You are on page 1of 15

Founded in 1916 for the production of electric transformers, Tamini has grown to become the leading Italian manufacturer

of industrial transformers and of the largest power transformers for HV and EHV (up to 420 kV).

The Tamini Group is fully controlled by the Tamini family and operates four manufacturing plants in Italy. These are located at Legnano, Melegnano and Novara in the Milan area and the fourth one is located near Vicenza. Their production is fully integrated, with each factory specializing in a selected range of transformers. The Headquarters are in Melegnano, where the Engineering, Administration, Procurement and Commercial offices are located. In North America our operation office and service unit is in Oak Brook, Illinois, USA.

TAMINI GROUP FOR IRON AND STEEL AND ELECTRO-METALLURGICAL INDUSTRIES


The whole Tamini Group operates according with the ISO 9001-2000 Standard for Quality Assurance and the following Tamini Q. A. Manual. The Quality Assurance Certificate number 9101 has been issued by the Italian Institute CISQ/CSQ, the qualified member of the European Association for Quality Assurance EQNET.
The Groups target has always been to produce power and industrial transformers of high quality and reliability, designed to satisfy the most varied and sophisticated technical requirements. A large share of its resources are devoted to research and development of industrial and special transformers and reactors for any special application, such as the iron and steel and electrometallurgical industries. Thanks to this, Tamini has reached a prominent position worldwide for the supply of arc furnace transformers of any type and size, reactors for AC arc furnace, step-down transformers and special transformers for metallurgical plants. Almost the fifty percent of the Tamini Groups production is directed to such industries, the majority of which is exported all over the world, including the highly industrialized markets of Europe, North America and other continents. In the last fifteen years Tamini has manufactured almost 1000 transformers among them more than 400 units are industrial transformers.
2. 190 MVA AC-EAF transformer 34.5/1.5-0.850 kV and 59.4 MVAR series reactor for USA 1. A 140 MVA AC-EAF transformer 69/1.7 - 1.07 kV with OLTC and a 81.6 MVAR series reactor with OLTC for USA.

(For detailed information see relevant reference list)

ELECTRIC ARC FURNACE TRANSFORMERS


INTRODUCTION AND OPTIONS

AC TECHNOLOGY
TRANSFORMERS AND SERIES REACTORS FOR AC FURNACES

installation of series reactors, in order to increase the total reactance of the system universal adoption of on-load tap-changer for the secondary voltage regulation adoption of on-load tap-changers for the reactors. The result of these technologies , together with a

network, requirements of the supply utility, type of instrumentation and automation etc.) During the design of the electric system Tamini gives all necessary assistance to the system engineer, in order to co-ordinate the various parameters of the auxiliary equipment. While designing the furnace transformers and series reactors, the possibility of abnormal loads and overvoltages foreseen by the system engineer is carefully considered.

Aiming to improve the efficiency and quality of the melting process the iron and steel and electrometallurgical engineers and the arc furnace manufacturers have become more and more attentive to any improvement directed to satisfy their demand for: maximum stability of the arc during the different stages of the whole melting process reduction of electric disturbances (flicker) on the power supply network during melting process productivity increase reduction of electrode consumption optimization of the cost of electric arc furnace equipment and of its operating costs. Conscious that proper design and adequate production technology of the furnace transformers are fundamental for a high efficiency of the plant operation, Tamini is continuously devoting a prominent attention to the developments in the arc furnace conception and to the updating of the melting process requirements. Tamini has consequently always been in close contact with the arc furnace manufacturers and operators, in order to adapt the design and the characteristics of the furnace transformers to the most advanced technologies. In particular, the operation with long arcs has demanded: much higher secondary voltage (up to 1500 V and over, at highest tap)

The typical electric diagram of a modern AC arc furnace is shown here aside. This diagram does not show the complete auxiliary, control and protection equipment normally associated with the arc furnace plant and which is selected taking into account the main parameters of the installation (characteristics of the feeding

greater use of chemical energy (burners, lances) and the installation of ladle furnaces, has been a dramatic reduction of electrode and energy consumption. The increase of the productivity is very high. Recent years have also seen the development of DC electric arc furnaces which have proved to be in some cases an interesting alternative to the more popular AC furnaces.

