

gaire few adj.; some adv. etc.

Degree of the Adverbs (Gra dels Advrbs)


Comparative Degree (Gra Comparatiu)
Normal
tristament rapidament ben,plan mal fra pauc

Superiority
mai tristament que mai rapidament que melhor (mai bon) piger (mai mal) mai mens

Comparative Equality
tant tristament coma tant ben tant mal -

Inferiority
mens tristament que mens ben mens mal -

tant rapidament coma mens rapidament que

Superlative Degree (Gra Superlatiu)


Superlative Normal
tristament rapidament ben, plan mal fra pauc

Absolute Synthetic Analytic


tristament rapidament fra, plan tristament fra, plan rapidament fra, plan bon fra, plan mal -

Relative Superiority Inferiority


lo mai tristament lo mens tristament

lo mai rapidament lo mens rapidament lo mai lo mens -

Adverbials (Locucions adverbialas)


Time Place Manner

d'ara endavant hereafter de vspre tonight de davant beforehand de jorn in the day de lanuch al matin overnight de tantst afternoon, p.m de matin since the morni de nuch at night de cps, de fes sometime fin finala at last, finally passat ir the day after tomorrow per ara presently per campstre overland

a l'ostal home a drecha , a man drecha to the right a esqurra, a man esqurra to the left debs downstairs d'ara endavant henceforward de cap a fons downwar

Quantity per lo mens at least per lo mai at most de fra of much de pauc of some de tot of all gaire mai (de) aproximately

a palpas, a rbas blindly a cavalhons piggyback a tustas e a bustas disorderly d'escondons secretely a ps junts stubbornly a trt e a travrs disorderly d'amagat silently, dins l'escuresina in the dark a la galaupada in full speed a la bobosa disorderly d'ont from here, from a la moda modish where al contrari just the opposite endedins de within, de grat of good will inside, indoors sul cp suddenly, fast endacm somewhere de ressabuda, offhand a l'ostal at home per bona espcia intentionally ont que si anywhere de mal esqui unwillingly en luc nowhere de racacr unwillingly endacm mai aviat fast elsewhere sul pic suddenly per tot everywhere subte, subran suddenly per aqu this way de badas in vain en luc no where en general in total, in general Affirmation / Negation por malastre unfortunately a pus prs aproximately a de bon sure subre tot above all, especially de segur sure de verai sure segur of course ben segur of course d'acrdi in agreement de segur certainly, sure d'efich de facto, in fact res a faire in no way de verdad verily, really en correcto estado OK d'efich in effect segurament certainly als ulhs vesents apparently de segur of course sens dobte undoubtedly

Determiners (Determinants)
Articles (Articles)
Definite Article
Basic Forms lo (l') la (l') los las Contracted Forms a al als de del dels per pel pels sus sul suls -

Indefinite Article Singular Plural


m f m f un una de (d') de (d')

The apostrophized forms d' and l' are used in front of words beginning with a vowel. The form de is the true undefinite form for plural; unes, unas rather mean some, a few. For example: Fau de ccas. I am cooking cakes. Fau unas ccas. I am cooking a few cakes.

Dialect variations
Gascon has slightly different forms for the indefinite articles: un, ua [y ], , .

The forms of the definite articles are more diversified: In the area between Toulouse, Foix e Carcassonne, the masculine forms are le, les. These should not be regarded as French influences, since they occur in documents previous to the French presence in this area. They should rather be seen as the evolution of Latin demonstrative ille => le, whereas the evolution has been illum => lo elsewhere. In some Pyreneans valleys (Coseran, Comenges and Bigorre), the forms are quite different: eth, era; eths, eras. In the northern areas, la, las may be sounded [l , l s], along with the general trend to turn non-stressed [a] into [ ] in this area.

Possessive Adjectives (Adjectius Possesius)


One owner singular mon mas ton ta son sa tos tas sos sas plural Many owners singular nstre nstra vstre vstra lor plural nstres nstras vstres vstras lors

Person 1st 2nd 3rd masculine feminine masculine feminine masculine feminine

Dialect variations
Possessives in Maritime: moun (ma, mi) toun (ta, ti) soun (sa, si) noueste (nouesto, nouesti) voueste (vouesto, vouesti) soun (sa, si) Possessives in Rhodanian: moun (ma, mi) toun (ta, ti) soun (sa, si) noste (nosto, nosti) voste (vosto, vosti) soun (sa, si)

Demonstrative Adjectives (Adjectius Demonstratius)


Indeterminate distance
--o --=Sg.

Short Distance
m Sg. f n m Pl. f n Aiceste / Aqueste Aicesta / Aquesta Ei / Ai Aicestes / Aquestes Aicestas / Aquestas =Sg.

Long distance
Aquel Aquela Aqu (Aco) / Ail Aqueles Aquelas =Sg.

The following variations also occur in the speech. aquest (aquesto, aqusti);

aquu (aquelo, aqulei / aquli).

Interrogative Adjectives (Adjectius Interrogatius)


Variable
Singular Masculine quant? how much? Feminine quanta? Masculine quants? Plural Feminine quantas? qui? que? qual? quin? who? what?

Invariable

qual? quala? what? which ?

quales? qualas?

Exclamatives
Qual, quin, quant what a, what, can be either adjectives or pronouns, and agree with number and gender: quant (polit) animal! what a (beautiful) animal! quantas ncias! what foolish women!

Que (de) ... so much ..., so many ... ! que de mond! so many people! que d'aiga! so much water!

Indefinite Adjectives (Adjectius Indefinits)


Variable Singular
Masculine autre other un one cadun, every one, each one mantun several tant (tan) as much tot all, the whole... Feminine autra una caduna mantuna tanta tota

Plural
Masculine autres unes some, few -mantuns Feminine autras unas -mantunas

Invariable
un pauc de a little gaire few, little pro enough fra, plan (de) many, much cada every, each

qualque (quauque) some, a few

qualques (quauques) tant, tantes tant, tantas totes every totas

Negative Adjectives (Adjectius Negatius) Variable Singular


Masculine
degun nobody

Plural
Feminine
deguna

Invariable
-cap (de), ges (de) no, none

Masculine Feminine
--

Pronouns (Pronoms)
Personal and Reflexive Pronouns (Pronoms Personals e Reflexius)
Number

Person
1st 2nd mf mf m

Subject
iu I tu you el he ela she el it -nosautres / nos we

Direct Object
me (m') me te (t') you lo (l') him la (l') her o it se him/her/itself

Indirect Object
without preposition me to me te to you with preposition a iu to me a tu to you a el to him li / to him, to her a ela to her a el to it se to him/her/itself a el to him/herself

Sg.
3rd

f n reflex. m 1st f m 2nd

nos us nosautras / nos we vosautres / vos you vos you f m vosautras / vos you eles they elas they -los them

nos to us

a nosautres (as) to us

vos to you

Pl.

a vosautres (as) to you

a eles to them li / lor to them a elas to them se themselves a se to themselves

3rd

f reflex.

las them se themselves

... Note: nos and vos, 1st and second person plural subject forms, are polite forms only. ... Possessive Pronouns (Pronoms Possessius)

One owner
Singular m 1st person f n m 2nd person f n m 3rd person f n
lo mieu la mi / mieuna mieu lo tieu la ti / tieuna tieu lo sieu la si / sieuna sieu

Many owners
Singular
lo nstre la nstra nstre lo vstre la vstra vstre lo lor, lo sieu la lor, la sieuna lor / sieu

Plural
los mieus las mis / mieunas -los tieus las tis / tieunas -los sieus las sis / sieunas --

Plural
los nstres las nstras -los vstres las vstras -los lors, los sieus las lors, las sieunas --

... These forms can also be adjectives, for insistance: lo mieu paire my father. ...

