262271
Maneuverability of Frigates in Waves
J. P. Hooft
1
and J. B. M. Pieffers
2
This paper describes the setup of a mathematical model for the prediction of the of
by means of computer simulations. For the maneuverability in still water, math IS
used while dynamic effects are addedfor the description of the maneuverability In a seaway. Inthls latter de
scription, the dynamir; effects of the rudder action on the ship's roll behavior are also incorporated.
o
x
e
2. Mathematical model
Generally, the differential equations of motions are described
relative to a shipfixed system of coordinates through the center
of gravity Gof the ship, assuming the coordinate axis being the
principal axis of inertia [1720]:
m (U +Q X V) =F (1)
I n+ 'IT X (I Q) =M (2)
where V is the ship's velocity in the shipfixed coordinate sys
tem and Qis the ship's rate of rotation.
In the simulation process, one determines at each moment of
time the force and moment components in the shipfixed coor
dinate system. From equation (1), one then determines the
accelerations in the ship..fixed coordinate system. From an inte
gration procedure one obtains the linear and rotative velocities
u, v, W, p, q, and r in the shipfixed coordinate system. The
position of the ship in an earthfixed system of coordinates is
defined by the distances X
e,
Ye, and Ze relative to the origin 0 and
by the directions (roll angle), e (pitch angle), and l/; (yaw
angle) as shown in Fig. 1.
the subsequent harmonically changing roll angle will largely
vary as a function of the frequency of oscillation. Examples of
this phenomenon will be shown in Section 5.
This complex response of the ship's roll angle to the rudder
motion will require special attention in designing the controller
of the rudder motions to stabilize the roll motions [1316].
FOR THE PREDICTION of the maneuverability of frigates at
the design stage, use is made of timedomain computer simula
tions. The hydrodynamic coefficients in the mathematical de
scription ofthe ship's maneuverability are derived from captive
model tests using a planar motion mechanism. Often, a compre
hensive test program is required for the assessment of all coeffi
cients of a particular ship sailing under various conditions.
In the initial design, most of the ship's dimensions are not yet
fixed so that in this stage an extensive test program is not well
timed. Yet, one often desires in the initial design stage to ascer
tain the influence of various factors of the ship's form on the
maneuverability. For this reason, reliable estimations are need
ed of the hydrodynamic coefficients as a function of the ship's
form parameters.
For merchant ships, various methods have been developed
for the approximation of the hydrodynamic maneuvering coef
ficients (see, for example, Inoue [1],3 Soding[2], and Clarke [3]).
In these methods, use is made of empirical descriptions of the
hydrodynamic coefficients which were available for a large vari
ety of ships.
Most information in the existing empirical methods refers to
ships which have a larger block coefficient and sail slower than
frigatetype ships. Therefore, an adaptation has been devel
oped for the prediction of hydrodynamic maneuvering coeffi
cients of fast navy ships. This adapted method consists of the
suggestions by Jacobs [4] and Fedyayevski [5], amplified by
literature information such as given by Gerritsma [6, 7] and
Hooft [8].
In considering the maneuverability of frigates also, the inter
action with the roll motions should be taken into account [9
12].
For the study of the ship's behavior in a seaway one has to
take into account that waves and waveinduced motions will
influence the maneuverability of a ship while also rudder forces
and horizontal ship motions induced by the rudder forces will
influence the seakeeping of the ship especially its rolling. In
Section 4, a description will be given of dynamic aspects effect
ing the maneuverability in a seaway.
In turning the rudder from zero to a constant position, it will
be noted that the ship starts to roll to one side, due to the rudder
force, and will ultimately heel to the opposite side, due to the
hull forces. As a consequence of this phenomenon, the phase
difference between a harmonically oscillating rudder angle and
1. Introduction
1 Maritime Research Institute Netherlands (MARIN), Wageningen,
the Netherlands.
2 Rivers, Navigation and Structures Branch, Delft Hydraulics, Delft,
the Netherlands; formerly, the Royal Netherlands Navy.
3 Numbers in brackets designate References at end of paper.
Presented at the October 21, 1987 meeting of the Chesapeake Section
of THE SOCIETY OF NAVAL ARCHITECTS AND MARINE ENGINEERS.