AC EAF Basic Diagram

Step-down Transformer

Reactor

Tamini technology for AC and DC furnace transformers is illustrated in the relevant paragraphs.

Furnace Transformer

4. A 123 MVA AC-EAF transformer for France coupled with the saturable reactor see fig. 7

High Current Connection

A.C. Furnace

3. Two 93.5 MVA 30/0.9-0.5 kV AC-EAF transformers for Indonesia

AC TECHNOLOGY
TAP-CHANGER ON PRIMARY SIDE DIAGRAM A
A. Tap-changer on Primary Side Diagram

The regulation of the secondary voltage through tap changing on the primary side can be an advantage, because it is the only solution which allows the use of a single magnetic core with a reduction in total weight and losses. This solution is however not convenient for very high primary voltages or very high primary currents, because of the difficulty in finding suitable tap-changers. Transformers with tapchanger on the primary side can be equipped with an additional off-circuit star-delta switch which gives the possibility of a wider secondary voltage range.
AUTOTRANSFORMER DIAGRAM B
5. Three 12.5 MVA 33/0.4-0.2 kV AC-EAF transformers for South Africa B. Autotransformer Diagram

L.V. - H.V.

With this diagram it is easy to obtain a system with equal steps, also of very small value. For this reason reactors are equipped with tap-changers (either off-circuit or on-load).
SECONDARY VOLTAGE REGULATION

H.V.

L.V.

The necessity of stabilizing the arc during the melting down phase, carried at very high secondary voltages, with long arcs, requires an increased total reactance of the system: this is normally achieved by means of the installation of a reactance of suitable value, in series with the transformer. It is interesting to note that series reactors were already used many years ago in the small furnace installations ( up to 10 MVA ), in order to stabilize the arc, specially at the beginning of the melting process, due to the very low reactance of such small furnaces. In recent years Tamini has become one of the leading manufacturers of oil immersed series reactors for arc furnaces. New solutions have been developed and now practically all series

this solution (like the booster transformer) is sometimes used for the submerged arc furnaces. Current transformers in the intermediate circuit give a signal proportional to the secondary current, independently from the position of the tap-changer. Also in this case, a possible limit of utilization of the autotransformer diagram can be the availability of a
H.V. Main Transformer Booster Transformer L.V.
C. Booster Transformar Diagram

The operation of the arc furnaces demands that the transformer is equipped with a tap-changer, for the selection of the most suitable voltage tap for each phase of the process. Many solutions are possible and the transformer manufacturer selects, for each specific transformer, the most convenient configuration. It should be noticed that any of the following Voltage Regulation Diagrams can be completed with the addition of a reactor with on-load or off-circuit tap-changer which can be installed in the same transformer tank or in a separate tank.

suitable tap-changer.
BOOSTER TRANSFORMER DIAGRAM C

With this diagram the on-load tap-changer is installed on the tertiary winding. The voltage and current values of the tertiary winding are selected by the transformer designer with a view of using the most convenient type of the on-load tap-

AC TECHNOLOGY
D. Series Reactor with On-load Tap-changer on Booster Transformer

changer, bearing in mind also the cost factor. With a proper sizing, also the maintenance requirements for the on-load tap-changer are reduced.

the transformer is divided in 26 steps; the corresponding series reactor has a reactance divided in 12 steps. In another US steelplant, Tamini has adopted the same solution, for a 190 MVA transformer with series reactor with on-load tap-changer, for a furnace which is considered to be one of the most powerful in the world (see picture 2).
SATURABLE REACTOR DIAGRAM E

Main Transformer

As with the autotransformer, also in the booster transformer diagram the current transformers installed in the tertiary winding can give a signal proportional to the electrode current, independently from the tap-changer position. Moreover, this solution permits multiple feeding voltages, for instance 10 kV or 20 kV, through a simple change of connection on the primary side.
SERIES REACTOR WITH ON-LOAD TAP-CHANGER DIAGRAM D

H.V.

