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Types of Broadband Access

By Steven White, eHow Contributor

There are three main methods of connecting to broadband internet services. Most homes and businesses use either ethernet or wireless connections, but mobile broadband is also available. Related Searches: Broadband Wireless Modem Wireless Evdo

1. Ethernet

Ethernet cord

Broadband modems using cable or DSL include at least one Ethernet port. This is the default method for connecting a computer to broadband Internet service. Ethernet connections can transfer data at up to 100 Mbps.

2. Wireless

Wireless router

Wireless connections require a wireless router to be transmitting a signal and a wireless adapter on the computer to receive it. Most laptops include built-in wireless adapters, but adapters can be installed on laptops or desktops. Wireless 802.11G is the latest official standard and allows for up to 54 Mbps, although 802.11N is also available.

3. Mobile Broadband

Cell phone tower

Cell phone companies offer WiFi cards for laptops. These allow broadband connections anywhere there is cell phone reception. The 3G standard allows for up to 14 Mbps connections.

4. Considerations
A router is required for multiple computers to access a broadband connection at the same time. Wireless routers allow both Ethernet and wireless connections to be used simultaneously.

Fun Fact

Bitkom found that 84% of 19 to 29-year-old Germans would prefer to give up their partner or vehicle rather than their broadband Internet connections.

Read more: Types of Broadband Access | eHow.com http://www.ehow.com/facts_5201693_types-broadbandaccess.html#ixzz1kqILr0Sj

Types of Broadband Connections


Broadband includes several high-speed transmission technologies such as:

Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) Cable Modem Fiber Wireless Satellite Broadband over Powerlines (BPL)

The broadband technology you choose will depend on a number of factors. These may include whether you are located in an urban or rural area, how broadband Internet access is packaged with other services (such as voice telephone and home entertainment), price, and availability.

Digital Subscriber Line (DSL)


DSL is a wireline transmission technology that transmits data faster over traditional copper telephone lines already installed to homes and businesses. DSL-based broadband provides transmission speeds ranging from several hundred Kbps to millions of bits per second (Mbps). The availability and speed of your DSL service may depend on the distance from your home or business to the closest telephone company facility. The following are types of DSL transmission technologies:

Asymmetrical Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL) Used primarily by residential customers, such as Internet surfers, who receive a lot of data but do not send much. ADSL typically provides faster speed in the downstream direction than the upstream direction. ADSL allows faster downstream data transmission over the same line used to provide voice service, without disrupting regular telephone calls on that line.

Symmetrical Digital Subscriber Line (SDSL) Used typically by businesses for services such as video conferencing, which need significant bandwidth both upstream and downstream.

Faster forms of DSL typically available to businesses include: High data rate Digital Subscriber Line (HDSL); and Very High data rate Digital Subscriber Line (VDSL). back to top

Cable Modem
Cable modem service enables cable operators to provide broadband using the same coaxial cables that deliver pictures and sound to your TV set. Most cable modems are external devices that have two connections: one to the cable wall outlet, the other to a computer. They provide transmission speeds of 1.5 Mbps or more. Subscribers can access their cable modem service by simply turning on their computers, without dialing-up an ISP. You can still watch cable TV while using it. Transmission speeds vary depending on the type of cable modem, cable network, and traffic load. Speeds are comparable to DSL.

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Fiber

Fiber optic technology converts electrical signals carrying data to light and sends the light through transparent glass fibers about the diameter of a human hair. Fiber transmits data at speeds far exceeding current DSL or cable modem speeds, typically by tens or even hundreds of Mbps.

The actual speed you experience will vary depending on a variety of factors, such as how close to your computer the service provider brings the fiber and how the service provider configures the service, including the amount of bandwidth used. The same fiber providing your broadband can also simultaneously deliver voice (VoIP) and video services, including video-on-demand.

Telecommunications providers sometimes offer fiber broadband in limited areas and have announced plans to expand their fiber networks and offer bundled voice, Internet access, and video services.

Variations of the technology run the fiber all the way to the customers home or business, to the curb outside, or to a location somewhere between the providers facilities and the customer.

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Wireless
Wireless broadband connects a home or business to the Internet using a radio link between the customers location and the service providers facility. Wireless broadband can be mobile or fixed. Wireless technologies using longer-range directional equipment provide broadband service in remote or sparsely populated areas where DSL or cable modem service would be costly to provide. Speeds are generally comparable to DSL and cable modem. An external antenna is usually required.

Wireless broadband Internet access services offered over fixed networks allow consumers to access the Internet from a fixed point while stationary and often require a direct line-of-sight between the wireless transmitter and receiver. These services have been offered using both licensed spectrum and unlicensed devices. For example, thousands of small Wireless Internet Services Providers (WISPs) provide such wireless broadband at speeds of around one Mbps using unlicensed devices, often in rural areas not served by cable or wireline broadband networks.

Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs) provide wireless broadband access over shorter distances and are often used to extend the reach of a "last-mile" wireline or fixed wireless broadband connection within a home, building, or campus environment. Wi-Fi networks use unlicensed devices and can be designed for private access within a home or business, or be used for public Internet access at "hot spots" such as restaurants, coffee shops, hotels, airports, convention centers, and city parks.

Mobile wireless broadband services are also becoming available from mobile telephone service providers and others. These services are generally appropriate for highly-mobile customers and require a special PC card with a built in antenna that plugs into a users laptop computer. Generally, they provide lower speeds, in the range of several hundred Kbps. back to top

Satellite
Just as satellites orbiting the earth provide necessary links for telephone and television service, they can also provide links for broadband. Satellite broadband is another form of wireless broadband, and is also useful for serving remote or sparsely populated areas. Downstream and upstream speeds for satellite broadband depend on several factors, including the provider and service package purchased, the consumers line of sight to the orbiting satellite, and the weather. Typically a consumer can expect to receive (download) at a speed of about 500 Kbps and send (upload) at a speed of about 80 Kbps. These speeds may be slower than DSL and cable modem, but they are about 10 times faster than the download speed with dial-up Internet access. Service can be disrupted in extreme weather conditions.

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Broadband over Powerline (BPL)


BPL is the delivery of broadband over the existing low- and medium-voltage electric power distribution network. BPL speeds are comparable to DSL and cable modem speeds. BPL can be provided to homes using existing electrical connections and outlets. BPL is an emerging technology that is available in very limited areas. It has significant potential because power lines are installed virtually everywhere, alleviating the need to build new broadband facilities for every customer.

Types of Broadband DSL Broadband


Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) is a technology that delivers broadband over your phone line to be used in the home or office. With DSL technology, large volumes of information are sent over a copper cable at rapid speeds. DSL allows you to download web pages, text, graphics, music and video in real time.

ADSL Broadband
Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL) is a technology similar to the DSL technology. With ADSL, information is downloaded more rapidly than it is uploaded. ADSL is particularly useful for homes and businesses as it can download web pages and files at fast speeds.

ADSL2 and ADSL2+ are new technologies offered by some providers offering speed up to 24Mbps. One provider offering this service is Be.

Symmetric Broadband (SDSL)


Symmetric broadband (SDSL) is a technology similar to ADSL broadband. SDSL broadband downloads information at the same speed as it uploads information. Whereas ADSL broadband downloads the information faster than it uploads it. This type of broadband requires an extra telephone line. SDSL broadband is particularly suitable for businesses that send large volumes of information.