Fig. 1 Definition of position of ship in earthfixed system of coordinates
Once the position of the ship has been established the ship
fixed velocities (u, v, W, p, q, r) are transformed to the velocities
(u
e
, V
e
, We, ;p, e, f) in the earthfixed system of coordinates,
where D
t
is the transformation matrix that is described in detail
in reference [19J. Furthermore,
in which the hull forces will be discussed in more detail in the
next sections.
The propeller forces can be estimated for instance from the
information by Oosterveld [21], StromTejsen [22],and Yoshi
mura [23J, whereas model testing is required for special types of
propulsion devices.
In the mathematical model used in the study of which some
results will be shown in this paper. onlv the longitudinal compo
nent of the propeller generated force has been considered ac
cording to the following description:
(13)
(12)
where the coefficient Y
uu6
has been determined experimentally
as a function of the rudder configuration characterized by its
area, aspect ratio, sweep angle, and taper ratio. Furthermore:
In equation (7), the rudder forces can be estimated from the
information provided by, for instance, Inoue [24], Soding [25],
Whicker [26J, Goodrich [27], Hirano [28], Lotveit [29], and
Hagen [30], whereas more precise information for special type
rudders is obtained experimentally.
In the mathematical model used in the present study, the
rudder forces were described as a function of the ship motions
U, v, r, and cf>, of the propeller loading, of the rudder angle 0, and
of the momentary flow velocities due to waves. The normal
forces on the rudder is described by
where AUpr is the flowincrement due to the propeller and U
wa
is
the waveinduced longitudinal velocity (see, for example. Renil
son [31J and Aalbers [32])
0e = 0 +( C
u
v +c
r
xrud r  cwavwa)/ueR (14)
where Xrud is the longitudinal position of the rudder and where
the coefficients c.; c., and C
wa
express the effectivity of the
lateral velocity at the rudder as a consequence of the ship's
lateral velocity v, yaw rate r, and the waveinduced lateral
velocity vwa, respectively (see also Fedyayevski [5J and Soding
[25]).
As a consequence of the rudder normal force, the following
force components on the ship will be generated:
(4)
(5)
(6)
(3)
= p + (q sin cf> + r cos cf tan 0
0= qcoscf>rsincf>
if; = (qsincf>+rcoscf/cosO
Integration of the velocities in the earthfixed system provides
the new position of the ship in the earthfixed system of coordi
nates: x., Ye, Ze, cf>, 0, and 'f.
These new positions and earlier determined new velocities
will be used to determine the forces in equation (1) at the next
time step in the simulation process. The forces in equation (1)
are mostly subdivided in hydrodynamic hull forces, propeller
generated forces, and rudder forces, in addition to various kinds
of environmental forces caused by, for example, wind, waves,
current, passing ships, and bank suction.
where Zrud' is the arm of the rudder force to the center of gravity
Gand the coefficients c, Y and CeN are larger than unity because
of the additional lateral force on the stern by the flow induced
by a rudder deflection.
X p=(10p)Tp (8)
r; = 0.5 P U
ep
2
c; (9)
U
ep
2
= ((1  'fp) u)2 +(0.77rDpnp)2 (10)
{3p = atan ((1  'fp) u/(0.77r Dpnp)) (11)
where T is propeller thrust, Dp propeller diameter, U
ep
the
effective inflow velocity, and Cr ({3p) the thrust coefficient as a
function of the blade angle of attack {3p over the four quadrants.