Booster Transformer

L.V.

Developed many years ago, this solution has been recently revived and applied to large arc furnaces, to be connected to weak electric network. Tamini has contributed to this application, developing an innovative and reliable saturable reactor which can definitely contribute to reduce the disturbance (flicker effect) of the furnace on the electric HV network. The diagram shows a saturable reactor. Its calculation and project require a proper innovative design capability, specially in the core design and

Reactor

The possibility of regulating on-load both the secondary voltage and the system total impedance, is considered as very interesting and useful by the furnace operators. The possibility of optimizing, at every moment of the process, both the parameters, has brought, in many steel-works, considerable advantages in tap-to-tap time as well as in the energy consumption. A new solution, shown in the diagram, specially interesting for high power furnaces, has been developed by Tamini for a 80 MVA transformer installed in a US steelplant in 1993 and since then applied in several plants. In this case the series reactor, with on-load tap-changer, is installed on the tertiary winding of the booster transformer. The picture 15 shows the 80 MVA transformer unit. In that specific case the secondary voltage range on
6. A 150 MVA EAF transformer with built-in reactor OLTCs for voltage and reactance control. (Schematic diagram as fig. D)

E. Saturable Reactor, 1-Phase Diagram

A.C. Power Supply

A.C. Windings

A.C. Power Outlet to Eaf

D.C. Windings Smoothing Reactor D.C. Control

AC TECHNOLOGY
dimensioning. It has been developed by Tamini, in strict compliance with the technical specification of a well known furnace manufacturer, with the aim to limit the current peaks during the melting process, and consequently to reduce the flicker effect. The unit is normally composed of a set of six saturable reactors. The basic principle is that magnetic transducers can be used to keep the load current practically constant even if the load impedance varies. Each of the six saturable reactors has an AC load winding and a DC control winding.
2U 2U

condition the effect of the reactor is almost negligible. As soon as the load current is higher than the DC current, the reactor desaturates (it should be proper to call them desaturable reactor) and reacts with a flux variation and voltage impulse to any current variation. The result is that the current wave is cut, depending on the DC imposed m.m.f. The picture 7 shows a saturable reactor unit rated 146 MVAR with a reactive power of 6x24.3 MVAR in operation in a steelworks in France.

F. A schematic diagram of 90 MVA EAF transformer for South Africa

OL.TC. 1W

CT3 5

1W

2V

2V

OL.TC. 1V

2W

CT2 3

2W

1V
OL.TC. 1U

4 CT1 1

1U

When the instantaneous magneto-motive-force (m.m.f. ) of the AC winding are lower than those of the DC winding, then the reactor is saturated; in that

OTHER POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS FOR SECONDARY VOLTAGE REGULATION

Among the various possible solutions for secondary voltage regulation, the following are of particular interest, in order to solve peculiar lay-out or operational problems. a) Regulating transformer plus fixed ratio furnace transformer. The regulating transformer can operate in this case also as a step-down transformer; it is installed in the steelworks substation, connected directly to the HV incoming line (up to 400 kV). The furnace transformer has then a fixed voltage ratio. The connection between the two transformers is normally made by cable. Auxiliary services as well as equipment for power factor correction, can be connected to a tertiary winding of the regulating step-down transformer. With this alternative the maintenance of the on-load tap-changer is considerably easier, as the step down transformers are installed outdoors, and not in a b) For certain installations, it is sometimes requested that the three phases can operate with unbalanced voltages. Tamini has designed and supplied several three-phase transformers equipped, on the HV side, with three independent single-phase on-load tap-changers, which enable operation of the furnace with unbalanced secondary voltages. With this solution there is no circulating current and no zero-sequence flux in the core. The same result can be obtained, in submerged arc furnaces of large size, with the installation of three
8. Two 90 MVA 33/0.99-0.45 kV AC-EAF transformers for South Africa

vault of limited dimensions, as normally foreseen for furnace transformers. In the Chapter Step-down Transformers for Iron Steel and Electrometallurgical Works Substations this solution is explained with more details.

single-phase transformers, each one equipped with on-load tap-changer. The diagram F. with a star connected primary and a delta secondary, refers to two 90 MVA furnace transformers supplied to a South African steelworks (see picture 8).

