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C O M P I L E D BY: NAME : SURIDA EKASARI NIM : 340826564 Sem/Jur: V/PBI-1

TARBIYAH FACULTY STATE INSTITUTE FOR ISLAMIC STUDIES NORTH SUMATERA MEDAN 2011

MORPHOLOGY 1. Definition of Morphology

Morphology is the study of words. Morphology studies all of these different types of languages and how they relate to one another as well.
2. Identification of Morpheme

a. Morpheme as minimal unit. Morpheme as minimal unit Is smallest meaningful into which a word can be devided. Example: boy- boyish Girl- girlish b. Isolating morpheme by comparing forms Example: beq- mening to walk Tinbeq- meaning I will walk Ninbeq- meaning I am walking

3. The principle

Principle 1 is in identification morpheme form with a same meaning and the same bound shape. Ex: - walker (the person who walk) - dancer (the person who dance) Principle I same in phonetic, same in forms, meaning( agentive ). The application, Adv + er = comparison Verb + er = noun Principle 2 is form with the same meaning but different sound shape. Ex: - impossible and intangible

Tdk mungkin

tdk tersedia

Types of phonological environment described in terms of proccess. 1. Assimilation is denotes process by which phonemes are made similar the forms in Zoque. Example: s m pama s n tuwi my clothes my dog = pama = tuwi clothes dog

(allomorph m and n) 2. Dissimilation same as similarities but different type of phonemes. Example: k usi to put a wedge in Allomorph Surprise - supprise Lekub to become good = lek good = kus wedge

3. Assimilation of tonemes (Mexico) Example: -Is A idahuu B idii to make idiinu to make C intaa to divide itaamu to divide D inteiyo to sew inteiyonu to sew E heenu to spay heenunu to spay

Singular to write -Ip Plural idahuunu to write

4. Loss of consonant phonemes Example: ornis bird = ornithas of a bird

gigas giant = gigantos of a giant hris Principle 3 Not all morpheme are segmentals Ex: V1 write Speak V2 wrote spoke V3 written spoken nose = hrinos of a nose

drink forget

drank forgot

drunk forgotten

Even though the form is different but some meaning. Application A. Process allomorph by complementary Singular -Box -Oxen = ox suffix = n suffix

Have the same phonologically Complementary = -ez; -z; -s; - n Plural = can be called by zero suffix if some plural not different with singular. Ex: sheep, trout, elk, salmon(tidak menunjukkan banyak). B. Basic of complement 3 types of plural = -/ z - z s/ -/ n/ -/ o / C. Degree / perbandingan Ex: wife wives (allomorph phonological) D. 1. Comparison with other similar series in English Ex: iz z s Roses : this book is bigger than Anis 2. Phonological simpler, explain the loss of a Basic phoneme than the addition of one. Ex: Roses as additional basic allomorph Nonbasic is morphologically define allomorph Ex: radios Allomorph as plural E. Type Zero is no adding from the basic word. Ex: salmon, chicken Principle 4 perlu dibuat bentuk plural karena udah

Principle IV is an overt formal difference in a structural series constitutes a morphemes if in any member of such a series, the overt formal and a zero structural differences are the only significant features for distinguishing a minimal unit of phonetic semantic distinctiveness. Meaning of principle 4 a. An overt formal difference means a contrast which is indicated by difference in phonemes or in the order of phonemes. Ex: foot/ fut/ singular Feet/ fiyt/ plural b. A member of structural series Ex: feet/ fiyt/ plural of foot = sheep/syip plural of sheep But plural here is covert (hidden) Principle 5 Definition Of homophonous forms Ex: pear pare pair Definition of related forms Ex: the fish to fish Types of related areas of meaning a. Process & Result to run a run in her stocking b. Form & Process a cross to cross Types of Distributional Differences - the animals horn - he horned in - the cars horn Principle 6 Principle 6 is isolatable if it occurs under the following conditions A. Condition 1