Local Loop Unbundling


Local Loop Unbundling (LLU) is where ADSL or SDSL broadband technologies are provided without using the British Telecoms exchange system. This means that LLU providers can offer broadband features at a competitive price. LLU is only available in certain parts of UK. Providers include Bulldog and Be.

Cable Broadband

There are several ways in which broadband can be delivered to your PC, this type of broadband is delivered through a cable. Cable companies also offer television and telephone packages as well as broadband Internet services. Cable companies provide broadband, television or phone packages to about 45% of homes and businesses in the UK.

You can only get cable broadband if a company has cabled your street. Cable providers include ntl.

Satellite Broadband
There are several ways in which broadband can be delivered to your PC,PC; this type of broadband is delivered through a satellite. To receive satellite broadband you must have a dish antenna, and can be used almost everywhere in the UK. There are 2 types of satellite services: One-way satellite services download information via satellite and upload information via a telephone or IDSN line. Two-way satellite services download and upload information via satellite. This provides an even higher bandwidth and a faster speed. Satellite transmission may be affected by weather conditions. The cost of installing and running satellite broadband can be quite expensive compared with other types of broadband. Satellite broadband generally has quite high latency (ping times) compared to other broadband, and so is unsuitable for certain types of Internet Access such as online gaming.

Wireless Broadband
Wireless broadband is one of the ways in which broadband can be delivered to your PC. This type of broadband requires an antenna to be installed to get connection to the Internet. Wireless broadband is particularly suitable for distributing information between buildings and for homes where access to ADSL or cable broadband is unavailable.

There are 4 main types of Broadband technologies:

ADSL ADSL is the most common form of broadband. Supplied over the telephone network, packages on offer are generally between 10 to 40 times as fast as using a standard telephone dial-up connection to the Internet. One of the main benefits that ADSL broadband offers home users is that the one telephone line can be used at the same time for Internet access and telephone calls - although you will still have to pay for the actual cost of any telephone calls you make. ADSL is currently available in most homes in Scotland. Cable Modem Cable television companies like NTL and Telewest offer Cable modem broadband. Cable modem broadband uses the same cabling in the street that provides cable telephone and TV services. If you already have cable television or telephone services at home, then it will probably be fairly straightforward to have your home connected to broadband. Cable modem broadband is only available in parts of the main cities and towns in Scotland.

Fixed Wireless If you live outside one of the main urban areas of Scotland, wireless broadband may deliver access where other broadband technologies are not currently commercially or technically viable. This type of broadband is delivered to your home through a radio signal rather than a cable or telephone wire and provides you with all the usual benefits of broadband. Fixed wireless broadband uses an aerial fitted to the outside of your house, it requires 'line of sight' between your home and the wireless base station, the focal point for sending and receiving broadband signals between all houses and businesses in the surrounding area. Fixed wireless broadband is a relatively new form of broadband service, not yet widely available across Scotland. It may be possible for communities who would like to have broadband to get a fixed wireless solution on a small scale if they live in an area that doesn't have access to ADSL or cable. Satellite If you live outside one of the main urban areas of Scotland, satellite broadband may deliver access where other broadband technologies are not currently commercially or technically viable. Satellite broadband uses a small antenna receiver dish fitted to the outside of your house to link up with a satellite in geo-stationary orbit at an altitude of approximately 24,000 miles. Don't be put off by the

concept of satellites and aerial dishes. The technology works and it is available to you. Satellite broadband is normally available throughout Scotland, as it does not depend on a land-based infrastructure.
hoosing the right Broadband connection type
ADSL
ADSL broadband uses telephone lines to provide broadband access which is up to 140 times faster than dial up and ADSL2+ can reach speeds of up to 24Mbps. It's currently the most popular type of broadband in Australia and is available in most areas.

Naked DSL

What makes Naked DSL broadband different to ADSL and ADSL2+ is that you don't need a separate telephone line service. Your telephone line rental is now incorporated into the Naked DSL service and it often has a VOIP option.

Cable

Cable broadband uses coax material to deliver high speed broadband access and is generally restricted to major metropolitan areas. The flexible nature of coax makes it an ideal for bundling home telecommunication services such as Broadband Internet, Pay TV, Home Phone and VoIP.

Wireless

The convenience of a wireless environment has made wireless broadband the fastest growing alternative to ADSL. Using geographically placed 'towers' and 'hotspots', wireless broadband access can be obtained in almost every part of Australia.

Mobile Broadband

Mobile broadband is a form of wireless internet technology that gives users the freedom and flexibility of broadband on the move. Built in network cards and add-ons such as USB modems and adapters provide the ability of Internet access at the office, in the car or down at your local cafe.

Satellite

Satellite broadband is available Australia wide and due to its coverage capabilities, is a popular broadband choice for those who reside in rural, remote and regional areas. Speeds are typically slower than other types of broadband, however recent subsidy's provided by the government have made pricing far more accessible.

Broadband Services

Frequently Asked Questions

What are the different types of broadband technologies? Click on the links below for information about the different devices and high-speed transmission technologies available and links to service providers.

Cable Broadband Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) Fiber Optic Service (FiOS) Fiber to the Home Satellite Wireless

Cable Broadband Comcast broadband cable is available to approximately 60% of the residents in Loudoun County. Please click the link below to learn more about cable broadband.

Comcast Broadband Cable

Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) service is a very high-speed connection that uses the same wires as a regular telephone line. More information about how DSL works is available here. In Loudoun County, DSL service is provided by Verizon. Currently Verizon has six central offices - buildings where all local calls originate and terminate - in Loudoun that offer DSL service. There are several remote central offices that serve South Riding. For the majority of the county, local phone service is served out of one of these central offices. These buildings serve regular dial tone service and provide DSL service. An important point about DSL is that it is distance sensitive. Currently DSL has a theoretical limit of 18,000 wire feet. Verizon will accept orders, prior to prequalification, of 15,000 feet. DSL basically sends a signal to your house via copper wire that degrades over distance. Most wiring does not follow a straight line to your house. The wires on telephone poles or underground conduit serve other neighborhoods before reaching you. The 15,000 feet should not be looked at in terms of a radius, but is a general benchmark before Verizon does a qualification. This office has about fifteen examples of people who live 10,000 feet away from a central office, including the Manager of Broadband Services, who cannot get DSL service. While DSL might advertise that the distance may go 15,000 feet, the practical limits of distance, quality of copper wiring, splits in the copper keep this from happening. There are several central offices that are at capacity and cannot take more orders. Verizon is focusing its time and money on building its fiber optic service, which will be a replacement product for DSL, rather than expanding its DSL service. Fiber Optic Service (FiOS) Verizon is currently putting fiber optic cable in the ground in eastern Loudoun for their Fiber Optic Service (FiOS). The current expected date of service is early to mid-2006. The Leesburg, Ashburn and South Riding areas are expected to have service first. In early 2006 Verizon hopes to complete construction in Sterling and the Broadlands. Verizon has also reduced its DSL rates for consumers to as low as $14.95 per month. This also impacts a small business customer as the rate drops to $24.95 per month for a 768K speed connection. More information is available from Verizon:

Verizon Fiber Optic Service

Fiber to the Home Fiber to the home, or sometimes called fiber to the premises, is a network where an optical fiber line is connected from a telecom/data provider directly to a subscriber's home. These providers can offer

data/internet connectivity, phone service and cable TV. These network services are offered as part of the homeowners fees and are a service offered only in these communities. There are four communities that provide fiber to the home service in Loudoun County.