7. A 146 MVAR three-phase saturable reactor for France.

11

DC EAF TECHNOLOGY
RECTIFIER TRANSFORMERS FOR DC
H.V.

G. DC EAF Basic Diagram

FURNACES

The typical DC furnace electric diagram, with its


Step Down Transformer

main components, including step-down transformer, furnace transformer, rectifier system and arc furnace, is shown in the simplified diagram here aside. The electric system feeding a DC furnace is

Rectifier Transformer

substantially different from that foreseen for feeding an AC furnace as in this case, the furnace is not directly fed by the furnace transformer but through a rectifier high current DC connections and a smoothing reactor. The DC technology offers satisfactory performances in terms of electrode consumption and reduction of network disturbances but with higher investment and
9. A 100 MVA 33/0.77-0.45 kV DC-EAF transformer for China.

RECTIFIER

High Current Connection Smoothing Reactor D.C. Furnace

High Current Connection

operative costs and with the disadvantage of relying on delicate DC and associated electronic equipment which may be a drawback, particularly in a heavy industrial process. This has not to be underestimated. The diagram G. is the most commonly used diagram for DC furnace transformers: a double six-phasebridge for a 12-pulse system with two 30 shifted secondary windings. For high power, some additional phase shift windings have to be provided to obtain systems of 18 pulses or more. This means transformers with 2, 3 or 4 primary windings and 2,3 or 4 secondary windings. Moreover in a DC furnace transformer the secondaries have usually to be magnetically uncoupled in order to reduce the electromagnetic interference between the different rectifier units and to reduce problems in thyristors control. The DC furnace transformers can be quite simple for what concerns the regulating windings as the voltage change can be made by an off-circuit motordriven tap-changer. Sometimes a fixed ratio transformer is used without any tap-changer: in this case the voltage is regulated by the thyristor control only. The two systems can also be used together. It has to be underlined that the control by thyristors causes substantial increase of the eddy losses in the windings and stray losses in the external structures, due to high harmonic content of the currents. This is a basic aspect to be considered in DC EAF transformer design. An additional important aspect to be considered, when applicable, is the possible unbalanced operation of secondary windings, should one or more bottom electrodes not conducting.
10. Two 70 MVA 30/0.82-0.67 kV DC-EAF transformers for Germany

H. 2x3 Phase Bridge Connection With Wye-Delta Secondary Windings H.V. L.V.

13

REDUCTION OF ELECTRIC DISTURBANCES (Flicker)


Tamini does not design or manufacture equipment for VAR compensation on the power networks, nevertheless a short mention to this specific matter is worthwhile, as it represents an element of substantial importance for any iron and steelworks, conscious of the problems consequent to the flicker effect on the surrounding areas, and respectful of the Standards on Electromagnetic Compatibility. In this specific case Tamini is asked to co-operate with the suppliers of compensation systems. In order to compensate the flicker caused by the arc furnace operation, conventional static VAR compensators, with thyristor-switched capacitors or thyristor-controlled reactors, are used. Such conventional compensation is generally capable of a 2:1 reduction of flicker. In order to overcome any problem related with the utility supplying electricity to its works, a primary steel company in US has adopted an innovative system, to replace its old conventional VAR system. Without entering here in the description of such innovative application (specific documentation can be requested to the steel Company), Tamini has been required to supply a very special three-phase coupling transformer, rated 70 MVA, designed to properly withstand the severe harmonic content during the arc furnace operation. This transformer, designed and manufactured by Tamini in strict technical co-operation with the steel Company and with the system supplier, has been the first of this type and for this specific application. The picture 11 shows a special tansformer for a compensator of an EAF steel plant.