Demonstrative Pronouns (Pronoms Demonstratius) Variable Singular Plural Invariable

Masculine

Feminine

Masculine

Feminine

(Neuter)

aiceste this aqueste this / that aquel that lo de... (1) the one of...

aicesta aquesta aquela la de

aicestes aquestes aqueles los de

aicestas aquestas aquelas las de

ai this

l'autre the other

l'autra

los autres

las autras

aqu this, that aqu that

... 1. Aquel can es lo de mon paire. That dog is my father's (that of my father): the definite article has retained its original demonstrative value. ...

Relative Pronouns (Pronoms Relatius) Variable Singular Masculine


lo que (he)who lo qual (he)who dont, que whose

Plural Feminine
la que la quala dont, que

Invariable

Masculine
los que los quales dont, que

Feminine
las que las qualas dont, que que who , whom qui who, whom

... Interrogative Pronouns (Pronoms Interrogatius) Variable Singular Masculine Feminine Plural Masculine Feminine Invariable

qui, qual ? who? (de) qu? what? quant? how much / many? quanta?

qui, qual ? (de) qu? quantes? quantas? que? who? what?

... Indefinite Pronouns (Pronoms Indefinits) Variable Singular Masculine Feminine Plural Masculine Feminine Invariable

qualqu'un (quauqu'un) somebody

qualques uns qualques unas qualqu'una (quauques uns) (quauqu'una) (quauques some, few unas) tota tanta una caduna totes tantes unes -qual que sin que que sin totas tantas unas -m someone quicm something

tot all tant as much un (some)one, everyone cadun (some)one, everyone

qual que si whoever que que si whatever

... Negative Pronouns (Pronoms Negatius) Invariable


Persons degun nobody Things res nothing

Pronominal adverbs
... ... Occitan uses the adverbs en and i in pronominal functions. This phenomenon occurs in many other contemporary Romance languages.

NOTE: In Occitan grammars en and i are usually referred adverbial pronouns. ...

The pronominal adverb en


It has four distinct forms:

full: ne reduced: n reinforced: en elided (before vowels or h-): n.

The pronominal adverb en has two main functions:

replacing direct object of a verb (the direct object must not be preceded by a determiner): As comprat de lach? Have you bought milk? N'as comprat? Have you bought (of) it [milk]? replacing a phrase introduced by the preposition de: Ara que s morta, m parla ben de la Carme. Since shes dead, everyone speaks well about Carmen. Ara que ess morta, m ne parla ben. Since shes dead, everyone speaks well [about her].

...

The pronominal adverb i


The pronominal adverb i (fromthe Latin ibi here) is a location adverb:

I vau. I go there.

In the spoken language, it can replace the pronoun li:

O li dirai. I'll tell it to him. => O i dirai.

...

Idiomatic uses
The pronominal adverbs en and i may occur also in many idiomatic expressions:

Men vau. Im leaving.

I a un drlle aqu. There is a boy here.

Numerals(Numerals)
Numerals (Arabic) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 30 31 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 101 200 300 Cardinal un, una dos,doas tres quatre cinc siis st uch (uit, uch) nu dtz onze dotze tretze quatorze quinze setze dtz-e-st dtz-e-uch dtz-e-nu vint vint-e un trenta trenta un quaranta cinquanta seissanta setanta ochanta, oitanten nonanta cent cent un dos cents tres cents Ordinal primir, primira segond, a tr, a (tresen, a) quart, a (quatren, a) quint, a (cinquen, a) seisen, a seten, a ochen, a (oiten, a) noven, a desen, a onzen, a dotzen, a etc. Multiplicative (1) simple doble triple quadruple quintuple sextuple septuple octuple nonuple decuple Fractions (2) -mitat tr quart cinquen seisen seten ochen noven desen

. . . . . .
detz-e-noven, a vinten, a etc.

. . . . . . . . .
centen, a

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
centuple

. . . . . . . . .
vinten vint-e-unen trenten etc.

. . . . . . .
centen etc.

. . .

. . .

. . .

400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 10 000 100 000 1 000 000 1 000 000 000

quatre cents cinc cents siis cents st cents uch cents nu cents mila, mil dtz mila cent mila un milion un miliard

. . . . . .
milen

. .
milionen miliarden

. . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . .

...

Verb (Verb)
The Occitan verbs fall in three conjugational pattern discerned by the endings of the present infinitive.

I conjugation: -ar
amar to love comprar to buy hablar to speak passar to go, pass

II conjugation: -ir
dormir to sleep sentir to hear pedir to ask finir to finish

III conjugation: -re, , -er, -r


batre to beat tner to hold far (faire) to do, make dever (deure) must

There is a wide variety of compound tenses. The one most used is the present perfect, constructed with the auxialiaries stre (sser) or aver and the past participle. As a general rule, transitive verbs have aver as an auxilliary verb, whereas untransitive and pronominal verbs have stre. Unlike French and

Catalan, stre is its own auxilliary: soi estat versus French j'ai t and Catalan he estat. Another particularity of Occitan conjugation is the use of surcompound tenses to indicate that an action was done at least once in the past, at an indeterminate time, yet which left an impact in the mind of the speaker:

Aquel me, l'ai agut vist dins la carrira. I happened to see him that man in the street. => I think I could recognize him. D'estruci, n'ai agut manjat. I've had the opportunity to eat ostrich-meat. => I know what it tastes like.

As in Spanish, Italian and Portuguese, and contrary to French, the subjonctive imperfect is still a living tense: it is widelly and commonly used.

Auxiliary verbs
Aver
The verb aver to have has retained its semantic usage and is (with sser) an auxiliary for constructing compound tenses, cf.:

Ai acabat. I have finished.

It is also used in a fundamental construction i aver there is, there are, cf.:

I a tres drllas que nos agachan There are three girls looking at us. Se venon pas, ii aur (de) problmas. If they dont show up, there will be problems.