Southern Walk at Broadlands: Service is provided by OpenBand. Landsdowne on the Potomac: Service is provided by OpenBand. Brambleton: Service is provided by Verizon.

Satellite Broadband download speeds via a satellite connection is provided in Loudoun County by HughesNet.

HughesNet

Wireless There are several providers of Wireless Broadband Internet service in Loudoun County. Wireless access is dependent on the proximity to the wireless provider's network. You may contact one of the providers below for a site visit:

Loudoun Wireless Lucketts.net Roadstar High Speed Internet Skynet Access Verolan

Internet access
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This article is about Internet access. For telecommunications signalling methods, see broadband.

The examples and perspective in this article may not represent a worldwide view of the subject. Please improve this article and discuss the issue on the talk page. (October 2010)

Internet access is a service that provides access to the global system of interconnected computer networks known as the Internet. Consumer use first became popular through dial-up connections in the 20th century. By the 21st century, most products were marketed using the term "broadband".
Contents
[hide]

1 Proliferation of users 2 Socioeconomic access issues

2.1 Access as a human right 2.2 Internet access as part of the digital divide

2.3 Rural broadband provision

3 Availability 4 Pricing 5 Rise of "broadband" and "high speed" Internet

5.1 History 5.2 Data rates 5.3 Other considerations 5.4 Speeds needed for Internet video

6 Technologies

6.1 Dial-up 6.2 Broadband

6.2.1 DSL (ADSL/SDSL)

6.2.2 Bonded dial-up modems

6.2.3 ISDN 6.2.4 WiFi 6.2.5 WiMax 6.2.6 Cable modem 6.2.7 Fiber to the home

6.2.8 Satellite broadband

6.3 Cellular broadband

6.3.1 Wireless ISP 6.3.2 Power-line Internet


7 Users

6.4 Leased lines

8 See also

8.1 Technologies 8.2 Broadband implementations and standards

8.3 Future broadband implementations

9 References 10 External links

[edit]Proliferation

of users

Main article: List of countries by number of Internet users Internet use around the world has been growing rapidly. With market saturation the phase of rapid growth is ending in industrialized countries, but the spread continues in Asia,[1] Africa, Latin America, the Caribbean and the Middle East. For example, the PC Conectado program helped the industry to grow in Brazil. Approximately 500 million broadband subscribers were in service in 2010.[2] To promote economic development and reduction of the digital divide, national broadband plans from around the world promote the universal availability of affordable broadband connectivity.

[edit]Socioeconomic

access issues

[edit]Access

as a human right

Further information: Right to Internet access The United Nations has proposed that Internet access should be a human right.[3] This push was made when it called for universal access to basic communication and information services at the UN Administrative Committee on Coordination. In 2003, during the World Summit on the Information Society, another claim for this was made.[4][5] In some countries such as Estonia,[6] France, [7] Spain,[8] Finland[9] and Greece,[10] Internet access has already been made a human right.

[edit]Internet

access as part of the digital divide

Main article: Digital divide Access to the Internet has grown from 10 million in 1993 to almost 40 million in 1995 and 670 million in 2002. It is estimated that the Internet now has 1.97 billion users. Despite this tremendous growth, Internet access has not been distributed equally throughout the world.[11] The gap between people with Internet access and those without it is one of the many aspects of digital divide. Digital divide refers to the gap between people with effective access to information and communications technology (ICT), and those with very limited or no access to ICT. ICT consists of televisions, telephones, videos and computers.[12] Internet access is dependent on access to ICT. Whether someone has access to the Internet can depend greatly on financial status, geographical location as well as government policy. Low-income, rural, and minority populations have received special scrutiny as the technological "have-nots."[13] Access to computers is the most dominant factor in determining Internet access. The United States has invested billions of dollars in efforts to breach the digital divide and grant Internet access to more people in low-income areas of the United States.[13] In 2009, The National Center for Education Statistics reported 93% of classroom computers had Internet access; and there was about one computer available per every five students. The Obama administration has continued this commitment of breaching the digital divide and expanding Internet to rural and lowincome areas through stimulus money.[13] Government policies play a tremendous role in Internet access. Egypt experienced five days with no Internet access on January 28, 2011 due to a decision made by their president, Hosni Mubarak. The freedom that the people of Egypt had to access information was taken from them. Internet access has changed the way in which many people think and has become an integral part of our economic, political,

and social lives. Providing Internet access to more people in the world will allow them to take advantage of the political, social, economic, educational, and career opportunities given through Internet access.[11]

[edit]Rural

broadband provision

Main article: Broadband universal service One of the great challenges of broadband is to provide service to potential customers in areas of low population density, such as to farmers, ranchers, and small towns. In cities where the population density is high, it is easier for a service provider to recover equipment costs, but each rural customer may require expensive equipment to get connected. While 66% of Americans had an Internet connection in 2010, that figure was only 50% in rural areas, according to the Pew Internet & American Life Project.
[14]

Virgin Media advertised over 100 towns across the United Kingdom "from Cwmbran to Clydebank"

that have access to their 100 Mbit/s service.[15] Wireless Internet Service Provider (WISPs) are rapidly becoming a popular broadband option for rural areas.[16] The technology's line-of-sight requirements may hamper connectivity in some areas with hilly and heavily foliated terrain. However, the Tegola project, a successful pilot in remote Scotland, demonstrates that wireless can be a viable option.[17] The Broadband for Rural Nova Scotia initiative is the only North American program to guarantee access to "100% of civic addresses" in a region. It is based on Motorola Canopy technology. As of Nov. 2011 under 1000 households have reported access problems. Deployment of a new cell network by one Canopy provider (Eastlink) was expected to provide the alternative of 3G/4G service, possibly at a special unmetered rate, for those harder to serve by Canopy. The Nova Scotia provincial government maintained a C$500,000 holdback in trust until all these concerns had been addressed.[citation needed]

[edit]Availability
Besides offices and residences, there are public places to use the Internet, including libraries and Internet cafes, where computers with Internet connections are available. Some libraries provide stations for connecting users' laptops to local area networks (LANs). There are wireless Internet access points in public places such as airport halls, in some cases just for brief use while standing. These access points may also provide coin operated computers. Various terms are used, such as "public Internet kiosk", "public access terminal", and "Web payphone". Many hotels also have public terminals, though these are usually fee based.

Coffee shops, shopping malls and other venues also offer wireless access to computer networks, referred to as hotspots, for users who bring their own wireless-enabled devices such as a laptop orPDA. These services may be free to all, free to customers only, or fee-based. A hotspot need not be limited to a confined location. The whole campus or park, or even the entire city can be enabled.Grassroots efforts have led to wireless community networks.