is same with free morpheme ex: boy, cow, run, jump, up, ect B. Condition 2 Is same with bound morpheme ex: dancer, worker, jumper, provider, ect. The prefix con- occurs only in combinations. Ex: Conceive Consume Contain Condense But the form dense occurs in isolation. This provides justification for considering cop- a morpheme. Added evidence is available in the fact that the stem forms occur in other combinations. Ex: perceive Resume Detain. C. Condition 3 There are some morphemes which occur in only one combination. Ex: cran- in cranberry Rasp- in raspberry Cray- in crayfish According to condition 3 for isolatability, the morphemes cran-, rasp-, and cray- are isolatable because the elements berry and fish occur in isolation or in other combinations. The descriptive analysis of a language may be extended to include such forms as hammer, ladder, and otter, but the method of isolating the possible stems and suffixes is dependent upon two factors:(1)canonicity (2)frequency of occurrence. In the English series slide, slush, sliurp, slip, slop, slime, slobber, and slick we can recognize a common phonetic element sl and a common meaningful relationship which may be defined as smoothly wet.

7. TYPES of MORPHEMES as DETERMINED by their DISTRIBUTION A. Bound vs Free Morpheme Bound morpheme never occure in isolation. Free morpheme those may be uttered in isolation. Such bound morpheme forms include: prefixes, suffixes, suprafixes, infixes, replacipes, substractive and some roots. Ex: Boy, Girl, Man (consist of root) Stems consists of a root or a root plus some other same as bound. Ex: ceive receive A distinction may those be made between:  potential free, ex: boylish  actually free, ex: boy some morphemes are always bound and have a bound allomorph. Ex: ceive, eyb l /able, ability/ bility. B. Roots vs Non roots 1. Roots constitute the nucleus of all words and more than one roots in a single word. Example: blackbird 2. Some roots may have unique occurrences Example: cranberry 3. Position occupied by roots. Example: red berry  root become non roots, example: non roots, ism communism (become full roots communism).  The root like become the bound form ly. example: man like manly reintroducted.  In little phonetic-semantic between like-ly two phoneme. example: disgraceful - root full.  Three allomorphs : 1. /f l/full 2. /f il/bucketful 3. /f l/disgraceful

 Combination with allomorph 2 in nouns, ex: handful  Combination with allomorph 3 in adjective, ex: careful. Criteria for Determining Roots, includes: 1) Position of occurrence. 2) Occurrence with certain prosodic features. 3) Occurrences with different bounding jusctivares. 4) Statistical frequency. 5) Parallelism of structure. 6) Meaning. C. Roots vs Stem. All bound roots are stem, but not all stem are roots. A stem is composed of: 1) The nucleus = one or more roots . 2) The nucleus plus any other nonroot morphemes. Example: man manly = same time a root and a stem. Breakwaters =not single root (2 roots). 8. STRUCTURAL RELATIONSHIP of MORPHEME to EACH OTHER 1. Additive Morpheme/Bound Morpheme. Include roots, prefixes, suffixes, infixes, suprafixes, and reduplicatives. Additive Morpheme Prefixes Suffixes Infixes Suprafixes English Impossible Dancer record (n) record (v) Reduplicative Play Together Indonesia Terjatuh Lemparkan Gerigi, gemuruh Bersama-sama Bermain-main

Note: reduplicative is where only a part of the root of step is repeated. 2. Replacive Morpheme, same as Principle 4. Example: foot (f t) feet (fiyt)

Run (r n) ran (rn) There are 3 types of Replacive: 1) /d / = bathe (ba: ) teeth (ti: ) 2) /v f/ = save (seIv) Serve (s :v ) 3) /z s/ = advide ( dv Is) House (h us) 3. Subtractive Morpheme (min-) Example: Feminine /gras/ /fos/ Masculin /gra/ /fo/ Meaning /fat/ /false/

Types of morpheme 1. Free Morpheme, is morphemes that can stand alone as word Example: 1. Boy (she loves a boy) 2. Walk (I walk to the school) 2. Bound Morpheme, is the additive morpheme that could be attached to a free morpheme to give paradigmatic relation. Example: 1. Boy boys (I see those boys) 2.Walk walks (She walks to the campus) c. The principle first principle up to six principle:

7. TYPES of MORPHEMES as DETERMINED by their DISTRIBUTION A. Bound vs Free Morpheme Bound morpheme never occure in isolation. Free morpheme those may be uttered in isolation. Such bound morpheme forms include: prefixes, suffixes, suprafixes, infixes, replacipes, substractive and some roots. Ex: Boy, Girl, Man (consist of root) Stems consists of a root or a root plus some other same as bound. Ex: ceive receive A distinction may those be made between:  potential free, ex: boylish  actually free, ex: boy some morphemes are always bound and have a bound allomorph. Ex: ceive, eyb l /able, ability/ bility. B. Roots vs Non roots 1. Roots constitute the nucleus of all words and more than one roots in a single word. Example: blackbird 2. Some roots may have unique occurrences