X
R
=Yrud sino
Y
R
=ceY Yrud coso
K
R
= Zrud'Y
rud
coso
N
R
=CeNXrudYrud coso
(15)
(16)
(17)
(18)
 Nomenclature 
APP = aft perpendicular
B = center of buoyancy
B = 'ship's breadth
CB = block coefficient = v ILBT
CD = drag coefficient
CDc = crossflow drag coefficient
CSc = crosssection coefficient = S(x)/BT
CT = propeller thrust coefficient
Tp/(O,5p7rI 4D
pZUepZ)
Dp = propeller diameter
Ii =excitation force = (X,Y,Z)
FPP = forward perpendicular
G =center of gravity
I = inertial moment of ship
i = average momentary immersion of ship
K = roll moment
Ka'
= K
a
/ pgBLZ
L = L
pp
= ship's length between
perpendiculars
?i =pitch moment
M = excitation moment = (K,M,N)
m = mass of ship
N =yaw moment
p = roll rate of turning
q = pitch rate of turning
R'j = retardation function of force in direction
i due to a motion in direction j
Ryv' = Ryol pgBT
r = yaw rate of turning
5 =local underwater crosssectional area
T = ship's draft
Tp = propeller thrust
t = trim = TAPp TFPP
t =time
t' =
U= resultant speed of ship = (u,v,w)
Ur, = ship's speed at given rpm of propeller
when sailing straight ahead in an
undisturbed environment
Uep = effective inflow velocity at propeller
location
UeR = effective inflow velocity at rudder
location
u = longitudinal velocity component
v =lateral velocity component
w =vertical velocity component
W = ship's weight
X = longitudinal force component
Y= lateral force component
y v' = Yv/pLBT
r: =Yvlp..jgL BT
Z = vertical force component
Zb =vertical buoyance force =pgLB i C
B
o=rudder angle
0. =effective angle of flow to rudder
riJ = roll angle
(J = pitch angle
Up =propeller thrust deduction coefficient
l/; = course angle
l/;p =propeller wake factor
l/;R =rudder wake factor
w = frequency of oscillation
n=resultant rate of turning =(p,q,r)
(,&,J,)
V = volume of displaced water in
undisturbed condition
la= wave height amplitude
p = fluid density
OCTOBER 1988 263
(28)
In Fig. 2, the approximation of Ylixis given as a function of the
form of the local cross section. In this approximation, use has
been made of the results of Papanikolaou [34].
Viscous reaction forces. When considering only the low
frequency motions of a maneuvering ship, it can be assumed
that the reaction forces are mainly caused by viscous effects and
can be described by timeindependent hydrodynamic coeffi
cients. One first determines the longitudinal force (that is, the
ship's resistance) as a function of the ship's ahead speed. For
this purpose, the estimation method presented by Holtrop [35]
can be used, which provides a rather accurate prediction of the
ship's resistance.
One then considers the forces generated by a drift velocity or
a rate of turning of the ship. It is assumed that these reaction
forces can be described by a summation of linear force compo
nents prevailing at small amounts of motions and nonlinear
forces. Various empirical descriptions have been presented in
literature for the linear force components. These descriptions
only refer to merchant ships sailing at speeds corresponding to
lowFroude numbers. A new description has been developed for
the estimation of the linear maneuvering coefficients of frigate
type ships which depend on the ship's main dimensions and
trim at zero speed and on the Froude number. For the deriva
tion of this estimation method, a series of planar motion mecha
nism (pmm) tests with various frigate models has been used,
together with the results of Gerritsma [6,7]. The lateral nonlin
ear reaction forces are assumed to originate from crossflow
induced drag [e,36]. Asshown in Fig. 3, the crossflow is generat
ed by the local lateral velocity v(x):
1.0
0' "'__.,'__'"
0.4
1. 501""'
1.
"
a.751'20...::>'40<7+1
3
4
5
v ,
: ::: __'v_x.,,
v 0.5 p n T
2
BIT =
'1'::> 1
,
3. Maneuverability in still water
Addedmass coefficients. For the estimation of the maneu
verability in still water it is assumed that all added mass coeffi
cients are frequency independent. Various empirical descrip
tions can be derived from literature for the estimation of the
inertial mass [3, 33]. The following descriptions are recom
mended:
esc
Fig. 2 Influence of B/Tratio and crosssectional coefficient on dimen
sionless lateral added mass per unit length (from reference [34])
7r [ CJ13 5.1 ]
Y , =  p LT2 1 +0.16   
ov 2 T (LjB)2
(19)
(20)
'

'J
___"T  u
\ p
L..
u
where Y
Dx
is the acceleration force coefficient per unit length at
the location x:
(29) v(x) =v +xr
Fig. 3 Schematic indication of crossflow phenomenon underneath ship
where
v = lateral velocity in the center of reference
x = distance of the cross section considered relative to the
center of reference
r =rate of tum
The lateral force Y
cx
per unit length now reads
Ycx(x) =  0.5p CDc(x) T (x) v(x) Iv(x)j (30)
where T(x) is the local draft and CDc(X) the local crossflow drag
coefficient. It will be obvious that a proper knowledge about the
drag coefficient CD is essential for a correct determination of
the nonlinear component of the lateral force. Many factors may
influence this coefficient, such as
the form of the cross section [37],
the local Reynolds number,
the form of the ship in the longitudinal vertical plane and
in the longitudinal horizontal plane, and
the Froude number (see Fig. 4).