[edit]Pricing
Traditionally, Internet service providers have used an "unlimited" or flat rate model, with pricing determined by the maximum bitrate chosen by the customer, rather than an hourly charge. With increased consumer demand for streaming content such as video on demand and peer-to-peer file sharing, the use of high bandwidth applications has increased rapidly. For ISPs who are bandwidth limited, the flat rate pricing model may become unsustainable as demand for bandwidth increases. Fixed costs represent 80-90% of the cost of providing broadband service[citation
needed]

, and although most ISPs keep their cost secret, the total cost (January 2008) is estimated to be

about $0.10 per gigabyte[citation needed]. Currently some ISPs estimate that about 5% of users consume about 50% of the total bandwidth.[18] To ensure these high-bandwidth users do not slow down the network, many ISPs have split their users bandwidth allocations into 'peak' and 'off peak', encouraging users to download large files late at night.[19] In order to provide additional high bandwidth pay services[20] without incurring the additional costs of expanding current broadband infrastructure, ISPs are exploring new methods to cap current bandwidth usage by customers.[21] Some ISPs have begun experimenting with usage-based pricing, notably a Time Warner test in Beaumont, Texas.[22] The effort to expand usage-based pricing into the Rochester, New York area met with public resistance, however, and was abandoned.[23] In Canada, Rogers Hi-Speed Internet and Bell Canada have imposed bandwidth caps on customers.[citation needed]

[edit]Rise

of "broadband" and "high speed" Internet

Broadband Internet access, often shortened to just "broadband" and also known as high-speed Internet, is a term describing a service that provides a bit-rate supported is higher than (or considerably higher than) a 56 kbit/s modem. Broadband Internet access may give access to Internet services such as:

Much faster world wide web browsing Telephony, radio, television and videoconferencing Virtual private networks and remote systems administration Online gaming especially massively multiplayer online role-playing games which are interactionintensive

"Broadband penetration" is now treated as a key economic indicator.[24][25] Even though information signals generally travel nearly the speed of light in the medium no matter what the bit rate, higher rate services are often marketed as "faster" or "higher speeds".[26] Data is transmitted more quickly over a broadband network in the sense that the number of signals (bits) transmitted per second is higher. Bit rate is a measure of throughput, but latency is also a consideration.

[edit]History
The term broadband was originally a reference to multi-frequency communication, as opposed to baseband. The term adopted a second meaning, which became synonymous with higher-speed data transmission compared with acoustic modems. The US National Information Infrastructure project during the 1990s brought the term into public policy debates.[27] Broadband became a marketing buzzword for telephone and cable companies to sell their more expensive higher data rate products, especially for Internet access.[28] In the U.S. National Broadband Plan of 2009 it was defined as "Internet access that is always on and faster than the traditional dial-up access".[29] The same agency has defined it differently through the years.[30] In 2000, most residential access was by dial-up, while access from businesses was usually by broadband Internet access connections. In subsequent years, dial-up has declined.[citation needed]Wireless and satellite Internet are often available in rural or undeveloped areas where wired Internet is not.

[edit]Data

rates

Dial-up modems are limited to a bitrate of about 60 kbit/s and require the dedicated use of a telephone line whereas broadband technologies supply more than this rate and generally without disrupting telephone use. Although various minimum bandwidths and maximum latencies have been used in definitions of broadband, ranging from 64 kbit/s up to 4.0 Mbit/s,[31] a 2006 Organization for Economic Co-operation

and Development (OECD) report[24] defined broadband as having download data transfer rates equal to or faster than 256 kbit/s, while the United States Federal Communications Commission (FCC) as of 2010, defines "Basic Broadband" as data transmission speeds of at least 4 megabits per second, downstream (from the Internet to the users computer) and 1 Mbit/s upstream (from the users computer to the Internet).[32] The trend is to raise the threshold of the broadband definition as the marketplace rolls out faster services.[33] The standards group CCITT defined "broadband service" in 1988 as requiring transmission channels capable of supporting bit rates greater than the primary rate which ranged from about 1.5 to 2 Mbit/s.[34] Common consumer broadband technologies such as ADSL are "asymmetric"supporting much lower maximum upload data rate than download. Data rates are defined in terms of maximum downloadbecause in practice, the advertised maximum bandwidth is not always reliably available to the customer. Consumers are also targeted by advertisements for peak transmission rates,[35] while actual end-to-end rates observed in practice can be lower due to other factors.[36] Physical link quality can vary, and ISPs usually allow a greater number of subscribers than their backbone connection or neighbourhood access network can handle, under the assumption that most users will not be using their full connection capacity very frequently. This aggregation strategy (known as a contended service) works more often than not, so users can typically burst to their full bandwidth most of the time; however, peerto-peer (P2P) file sharing systems, often requiring extended durations of high bandwidth usage, violate these assumptions, and can cause major problems for ISPs. In some cases the contention ratio, or a download cap, is agreed in the contract, and businesses and other customers, who need a lower contention ratio or even an uncontended service, are typically charged more. When traffic is particularly heavy, the ISP can deliberately throttle back users traffic, or just some kinds of traffic. This is known as traffic shaping. Careful use of traffic shaping by the network provider can ensure quality of service for time critical services even on extremely busy networks, but overuse can lead to concerns about network neutrality if certain types of traffic are severely or completely blocked. As consumers continue to adopt broadband services, available speeds are generally increasing. For existing connections, this most of the time simply involves reconfiguring the existing equipment at each end of the connection.[citation needed]

[edit]Other

considerations

The Broadband for Rural Nova Scotia initiative applied fairly complex criteria to assess an acceptable "broadband" solution for its clients, and rejected some proposals for reasons that had nothing to do with data rate, including usage based billing, high latency, and service throttling.

[edit]Speeds

needed for Internet video

As the bandwidth delivered to end users increases, the market expects that video on demand services streamed over the Internet will become more popular, though at the present time such services generally require specialized networks[citation needed]. The data rates on most[citation needed] broadband services still do not suffice to provide good quality video, as MPEG-2 video requires about 6 Mbit/s for good results. Adequate video for some purposes becomes possible at lower data rates, with rates of 768 kbit/s and 384 kbit/s used for some video conferencing applications, and rates as low as 100 kbit/s used for videophones using H.264/MPEG-4 AVC. The MPEG-4 format delivers high-quality video at 2 Mbit/s, at the low end of cable modem and ADSL performance.

[edit]Technologies
Common methods of consumer Internet access in 2011 include:

Dial-up (including ISDN) Asymmetric digital subscriber line (ADSL) Internet over cable television lines LAN (PPPoE) - usually in areas of high population density Wi-Fi hotspots Wireless Internet service provider - sometimes simply called 'microwave' Mobile broadband over terrestrial mobile phone networks using CSD, GPRS, EDGE, EVDO, HSPA, etc. either through mobile phones or PCs

Satellite Internet

See also: Last mile#Existing last mile delivery systems and Local loop As of 2011, the following methods see a smaller usage share:

Data-only cellular networks like WiMAX and LTE Leased line Broadband over power line IP over DVB Fiber to the home Wireless mesh network - mostly military and One laptop per child use

Packet radio Free-space optical communication Wizzy Digital Courier

At the turn of the century most residential access was by dial-up while access from businesses was usually by higher speed connections. In subsequent years dial-up declined. Access technologies generally use a modem, which converts digital data to analog for transmission over a particular analog network (ex. the telephone or cable networks).[37]

[edit]Dial-up
Main article: Dial-up This technology dials into the network through an existing phone line, creating a semi-permanent link to the Internet.[37] Operating on a single channel, it monopolises the phone line and is the slowest method of accessing the Internet. Dial-up is often the only form of Internet access available in rural areas as it requires no infrastructure, other than the already existing telephone network, to connect to the Internet. Typically, dial-up connections do not exceed a speed of 56 kbit/s, as they are primarily made via a 56k modem.[37]

[edit]Broadband
Main article: Broadband Internet access This term includes a broad range of technologies, all of which provide high data rate access to the Internet. Broadband provides a continuous connection; there is no dial-up/in process required and it does not hog phone lines.[37] The standard broadband technologies in most areas are ADSL and cable Internet. Newer technologies in use include VDSL and pushing optical fibre connections closer to the subscriber in both telephone and cable plants. Fibre-optic communication, while only recently being used in fibre to the premises and fibre to the curb schemes, has played a crucial role in enabling Broadband Internet access by making transmission of information over larger distances much more cost-effective than copper wire technology. In a few areas not served by cable or ADSL, community organizations have begun to install WiFi networks, and in some cities and towns local governments are installing municipal Wi-Fi networks. The newest technology being deployed for mobile and stationary broadband access is WiMAX and LTE, and other technologies in use include fixed wireless, e.g. Motorola Canopy

From around of 2006, broadband mobile Internet access is increasingly available at the consumer level using "3G" technologies such as HSDPA and EV-DO technologies.

