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Piggy Bankers

t
he future of banking is at stake, in case you haven't noticed.
You likely haven't. News from Washington these days has been pretty much limited
to the slow-motion strip tease of President Clinton S libido. But condemnation and
impeachment aren't the only business Congress has been attending to lately.
In May, the House passed HR la, the "Financial Modernization" bill, and the Senate
version was up for vote as City Limits went to press. The bill eliminates barriers between
1 ........... -..,, .. -
banking, securities and insurance industries, ushering in an era of
enormous financial conglomerates such as the proposed Travelers
EDITORIAL
Group/Citicorp marriage.
History tells us that big banking mergers result in less services,
branches and credit in poor urban neighborhoods. So its worth not-
ing that a House provision for "life-line" low-cost accounts was
stricken from the Senate version. The bill also guts much of the
hardjoughtjor Community Reinvestment Act, a 25-year-old law requiring banks to lend in
the communities they serve, by allowing the new superbanks to move money into insurance
and security subsidiaries, which wouldn't have CRA responsibilities. Add in potential tax-
payer bailouts of "too-big-to-fail" banking behemoths, and HR 10 comes out as a disaster
for average Americans.
Senator Al D'Amatos banking committee surprised nearly everyone by passing HR /0
this session, a feat of legislative legerdemain that left bankers chortling and two of his own
party members voting against the bill. Al had pledged to fast track the bill only if it had
broad bipartisan support. That was before he met with Sanford Weill, chairman of
Travelers Group. Without a new set of banking rules, Weills new Citigroup merger, which
was okayed by the Fed in late September, would have to divest much of its holdings.
By the way, D'Amatos re-election campaign has been the beneficiary of $95,314 in
Travelers'donations, making the corporation his fourth largest political contributor this
season. And Al isn't the only New York legislator who voted for HR 10. His opponent
Charles Schumer cast a "yea" for the House version, which passed by a single vote (so
muchfor broad support). Schumers number one political contributor this year, to the tune
of $67,616? The munificent, bipartisan Travelers Group.
The financial world has changed quite a bit since many of the laws up for review were
written. After all, that was during the Great Depression. But a rewrite should protect and
expand CRA laws, include real limits on the size and breadth of institutions, and take into
account consumer needs, not just the demands of big bankers. If you think that sounds
good, take up a collection. Maybe you can raise enough to be heard.
Cover photo by Aaron Fineman
/J /1/1 Carl Vogel
(;a/I 1/1' Editor
City Limits relies on the generous support of its readers and advertisers. as well as the following funders: The Robert Sterling Clark Foundation.
The Unitarian Universalist Veatch Program at Shelter Rock. The Edna McConnell Clark Foundation. The Joyce Mertz-Gilmore Foundation.
The Scherman Foundation. The North Star FUnd. J.P. Morgan & Co. Incorporated. The Booth Ferris Foundation. The Annie E. Casey Foundation.
The New York Community Trust. The New York Foundation. The Taconic Foundation. M& T Bank. Citibank. and Chase Manhattan Bank.
-
(ity Limits
Volume XXIII Number 8
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CITY LIMITS
NOVEMBER 1998
FEATURES
Grants' Tomb?
In recent years, foundations have plowed big money into a raging stock
market, and their endowments reflect it. Funders and their beneficiaries
are wondering if a bear market will have the opposite effect.
By Kathleen McGowan
Nobody's Homes
Every night, teenage girls at a city group home in East New York can be
found on the street smoking pot, drinking liquor and disappearing into the
night with strangers. The city's child welfare agency is failing to nurture,
protect or even supervise kids in its care.
By Wendy Davis
NEED TO KNOW
Choose and lose
Giving students the right to choose their high school is a goal shared
by education reformers around the country. New York is already there. But without
guidance or real information, many city students are making uninformed choices.
By Carl Vogel
PROFILE
Margarita in the Mix
From her roots in organizing to her accession to the Lower East Side City
Council seat, Margarita LOpez is a progressive with a penchant for power.