...

Tner (Tenir)
The verb tner to hold may be used as an auxiliary in the periphrastic construction tner de + past participle with the meaning of continuity, cf.:

Ten sas fenstras de barradas. He keeps his windows shut.

...

sser (stre)

The verb sser to be has various functions:

it links a noun or noun group to a predicative, i.e., a word group indicating a quality, state or condition, cf.: o Aquestes perscs son los melhors que ai manjat. These peaches are the best ones I have eaten. it is used as an auxiliary for constructing the compound tenses of the intransitive verbs, cf.: o Soi anat a Marsilha. I have gone to Marseilles. it forms the passive voice of the transitive verbs, cf.: o El rei es aimat per son pble. The king is loved by his people. it is used in the periphrastic construction sser per + infinitive, which indicates an action in the future, cf.: o Es pas per morir. He is not going to die. it is used also in the construction sser a + infinitive to denote an action in progress, cf.: o ra a se passejar. He (she) was taking a walk.

Aver

Meaning: to have. Origin: L. habeo, habui, habitus, habre (2) to have. Cognate verbs: Cat. haver to have, F. avoir to have, It. avere to have, Port. haver to have, Sp. haber to have, Ven. aver to have. Present Indicative Imperfect Indicative avii avis avi aviam aviatz avin Future Indicative Imperfect Conditional aurii auris auri auriam auriatz aurin -aja -ajam ajatz -Past Simple Indicative aguri agures agut agurem aguretz aguron Present Imperative

ai as a avem avtz an

aurai aurs aura aurem auretz aurn

Present Subjunctive aja ajas aja ajam ajatz ajan

Imperfect Subjunctive agusse agusses agusse agussem agussetz agusson

Past Passive Participle agut, aguda Present Active Participle avent

Tener (Tenir)

Meaning: to hold. Origin: L. teneo, tenui, tentus, tenre (2) to hold, have. Cognate verbs: Cat. tenir to hold, F. tenir to hold, It. tenere to hold, Port. ter to have, possess, Sp. tener to have, possess, Ven. tegner to hold, to resist.

Present Indicative teni tenes ten tenm tentz tenon Present Subjunctive que tenga que tengas que tenga que tenguem que tenguetz que tengan

Future Imperfect Indicative Indicative tendrai tenii tendrs tenis tendr teni tendrem teniam tendretz teniatz tendran tenin Imperfect Present Subjunctive Imperative que tengussi -que tengusses ten! (tengas que tengusse pas!) que tengussem -tenguem! que tengussetz tenguetz! -que tenguesson

Past Simple Indicative tenguri tengures tengut tengurem tenguretz tenguron Gerund tenent ... Past Participle tengut, tenguda ...

sser (stre)

Meaning: to be. Origin: VL. essere from L. sum, fui, futurus, esse (3) to be. See the conjugation of the verb. Cognate verbs: Cat. sser (ser) to be, F. tre to be, It. essere to be, Port. ser to be, Sp. ser to be, Ven. ser to be.

Present Indicative soi s (ss) es sm stz son Future Indicative serai sers ser serem seretz sern Present Subjunctive si sis si siam siatz sin serii seris seri seriam seriatz serin ri ras ra rem retz ran

Imperfect Indicative

Past Simple Indicative foguri fogures fogut fogurem foguretz foguron Present Imperative -si -siam siatz -Past Passive Participle estat, estada ... Present Active Participle essent ...

Imperfect Conditional

Imperfect Subjunctive fogusse fogusses fogusse fogussem fogussetz fogusson

Verbal Tenses in Occitan


Simple tenses (Tempses simples) Non-Finite Verbal Forms
Present Infinitive (Present de Infinitiu) Present Active Participle (Participi Present) The Gerund (Gerondiu) Past Passive Participle (Participi passat)

Compound tenses (Tempses compausats) Non-Finite Verbal Forms


Compound Infinitive (Infinitiu Compausat) Compound Gerund (Gerondiu Compausat)

Finite Verbal Forms


Present Indicative (Present de Indicatiu) Future Indicative (Futur de Indicatiu) Imperfect Indicative (Imperfach de Indicatiu) Past Simple Indicative (Preterit de Indicatiu) Present Subjunctive (Present de Subjonctiu) Imperfect Subjunctive (Imperfect de Subjonctiu) Imperfect Conditional (Condicional Present) Present Imperative (Present de Imperatiu)

Finite Verbal Forms


Present Perfect Ind. (Passat Compausat de Indicatiu) Future in the Past Ind (Futur Anterior de Indicatiu) Pluperfect Indicative (Plus que Perfach de Indicatiu) Past Perfect Ind. (Preterit Compausat de Indicatiu) Perfect Subjunctive (Passat de Subjonctiu) Pluperfect Subjunctive (Plus que Perfach de Subjonctiu) Perfect Conditional (Condicional Passat)

Simple Tenses (Tempses Simples)

Non-Finite Verbal Form (Formas Impersonalas)


_ The Present Infinitive The Present Active Participle The Gerund (Gerondiu) The Past Passive Participle I group amar to love amant loving amat loved dormir to sleep dormint sleeping dormit slept II group with suffix w/o suffix sentir to feel sentent feeling sentit felt batre to beat batent beating batut beaten III group

Finite Verbal Forms (Formas Personalas)


Present Indicative (Present de Indicatiu)

_ Sg. 1. ami 2. amas 3. ama Pl. 1. amam 2. amatz 3. aman

I group with suffix dormissi dormisses dorms dormissm dormisstz dormisson

II group w/o suffix senti sentes sent sentm senttz senton bati bates bat batm battz baton

III group

Future Indicative (Futur de Indicatiu)


_ I group with suffix Sg. 1. amarai 2. amars 3. amar Pl. 1. amarem 2. amaretz 3. amarn dormirai dormirs dormir dormirem dormiretz dormirn II group w/o suffix sentirai sentirs sentir sentirem sentiretz sentirn batrai batrs batr batrem batretz batrn III group

Imperfect Indicative (Imperfach de Indicatiu)


_ I group with suffix Sg. 1. amavi 2. amavas 3. amava Pl. 1. amvem 2. amvetz 3. amavan dormissii dormissis dormissi dormissiam dormissiatz dormissin II group w/o suffix sentii sentis senti sentiam sentiatz sentin batii batis bati batiam batiatz batin III group

Past Simple Indicative (Preterit de Indicatiu)


_ I group with suffix Sg. 1. amri 2. amres 3. amt Pl. 1. amrem 2. amretz 3. amron dormiguri dormigures dormigut dormigurem dormiguretz dormiguron II group w/o suffix sentiguri sentigures sentigut sentigurem sentiguretz sentiguron batri batres batt batrem batretz batron III group

Present Subjunctive (Present de Subjonctiu)