The nonlinear force will also depend on the lateral flow distri
bution along the ship. Flowstraightening effects will cause
drastic differences between the local ship velocity v(x) and the
actual crossflow velocity. With respect to these two aspects
(27)
(26)
(25)
(24)
(23)
(22)
(21)
i
FPP
Y
t
= YDx(x) x dx
APP
Y , =  z L
2
T2 r0',67  0 0033 ('!i)21
or ? P (T /P.\' 'T'
 L \ / J
7r [ CBB 4]
N,=pL
3T2
1+020
or 24 . T (LIB)
If the inertial force coefficients of a specific ship with an unusu
al hull form have to be determined, then a more precise method
can be applied for the lateral force coefficients:
I
FPP
Y
D
= Ylix(x) dx
APP
264 MARINE TECHNOLOGY
(32)
(31)
(35
(34
(33)
to h=2/3 b
x h=l b
h=Z b
*Disk chap.
1 .
=K" (WI)   RKv(t) smwItdt
WI 0
for an arbitrary frequency WI at which K"is known. The suffix o:
in the coefficient indicates the value of the added mass a
where Kv(t) is the momentary potential reaction roll moment K
due to the history of sway velocities and RKv(t) is the retarda
tion function to be determined from a Fourier transformation
of the frequencydependent damping coefficient Kv(w):
2
RKv(t) = Ku(w) coswt dw
7r .0
The constant addedmass coefficient in this example is
derived from
2.
b=9 in.
Wave and/or spray
I
O!:""__l. l.. .;.... ..l__J
o 4
F
h=V/,;g!1
Fig. 4 Influence of Fraude number on drag coefficient of surface
piercing flat plates according to Hay (see Hoerner [37])
Because of all these interaction effects, it is strongly recom
mended that the ship's maneuverability in waves be deter
mined from a math model consisting of a sixdegreeoffreedom
(6DOF)set of differentialequations. Insucha math model, one
can introduce all such interaction effects which seem relevant
to the problem and about which satisfactorily accurate infor
mation is available from literature, theory, or model tests.
Potential phenomena. When the ship is excited at higher
frequency motionsin waves, by wind gusts, etc.it is ob
served that damping forces are excited originating mainly from
freesurface effects which can be described by potential flow
theories (McCreight [18], Perez [42], and Ankudinov [43]). Due
to these potential phenomena, both the addedmass coeffi
cients as well as the damping coefficients depend on the fre
quency of oscillation of motion. These potential forces can be
determined by means of various existing strip theories (see, for
example, Gerritsma [44], Papanikolaou [34], Salvesen [45], and
Vugts [46]) or by means of threedimensional diffraction theo
ries such as those presented by van Oortmerssen [47], Chang
[48], or Inglis [49].
If the excitation forces should vary randomly in time, the
potential reaction forces should be described by means of con
stant added mass coefficients and retardation functions Rij [47,
50, 51] leading to a damping at each moment of time of, for
example,
1.5t+r....'
j
F??
N, = Ycx(x) x dx
AP?
Evaluation of simulations. With the above results, in the
mathematical model it will be possible to assess the ship's
maneuverability from timedomain computer simulations. For
design purposes, it is found that the present method leads to
ship's maneuvering characteristics which depend on the ship's
main dimensions as they influence the linear coefficients and on
the longitudinal distribution of the crosssectional forms as
they influence the crossover drag coefficients. The correctness
of these results were first established by a comparison with
model test results. The results of this comparison have been
shown in Fig. 5 and in more detail in Tables 1 through 4.
From an extensive series of fullscale maneuvering trials, a
further evaluation of the simulation results was performed. In
Fig. 6, some results of this comparison are presented. From
these and various other comparisons, it is concluded that the
maneuverability of a frigate in its initial design stage can be
estimated satisfactorily accurately from timedomain comput
er simulations using approximate hydrodynamic coefficients
derived empirically.
4. Dynamic effects
General. Due to practical limitations, it will not be feasible
to make a 100 percent model of the reality. Therefore, a model
will contain only those characteristics of the reality which ex
press as accurately as possible those features needed for a spe
cific purpose. This means that in the present context the ship's
maneuverability is modeled most accurately when all aspects
are taken into account which might influence the ship's turning
ability directly or indirectly. Direct aspects are, for example,
the ship's longitudinal moment of inertia I
zz
and the yawdamp
ing moment in combination with the excited yaw moments.