By Leon Lazaroff
PIPELINE
Folding Chairs
New York State doesn't shield companies that buy environmentally tainted
"brownfields" from liability. One Staten Island chair factory is being forced to shut
down as a result.
By Matthew Ulterino
COMMENTARY
131 Review
Passive Progressive By Garfund Yates
Spare Change 132
Rendering Rudy
DEPARTMENTS
Editorial 2 Ammo 34-
Letters 4
Job Ads 35
Briefs 5
Professional
Directory 36

Appalling Disconrl.s
I just finished your piece from the
June/July 1998 City Limits ("7 112 Days")
and wanted to compliment you on your
fine work. I was shocked but not totally
surprised by its content, but nevertheless
appalled as a member of the mental health
the others there. You note that the other
patients aren' t pleased with the environ-
ment, that they are bored and angered by
it, but you stop short of recognizing how it
hurts people who are already hurt. Beyond that
you seem to promote the idea that the worst
crime of Woodhull is not treating people.
LETTERS ~ community.
......... w-.l ' Paul S. Benveniste, PhD
Director of Clinical Operations
Warren- Washington Association for
Mental Health
Hudson Falls, NY
I was a terribly traumatized kid (as the
result of brutal physical and sexual abuse
suffered within my family) when I was in
the mental health system from ages 15 to
19. My experiences in the system, includ-
ing involuntary shock and six months on a
state hospital ward, only served to intensi-
fy the pain, fear and feeling of helpless-
ness and worthlessness I carne to it with.
totisSM Extra St.p
I read your article "7 112 Days" after
City Limits' web address was posted to a
psychiatric survivor mailing list I belong
to. I'd consider you a psychiatric survivor
now also, except for the fact that you
could go back to your real life and be
heard-after proving that you were not a
'real ' mental patient, of course.
Your article was very accurate in its
details, and I appreciated it. But I have
two criticisms: You don't really acknowl-
edge that the experiences you had, while
merely unpleasant to you (someone who
was very strong and confident going into
the system), are actually very damaging to
To treat me would have been a further
insult; my feelings and behavior were a
reasonable reaction to an unreasonable
reality. I didn't need to be changed; I
needed the reality of my life recognized
and responded to rather than having the
onus of "getting well" put on me. The best
thing about my mental health system
experience was that, other than neurolep-
tic medication and shock, I was not treat-
ed. Psychiatric treatment is, like the con-
cepts of "mental health" and "mental ill-
ness," an expression of blame-the-victim
thinking. People deemed of little value in
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this culture are considered sick so that
their real problems and needs can, conve-
niently for others, remain unacknowl-
edged and unaddressed.
Grace Heckenberg
via e-mail
Applauding H.ldman
What a story. That article is really
quality journalism. It really tells a story,
paints a picture, and underlying it I could
sense some amount of risk and danger that
you were subjecting yourself to. Good
work! Thanks for breaking the silence.
David Oaks, Co-coordinator
Support Coalition International
Eugene, OR
WantM: Hospital Activists
"7 112 Days" by Kevin Heldman is
correct; boredom is a major thing to battle
in a psychiatric hospital. Unfortunately, it
and other problems that a patient has to
endure are part of a mental care system
based to a large extent on stereotypes of
patients. Let's face it, they can do more
than the usual trivial, unsubstantiated
activities many hospitals have done.
But even worse than these things is the
lack of respect and dignity with which
patients are treated. For instance, the head
nurse at the psychiatric emergency ward of
a large Brooklyn city-run hospital continu-
ally tells a joke to other staff members ridi-
culing mental illness. She's been doing it
for years, and she does it in front of patients.
Then there is the case of an aide at a
voluntary nonprofit hospital in Brooklyn
who, according to patients, slammed the
head of a patient real hard against the floor.
Incidentally, no staff member in this psy-
chiatric unit denied that this incident took
place. This hospital has some patients who
are middle class, professional or wealthy.
Poor treatment isn't just relegated to city-
run hospitals or poor people. I guess staff
know that most patients find coping with
their serious mental illnesses very stressful
and therefore don't file complaints that
would add to their stress, especially if they
fear reprisal .