[edit]DSL (ADSL/SDSL)
Main article: Digital subscriber line DSL (Digital Subscriber Line) provides a connection to the Internet through the telephone network. Unlike dial-up, DSL can operate using a single phone line without preventing normal use of the telephone line for phone calls. DSL uses the high frequencies, while the low (audible) frequencies of the line are left free for regular telephone communication.[37] These frequency bands are subsequently separated by physical filtering devices added to the telephones. DSL originally stood for "digital subscriber loop". In telecommunications marketing, the term digital subscriber line is widely understood to mean Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL), the most commonly installed technical variety of DSL. The data throughput of consumer DSL services typically ranges from 256 kbit/s to 20 Mbit/s in the direction to the customer (downstream), depending on DSL technology, line conditions, and service-level implementation. In ADSL, the data throughput in the upstream direction, (i.e. in the direction to the service provider) is lower, hence the designation of asymmetric service. With a symmetric digital subscriber line (SDSL), the downstream and upstream data rates are equal.

[edit]Bonded dial-up modems


To provide increased bandwidth over dial-up multilinking technology or modem bonding was developed.
[38]

It required two modems, two phone lines, two dial-up accounts, and an ISP with support for

multilinking - and of course any line and data charges would also be doubled. This inverse multiplexing option was briefly popular with some high-end users before ISDN, DSL and other technologies became available[39] and Diamond and other vendors created special modem with bonding ability.[39][40]

[edit]ISDN
Main article: Integrated Services Digital Network ISDN, a telephone data service standard, was one of the oldest digital access methods for consumers and businesses to connect to the Internet. A basic rate ISDN line, known as ISDN-BRI, is an ISDN line with 2 data "bearer" channels (DS0 64 kbit/s each). These can be bonded together for 256 kbit/s or more and this technology has been used

for video conference applications and broadband data transmission. Primary rate ISDN, known as ISDNPRI, is an ISDN line with 23 DS0 channels and total bandwidth of 1544 kbit/s (US standard). ISDN E1 (European standard) line is an ISDN lines with 30 DS0 channels and total bandwidth of 2048 kbit/s. Its use peaked in the late 1990s prior to the availability of DSL and cable modem technologies.

[edit]WiFi
Main article: Wi-Fi Wi-Fi is the standard method to connect a high-speed local area network via wireless transmitter/receiver. WiFi is convenient for mobile Internet users and can bring service to areas where wiring would be costly. WiFi service range is short, and penetration through building walls is limited. Individual homes and small businesses often have a WiFi router for laptops and phones, which is connected to a DSL or cable modem for connection to the larger Internet.

[edit]WiMax
Main article: Wimax WiMax (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access) works similarly to WiFi in that it transmits information via airwaves, but it handles network traffic more efficiently. This technology penetrates building walls much more effectively and can be used across larger distances than WiFi.

[edit]Cable modem
Main article: Cable modem A cable modem transmits data via airwaves on the cable television infrastructure. Although cables have low interference, comparably high speeds, and allow television use, the cost of bringing service into an area (trenching cable) can be very high.[citation needed] Data is transmitted via coaxial cable or a Hybrid Fiber Coaxial. Cable Internet systems can typically operate where the distance between the modem and the termination system is up to 100 miles (160 km).[citation needed] Downstream, the direction toward the user, bit rates can be as much as 400 Mbit/s for business connections, and 100 Mbit/s for residential service in some countries. Upstream traffic, originating at the user, ranges from 384 kbit/s to more than 20 Mbit/s. One downstream channel can handle hundreds of cable modems. As the system grows, the cable modem termination system (CMTS) can be upgraded with more downstream and upstream ports, and grouped into hubs CMTS for efficient management.

[edit]Fiber to the home


Main article: Fiber-to-the-home Fiber optic wires convert electrical signals carrying data into light, and send this light through tiny transparent glass fibers. This method is extremely quick and has little interference. It is more expensive than other methods to deploy. Its speed is dependent on how close the fibers are to one's computer, the amount of bandwidth available, and how the service is configured. Most high-capacity Internet and cable television backbones already use fiber optic technology, with data relayed to other technology (DSL, cable, POTS) for final delivery to customers. Fiber to the home (FTTH), is essentially similar to cable Internet access, but promised much faster bitrates - up to 100 Mbit/s. Australia has already begun rolling out the network over the country using fiberoptic cables to 90 percent of Australian homes, schools and business.[41] and similar efforts are underway in Italy[42][43][44] and many other countries.

[edit]Satellite broadband
Main article: Satellite Internet Satellites in geostationary orbits are able to relay broadband data from the satellite company to each customer. Satellite Internet is usually among the most expensive ways of gaining broadband Internet access, but in rural areas it may be the only choice other than cellular broadband. Broadband satellite Internet has a inherent high latency due to the signal having to travel to an altitude of 35,786 km (22,236 mi) above sea level (from the equator) out into space to a satellite in geostationary orbit and back to Earth again. The signal delay can be as much as 500 milliseconds to 900 milliseconds, making it unsuitable for applications requiring real-time user input such as remote RDP control, certain multiplayer Internet games, and potentially some VPNs due to latency issues.[45] Satellite Internet providers also often have "Fair Access Policies" that throttle throughput to dial-up data rates after a certain download threshold is reached. The proposed O3b Satellite Constellation is planned to orbit much lower - in medium earth orbit at an altitude of 8,063 km (5,010 mi) for a much reduced latency of 125 ms. The proposed new network is also designed for much higher throughput with links well in excess of 1 Gbit/s. Orbiting even lower at 1,000 km (620 mi) will be the planned COMMStellation scheduled for launch in 2015, expected to have a latency of just 7 ms. Advantages

1. 2.

True global broadband Internet access availability Mobile connection to the Internet (with some providers)

Disadvantages

1. High latency compared to other broadband services, especially 2-way satellite service 2. Unreliable: drop-outs are common during travel, inclement weather, and during sunspot
activity[46] 3. The narrow-beam highly directional antenna must be accurately pointed to the satellite orbiting overhead 4. The Fair Access Policy limits heavy usage, if applied by the service provider

5. VPN use is discouraged, problematic, and/or restricted with satellite broadband, although
available at a price 6. One-way satellite service requires the use of a modem or other data uplink connection

7. Satellite dishes are very large. Although most of them employ plastic to reduce weight, they are
typically between 80 and 120 cm (30 to 48 inches) in diameter.