_ I group with suffix Sg. 1. (que) ame 2. (que) ames 3. (que) ame Pl. 1. (que) amem 2. (que) ametz 3. (que) amen (que) dormisca (que) dormiscas (que) dormisca (que) dormiscam (que) dormiscatz (que) dormiscan II group w/o suffix (que) senta (que) sentas (que) senta (que) sentam (que) sentatz (que) sentan (que) bata (que) batas (que) bata (que) batam (que) batatz (que) batan III group

Imperfect Subjunctive (Imperfach de Subjonctiu)


_ I group with suffix Sg. 1. (que) amsse 2. (que) amsses 3. (que) amsse Pl. 1. (que) amssem 2. (que) amssetz 3. (que) amsson II group w/o suffix (que) batsse (que) batsses (que) batsse (que) dormigusse (que) sentigusse (que) dormigusses (que) sentigusses (que) dormigusse (que) sentigusse III group

(que) dormigussem (que) sentigussem (que) batssem (que) dormigussetz (que) sentigussetz (que) batssetz (que) dormigusson (que) sentigusson (que) batsson

Imperfect Conditional (Condicional Present)


_ I group with suffix Sg. 1. amarii 2. amaris 3. amari Pl. 1. amariam 2. amariatz 3. amarin dormirii dormiris dormiri dormiriam dormiriatz dormirin II group w/o suffix sentirii sentiris sentiri sentiriam sentiriatz sentirin batrii batris batri batriam batriatz batrin III group

Present Imperative (Present de Imperatiu)


_ Sg. 1. -2. ama 3. -Pl. 1. amem 2. amatz 3. -I group with suffix -dorms -dormiscam dormisstz --sent -sentiam senttz -II group w/o suffix -bat -batam battz -III group

Compound Tenses (Tempses Compausats)


The compound tenses are formed with the auxiliary aver and the past passive participle; the participle remains invariable. A few intransitive verbs (as anar, morir, nisser, venir etc.) are conjugated with sser (stre), like in French and Italian; the participle in this case do agree with the subject in gender and number. The reflexive verbs, however, are conjugated in the compound tenses with aver.

List of the Compound Tenses


Non-Finite Verbal Forms
Compound Infinitive (Infinitiu Compausat) Compound Gerund (Gerondiu Compausat)

Amar aver amat avent amat

Anar sser anat ssent anat

Finite Verbal Forms


Past Compound Indicative (Passat Compausat de Indicatiu) Sg. 1. ai amat 2. as amat 3. a amat Pl. 1. avem amat 2. avtz amat 3. an amat soi anat s (ss) anat es anat sm anats stz anats son anats serai anat sers anat ser anat serem anats seretz anats sern anats

Future in the Past Indicative (Futur Anterior de Indicatiu)

Sg. 1. aurai amat 2. aurs amat 3. aura amat Pl. 1. aurem amat 2. auretz amat 3. aurn amat

Pluperfect Indicative (Plus que Perfach de Indicatiu)

Sg. 1. avii amat 2. avis amat 3. avi amat Pl. 1. aviam amat 2. aviatz amat 3. avin amat

ri anat ras anat ra anat rem anats retz anats ran anats foguri anat fogures anat fogut anat fogurem anats foguretz anats foguron anats que si anat que sis anat que si anat que siam anats que siatz anats que sin anats que fogusse anat que fogusses anat que fogusse anat que fogussem anats que fogussetz anats que fogusson anats serii anat seris anat seri anat seriam anats seriatz anats serin anats

Past Perfect Indicative (Preterit Compausat de Indicatiu)

Sg. 1. aguri amat 2. agures amat 3. agut amat Pl. 1. agurem amat 2. aguretz amat 3. aguron amat

Perfect Subjunctive (Passat de Subjonctiu)

Sg. 1. que aja amat 2. que ajas amat 3. que aja amat Pl. 1. que ajam amat 2. que ajatz amat 3. que ajan amat

Pluperfect Subjunctive (Plus que Perfach de Subjonctiu)

Sg. 1. que agusse amat 2. que agusses amat 3. que agusse amat Pl. 1. que agussem amat 2. que agussetz amat 3. que agusson amat

Perfect Conditional (Condicional Passat)

Sg. 1. aurii amat 2. auris amat 3. auri amat Pl. 1. auriam amat 2. auriatz amat 3. aurin amat

Reflexive Verb
Note that the reflexive verbs are normally conjugated in the compound tenses with the auxiliary aver. ... Verb beginning with consonant
Simple tense Compound tense Imperative

se levar to get up
Simple tense me lvi te lvas se lva nos levam vos levatz se levan Compound tense Imperative -lva-te -levem-nos levatz-vos --

Infinitive

Gerund

Past Participle

Infinitive se levar

Gerund

Past Participle

... The reflexive forms are: me, te, se, nos, vos, se. In front of a vowel they become m', t', s', nos,vos, s'.

Irregular Verbs Anar


Meaning: to go. Origin: unknown, maybe ad + nadar to swim towards. Cognate verbs: Ast. andar to go, Cat. anar to go, It. andare to go, Port. andar to go, Sp. andar to go, Ven. ndar (nar) to go. Future Indicative anarai anars anar anarem anaretz anaran Present Subjunctive que ane que anes que ane que anem que anetz que anen Present Imperative -vai! que ane! anem! anetz! que anen!

Present Indicative vau vas va anam anatz van

Venir

Meaning: to come. Origin: L. venio, vni, ventum, venre (4) to come. Cognate verbs: Cat. venir to come, F. venir to come, It. venire to come, Port. vir to come, Sp. venir to come, Ven. vegner to come, to become. Present Indicative veni venes ven venm ventz venon Future Indicative vendrai vendrs vendr vendrem vendretz vendran Imperfect Indicative venii veniis veni veniam veniatz venin Past Simple Indicative venguri vengures vengut vengurem venguretz venguron

Present Subjunctive que venga que vengas que venga que vengam que vengatz que vengan

Imperfect Present Gerund Subjunctive Imperative que vengussi venent -que vengusses ... vni! (vengas que vengusse Past Participle pas!) que vengussem -vengut, vengam! que vengussetz venguda vengatz! ... vingan! que venguesson

Caler [ka'le]

Meaning: it is necessary that. Origin: L. caleo, calui, caltus, calere (3) to be warm. Cognate verbs: Cat. caldre it is necessary that, Sp. caldear to enliven. Present Indicative --cal ---Future Indicative Imperfect Indicative --cali ---Present Imperative ------Past Simple Indicative --calgut ---Gerund calent ... Past Participle calgut ...