In our society, we have a stronger ani-
mal rights movement than psychiatric
patients rights movement. In my opinion,
this says something unflattering about our
society. Perhaps organizations like
Amnesty International, Human Rights
Watch, the ACLU and NYPIRG should
look into these matters.
Jerome G. Frank, member
National Alliance for the Mentally III
Brooklyn, NY
CITY LIMITS
Budget Battle
Defenseless
T
he woman who came into bis office
was frightened, says Leonard Noisette.
Her son had been arrested. She heard
that the arrest may have been violent,
and he might have been hurt. She did-
n't know where her son was, and she didn't know
where to go for help.
But Noisette, director of the Neighborhood
Defender Service of Harlem, had to turn her away.
"In the past we would have been able to intervene
in that case immediately," he says. "Those are the
types of calls that we get all the time, and unfortu-
nately we've had to turn them away because we
really don't have the capacity to deal with it. "
The 8-year-old Defender Service normally
opens 2,500 new criminal cases annually, repre-
NOVEMBER 1998
senting poor people who can't afford an attorney.
It gets about $2 million from the city each year for
public defense; The organization also runs adult
legal education and teenage crime prevention pro-
grams.
But since its funding got ensnared in a political
struggle between Mayor Giuliani and City Council
Speaker Peter Vallone, the group hasn't been able
to afford to take on new clients.
The administration froze some $165 million in
nonprofit funding this summer, after the City
Council passed its own budget for the first time in
history. Vallone said in June that he would sue the
mayor's office to get the money released. His attor-
neys haven't filed the papers, though-because,
they say, the damage hasn't yet been done.
''rve drafted my litigation papers, and I'm just
waiting to fill in the details," Vallone legal counsel
Richard Weinburg told City Limits in August.
"But, ironically, you don't have a lawsuit unless
people are hurt, and we're still waiting for people
to come forward. And that's not going to happen
until people start feeling the pain."
"Well, I think that certainly we are feeling
pain," counters Noisette. "This money is essential-
ly all of our money. " The Neighborhood Defender
Service has now laid off more than half its staff,
including II of J 5 lawyers. They've even had to
drop ongoing cases. Says Noisette, "Other than
talking to people and giving them some guidance,
there wasn't anything we could do."
-Aaron Clark
w
Briem .......... ------.......... -------------
n
Do-It-Yourself
Badio Free
Woodhull
T
his summer, a group of Bushwick
teenagers weaseled their way into
Woodhull Medical and Mental Health
Center armed with microphones and
cameras. Their mission: to fmd out if
the hospital lived up to its neighborhood nickname
of "Killerhull."
"Inspired by rumors and negative stories
about Woodhull hospital, we decided to investi-
gate for ourselves," says 15-year-old Elizabeth
Dejesus. Earlier this year, City Limits reporter
Kevin Heldman spent a week undercover in the
hospital, documenting poor conditions and
neglect in the psychiatric ward. The city's Health
and Hospitals Corporation, which operates
Woodhull, had refused to comment to Heldman.
The kids' project was inspired, in part, by his
story.
The teens spent 10 hours interviewing hospital
employees and patients, editing their tape into a

20-minute documentary that they hope to air on
WBAI-FM. By claiming to work for National
Public Radio, the group also got an interview with
K. Candis Best, associate executive director of
business affairs at Woodhull. When asked about
the Heldman story, she replied, "[W]e will not dig-
nify that story by commenting on it directly."
Two boys also snuck back into the hospital
later with disposable cameras and photographed
grimy bathroom floors littered with beer bottles.
But Dejesus and the others, who had summer
jobs with the Williamsburg community group EI
Puente, found conditions weren't quite as bad as
they'd expected. One student, Jonathan Vidal,
says his mother gave birth to his sister in a
Woodhull hallway; another, Jose Carrera, jokes,
"Before doing this documentary I thought that
nobody came out of there alive."
"The kids expected that 95 percent of inter-
viewees would have something negative to say,"
says Robin Friedman, one of the teachers who
supervised the project for the Bushwick housing
organization Make the Road By Walking.