Indirect aspects are, for example, the yawing moment effects
induced by the motions in other directions such as
the heave motion by which the added mass moment, yaw
damping moment, and waveexcited yawmoment vary due
to the change of the ship's immersion (see, for example,
Fig. 7); and
the roll motion, which may effect the yaw damping mo
ment and the rudder effectivity [41], and by which addi
tional yawing moments may be induced as has been shown
byEda [9J.
(that is, CD value and the actual crossflow velocity), little is
known in literature. Soding [2] suggests a constant factor of CD
=1.5 irrespective of the influence of the Reynolds number, the
KeuleganCarpenter number, the position x, the angle of inci
dence arcsinus (v/U), etc. Detailed descriptions about the CD
distribution have been presented by Ankudinov [36, 38], for
example, who adapted Martin's data fit to a more accurate
estimation of the CD as a function of L/TandE/T. In the papers
by Sharma [39] and Wichers [40], more information is given
about the possible distribution of CDvaluesalong the length of
the ship irrespective of the ship's motion components.
Note that all these rough methods lead to acceptable accu
rate values of the nonlinear lateral force component. This leads
to the conclusion that the approach of determining the lateral
drag force by means of drag coefficients is realistic, though
various improvements can still be introduced.
Integration of the local lateral force Y
cx
over the ship's length
leads to the following description of the nonlinear total force
and moment contribution:
j
F??
Y
c
= Ycx(x) dx
AP?
OCTOBER 1988 26
around the ship, by which the potential reaction forces will
also change (seeHuijsmans [52] and the example in Fig. 8).
The heave and roll motions will cause a change of immer
sion and consequently a change in various potential force
components.
In the present study, only the effect of the ahead velocity has
been taken into account, while all other secondary order contri
butions have been disregarded.
No theory exists for the determination of the potential reac
tion forces at higher speeds. Therefore, an extensive program of
model tests has been carried out for the ship considered in this
paper. The tests were performed at two ahead speeds corre
sponding to F
n
= 0.225 and 0.45 in addition to striptheory
calculations at zero speed (see example in Fig. 8).
Roll stabilitycoefficients. In the present study, rudderroll
effects such as the simulation of the ship's maneuverability in
following waves have also been considered. For this reason, the
roll hydrodynamic characteristics were also described as accu
rately as possible in the mathematical model of the ship's dy
namic behavior. The most important aspect to be simulated
correctly was the roll restoring moment in combination with
heave andwaves.
Due to the immersion of the ship, only an earthfixed vertical
buoyancy reaction force Zb will be generated which will apply in
the center of buoyancy B of the immersed volume of the ship.
Since the center of buoyancy B does not correspond to the
center of gravity G, a roll and pitch moment will also be generat
ed on the ship. The buoyancy force and roll moment are de
Simulations
Nodel tests o x
,nm / \
, / J
r
. /
I ]/
1 ,...(
 ~   x :
,U No trim
8
1211
an infinite frequency of oscillation while the frequencydepen
dent part of the added mass is embodied in the integration of
the retardation function.
In the simulation process, the integration in equation (33) is
performed by summation of 30steps of 0.5 s in the past. This is
carried out for three retardation functions in sway, roll, and yaw
for each of the three equations of motions in sway, rolland yaw.
No retardation effects were considered in the hydrodynamic
coefficients in the other directions. Various effects will cause
the potential reaction forces to change, such as:
The longitudinal velocity u will influence the wavepattern
Fn = 0.52
Test Sim.
Fn = 0.37
Test Sim.
Fn = 0.22
Characteristics Test Sim.
Table 3 Comparison between results of simulated zig zag
characteristics and model test for a frigate: LpplB = 8.4; LppIT =
24.9; CB =0.50; no trim; T' ee TUo/L p,,; r' =rLpplU
o
0.6 0.4
I
0.2
0'__:':__:':__::'
o
Fn
Fig. 5 Comparison of turning circle diameter 0 from simulations and
model tests for various Froude numbers and loading conditions
Table 1 Comparison between results of simulated turning circle
Z Maneuver! oN =10/10
T' 2nd 1.18 1.55 0.93 1.55 1.45
characteristics and model test for a frigate: LpplB =8.4; LppIT =
Overshoot angle 3.00 3.60 3.00 4.50 6.00
24.9; CB =0.50; no trim; rudder angle = 35 deg; r' =rLpplUo; T' =
Dimensionless
TUoILpp overshoot time 0.50 0.62 0.72 0.93 0.72
Dimensionless
Fn =0.22 Fn =0.37 Fn =0.52
period 7.07 7.13 9.09 8.26 7.95
Characteristics Test Sim. Test Sim. Test Sim.