--calr ---Present Imperfect Subjunctive Subjunctive --que calgusse ----

--que calga ----

Faire (Far)

Meaning: to do, make. Origin: L. facio, fci, factus, facere (3) to do, make. Cognate verbs: Cat. far to do, make, F. faire to do, make, It. fare to do, make, Port. fazer to do, make, Sp. hacer to do, make, Ven. far to do. Present Future Imperfect Past Simple

indicative fau fas fa fasm fastz fan Present Subjunctive que faga que fagas que faga que fagam que fagatz que fagan

Indicative Indicative Indicative farai fasii faguri fars fasis fagures far fasi fagut farem fasiam fagurem faretz fasiatz faguretz faran fasin faguron Imperfect Present Gerund Subjunctive Imperative que fagussi -fasent que fagusses fai! (fagas pas!) ... que fagusse Past Participle que fagussem fagam! fagatz! fach, facha que fagussetz -(fait, faita) que fagussen --

Present Forms of Other Important Verbs


anar to go vau vas va anam anatz van deure must devi deves deu devetz devm devon parisser to appear aver to have ai as a avm avtz an dire to say disi dises ditz disetz dism dison ploure to rain beure to drink bevi beves beu bevm bevtz bevon escriure to write escrivi escrives escriu escrivm escrivtz escrivon poder to be able caar to hunt caci caas caa caam caatz caan stre to be soi ss, s ss sm stz son prene to take caler
to be necessary

conisser creire to know to believe coneissi coneisses coneis coneissm coneisstz coneisson metre to put meti metes met metm mettz meton cresi creses crei cresm crestz creson nisser to be born naissi naisses nais naissm naisstz naisson saber to know

--cal ---far to do fau fas fa fasm fastz fan

recebre respondre to receive to answer

pareissi pareisses pareis pareissm pareisstz pareisson tner to hold teni tenes ten tenm tentz tenon

--plou ---valer to be worth vali vales val valm valtz valon

to pdi preni pdes, ps prenes pt prend podm prentz podtz prenm pdon prenon veire to see vesi veses vei vesm vestz veson vendre to sell vendi vendes vend vendm vendtz vendon

recebi recebes recep recebm recebtz recebon venir to come veni venes ven venm ventz venon

respondi respondes respond respondm respondtz respondon viure to live vivi vives viu vivetz vivem vivon

sabi sabes sap sabetz sabm sabon voler to want vli vls vl voltz vlem volon

Negation
The basic negation is pas, which follows the verb. Its translation is not (yes is said c and no is said non).

Parli pas. lit. I speak-not. = I don't speak An pas parlat. lit. (They) have not spoken. = They haven't spoken.

Pas may be combined with other negative words:


I vesi pas res. lit. I-see-not-nothing. = I don't see anything. Lo trbi pas enluc. lit. Him-find-not-nowhere. = I don't find him anywhere. Sorts pas jamai. lit. Goes out-not-never. = He never goes out. Degun es pas vengut. lit. Nobody-is-not-come. = Nobody came.

Prepositions (Preposicions)
a to, toward davant before, in the presence abans before, in the presence of of de of; from; about a c de + possessive at, to dejs below, beneath, under al lc de instead of despui from, since amb with detrs behind, after aprs after, afterwards dus towards cap towards dins in, inside, within contra against; in exchange for en c de + possessive at, to entre between fins till, until darrir behind daus towards jos below, beneath, under per for, to, in order to segon according to sens without sobre over, above; about sota below, under, beneath sus over, above; about tras behind, after vrs towards ...

The prepositions a, de, jos, per, sus, have contracted forms with the masculine definite article el: al, del, jol, pel, sul.

Conjunctions
Coordination adounc car dounc e ni mai o pamens

Subordination dou tms que enterin que quand quouro

Cause

per o que perqu que

tre que

que

Selected List of Function words

Occitan
A costat de A mon vejaire A pro pena Aladonc Alara Alavetz Amb, amb, am Atal Baste que Benlu Cada Cal Cap Cap e tot aquel, pr'aqu Coma Coma cal Cossn que sib Coss? D'arru Darrir Davant De contunh De cps Dejs Deman Despui Desss Dins D'ora En de X Encara Endacm Endacm mai Endacm mai Entre tot

English
Near In my opinion Not easily So, then So, then So, then With Thus, like this Provided that Perhaps Each, every It's necessary No, not any Totally However As, like Properly In any case, anyway How? Following Behind In front of Non-stop Often Below Tomorrow Since Above Into Early At X's home Again Somewhere Besides Elsewhere In the main

French
A ct de A mon avis Non sans peine Alors Alors Alors Avec Ainsi Pourvu que Peut-tre Chaque Il faut Aucun Tout fait Pourtant, cependant Comme Comme il faut De toute faon Comment A la suite Derrire Devant Sans arrt Souvent Dessous Demain Depuis Dessus Dans Tt Chez X Encore Quelque part D'ailleurs Ailleurs Dans l'ensemble

Spanish
Al lado de A mi parecer Difcilmente Entonces Entonces Entonces Con As Ojal Quizs Cada Hace falta Ninguno Totalmente Sin embargo Como Como hace falta De toda manera Cmo? Despus de Detrs Delante Sin parar A menudo Abajo Maana Desde Encima Dentro Temprano A casa de X Todava, an En algn sitio Por otra parte En otro sitio Globalmente

Espra qu'esperars Far a son sicap Fin finala Fins a Gaireben Ir Jamai Jos L'ime Lu Lu-lu Lo biais

By dint of waiting To do as one pleases Finally As far as, till Almost, virtually Yesterday Never Under The (good) sense Quick, soon Quickly The way

A force d'attendre Faire sa guise

A fuerza de esperar Hacer a su gusto

Finalement Finalmente Jusqu' Hasta Presque Casi Hier Ayer Jamais Jams, nunca Sous Bajo Le bon sens El bun sentido Vite, bientt Rpido, pronto Bien vite Rpidamente La manire, la La manera faon Lo mai The most Le plus Lo ms Lo mens The less, the least Le moins Lo menos Lunh Far Loin Lejos M'agrada I like Cela me plat Me gusta Mai que mai Above all Surtout Sobretodo Maique Morethan Plusque Msque Marrit Bad Mauvais Malo Mas But Mais Pero Mas que Provided that Pourvu que Ojal Mensque Lessthan Moinsque Menosque Meteis, -ssa Same Mme Mismo, -a Mig, Mija Half Demi Medio, -a Ne vls aqu n'as! More than you En veux-tu en voil! Ms que hoped esperabas! Ni mai Neither Ni Ni Ni pauc ni pro In no way D'aucune faon De ninguna manera Ont? Where? O? Dnde? Pas vertat? Isn't it? (question N'est-ce-pas? No es verdad? tag) Pasmens However Pourtant, Sin embargo cependant Per astre Fortunately Par chance Por suerte Per malastre Unfortunately Par malheur Por desgracia Per subreps Moreover Par dessus le Por aadidura march