Example: cranberry 3. Position occupied by roots. Example: red berry  root become non roots, example: non roots, ism communism (become full roots communism).  The root like become the bound form ly. example: man like manly reintroducted.  In little phonetic-semantic between like-ly two phoneme. example: disgraceful - root full.  Three allomorphs : 1. /f l/full 2. /f il/bucketful 3. /f l/disgraceful  Combination with allomorph 2 in nouns, ex: handful  Combination with allomorph 3 in adjective, ex: careful. Criteria for Determining Roots, includes: 7) Position of occurrence. 8) Occurrence with certain prosodic features. 9) Occurrences with different bounding jusctivares. 10) Statistical frequency. 11) Parallelism of structure. 12) Meaning. C. Roots vs Stem. All bound roots are stem, but not all stem are roots. A stem is composed of: 3) The nucleus = one or more roots . 4) The nucleus plus any other nonroot morphemes. Example: man manly = same time a root and a stem. Breakwaters =not single root (2 roots). 8. STRUCTURAL RELATIONSHIP of MORPHEME to EACH OTHER 1. Additive Morpheme/Bound Morpheme. Include roots, prefixes, suffixes, infixes, suprafixes, and reduplicatives.

Additive Morpheme Prefixes Suffixes Infixes Suprafixes

English Impossible Dancer record (n) record (v)

Indonesia Terjatuh Lemparkan Gerigi, gemuruh Bersama-sama Bermain-main

Reduplicative

Play Together

Note: reduplicative is where only a part of the root of step is repeated. 2. Replacive Morpheme, same as Principle 4. Example: foot (f t) feet (fiyt) Run (r n) ran (rn) There are 3 types of Replacive: 4) /d / = bathe (ba: ) teeth (ti: ) 5) /v f/ = save (seIv) Serve (s :v ) 6) /z s/ = advide ( dv Is) House (h us) 3. Subtractive Morpheme (min-) Example: Feminine /gras/ /fos/ Masculin /gra/ /fo/ Meaning /fat/ /false/

Words Classification 1. Noun A noun is a word used to name a person, animal, place,thing, and abstract ides.

Ex: sophan sophian was an actor.

Types of noun a. Proper nouns A proper noun be written with a capital letter, since the noun represents the name of a specific person, place, or thing. The name of days of the week, months. Ex: I had lived in Indonesia for five years before moving to Europe Eka is a teacher

b. Common nouns A common noun is a noun refering to a person, place, or thing in a general sense. It is written with a capital letter only when it begins a sentence. Ex: the chairs was broken There are some mill and cereal in the refrigerator.

c. Concrete nouns A concrete noun is noun which name anything ( or anyone) that can be perceived through physical sense. Touch, sight, teste, hearing, or smell. Ex: the thief was sent to fikhy Put all the books on my table!

d. Abstract nouns An abstract noun is a noun which names anything which can not be perceived through five physical sense. Ex: everybody pursues happiness in life Buying that gadget is a total waste.

e. Countable nouns these nouns refer to people or things which can be counted. Thus they ae called countable nouns which are the opposite of non-countable nouns and collective nouns. Ex: two cars were parked and under the big tree Children like toys and candies

f.

Non- countable nouns

A non- countable noun which does not have a plural form. And which refers to something that couuld (or would) not be couted. Ex: water is essential to human life My father always has bread and tea for breakfast.

2. Pronoun A modifiers, pronoun is a word or words used in place of a noun. A noun and its modifiers, or another pronoun. The word pronoun itself stands for (pro- noun) or refers to a noun.