STEP-DOWN TRANSFORMERS FOR IRON AND STEEL AND ELECTRO-METALLURGICAL WORKS


Steel and iron works generally receive electricity from the utilities at a voltage value between 110 and 400 kV which is then reduced to 20 to 60 kV, more suitable for the furnace transformer, utilizing a step-down transformer installed in the steel works substation. The step-down transformers for iron and steel and electrometallurgical works are usually three-phase units (or composed by three single-phase units, in case of very large ratings) and foreseen for outdoor installation. They do not differ substantially from the power transformers installed in the network substations, but they must be specially designed to handle continuous heavy loading with instantaneous overloading of up to 100%, frequent on/off switching, high peak currents and sometimes poor surge protection. The knowledge of the steel melting process, peculiar for a manufacturer like Tamini, represents a basic guarantee also for the life of the step-down transformers installed in the iron and steel and electrometallurgical works. The picture 12 shows an interesting application of this type. Additionally it has to be mentioned that sometimes there is a requirement for the step-down transformer to be able to operate also as a regulating transformer. This solution is briefly presented under the point a) of the paragraph Other possible solutions for the secondary voltage regulation. Tamini has manufactured and supplied several such units with connection diagrams specially designed in The diagram I. refers to a step-down transformer supplied to a steelworks in France. The incoming line voltage is 225 kV and the furnace transformer has a fixed ratio. In order to assure the LV Different solutions are available in order to satisfy such specific requirements. As an example, a special diagram is diagram I: it has proved to have a satisfactory problem-free impact on the system operation, even after years of duty. accordance with the different operational requirements of the system engineers.
12. One of three single-phase step-down transformers for a three-phase bank 120/63/27 MVA 400/20/20 kV for Spain.

11. A 2x35 MVA 15/6x9.3 kV transformer for a compensator of an EAF steel plant in USA

15

FURNACE TRANSFORMERS AND REACTORS DESIGN AND FEATURES


regulation on the furnace, Tamini has designed and supplied a 100 MVA, 225/35-12 kV regulating transformer, with an independent regulation on each secondary phase, with the aim to balance the reactance of the furnace. In this case, the high voltage primary windings and the regulating secondary windings are star-and-delta connected respectively. The transformer also has a Delta tertiary winding, which can feed a power factor compensation and auxiliary circuits. When the tap-changer on one phase of the LV side is in a different position compared with those of the other two phases, then a circulating current is created in the delta-connected secondary and tertiary windings and of course it is under control, this situation occurs either during on-load or no-load operation.
FURNACE TRANSFORMERS

a sudden disconnectin of HV circuit breakers expecially if vacuum-type circuit breakers are installed when the low currents must be cut off (as for the transformers no load current). To overcome these dangerous overvoltages, RC devices and surge arresters are frequently used and installed by the electrical contractor. Nevertheless it is important that the transformer design itself is improved. Tamini pays very particular attention to this problem adopting a very specific manufacturing procedure suitable to guarantee a stronger transformer insulating structure and safer operation.

The content of this section refers specially to electric arc furnace transformers for iron and steel works which are subject to exceptional mechanical and electrical stresses during melting process. The design and features described below are basically the same used for furnace transformers for electrometallurgical works.
Mechanical Stresses on Winding

I. Diagram of the 100 MVA EAF regulating transformer for France 2U TI 1 1U


50 51

k
+

3U T 14 58
71 72

During furnace operation, the transformers undergo thermal and mechanical stresses due either to
63 62

TI 9

59

37 TI 11 38 68 TI 8 69

55 54 53 52

TI 2

T 15
61 60

frequent short circuits on arc or to continuous energizing and deenergizing operations during the
3V

2V

daily steel melting process. Continuous stresses and vibrations may loose the windings if they are not properly treated and robustly clamped. To avoid any inconvenience due to such heavy and frequent