Instead they heard mixed reviews of the hospi-
tal. Says Dejesus, "Now when I walk by
Woodhull hospital, I don't see everything as
black and white. I see that it's more complicated
than it seems."
-Kezia Parsons
Audits
Soil the TIL
T
he city program that allows low-
income tenants to run their own apart-
ment buildings needs a major overhaul,
according to City Comptroller Alan
Hevesi.
His audit of the Tenant Interim Lease (TIL)
program finds that buildings are suffering from
poor management and deteriorating conditions.
Hevesi slams the city Department of Housing
Preservation and Development (HPD) for pouring
millions of dollars into TIL without adequate
oversight or record-keeping.
"Simply stated, a large number of these build-
ings have not succeeded in any way, shape or
form," write Hevesi's auditors. "Many of the
buildings have ... deteriorated and are probably in
the same or worse condition than before they were
renovated by HPD."
The widely duplicated TIL program, which
includes 632 buildings, gives tenants direct
responsibility for building management. Through
the program, tenants in city-owned buildings can
eventually convert them to co-ops, with about
$44,000 per apartment in city rehab money.
The Hevesi report also notes that:
Many of the buildings are fmancially unsta-
ble, and TIL tenants owe about $15.3 million in
taxes. Hevesi claims that HPD overestimates the
rent rolls of many buildings, in some cases by four
times the actual cash flow .
Many TIL buildings have fallen into disre-
pair. A survey of 19 TILs found six in poor condi-
tion, with leaky roofs, cracked stairways and
faulty boilers.
HPD, in a written response to City Limits,
defends the program. "A closer look at the data
reveals that 18 buildings out of the 352 build-
ings in tax arrears owe one-third of the taxes,"
notes TIL Director Elba Ramos. "We believe
this small number of buildings does not reduce
the positive impact that TIL has on communities
around the city." Ramos emphasizes in the letter
that increases in rehabilitation money and
improvements in tenant training have made the
program more successful.
"TIL has never been given the resources nec-
essary to do the job everyone would have want-
ed," says Ann Henderson, senior project director
with Urban Homesteading Assistance Board,
which teaches building management to TIL ten-
ants. This year, the program's budget was only
$20 million, down 44 percent from three years
ago. Says Henderson: "It is successful in terms
of what it has done: giving people greater pride
and ownership of their buildings and their neigh-
borhoods."
-Glenn Thrush
CITY LIMITS
.z ...... ----------.... --------------.. Briem
./i
l
' 1
d
l
'
~ '
FINANC[
INDUSTRY
~ . ' /!'
Temp Work
o
Homeless
Help Wanted
T
he Department of Homeless Services has
been using Brooklyn homeless shelter
residents to supplement the work of
unionized data-entry workers-an appar-
ent breach of the mayor's promise not to
give city jobs to sub-minirnum-wage workers.
City Limits learned in August that residents
from a program at Greenpoint's Barbara Kleiman
Residence work at the DHS main office. They
input confidential information about fellow shel-
ter dwellers-possibly including their HIV status.
"It's poor practice to have people not part of
the agency have access to confidential files," says
one DHS official, speaking on condition of
anonymity. "They're putting in dates of birth,
Social Security numbers, new addresses. If the
person is moving to [a facility run by the non-
profit) Housing Works, then they know the person
is HN-positive."
The DHS official said that between six. and
eight of the shelter residents work alongside union
employees, performing identical tasks and being
paid only a small stipend.
Mayor Giuliani has vowed repeatedly that the
city's access to cheap labor through the similar
NOVEMBER 1998
... AND WHICH ONE OFYOU IS &II
SUPPOSED TO BE THE LIBERAL ? ~
Work Experience Program wouldn't jeopardize
regular city jobs. DHS did not return calls for
comment.
"The whole theme of the administration is to pri-
vatize, downplay, downgrade and have work farmed
out," says John Talbutt, assistant to the president of
the Social Services Employees Union, Local 371.
"This is directly taking a civil service job."