r
f
max 0.15 0.19 0.14 0.18 0.19
Z Maneuver: oN =20/20
Advance/Lj 2.82 2.81 3.57 3.01 4.40
T'2nd 1.49 1.55 1.45 1.55 1.45
Transfer/Lpp 1.45 1.57 1.77 L81 2.41
Overshoot angle 8.0 9.30 12.00 12.70 15.80
Tact. dialLpp 3.48 3.64 4.11 3.90 4.62
Dimensionless
Fin. dialLpp 3.37 3.55 3.87 3.76 3.92
overshoot time 0.74 1.05 1.14 1.55 1.88
T'90 3.84 4.21 4.96 4.13 5.50
Dimensionless
T'180 7.44 7.93 9.30 8.47 9.83
period 8.06 8.68 9.61 10.02 10.56
T'360 14.38 15.31 14.98 15.50 16.49
r '
max 0.30 0.33 0.31 0.31 0.33
r' 0.44 0.42 0.42 0.42 0.44
U/Uo 0.74 0.75 0.81 0.79 0.86
Table 2 Comparison between results of simulated turning circle
characteristics and model test for a frigate: LpplB = 8.4; LppIT =
25.3; CB =0.50; trlmlLpp =0.0080; rudder angle =35 deg; r' =
rLpp/Uo; T' =TUoILpp
Fn =0.22 Fn =0.37 Fn =0.52
Characteristics Test Sim, Test Sim, Test Sim,
Advance/Ls 2.92 3.17 3.69 4.00 5.70
Transfer/Lpp 1.53 1.93 1.97 2.21 4.60
Tact. dia/Lpp 3.73 4.35 4.52 4.67 9.52
Fin. dia/Lpp 3.65 4.33 4.19 4.57 9.47
T'90 3.90 4.83 4.65 5.48 8.39
T'180 8.00 9.11 8.99 10.12 16.05
T'360 15.56 17.91 16.01 18.80 31.53
r' 0.42 0.36 0.40 0.31 0.20
U/Uo 0.77 0.78 0.84 0.82 0.95
Table 4 Comparison between results of simulated zig zag
characteristics and model test for a frigate LpplB =8.4; LppIT = 25.3;
CB = 0.50; trlmlLpp = +0.0080
Fn =0.22 Fn = 0.37 Fn = 0.52
Characteristics Test Sim, Test Sim. Test Sim.
Z Maneuver: oN= 10/10
T' 2nd 1.24 1.55 1.14 1.55 1.30
Overshoot angle 2.00 2.70 3.00 3.40 4.20
Overshoot time 0.43 0.56 0.62 0.83 1.16
Period 7.50 7.44 9.19 8.99 8.68
if; max 0.13
f \ ' ~ f\ "
0.15 0.16 V.J..U V.J..'i
Z Maneuver. oN = 20/20
T' 2nd 1.55 1.86 1.65 2.07 2.17
Overshoot angle 6.00 7.30 11.00 9.80 12.30
Overshoot time 0.68 0.87 1.03 1.03 1.45
Period 8.37 8.68 9.61 9.81 10.12
fmax 0.27 0.28 0.28 0.27 0.27
266 MARINE TECHNOLOGY
15
o
X
10
Simulated
 (strip theory)
F
n
D
0.225
,
11/
,
 i
I
i /1"
I
I X; / i
I / !
,
IX/'fI
i
1/
i
"
N
'i I I
!
\ It\,
J
.
"I'
1. 0
2.0
0.04
01.
45
y: .
v
(38)
(36)
(37)
Transfer (TR)
Advance (AOV)
Tactical diameter (TO) Dri f t angle (8)
00 20 40 0""0
10 101+_"1
with W being the weight of the ship. 0.02
The arm ZN in equation (37) is the distance of N from Galong
the shipfixed zdirection, as is shown in Fig. 9, ZN being posi
tive if N lies below G. From equation (37) it is concluded that
K
b
=ZbZN sine
where T is the draft that follows from the equilibrium
Zb(T; Z =0, <:/I =0) +W =0
scribed in equations (36) and (37) as a function of the ship's
immersion (z +T) and heel angle <:/I;
Fig. 6 Comparison of turning circle characteristics from fullscale mea
surements and simulations
15
00""
Rudder angle in deg.