Types of pronoun a. Personal pronouns A personal pronoun refers to a specific person or thing and changes its form to indicate person, number, gender, and case.( I, we, you, me, him, her, us , ect) Ex: I am a teacher ( subjective personal pronouns) He is talking to me ( objective personal pronouns)

b. Possesive pronouns A possesive pronoun indicates that the pronoun is actIng as a marker of possession and defines who owns a object or person.( mine, yours, ours, theirs, ect) Ex: this is my book ( possesive adjective) This is mine ( possesive pronoun)

c. Demonstrative pronouns A demonstrative pronoun points to and identifies a noun or pronoun. ( this, that, these, those). Ex: this is my car ( demonstrtive pronoun) This car is mine ( demonstrative adjective)

d. Indefinite pronouns An indefinite pronoun is a pronoun referring to an identifiable but not spedified person or thing.( other, any, anybody, anyone, anything, each, everybody, everyone, ect). Ex: I saw someone there yesterday

We love each other.

e. Interrogative pronouns A pronoun that forms a question in the sentence is called interrogative pronoun,( who, whom, which, and what) Ex: what do you want, John ? Who teacher you english ?

f.

Relative pronouns A relative pronoun is used to link one phrase or clause tp another phrase or clause.( whom, which, who, and that ). Ex: the boy who you invited last week is my brather There is the book that I want to read.

g. Reflexive pronouns A pronoun that refers to a subject and direct the verb action back onto the subject is reflexive. (myself, itself, himself, yourself, ect). Ex: I look myself in the mirror You yourself must go there. 3. Articles an article is a word that combines with a noun to indicate type of reference being made by the noun. There are main articles in the english language are and, a and the , which can be classified as indefinite or definite.

Types of article a. Indefinite articles An and a are the indefinite article in english. Ex: an apple a day keeps the doctor away I met a university studen in the pool house.

b. Definite articles The is definite article in english. Ex: the children play happily He lent me the money needed to pay the fine.

4. Adjectives An adjective modifies a noun or a pronoun by describing, or quantifying word.

Types of adjective a. Des criptive adjectives A descriptive adjective tells something about the nature of the noun they modify. It describes felling, quality, origin, age, size, and ect. Ex: they are honest people Eka wore a red shirt.

b. Possesive adjectives A possesive adjective used ti modifies a noun or a noun phrase. ( my, your, his, her, our, their ). Ex: that is his book and this is mine This is my car.

c. Demonstrative adjectives Demonstrative adjective used to modify nouns or noun phrases. (this, these, that, those) Ex: this car is yours That man is my father

d. Interrogtive adjective An interrogative adjeictive is used to modifies a noun or noun phrase that standing on its own. ( what, which, and whose). Ex: whose bag is this ? Which books have you read?

e. Distributive adjectives A distributive adjective modifies a person or thing one at a time. ( every, either, and neither. Ex: he comes here every Sunday. You can take either bag.

f.

Numeral adjectives A numeral adjective denotes an exact number of the noun it modifies. (one, two, first, second and ect). Ex: that girl is my first sister She is died on June .

5. Verb a verb asserts something about the subject of the sentence and exprress action, events, ar state of being.

Types of verb a. Transitive and intransitive adjectives Some verbs require an object to complete their meaning. These verbs are called transitive. Ex: she made a cake I have bought a book

Verbs that are do not require objects. Ex: she is crying

b. Regular and irregular verb Regular verb Ex: help __ helped__helped kiss __kissed __kissed

Irregular verb EX: Do __did__done Go __went__gone

c. Lingking verbs A lingking verb, sometimes called capulas, connects a subject and its complement. Ex: I feel great. This room smell bed

d. Auxiliary verbs Helpinh verbs or auxiliary verbs are used in conjunction with main verbs to express shades of time and mood. Ex: I shall go now He was swimming in the pool.

6. Adverbs An adverb can modify a verb, an adjective, another adverb, a phrase, or a clause. Ex: I thik this food is too hot for my tongue

Types of adverbs a. Adverbs of manner answer the question how . Ex: She studies hard everyday The teacher has explained the topic clearly.

b. Adverbs of place answer the question where Ex: come here ! She drinks coffee at home

c. Adverbs of time answer the question when Ex: he is sleeping in the bed now He often calls me just to say hai

d. Adverb of degree answer the question how much Ex: the coffee was to hoot to drink The woman is old enough to deliver a baby.

7. Preposition A preposition is a word that conveys a meaning of position, direction, time, or other abstraction. It link nouns, pronouns, and phrases to other words in sentence. Ex: he left without saying goodbye

Types of prepositions

a. In Ex : I wiil come in march

b. On Ex : the book is on the table

c. To Ex : I give it to you

d. About Ex : he walked about the town.