[edit]Cellular

broadband

Main article: Cellular broadband Cellular phone (mobile phone) towers are very widespread, and as cellular networks move to third generation (3G) networks they can support fast data; using technologies such as EVDO, HSDPA andUMTS. These can give broadband access to the Internet, with a cell phone, with Cardbus, ExpressCard, or USB cellular modems, or with cellular broadband routers, which allow more than one computer to be connected to the Internet using one cellular connection. According to the international Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), "Wireless broadband subscriptions in OECD countries had exceeded half a billion by the end of 2010, an increase of more than 10 percent on June 2010, according to new OECD statistics." [47] In contrast, fixed broadband subscriptions reached 300 million in 2010.[48]

[edit]Wireless ISP
Main article: Wireless Internet service provider

(See also Cellular Broadband, above) This typically employs the current low-cost 802.11 Wi-Fi radio systems to link up remote locations over great distances, but can use other higher-power radio communications systems as well. Traditional 802.11b was licensed for omnidirectional service spanning only 100150 meters (300500 ft). By focusing the signal down to a narrow beam with a Yagi antenna it can instead operate reliably over a distance of many kilometres (miles), although the technology's line-of-sight requirements hamper connectivity in areas with hilly and heavily foliated terrain. In addition, compared to hard-wired connectivity, there are security risks (unless robust security protocols are enabled); throughputs are significantly slower (2 50 times slower); and the network can be less stable, due to interference from other wireless devices and networks, weather and line-of-sight problems.[citation needed] Rural Wireless-ISP installations are typically not commercial in nature and are instead a patchwork of systems built up by hobbyists mounting antennas on radio masts and towers, agricultural storage silos, very tall trees, or whatever other tall objects are available. There are currently a number of companies that provide this service..[citation needed]

[edit]Power-line Internet
Main article: Power-line internet Broadband over power lines (BPL), also known as power line communication, uses mains power lines to send and receive radio signals. Because of the extensive power line infrastructure already in place, this technology would allow people in rural and low population areas to access the Internet with little cost in terms of equipment, cables or wires. It has developed faster in Europe than in the US due to a historical difference in power system design philosophies; the US uses a step-down transformer, through which the signal cannot pass, per house whereas in Europe, it is more common for a somewhat larger transformer to service 10 or 100 houses.
[citation needed]

Concerns over interference in the 10 to 30 MHz range, used by licensed amateur radio operators, as well as international shortwave broadcasters and a variety of communications systems (military, aeronautical, etc.) have also been an issue, leading to the IEEE P1901 standard specifying that all powerline protocols must detect existing usage and avoid interfering with it.

[edit]Leased

lines

Main article: Leased line

Leased lines, such as those from T-carriers can carry Internet data over fiber optic lines or copper lines. They are quick but highly regulated and generally intended for business use.[citation needed]

[edit]Users
Senior citizens Internet use among senior citizens is different than internet use among the younger generations. Since they didnt grow up with the internet around them, they arent as attached to the internet and social networking as the younger generations are. More often than not, senior citizens use the internet as a tool to find resources and information ranging from online dating to housing to health to celebrity gossip. On the other hand, some use it as a social networking tool to connect with family and loved ones or as a tool to meet new people.[citation needed]

ypes of Broadband Internet Access


BY: PAUL SALMON PUBLISHED ON: JANUARY 9, 2008 IN NETWORKING, TECHNOLOGY AND HAS 3 COMMENTS

I remember when I first connected to the Internet I used a 56Kbps modem over the phone line. Back then, that was considered fast as many users were using 14.4Kbps or 288Kbps modems. Since then, however, the Internet has evolved and so has the connection methods. In this post I explain broadband, and the various types of options available to a home user. This post will not touch on all options, but it will explain the types of connections currently common today.

What is Broadband?
The term broadband is a common term you here when discussing an Internet connection. Up until the last few years, most people used modems over a phone line that would download data at a rate of up to 56kbps. Back then the World Wide Web was made up of mainly static HTML pages and nothing more than that. Today, the Web has become more of a social and multimedia medium than just plain static HTML pages. This is one of the reasons people are switching to broadband or high-speed Internet connections. Broadband includes those connections that are faster than dialup, and are typically faster than 512Kbps (kilobits per second). When researching a broadband provider, you may notice that the provider displays both a download speed and upload speed. You may also notice that the download speed is much faster than upload, mainly because a subscriber will download more than they upload. The speeds are usually expressed in kilobits-per-second (Kbps) or megabits-per-second (Mbps). To get the speed of the connection in bytes, divide the bits-per-second value by 8. For example, if the provider indicates the download speed as 640Kbps, then the speed in bytes is 80KBps (kilobytes-per-second) or 640,000 bits divided by 8. There are many types of broadband available to you, and I will explain a few of the types in this post.

ADSL
The name ADSL is an acronym for Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line. This type of connection uses the existing phone lines in your house to provide high-speed Internet access. The speed of ADSL connections can support 1.5 to 8Mbps for downloads, and 16 to 640Kbps for uploads. Besides the increase in speed, the difference between an ADSL connection and the standard dialup is the fact that ADSL does not tie up your phone line. This means that you can connect to the Internet and use the phone at the same time. One disadvantage to ADSL is that it is a distance sensitive type of connection. The farther you are from the providers central office, the weaker the signal and the slower the connection. Subscribers close to the provider will experience the fastest connections.

Cable
As mentioned earlier, when people originally connected to the Internet, they used modems and their phone line. Cable companies then became involved in Internet access and began offering much faster connections than dialup could. Cable Internet connections are very speedy when compared to dialup. The speed of these connections can range any where from 512Kbps to 20Mbps download, and can match the upload speeds of ADSL connections. I currently use cable broadband for my Internet connection, and the advertised speed from my provider is 10Mbps download and 640Kbps upload. The one drawback to cable is the fact that the line is shared by all cable subscribers in your neighbourhood. This means that during peak hours, the Internet connection can be considerably slower, but still faster than dialup.

Satellite
For many people in rural communities, it can be hard to find a broadband service provider. For those in such a situation you may be able to get broadband through satellite. The same satellite dish for television is also used for Internet access. There are two systems used by satellite: one-way and two-way. In a one-way system data is downloaded via the satellite but uploaded via a dialup phone line. For a two-way system, both downloads and uploads are handled by the satellite. Satellite broadband is more expensive than either ADSL or cable, but may be the only alternative for those living in rural areas. As with satellite television, satellite broadband may also be affected by bad weather which could increase the latency of your connection.

Wireless (WiFi)
Wireless is becoming more popular in home networks with more affordable wireless routers and adapter cards. You may already have heard about wireless hotspots in some of the larger cities, which allows you to connect to the Internet through a wireless connection in the city.

Internet speeds over a wireless connection can reach 30Mbps or higher, which makes it a very fast connection. One of the downsides with a wireless connection, as always, is that of security, since data is downloaded and uploaded using radio waves. Wireless broadband is fairly new, so there are not many hotspots available for use, but the number is growing.

Summary
Broadband is a high-speed Internet connection that allows users to download and upload at speed many times faster than traditional dialup. There are several types of broadband available to home users including ADSL, cable, satellite, and wireless. Each type has its plus and minuses, however, it is important to weigh what options are available to you and choose one that provides the service you need at the right price.

Types of Broadband Connection

Broadband Internet Access, often called high speed internet or just broadband, is a technology for high rates of data transmission. The article throws light on the different types of broadband connections available nowadays.