Perque Perqu? Plan Prp Pro Pui Qualqu'un Quant? Que no sai Que te sabi? Qu? Quicm Quicm atal Rai Ren, res S'avisar Segur Solide Sonque Sovent Sul pic Sus Tan Tancoma Tanben Tanpauc Tant val dire Totara Totjorn Tre que Ui Un pauc Un tr de

Since, because Why? Well, very

Puisque, parce que Pourquoi? Bien, trs, beaucoup Near Prs Enough Assez Then Puis Someone Quelqu'un How much/many? Combien? I don't know how Je ne sais combien many I dunno! Que sais-je? What? Quoi? Something Quelque chose Something like that Qqch de ce genre What does it matter Peu importe Nothing Rien To be aware of Se rendre compte sthg Sure, certainly Sr, srement Certainly Srement Only Seulement Often Souvent Immediately Immdiatement On Sur As Aussi Asas Autantque Too Aussi, galement Neither, not either Non plus One might as well Autant dire say In a little while Tout l'heure Always Toujours As soon as Ds que Today Aujourd'hui A little, some Un peu A kind of (pej.) Une espce de (pj.)

Porque, ya que Por qu? Bien, mucho Cerca, prximo Bastante Entonces Alguin Cunto? No s cuntos Yo qu s? Qu?? Algo Algo as? Qu importa! Nada Darse cuenta Seguramente Seguramente Slo A menudo Al instante Sobre Tanto Tantocomo Tambin Tampoco Tanto vale decir Luego, ms tarde Siempre En cuanto Hoy Un poco Una especie de (pej.)

Glossary
encantat / encantada - enchant(e)
occitan bonjorn bon ser al reveire adieu-siatz lo subrenom lo prenom lo nom d'ostal Dna Snher Coss vas ? Va plan se te/vos plai merc Soi occitan(a) Compreni pas desolat / desolada franais bonjour bonsoir au-revoir adieu le surnom le prnom le nom de famille Madame Monsieur Comment vas-tu ? a va bien s'il te/vous plat merci Je suis occitan(e) Je ne comprends pas dsol(e) English good morning/afternoon good evening see you goodbye nickname first name last name, family name Miss Mister How are you ? I am fine please thanks I am Occitan I don't understand sorry

macarl ! macanicha ! miladieus ! d'acrdi c non tanben tanpauc

zut !

mille Dieux ! d'accord oui non aussi non plus I agree, OK yes no also, as well

l'ostal - la maison - house


occitan la bastida lo jardin l'rt la chiminira lo teulat lo granir lo plafon lo ponde lo sl la cava franais la villa de campagne le jardin le (jardin) potager la chemine le toit le grenier le plafond le plancher le sol la cave garden vegetable garden chimney roof attic ceiling English

floor

basement

lo mur, la paret la terrassa lo balcon la fenstra la cortina la prta lo verrolh clau lo corredor lo vestibul l'escalir l'estatge lo salon la chiminira lo buru la bibliotca la lampa lo lum la rdio la tle, television

le mur, la paroi la terrasse le balcon la fentre le rideau la porte le verrou, la serrure cl, clef le couloir le hall l'escalier l'tage la salle de sjour la chemine le bureau la bibliothque la lampe la lumire la radio la tlvision

wall terrace balcony window curtain door lock key corridor

stairway storey living-room chimney desk library lamp light radio television

l'ordenador la cambra lo lich la taula de nuch lo taps la cosina lo mble lo vaisselir la vaisseladoira l'aguir lo refrigerador lo forn la sala per manjar lo sopador la taula la cadira la grandcadira, lo cadieral lo canap la sala de banh lo miralh la banhadoira

l'ordinateur la chambre ( coucher) le lit la table de nuit le tapis la cuisine le meuble le buffet le lave-vaisselle l'vier le "frigo, frigidaire" le four la salle manger

computer bedroom bed bedside table carpet kitchen furniture cupboard dish-washer sink refrigerator oven dining-room

la table la chaise le fauteuil la canap, divan la salle de bain le miroir la baignoire

table chair armchair couch bathroom mirror bathtub

la docha lo lavamans, lavabo lo bidet lo comun, lo "cagador" la bugada la bugadoira lo frre d'estirar l'escoba, la balaja l'esponga lo bordilhir

la douche le lavabo le bidet les toilettes le linge le lave-linge le fer repasser le balai l'ponge la poubelle

shower wash-basin bidet toilet, W.C. laundry washing-machine iron broom sponge dustbin

lo transprt - transport
occitan l'aeroprt l'avion lo prt lo batl la gara lo tren franais l'aroport " le port le bateau la gare le train airport airplane port, harbour, haven boat train-station train English

lo pargatge la rota l'autopista la gasolina lo tregin la gara rotira l'estacion de bus l'autobs, lo bus l'autocarri, lo carri la veitura las rdas la mto la bicicleta, lo vlo lo trepador

"parking" la route l'autoroute l'essence le camion la gare routire la station de bus l'autobus, le bus l'autocar, le car la voiture les roues la moto la bicyclette, le vlo le trottoir

car-park road motorway, highway gasoline truck, lorry, van

bus-station bus

car wheels motorcycle bicycle, "bike" pavement, sidewalk

gographie - geography
occitan aic aqu ail amont ici l l-bas en haut franais here there there top English

aval sus / subre jos / sota dins fra esqurra drecha darrir, detrs davant al mitan, al centre a costat de

en bas sur sous dans hors gauche droite derrire devant au milieu de, entre ct de

bottom on under in out left right behind in front of between, at center besides

montagnes des Pyrnes

nature
occitan franais English

lo campstre la trra la flor la rsa l'arbre la selva lo pargue lo fuc lo volcan la montanha la valira lo pont lo lac lo riu

la campagne la terre, le sol la fleur la rose " la fort le parc le feu le volcan la montagne la valle le pont le lac la rivire le fleuve la mer la plage le sable

countryside earth, soil flower rose tree forest park fire volcano mountain valley bridge lake river

la mar la plaja l'arena, lo sable

sea beach sand

lo formatge le fromage : cheese

la mangisca

la nourriture - food
occitan lo repais lo dejunar lo dinnar lo sopar la sopa bon apets ! franais le repas le petit-djeuner le djeuner le souper, dner la soupe bon apptit ! meal breakfast lunch dinner soup good appetite ! English

occitan

franais

English

l'escudla, la sieta lo culhir la forqueta lo cotl la botelha la garrafa lo gt, veire la tassa la toalha lo toalhon

l'assiette la cuillre la fourchette le couteau la bouteille la carafe le verre la tasse la nappe la serviette (de table)

plate spoon fork knife bottle decanter glass cup tablecloth napkin

la bevenda - la boisson - drink


occitan l'aiga (minerala / gasosa) la cervesa, birra lo vin blanc / rosat / roge l'alcl l'armanhac franais l'eau (minrale / gazeuse) la bire le vin blanc / rose / rouge l'alcool l'armagnac English water

beer

white / red wine

alcohol Armagnac

lo conhac lo pasts, la pastag lo chuc de frucha l'iranjada la limonada lo t la menta lo chocolat lo caf lo lach l'encop lo burre lo formatge l'li lo vinagre la mostarda lo pebre lo pebrir la sal la salira l'uu

le cognac le pastis le jus de fruit l'orangeade la limonade le th la menthe le chocolat le caf le lait yaourt le beurre le fromage l'huile le vinaigre la moutarde le poivre la poivrire le sel la salire l'uf