(the preposition they are : about, above, across,after, behind, beside, by, in, into, between, inside, below, near, of, for, and ect.)

8. CONJUCTION An conjunction is a part of speech that connects two words, phrases or clauses together. Conjunctions can be classified as coordinating or subordinating conjunction.

a. Coordinating conjunction Coordinating conjunction, also called coordatinators, are conjunction that join two or more of independent clause. The most common coordinating conjunctions are and, but, for, nor, or, so,and yet. Ex: Dion likes to comics and story books You could come with me or stay here.

b. Subordinating conjunction Subordinating conjuntions also called subordinators, are conjunctions that introduce a dependent clause. The most common subordinating conjunction in the english language include after, although, as much as, as lonng as, as soon as, because, before, if, in order that, lest, and ect. Ex: he will stand still until she opens the door Although I m not rich, I enjoy my life

1. Principle 1 Peinciple one is morpheme has the same semantic meaning and identical phonemic in the words. y Form as es added to verbs

Ex: read- reader Dance- dancer Run-runner Work- worker

Comparative adjective Ex: small- smaller Tall- taller

The application of principle 1 Ex: nimayana I m hungry

nimayana?-_ I was hungry nimayanas _ I will hungry y The application of principle 1 in javaness language Ex: Saya makan aku mangan aku arep mangan aku uwes mangan

Saya akan makan Saya sudah makan

2. Principle II Principle II is has common semantic meaning but differ in phonemic form. (in, im, il, ir and ect) Ex: in- accurate Im- moral Ir- regular

Il- legal

y Ex:

Sound involved exhebit some phonemic similaities kin-kim-ki = me Kintawa- he treated me Kimpas ki- he loved me Kiwani- he said to me

3. Principle III a. Hunger = kelaparan =kengelean

Ke= allomorph Ngele= root An= palatalization b. Too high = ketinggian = keduwuran

Ke= allomorph Duwur= root An= palatalization c. Too big = kebesaran = kegedian

Ke= allomorph Gedi= root An= palatalization d. Too small = kekecilan = kecilikan

Ke= allomorph Cilik= root An= palatalization

4. Principle 4 a. An overt formal difference means a contrast which is indicated by differences in phonemes. Ex: foot- feet Tooth- teeth b. A member of structural series may occur with a zero structural difference and an overt formal difference.

Ex: foot- feeth Sheep- sheep

= overt formal = zero structural

5. Principle 5 Principle 5 is homophonous forms are identifiable as the same or different morphemes basic of conditions. a. Definition of homophonous forms Homophonous forms is homophonous are phonemically identical. Ex: pear pare pair b. Definition of related forms There are some forms which appear to be obviously related. Ex: they run and their run The fish and to fish c. Types of related areas of meaning There are a great number of possible semantic relationship between homophonouns form. 1. Form and function: horn of an animal and horn as instrument for providing sounds. 2. Process and result: to run and a run in her stocking 3. Process and characteristically assosiated object: to fish and the fish 4. Agent and process: the man and to man 5. Instrument and process: a spear and to spear 6. Object and associated characteristic: it is a pill and he is a pill 7. Form and process: a cross and to cross

d. Types of distributional differences There is no limitation on the types of distributional differences. Ex: fish Fish Foul Foul = is a noun = as the verb = tha adjective = the verb

Types of Morphemes As determined by their distribution. The distribution of morphemes differentiates a great many classes of morphemes and combination of morphemes.they are: a. Bound vs free forms, b. Roots vs nonroots, c.roots vs stems. a. Bound vs free forms Bound morphemes never occur in issolation, such bound forms include prefixes, suffixes, suprafixes, infixes, replacives, subractives and some roots. Ex: recep = reception

Manly = manliness Formalize = formalizier

Free morphemes are those which may be uttered in isolation, and always consist of root. Ex: boy Girl Man Woman b. Roots vs nonroots Roots constitute the nuclei (or cores) og all words. There may be more than one root in a single word. Ex: black bird Catfish Root may have unique occurences. It occurs in the position occupied by roots. Ex: blue berry Straw berry Nonroots

c. Roots vs stems Roots constitute the nuclei of all words Ex: boy Girl

A stem is composed of the nucleus. Consisting of one or more roots. Ex: man Abili = manly = abilitys