1N
+

U
k

W
66 72 73 57 67

1W

1V 2W
56

TI 10

3W

64

65

T 17

stresses, Tamini has adopted improved procedures during manufacture for winding pressure and thermal treatment operation; furthermore Tamini has since long time developed a special windings clamping system which guarantees an exceptional resistance against any electrodynamical stresses even under the most arduous operating conditions. The system has been used successfully for many years but it is subject to continuous review for any possible further improvements.
Electrical Stresses

T 16

TI 13

These are mainly due to the variation in electric arc overvoltages, which involves either LV bushing, bar insulation, or the LV winding itself. Electrical stresses are also caused by a transient state resulting from
13. A 100 MVA AC-EAF regulating transformer, 220 kV with three independent tap changers. 14. One of two 85 MVA 34.5/1.2-0.78 kV AC-EAF transformers for USA

17

FURNACE TRANSFORMERS AND REACTORS DESIGN AND FEATURES


Basic Design Description

structure and to winding stabilization. The supporting cylinders of the windings are thicker than those normally requested for a standard design for the same reasons previously mentioned. The connections of the windings inside the transformer tank are designed in accordance with the connection diagrams used.
OnLoad-Tap.Changer (OLTC)

its side. The increase of the transformer ratings required many bars in parallel very close together for each LV outlet. Considerable care has to be taken during maintenance and cleaning of the outlets specially when mounted on the tank cover. The bars have different arrangements depending on the type of connection to the arc furnaces. In recent years the improvement in technology for LV connections brought an alternative solution in particular for transformers of large capacity and high current rating. Water-cooled tubular bushings have been used instead of bars. The water-cooled bushings are generally mounted on the side of the tank or sometimes on the top cover of the transformer. This system is safe and simple for both electrical and cooling water connection. The design and construction of the tubular bushings avoid any risk of water leakage into the transformer oil. Any type of LV connections, either bars or tubular bushings are mounted on insulating plates through a set of special ring gaskets designed to guarantee perfect insulation even in presence of high secondary values. The request for water-cooled tubolar bushings is increasing even if the LV bars are still used for medium size transformers or when the interchangeability with existing transformers is required. Many solutions can be adopted for LV connections however the most used are: water cooled bushings on the side of the tank bar outlets on the tank cover bars on the side of the tank The arrangement of the LV outlets depends also on the connection of the LV windings. The windings can be connected either in delta or star outside or inside

The description refers to the normal design for furnace transformers including the on-load tapchanger; obviously special design for any specific application can be performed by Tamini in accordance with the customers technical specifications and requirements.
Magnetic Circuit

The cores are normally of three vertical limbs type and composed of silicon cold rolled, grain oriented magnetic steel sheets. The insulation between laminations is of the inorganic type (carlite) with high chemical resistance to hot oil. Additional insulation (pressboard) is interposed between packages of sheets. The joints between sheets are
15. One of two 140/157 MVA 34.5/1.35-0.85 kV AC-EAF transformers for USA

The OLTC mostly used for AC furnace transformer can be utilized with different connection diagrams as better shown in relavant paragraphs. The OLTC is composed of an off-load selector normally immersed in the same oil of the transformer and by a diverter switch located in an oil filled sealed container separate from the transformer oil. On request a barrier board inside the transformer tank can be provided to divide up to a certain height the oil of the transformer and the oil in which the selector is immersed. With this solution it is possible to check the tap changer selector by only removing the oil from from the separate section in which it is positioned. Moreover as a further solution the whole OLTC can be located in a separately associated oil filled tank and connected through bushings. This solution is also utilized when a vacuum type OLTC is required. The OLTC control can be local and remote
LV Outlets

usually of the interleaved type.