Broadband is a relatively new concept, employed in place of dial-up connections. Broadband is much faster than a dial-up connection and offers a host of advantages over it. Dialup modems are restricted to a bitrate of less than 56 kbps (kilobits per second) and need the full use of a telephone line. On the other hand, broadband technologies provide more than double this rate and usually function without interrupting the telephone use. Hence, allowing the person

to use both the phone and the internet, simultaneously. Types of Broadband Connection The various types of broadband connection are as follows: ADSL (Asymmetrical Digital Subscriber Line) ADSL is one of the most popular types of broadband used and is delivered through the existing BT telephone by using a special router or modem. It helps in receiving and making calls, using the same single telephone line, even when the internet is in use. While employing a ADSL connection, it is essential to fit small devices called microfilters, to all the telephone sockets. These filters help in clearing the voice calls and preventing the ADSL signal from interfering with the voice calls. SDSL (Symmetrical Digital Subscriber Line) SDSL is another type of broadband connection which is almost similar to an ADSL connection. In comparison to SDSL, ADSL is faster in downloading data and a bit slower in uploading data. SDSL needs a separate telephone line to avoid interruptions in the voice calls. Another difference between the ADSL and SDSL connections, is that SDSL is more commonly used in businesses, where there are lots of uploads. Cable Cable is another broadband connection option, where the cable operator provides the internet connection. It requires a special modem which is connected to the cable TV box. Majority of the cable companies provide packages which have telephone and TV channels as well as a broadband internet connection. Wireless Nowadays, users are opting for wireless internet or broadband connections due to its advantages over other connections. The wireless connection enables the user to be online, send and receive data easily and quickly, which is not possible in the ADSL and SDSL connections. With the invention of data cards, the use of modems and wires for connecting to the internet have taken a back seat. The card comes in a plug-in format and is highly portable. In some of the remote and rural areas, where ADSL and cable Internet connections are not established, smaller broadband providers are supplying local coverage using wireless technology. Wireless connections don't require a telephone line. It needs a small antenna installed outside the house, which sends signals to a connection point attached to the computer. Satellite Satellite is the ultimate option for people living in remote areas and who can't receive any other form of broadband internet. It requires the installation of a special satellite dish. There are mainly two types of connections: one-way connections and two-way connections. In the oneway connection, you will be able to receive data, but for sending data, you will need a dial-up modem through a telephone line. In the two-way connection, data is both sent and received through the satellite dish, though it is more expensive. Out of these various broadband connections, you can choose the one which suits you best, depending upon the time you spend online or your budget. Broadband connections give an

effective and advanced working opportunity and environment, and facilitate various activities like booking tickets, watching many live shows, downloading movies, etc.

By Kanika Khara

Different types of broadband

There are many options available to get internet access in your home including broadband, satellite, cable and wireless connections.

What is the difference between broadband and a standard dial-up?


You can connect to the internet via a telephone line and a modem (either connected to or installed inside a computer). You will also need to sign up with an Internet Service Provider (ISP). With a standard dial-up service, users wait for a dial-up connection from their phone line to use email or the internet. Standard dial-up access has been largely replaced by broadband connection. Broadband internet services are usually provided over a standard telephone line. However, the phone and internet signals are separated - so you can use your phone at the same time as the internet. Broadband gives you much faster access to the internet, allowing you to download large files quickly (such as video and music). Broadband is constantly connected, so you don't have to wait for a connection to be made when you want to use the internet. You might also decide to go for wireless or mobile broadband. For wireless broadband you need to buy a router - or you might get one from your ISP as part of your service package. Remember, your computer or laptop must also be wireless enabled.

With the proper phone, a mobile broadband connection can be used anywhere that you get a mobile phone signal, but you need arrange the service through a mobile broadband provider.

How to get internet access

Other options
If Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL) broadband is not available in your area via your phone line, there are alternatives. These include: cable satellite

Cable
Cable companies offer high bandwidth services over existing cable networks. A cable modem can offer a similar speed to ADSL services.

Satellite
Broadband internet access can be brought into your home via satellite. Currently, there are two type of satellite broadband available: one way two way access One way access provides a very fast connection, but you can only receive information. For example, you can download internet pages and files, but not upload email attachments. If you need to send information back, you would still have to use a cable modem, or dial-up service. Two way allows information to be sent both ways. So, you can send data files back, as well as receive them, via your satellite. However, sending information back via this service is slow and expensive. The advantage of using satellite broadband services is that it can be used anywhere.

Wi-Fi
There are also Wi-Fi hotspots which can give you access to fixed-line broadband at a range of locations. You don't have to pay for equipment but you pay for your time online. Usually, there are no usage limits and hotspots are normally quicker than mobile broadband for browsing and downloading. You can get free Wi-Fi but for the best coverage you'll have to pay.

Broadband Internet
Broadband Internet, also called High Speed Internet, is an internet connection offering high data transmission rate of 256 Kbps (kilobits per second) or more. Broadband internet access is becoming more popular in developed countries in the 2000s. This is because the price of high speed internet access has dropped considerably over the past few years and broadband access has become available to more areas. The most popular broadband technologies for home users are DSL and cable internet. In some rural areas where DSL and cable internet access are not available, satellite internet can provide high speed internet access at some extra cost. For those who need broadband access while traveling on the road, wireless internet (WI-FI) would be a good choice. The data transmission rate of broadband internet access varies greatly from 256 Kbps to 24 Mbps depending on the internet service providers and their service plans. The actual transmission rate is also affected by other factors such as the number of subscribers sharing the bandwidth and the distance from the service station. Types of Broadband Internet Access: DSL Internet Cable Internet Satellite Internet Wireless Internet

Broadband DSL
What does DSL stand for? DSL stands for Digital Subscriber Line. It is a family of technologies that provides digital data transmission over the wires of local telephone network. The connection speed of DSL varies greatly

ranging from 128 Kbps to 24 Mbps depending on service plans and ISP. Most DSL internet providers offer ADSL service to home users. ADSL stands for Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line which indicates a difference in upload and download speed (the upload speed is usually lower than the download speed). In contrast, Symmetric Digital Subscriber Line (SDSL) offers equal download and upload speed. How does DSL work? DSL technology transfers data from the computer to the phone line via a DSL modem. The DSL modem converts digital data from the computer into a voltage signal of a suitable frequency range which is then transmitted over the phone wire. DSL technology allows simultaneous transmission of digital data and voice services, so phone and fax usage is not affected when you are connected to the internet. Unlike cable internet which offers service to multiple users by sharing the same cable, DSL provides a dedicated connection. However, the distance of your phone line from the ISP operation center could affect the connection speed.

Advantages of DSL 1. Connection speed is much faster than dialup internet access. 2. You can use the same phone line for internet and phone services, that is, your voice / fax services are not affected while you are connected to the internet. 3. More and more phone lines are now equipped for DSL services. DSL is available in more service areas than cable internet. 4. Dedicated connection. Connection speed is not affected by the number of users in your neighborhood. 5. Easy setup. Service plan does not need to be tied with cable TV service.

Disadvantages of DSL 1. Slightly higher cost than dialup internet access. 2. Higher security risk than dialup connection. A personal firewall is needed to protect your computer. 3. Not all phone wires are equipped for DSL service. May not be available in rural or remote areas. 4. Connection speed is affected by the distance between your phone line and ISP operation center. 5. Usually, you can only get special discount or activate your DSL service when you use the same ISP for your local phone service.

Dialup vs DSL
Differences between dialup and DSL Dialup DSL

Occupy a phone line Phone line is used for either voice service or internet connection

Phone line is not affected by internet connection Simultaneous transmission of data (DSL) and voice or fax services 256 Kbps to 20 Mbps

Connection speed: < 56 Kbps

Have to dial an access number to connect to the internet

Always on

Connected using a computer modem

Connected through a DSL modem

Unique IP address for each connection

Static IP address (higher security risk)

Low monthly fee

Higher monthly fee

Easy setup, no setup fee

Self installation is usually free. A setup fee is needed if installed by a technician.