00 20 40
Rudder angl e in deg.
3. 0 __'__",_......JL_.l.__l
o
t'
Fig. 8 Influence of ship's velocity on potential sway force Y as
reaction to sway velocity v
2 o
II
\\ I
\",

I
I
"
I
I
,
i
'" 
!
i
,
I
!
I I I
2
o
R'
yv
w'
4
T/L
pp
= 1/26.3
T/L?p = 1;35.2
,
N'
Fig. 7 Influence of draft (ship's immersion) on waveexcited
moment: wave direction 45 deg; N' = Nip gLp/B Sa' WI = w"Ug
OCTOBER 2E
WAVE NODE W.4VE CREST
Fig. 11 Schematization of variation of waveexcited moment on a
heeled ship
Fig.9 Schematic indication of arm ZN in equation (37)
where K() is the stillwater buoyancy moment which depends
on the immersion and thus on the heave motion
The wave excited roll moment K(r; ) depends on the ship's
heel angle and can be described at each moment of time in the
simulation process according to equation (42) (see also Fig. 11)
the arm ZN should be negative since the restoring moment K;
should be negative for a positive heel angle, while the buoyancy
force Zbis negative in the shipfixed system of coordinates. The
restoring moment will increase if ZN increases, which can be
realized by lowering the position of G or elevating the position
of N. Fromthe model tests with frigates, it is found that the roll
restoring moment K() is influenced noticeably by the ahead
velocity of the ship:
The influence of the ship's immersion T on the position of N
is shown in Fig. 10. It is seen that this influence is not very
significant at smaller roll angles. However, the immersion T
does have a significant influence on the roll restoring moment
because of the increase of the buoyancy force Zb. Especially for
ships with smaller draftabout, say, 4 m (13 ft)a change of
immersion of about 1 m (3.3 ft) which is not very unrealistic for
a frigate, will cause drastic changes in the buoyancy force and
subsequently in the roll restoring moment.
The interaction effect of the waves on the buoyancy moment
can be described as (see also Paulling [53))
K(r; ) = Kwa(t)  Zwa(t)ZNsin(t) (42)
Figure 12 compares some test results with results derived from
equation (42). From equation (42) it is seen that the heel effect
on the wave excited roll moment is minimal when the wave
excited vertical force Zwa(t) is minimal, which leads, to the
following observations:
o tlKwa() is minimal at the time that Za sin (wt +twa) is zero;
see the ship's position in beam waves on the left side of Fig.
11.
o tlK
wa
() is minimal at the frequency that the response
function Zalra is minimal; see "AIL = 0.54 for !J.wa = 60 deg in
Fig. 12. This observation is confirmed by the results of
Barrie [54] and Boroday [55J.
Wave effects. The waveexcited forces on the ship consid
ered in this study have been derived at three speeds Fn = 0.3,
0.375, and 0.45 from model tests and at zero speed from strip
theory calculations. From these methods the wave forces and
moments have been determined as a function of
o wave height, frequency and direction,
o ship's ahead speed,
o vertical position of G,
o ship's draft, and
o ship's roll angle.
The variation of the waveexcited forces in time can be de
scribed in various ways [56]. In the present study, use has been
made of the following procedure [57]:
N
" r;
Fwa =L (!J.wa'wnma) ran
1 a
* wnwl W
n
; a
2
x wa+nwa + F (!J.wa,wnwa)] (43)
(40)
(41)
(39) K() =K(; u)
K() =K(; z, u)
K(, t) = K() +K(r; )
_A.lJ_
0.54  x
2.58 0
v
wa
= 30' lJ
wa
= 60
= 90
10
3
K'
a
sa
o I
25 0 25 25 0 25 25 0 25
in deg.
<P in deg. in deg.
Flg.12 Influence of heel angle on waveexcited roll moment for various
conditions
I
100
.::::.:,:::::::
I
50
 T' =0.2504 ; Zs = .4193
 T' = 0.3267 ; Zs = .4953
 T' = 0.4031 ; Zs = .5713
in deg.
Influence of total immersion Ton position of center of buoyancy
B: T' = T/B and Z8' = Z81pgLBT
0.75 ,..,r......,
Fig. 10
O.
268 MARINE TECHNOLOGY
1 deg.
8
10 15 25
t = UiL
pp
Fig. 13 Simulated roll motion during a turning circle test at Fn =0.27
6
max
;: 20 deg.