Windings

The windings are of electrolytic copper ECU 99,9 and assembled concentrically: HV winding, regulating winding and LV winding. The insulating material used for all copper straps is of pure cellulose paper, thicker than for a standard design in order to overcome possible stresses due to exceptional overvoltage conditions in the operation of the furnace. In order to cope with the heavy mechanical stresses due to the frequent short circuits in the operation of an arc furnace, all the windings are exactly symmetric and of the same height in relation to the mean horizontal plane of the core. In detail the regulating winding has the turns of every step distributed over the whole height of the winding. Particular care is given to clamping
16. A 48 MVA 30/0.3 kV AC-EAF transformer withh reactor in the same tank for Poland

Under previous technology the most utilized solution for LV outlets consisted of copper bars mounted either on the top cover of the transformer tank or on

19

FURNACE TRANSFORMERS AND REACTORS DESIGN AND FEATURES


the tank. When delta or star point connection is requested inside the tank, the LV outlets normally have a triangle shaped arrangement. This solution facilitates the connection to the furnace and at the same time guarantees a good symmetry of the three phases and current distribution among them. To improve current distribution the secondary winding coils are divided into group whose number corresponds to the LV connections.
COOLING SYSTEM TANK

water coolers as described OLTC as described (or off-circuit TC if required) gas pressure relay for OLTC switch with trip contacts oil drain, filling and filtering valves oil thermometer complete with alarm and trip contacts and, on request, a device for remote temperature transmission HV porcelain bushings LV outlets as described current transformers as per customers requirements over-pressure vent lifting lugs for core and winding lifting from the tank lifting lugs for the complete transformer rating plate marshalling box for signalling and protection auxiliary circuits two earthing terminals one oil sample cock surge arresters on HV side (on request only) RC surge suppressors on HV side (on request only) capacitors on LV side (on request only) Upon request additional and/or specific accessories could be fitted on the transformers.

The tank is made of welded steel sheets creating a particularly strong and stiffened welded steel structure. The internal walls of the tank are painted with a hot oil resistant coating while externally the tank is painted according to a standard procedure established by the Tamini Quality Assurance. Specific painting requirements can be adopted on request. The tank is equipped with a separate oil conservator and the piping system both for coolers and conservator connection through shut-off valves. The conservator is divided in two sections for the transformer oil and for the OLTC oil switch. Suitable manholes for internal inspection and maintenance are provided on the tank cover. In correspondence of the LV connections the tank has one or more non magnetic or high resistance insulating plates bolted through suitable gaskets to the tank either on the cover or on the tanks walls. According to the chosen diagram, and to the characteristics and size of the furnace transformer, the tank can be designed and built to incorporate other equipment, such as the autotransformer, the booster transformer and occasionally the reactor.
ACCESSORIES

The furnace transformers are normally provided with an OFW(F) cooling system. One or more coolers are fitted on the transformer normally in a vertical position
17. A 140 AC-EAF TRANSFORMER 115.000/1300-650V

along one of the short side of the transformer tank; they are connected to the tank through shutt-off valves. Different positioning of the coolers, including horizontal installation, can be adopted to satisfy specific requirements for easier connection to the external water piping system. The coolers are normally composed of a single-walled or, on request, should the water pressure be higher than the oil pressure, a double-walled system. The design of the coolers is such that any possible risk of water leakage into oil is absolutely avoided. The coolers are fitted with an oil immersed motor pump and with water and oil flow indicators with alarm contact, water and oil thermometers, water and oil drain taps. Other special fittings are available, if required. When the water is not available, the cooling can be of the OFA(F) type. In this case oil-to-air coolers are installed out of the transformer room; they are connected to the transformer by an oil piping system.