Cognac Pastis fruit juice orange juice lemonade tea mint chocolate coffee milk yoghurt butter cheese oil vinegar mustard pepper

salt

egg

la moleta lo fetge gras lo bolh lo bolhabaissa la brandada de merlua

l'omelette le foie gras le bouillon la bouillabaisse la brandade de morue le cabillaud le cassoulet le ragot la ratatouille le pain sandwich

omelet " broth "

cod " " " bread sandwich

lo caolet lo ragost la ratatolha lo pan l'entrepan

lo dessrt - dessert
occitan la cca lo pastisson lo clafots la tarta la tsta franais le gteau la ptisserie le clafoutis la tarte la tartine English cake

apple-pie tart toast

lo glacet lo sucre lo ml la confitura

la crme glace le sucre le miel la confiture

ice-cream sugar honey jam

lo crs - le corps - body


se n'es mancat d'un pel ! il s'en est fallu d'un cheveu ! occitan lo pel la pl cran lo cap, la tsta lo front la cara las aurelhas l'ulh / los ulhs lo nas la mostacha franais le poil, le cheveu la peau le crne la tte le front le visage les oreilles l'il / les yeux le nez la moustache hair skin skull head forehead face ears eye(s) nose m(o)ustache English

la barba la gauta la labra la boca las dents la lenga lo menton cl la garganta lo cr lo sang lo pitre lo sen, la popa lo ventre l'estomac lo "cuol" l's / los sses l'esquina lo bra / los braces lo coide

la barbe la joue la lvre la bouche les dents la langue le menton cou la gorge le cur le sang la poitrine le sein le ventre " le "cul" (les fesses) l'os / les os le dos, "l'chine" le / les bras le coude

beard cheek lip mouth teeth tongue chin neck throat heart blood chest breast belly stomach "ass" (buttocks) bone(s) back, spine arm(s) elbow

ponh lo ponhet la man lo det l'ongla la camba lo genolh la cavilha lo p l'artelh

le poing le poignet la main le doigt l'ongle la jambe le genou la cheville le pied l'orteil

fist wrist hand finger nail leg knee ankle foot toe

occitan lo mtge lo farmacian lo "potingaire" las potingas

franais le mdecin, "docteur" le pharmacien

English doctor pharmacist

les mdicaments

medication

arcolan arc-en-ciel rainbow

las colors - les couleurs - colors


occitan negre / negra marron gris(a) blanc(a) jaune / jauna rsa iranjat / iranjada roge / roja violet(a) blau / blava verd(a) franais noir(e) " gris(e) blanc / blanche jaune rose orange rouge violet / violette bleu(e) vert(e) English black brown grey, gray white yellow pink " red purple blue green

lo temps - le temps - time


occitan Quina ora es ? Quant es d'ora ? l'ora la minuta la segonda lo matin la matinada lo jorn la jornada lo migjorn la mija jornada lo tantst la tantossada lo vspre la vesprada lo ser la serada la nuch la nuechada mijanuch franais English

Quelle heure est-il ?

What time is it ?

l'heure la minute la seconde le matin la matine le jour la journe le midi la mi-journe

hour minute second

morning

day

midday

l'aprs-midi

afternoon

la fin d'aprs-midi

afternoon

le soir la soire

evening

la nuit

night

minuit

midnight

ir ui deman l'avenidor la setmana la dimenjada mes lo trimstre la sason l'an l'annada lo cap d'an l'anniversari Nadal Pascas las vacanas lo sgle lo calendir

hier aujourd'hui demain l'avenir, le futur la semaine la fin de semaine le mois le trimestre la saison l'an l'anne le premier de l'an l'anniversaire Nol Pques les vacances sicle calendrier

yesterday today tomorrow future week week-end month quarter season

year

birthday Christmas Pascha, Easter holidays century calendar

occitan abans aprp

franais avant aprs

English before after

pronoms - pronouns
occitan ieu tu el ela nosautres nosautras vosautres vosautras eles elas franais je " il elle I you he she English

nous

we

vous

you

ils elles

they

la familha - la famille - family


occitan los grands franais les grand-parents English grandparents

lo grand, papet la grand, mameta los parents lo paire, pap la maire, mam lo marit la molhr l'me la femna lo jovent la joventa l'oncle la tanta la tat lo nebot la neboda lo cosin la cosina lo drlle la drlla lo filh la filha lo fraire la srre l'enfant

le grand-pre la grand-mre les parents le pre, papa la mre, maman l'poux, le mari l'pouse l'homme la femme le jeune homme la jeune femme " la tante la tatie le neveu la nice le cousin la cousine le garon la fille le fils la fille (de) le frre la sur "

grandfather grandmother parents father, dad mother, mom husband wife man woman young man young woman uncle aunt auntie nephew niece cousin

boy girl son daughter brother sister child

lo nen / la nena nenet / neneta l'amic l'amiga lo vesin la vesina las gents

le bb

baby

l'ami l'amie le voisin la voisine les gens

friend

neighbour

people

la vila - la ville - city


occitan lo vilatge lo baloard l'avenguda la carrira lo centre-vila la plaa la Comuna la glisa l'escla le village le boulevard l'avenue la rue le centre-ville la place la Mairie l'glise l'cole franais village boulevard avenue street downtown square city/town Hall church school English

l'institutor, lo mstre d'escla l'institutritz l'escolir lo collgi lo licu l'Universitat lo professor la professora l'estudiant(a) lo libre l'ostalari lo restaurant lo manjalu caf la beveta lo sirvent la sirventa la botiga

l'instituteur, le matre d'cole l'institutrice l'colier le collge le lyce l'Universit

teacher

schoolboy college lyceum University

le / la professeur

professor

l'tudiant(e) le livre l'htel le restaurant le restaurant-rapide le caf, bar la buvette le serveur la serveuse la boutique le magasin le march le marchand la marchande

student book hotel restaurant fast-food coffee-house

waiter waitress shop store market

lo mercat lo mercand la mercanda

merchant

lo vendeire la vendeira la fornari lo fornir la pastissari lo pastissir l'especiari l'especir la peissonari lo perruquir lo musu lo teatre lo cine, cinma la banca lo banquir l'argent l'uro lo chc la carta bancria la Polcia