'" 'i'max = 10 deg .
c \C=!J
I
where Ian is the nth component of the total N harmonic compo
nents by which the sea state is simulated:
'"
'" e
<=
(44)
where Swa is the spectral density description of the sea state
considered. In equation (43), the location X
wa
of the ship is
defined in the direction of propagation of the waves:
150 50 100
t ' = tu/L
pp
Example of a zig zag test with a frigate sailing at Fn = 0.27 Fig. 15
(45) X
wa
= x
e
+Y
e
f::
1
:3l:0...J
40
Rudder angl e in deg. to 5B
Fig. 14 Simulated steady roll angle in a turning circle maneuver com
pared with fullscale measurements: Fn = 0.27
 Mathematical model 6
a
= 10 deg.
 Mathematical model c
a
= 30 deg.
Full scale observations
ol::'!_LI
o 2 3
200ti....=""",d+1
'"
QJ
U
<=
.,."'l?"' 20tt+t++1
Flg.16 Comparison between simulated and fullscale trial results of roll
response to rudder motions at Fn =0.27
action can be applied to counteract the waveinduced roll mo
tions, leading to a rudderroll stabilization (RRS) system.
In the design of the RRS autopilot [13],special attention had
to be devoted to the limitations of the rudder amplitude and
rudder rate of turning. With these aspects taken into account,
an RRSASA pilot has been developed by means of which roll
reductions have been achieved, as shown in Fig. 18. From Fig.
18it is seen that a rudder enginewith increasedrate of turning
is needed for an effective reduction of the roll amplitudes by
means of the RRSASA pilot.
The RRSASA pilot has been designed to oscillate the rudder
at wave frequencies to counteract the roll motions and to oscil
late the rudder at low frequencies to maintain the ship on a
straight course. It has been found that the application of the
rudder roll stabilization does not deteriorate the wave frequen
cy course deviations. In most cases, the wave frequency course
deviations even decreased when turning to the RRS mode.
 Simulated
Full scale trials
0'
QJ
U
c
'"
.,.
QJ
4
'"
s:
'"
c
'
c, 6
e
"
c/1
5. Maneuverability in waves
From the math model in which all relevant dynamic effects
have been included, one first considers the effect of the motions
in the horizontal plane on the roll angle. In Fig. 13, an example
is given of the roll motion after the rudder has been executed to
a constant angle. In Fig. 14, an example is given of the constant
roll angle duringsteady turning. Figure15gives anexampleof a
o= 20 degN = 10 deg amaneuver, from which it is clearly
observed that the rudder angle significantly effects the roll
motion. For a more precise definition of the rudderroll effect,
fullscale trials have been carried out with harmonically oscil
lating rudder motions. Some results of these tests are presented
in Fig. 16.
The rolling of a ship, when it is sailing in waves, is influenced
significantly by the action of the rudder (see the examples in
Fig. 17).
From an extensive study about the controllability of this ship
by means of an adaptive autopilot (ASA), it was concluded that
under all operational conditionseven in followingwavesthe
ship could be kept on course at minimal deviations with mini
mal use of the rudder; 0'. is about 0.5deg, and 0'", is about 1.5deg
in beam waves in sea state 6. This result led to the conclusion
that when sailing on at a straight course, sufficient rudder
OCTOBER 1988 269
 Autopilot 1
 Autopilot 2
Waye direction 60' Waye direction 90"
10fIHYij
101,f..,iii
.;,
~
10
c
'" &
0
0
UJ
1
= w/C79
Flg.17 Influence of setting of automatic pilot on roll motions for Fn =0.27, regular
waves of amplitude Sa =1 m
6. Summary
This paper gives a rough description of the setup and use of a
mathematical model for the simulation of the dynamic behav
ior of a frigate in waves with special emphasis to its maneuver
ability. Analysis of a large series of test results together with the
correlation with fullscale trials has shown that sufficient phe
nomena have been considered in order to establish a mathemat
ical model by means of which a reliable prediction can be made
of a frigate in a wide variety of conditions. This information can
also be used at the design stage of a specificfrigate to determine
its hydrodynamic characteristics when its hull form is slightly
adapted.
An extensive research program has been executed, according
to the procedure presented herein, for the development of the
Mfrigate class of the Royal Netherlands Navy from the point
of view of dynamic behavior, including maneuverability and
seaworthiness in operational and survival conditions.
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