The furnace transformers are normally equipped with the following fittings and accessories: one oil conservator as described two air silicagel breathers for the two conservator sections two oil level indicators with electric contacts for the two conservator sections buchholz relay for transformer with alarm and trip contacts

REACTORS

Reactors provide the furnace operation with the following improvements: arc stability and power regulation optimisation of electric power and of electrode consumption limitation of current during short circuit conditions in the furnace scrap collapsing reduction of flicker on the feeding network

18. A 80 MVA 15/1.1-0.66 kV AC-EAF transformer for USA

21

The external feature of the reactor is very similar to that of an oil immersed transformer. Core and windings are of the same type of the transformer with the difference that in the columns of the magnetic core are inserted suitable gaps designed for specified reactance and reactive power values. The reactance of the reactors will be in any case constant for currents up to 2 times the rated value (if requested up to 3 times or more). When the linearity of reactance at higher current value is required (for example 5 times the nominal current or more), a core-less solution is appropriate. The solution consists of windings without internal magnetic core but with a suitable external magnetic frame, in order to give the flux a confined path. Compared with the gapped-core solution, core-less design has the advantage to be more effective in the limitation of possible fault currents, which may

occur immediately after the reactor, but not as regards the short circuit on the furnace. The latter frequently happens during the EAF operation, but its amplitude is relatively small (2-3 times the rated current), so the normal limitation effect obtained using a gapped-core reactor is sufficient. The construction of reactors immersed in oil specially suits to requirement of using a Tap Changer for the reactance variation. In particular, through remote controlled TCs, the selection of the proper reactance value at any operational set-point, so achieving a quicker furnace regulation. The most satisfactory technical solution is anyhow the use of On Load Tap Changers which allows the on-load regulation of the reactance from the highest value to zero, so achieving the reactance regulation without operating the furnace circuit breaker. In order to optimise the choice of the components of the plants Tamini has designed and successfully supplied different types of transformer-reactor connection diagrams (see diagram page 5). In particular, the Booster-type transformers (with OLTC), having the reactor (with OLTC) connected on the tertiary side (see diagram D page 8). This solution allows the optimisation of voltage/current values in the tertiary circuit, at purpose of selecting the most convenient type of tap changer.
REFERENCE STANDARDS

The EAF transformers and reactors are designed, manufactured and tested according to the IEC, IEEE and CSA standards, as well as to the major national standards in force in the countries of destination.
19. A 65 MVAR reactor for a 190 MVA AC-EAF transformer for USA

23

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION
TCM TAMINI LIMITED. Swindon

TAMINI Legnano
London

V.T.D. Trasformatori TAMINI USA


Milano Roma

ALL SALES AND ADMINISTRATIVE ACTIVITIES OF THE TAMINI GROUP ARE DIRECTED FROM THE GROUP HEADQUARTERS HEADQUARTERS TAMINI Trasformatori s.r.l. via Cesare Battisti 37 20077 Melegnano MI - Italy tel. +39.02.982051 fax +39.02.98230322 www.tamini.it TRANSFORMER PRODUCTION FACILITIES Tamini Melegnano: via Emilia 37 20077 Melegnano MI Tamini Legnano: via P. Ovidio Nasone 20025 Legnano MI

TAMINI Melegnano

VERBANO TRASFORMATORI Novara

GENZI TAN AL E

Linate

MILANO
T

ES
PAULLESE
PA U LLE SE

IA

Paullo

EM
IL

IA
ES NGENZI A L E TA

S. Donato Milanese S. Giuliano Milanese


V

TANGENZ

IA L

IA

EO V ES

EM

TRANSFORMERS

TRANSFORMERS

T
A 1

IL

IA

MELEGNANO

Verbano Trasformatori Corso Risorgimento 209 28100 Novara NO V.T.D. Trasformatori via Gasdotto 6 36078 Valdagno VI UK and Eire Operations TCM Tamini Limited 55, Shrivenham Hundred Business Park Watchfield, Swindon SN6 8TY tel. +44.1793.780306 fax +44.1793.787888 North American Operations Tamini Transformers USA 2803 Butterfield Road, Suite 385, Oak Brook, IL 60523 USA tel. 630.368.9907 fax 630.368.9910 www.tamini.com

TA M I N I G R O U P C. Battisti, 37 20077 Melegnano (MI) Te l . 3 9 - 0 2 - 9 8 2 0 5 1 Fa x 3 9 - 0 2 - 9 8 2 3 0 3 2 2 w w w. t a m i n i . i t