Available to everyone with a phone line

Not every phone line is equipped for DSL service. May not be available in some remote / rural areas.

DSL vs Cable Internet


Differences between DSL and Cable Internet DSL internet Data transmission via phone line Cable internet Data transmission via coaxial cable line

Connected through DSL modem

Connected through cable modem

Dedicated phone line

Shared cable television line

Connection speed not affected by number of users in the neighborhood

Connection speed affected by number of users in your neighborhood

Not all phone lines are equipped for DSL service

Not all cable networks are capable of cable internet service

Available to more homes than cable

Availability is limited to certain areas where two-way cable modem transmission is supported

Connection speed is affected by distance from ISP operation center

Connection speed is not affected by the distance

Maximum connection speed: up to 10 Mbps*

Maximum connection speed up to 30 Mbps*

Bundled with local phone service

Bundled with cable television service

*Although cable internet is capable of a higher connection speed, the actual speed difference between DSL and cable may be small. Most ISPs have imposed bandwidth / speed caps for residential users, which limit the maximum connection speed depending on service plans. For cable internet users, the number of people sharing the same cable line at the same time also affects the connection speed.

Cable Internet
Cable internet refers to the delivery of internet service over cable network. A cable modem is used to transfer data signal using unused bandwidth on a cable television network. However not all cable infrastructure is capable of two way cable modem transmission, so having cable television network does not necessarily mean that cable internet service is available in your area. In general, cable internet is capable of providing higher connection speed than DSL internet service. The download speed can reach up to 30 Mbps and the upload speed up to 2 Mbps. However, cable internet providers often add a speed cap on residential service plans so the actual bandwidth is usually lower than these values. In addition, cable users in a neighborhood share the bandwidth provided by the same cable line. Therefore, connection speed will fluctuate depending on the number of people using the service at the same time. Almost all cable internet service providers tie up cable internet access with cable television subscription. Many also provide VoIP telephone service. Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) is a technology that allows you to make telephone calls using a broadband Internet connection instead

of a regular (or analog) phone line. VoIP converts the voice signal from your telephone into a digital signal that travels over the Internet. VoIP phone service is usually much cheaper than regular phone service. Many VoIP providers offer unlimited nationwide calling and low international calling rates. However, VoIP service requires broadband internet connection so in case of power outages when your cable modem (or DSL modem) is disconnected, you will not be able to make phone call or emergency call over the internet.

Advantages of cable internet access: High connection speed Convenient you are always connected to the internet Does not affect your phone line. You dont need to switch your local phone service provider. Connection speed is not affected by the distance from ISP operation center Easy setup with self installation kit

Disadvantages of cable internet access: Higher price than dialup and DSL connection Higher security risk than dialup or DSL (personal firewall is needed) Not available to all cable TV networks Bandwidth is shared over the same cable line. Connection speed is affected by the number of people using the internet at the same time in your neighborhood. Usually tie with cable TV subscription

Satellite Internet
Satellite Internet Access is probably the most expensive high speed internet service for home users. However, in rural or remote areas where cable or DSL internet access is not available, satellite internet may be their only choice for high speed internet access. Satellite internet is not delivered by phone line or cable but satellite dish. Your computer is connected to a satellite modem which is linked to a satellite dish (antenna) typically mounted on the roof of your home. When you browse a webpage, your request is sent to the satellite. The satellite then transmits a signal to the operation center of satellite internet provider. The webpage information is then beamed back to your computer through the same path. Since the signal has to travel 35,000 km out into space to the satellite and back to earth again to reach the operation center, there may be a signal delay as much as 500 to 900 milliseconds. The actual delay is doubled as the signal from the satellite company has to travel the same distance to your computer. This signal delay may affect the performance of some real time applications such as online games.

Many satellite internet providers also have a Fair Access Policy (FAP). The satellite company can limit a customers throughput if his system usage exceeds a certain threshold (150-200Mb) for a period of time. Typically, the restrictions will be lifted within 8-12 hours of the original application of the FAP if the customers usage in this period stays below the FAP threshold. FAP ensures all subscribers have fair and equal access to satellite broadband internet access, so that bandwidth is not taken up disproportionately by a small percentage of subscribers. For home users who just surf the internet and have small downloads, FAP is not likely to affect them. However, for those who have regular bandwidth intensive activities, FAP will limit their ability to complete large download in a reasonable amount of time. Advantages of Satellite Internet Access: High speed internet access in rural / remote areas where cable and DSL are not available Does not tie up with local phone service or cable TV subscription Connection speed is not affected by phone or cable wiring

Disadvantages of Satellite Internet Access: More expensive than DSL and cable Large setup fee. Expensive equipment upfront. Has to be set up by trained technician. Short delay of signal transmission may affect real time applications Fair access policy limits the ability to download large files in reasonable amount of time Connection speed is slower than DSL and cable

Wireless Internet
How does wireless internet work? Wireless internet transfers digital data using radio frequency. Wi-Fi is the leading wireless technology based on the IEEE 802.11 specifications. It allows a person with a Wi-Fi device, such as a laptop or personal digital assistant (PDA) to connect to the internet via access points (AP). The region covered by one or several access points is called a hotspot. Wi-Fi is useful for business travelers who need to get access to the internet in cafs, hotels and airports. For home users, a wireless router can connect a group of Wi-Fi enabled devices (e.g. multiple computers) to an adjacent wired network (such as a DSL or cable modem) to establish home networking. Wireless internet service providers offer Wi-Fi hotspot network in many locations. The users can get online with a broadband speed up to 100 times faster than dialup. Free Wi-Fi networks are also available in many municipalities providing free hotspots and hotzones but these open access points may pose great security risks to novice users. Advantages of Wi-Fi internet access: 1) A network can be set up without cabling and wiring

2) Economical networking solution 3) Provides access to the internet in outdoor areas 4) Roaming is supported. A user can move from one access point to another. 5) A large number of hotspots are available worldwide

Disadvantages of Wi-Fi internet access: 1) High power consumption rate for laptop computers 2) Wireless encryption standard is easy to break 3) Wi-Fi network has limited range 4) Overlapping access points can interfere signal transmission 5) Subject to security risks if wireless encryption is not enabled 6) Internet connection speed of wireless network is lower than that of wired network

Advantages and Disadvantages of Broadband


Advantages of Broadband Internet Access: 1. Connection speed is up to 100 times faster than dialup connection. You can download pictures files, software in seconds or minutes instead of hours. Online gaming is only possible using a broadband internet access. 2. It does not affect the phone line. For DSL internet access, you can use the same phone line for both voice/fax and data transmission. For cable internet access, you are connected to the internet via the cable network. In either case, your phone line is not occupied while you are connected to the internet. 3. It is convenient because the internet connection is always on. 4. You don't need to dial an access number and risk getting a busy signal. 5. Broadband internet offers unlimited access and you won't be charged based on the connection duration. 6. Broadband internet not only gives you high speed internet access, it can also provide cheap phone services via VoIP technology.

Disadvantages of Broadband Internet Access: 1. 2. 3. High monthly fee compared to dialup internet access. Higher security risk than dialup connection. A personal firewall is needed to protect your computer. Not all phone wires are equipped for DSL service. May not be available in rural or remote areas.

4.

Not all cable TV networks are equipped for cable internet access. May not be available in rural or remote areas.