le vendeur la vendeuse la boulangerie le boulanger la ptisserie le ptissier l'picerie l'picier la poissonnerie le coiffeur muse le thtre le cinma la banque le banquier " l'euro le chque la carte bancaire la Police

salesman saleswoman bakery baker pastry shop

grocery shop grocer fish-monger hair-dresser museum theater cinema bank banker money euro cheque, check credit card Police

la Gendarmari

la Gendarmerie

Gendarmery

La Psta - La Poste - Post


occitan lo factor la factritz la carta la letra l'envolopa lo paquet, clis lo sagl, timbre l'estilo la pluma lo boligraf lo gredon lo fulh de papir l'adreia lo corrir lo corric internet franais le facteur la factrice la carte postale la lettre l'enveloppe le paquet, colis le timbre (postal) le stylo le stylo-plume le stylo bille le crayon la feuille de papier l'adresse le courrier le courriel " English postman, mailman

postcard letter envelope parcel (postage) stamp pen fountain pen ballpoint pen pencil sheet of paper address mail email "

l'ordenador lo telefn lo numro l'annuari l'apl telefonic Digatz !

l'ordinateur le tlphone le numro de tlphone l'annuaire tlphonique l'appel tlphonique All !

computer phone phone number phone directory phone call Hello !

lo clima - le climat - climate


occitan la luna las estelas lo solelh la lutz l'aire lo cl las nvols la nbla lo vent l'auratge franais la lune les toiles le soleil la lumire l'air le ciel les nuages le brouillard le vent l'orage, la tempte English moon stars sun light air sky clouds fog wind storm

lo tron lo lamp lo pericle l'arcolan la pluja parapluja lo gl la nu la granissa

le tonnerre l'clair la foudre l'arc-en-ciel la pluie le parapluie le gel la neige la grle

thunder

flash

rainbow rain umbrella freezing snow hail

occitan caud

English hot, warm cold fresh

franais chaud froid frais

freg

montreur d'ours (Arige)

l'animal - animal
occitan lo gat / cat la gata / cata lo can / chin la canha / china l'ase lo caval la cavala lo taure lo buu la vaca lo vedl lo moton franais le chat la chatte le chien la chienne l'ne le cheval la jument taureau le buf la vache le veau le mouton English

cat

dog

ass, donkey horse mare bull ox cow calf sheep

l'anhl la cabra prc lo conilh l'aucl lo galinet la galineta la mandra lo lop l'ors / orsa

l'agneau la chvre porc, cochon le lapin l'oiseau le coq la poule la renarde le loup l'ours / ourse

lamb she-goat pig rabbit bird rooster, cock hen fox wolf bear

occitan lo peis la trocha l'ustra lo muscle l'aurelha de sant-Jacme

franais le poisson la truite l'huitre la moule la coquille saint-Jacques

English fish trout oyster mould

scallop shell

la frucha - fruit
occitan la poma la pera la persega l'albrict l'irange lo limon l'uva la cerira la majofa la fragosta lo melon franais la pomme la poire la pche l'abricot l'orange le citron le raisin la cerise la fraise la framboise le melon English apple pear peach apricot orange lemon grapes cherry strawberry raspberry melon

la pastca

la pastque

water-melon

"mongetat" : plat de haricots

lo legum - lgume - vegetable


occitan l'alh la ceba lo jolverd lo pisto l'api la carchfa lo prre l'esparga la pastenaga lo rafe (negre) lo camparl l'ensalada l'ail l'oignon le persil le pistou (basilic) le cleri l'artichaut le poireau l'asperge la carotte le radis (noir) le champignon la salade franais English garlic onion parsley basil celery artichoke leek asparagus carrot radish mushroom salad

la laitue la cogordeta la merinjana lo pebron los peses la mongeta la patana la courgette l'aubergine le poivron les petits pois le haricot la pomme de terre la "patate" la tomate l'olive (verte / noire)

lettuce zucchini eggplant bell pepper peas bean potato

la tomata l'oliva (verda / negra)

tomato olive

paire de sabots ( Bethmale)

lo vestit

le vtement - clothes
L'as pagat lo capl ? Tu l'as pay le chapeau ? occitan lo capl lo bonet las lunetas lo mantl l'eissarpa la carbata lo trict la camisa la camiseta la cencha las bragas lo shrt la rauba la gipa sac la culta l'eslip franais le chapeau le bonnet lunettes le manteau l'charpe la cravate le tricot, "pull" la chemise le "Tee-shirt" la ceinture le pantalon le "short" la robe la jupe sac la culotte le slip hat bonnet glasses coat scarf (neck)tie pullover shirt T-shirt belt pants, trousers shorts dress skirt bag English

briefs

las caucetas las cauaduras las btas

les chaussettes les chaussures les bottes

socks shoes boots

la petanca : la ptanque

l'esprt - sport
occitan lo rugbi lo balon lo fotbl l'estadi lo tenis la piscina franais le rugby le ballon, la balle le football le stade le tennis la piscine English rugby ball football stadium tennis swimming-pool

occitan pescar caar la corrida

franais pcher chasser "

English fishing hunting bull-fighting

lo jc - le jeu - game
occitan las quilhas las bchas franais les quilles les boules English bowling

lo nombre - le nombre - number


occitan 0 zro 1 un, una 2 dos franais zro un, une deux English zero one two

3 tres 4 quatre 5 cinc 6 siis 7 st 8 uch 9 nu 10 dtz 100 cent 200 dos cents 1 000 mila 2 000 dos mila

trois " cinq six sept huit neuf dix cent

three four five " seven eight nine ten hundred

mille

thousand

los jorns de la setmana les jours de la semaine - days of the week


occitan diluns dimars dimcres dijus franais lundi mardi mercredi jeudi English Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday

divendres dissabte dimenge

vendredi samedi dimanche

Friday Saturday Sunday

mes - mois - month


occitan genir febrir mar abril mai junh julh agost setembre octobre novembre decembre franais janvier fvrier mars avril " juin juillet aot septembre octbre " dcembre English January February March April May June July August September October November December

las sasons

les saisons - seasons


occitan la prima l'estiu l'automne l'ivrn franais le printemps l't " l'hiver English spring summer autumn winter

question ?
occitan Qui ? Qual ? Quin(es) ? Quina(s) ? Qu'es aqu ? Que ? Qu ? Perqu ? Perque ... Coss ? Quant ? Quora ? Quand ... franais Qui ? Quel(s) ? Quelle(s) ? Qu'est-ce ? Que ? Quoi ? Pourquoi ? Parce-que ... Comment ? Combien ? Quand ? Quand ... English Who ?

Which ?

What is this ? What ? What ? Why ? Because ... How ? How much ? When ? When ...

Ont ?

O ?

Where ?