Since the shelter residents' labor is part of a
e-I-
rn
=
I:S
substance abuse recovery program, the low pay
may be justified, explains David Greenberg of the
Coalition for the Homeless' advocacy department.
However, he says that having residents work in
agency headquarters is unusual.
"Certainly, you see DHS cut back on workers
in the shelters," Greenberg says, "but making it up
in the main offices, that's spooky."
-Kemba Johnson
Protests
Led by a five-piece mariachi
band, a parade of 100 protest-
BODEGA ECONOMICS
ers marched through the Lower East Side in mid-September, criticizing
greengrocers who underpay and exploit their employees.
According to march organizers, illegally low wages are common in the busi-
ness: A poll of 40 local greengrocer employees found that most worked 12
hours a day, six days a week. None earned minimum wage.
Organizer Noah Zatz says the problem goes unreported primarily because a
Department of Labor law requires agency inspectors to turn in the names of
undocumented workers to the Immigration and Naturalization Service. "It's a
huge deterrent to people who are afraid of the INS, because they know if they
complain they're going to be reported," Zatz says.
One store owner, who asked not to be named, admits that some of his
employees were paid less than minimum wage. He blamed deli economics: "If I
had some more business ... " he starts to explain, trailing off. -Aaron Clark
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B
Margarita in the Mix
Reaquainting New York City with a leftist will to power,
Margarita Lopez's talents as a tenant organizer and activist
are propelling her to real influence in the City Council.
By Leon Lazaroff
A
s a sixth grader back in San Juan,
Puerto Rico, Margarita LOpez
watched helplessly one afternoon
as the school tough slugged a
friend of hers in the chest. Incensed, she gath-
ered together all the girls on the playground.
If this bully hits anyone else,
she told them, we're going to
retaliate. She handed each a safe-
ty pin plucked from the patches
on her jean jacket, and the troupe
gathered around him, warning
him never to hit a girl again.
Unfazed, the bully reeled
back and punched another girl.
So the group brought out their
tiny safety pins and attacked the
boy with pinpricks, sending him
loping away in pain.
When the principal called her
in, young Margarita respectfully
acknowledged that she had
indeed organized the reprisal.
Then, to the man's surprise, she
calmly informed him that her
group would respond the same
way if the bully punched any
other girls. Astounded but
charmed, the principal issued a
mild rebuke and excused her.
"I'm not sure if the pins were
right," the 47-year-old Lopez
says today. "I realize now that
fighting fire with fire never
works. You don't utilize the same
method of injustice to fight back.
You have to be better and
smarter."
For Lopez, now a New York City
Councilwoman, that translates into lead-
ing 100 marchers to City Hall to protest
the city's sale of a popular community
center. But it also means quietly lobbying
City Council Speaker Peter Vallone for
increased funding to a local girls club and
supporting the conservative Queens
Democrat in his bid to unseat Governor
George Pataki.
This isn't the script anyone would
have written for the most unreconstructed
leftist elected to the City Council in
NOVEMBER 1998
recent memory, a lesbian activist who
made her reputation as a passionate com-
munity organizer. When Lopez replaced
Antonio Pagan, a Giuliani Democrat
backed by landlords and developers,
Lower East Siders expected a dramatic
political change. But as Lopez has
revealed more of the charm that served
her well in the principal's office, she has
confounded the expectations of both ene-
mies and supporters.
For one thing, she's not afraid to make
deals. "I will not hide from saying that I
want power. We should take power," she
says. "I'm sick and tired of progressives
thinking that by nature power is bad. If we
use power to benefit all of us, then there is
nothing wrong with it."
Her politics alone-pro-tenant, anti-
privatization, green-won't necessarily
alienate her from the council. "Council
members who portrayed themselves as
outsiders or progressives who did run
afoul of the leadership had problems
because of how they conducted them-
selves rather than what their agenda was,"
says the well-connected Brooklyn
Councilman Ken Fisher. "Margarita has
not made that mistake."
She has come to the City Council at an
unusual time, when term limits and the
struggle between Vallone and Giuliani
have unbalanced the traditional city
power structure. Lopez, who made her
career helping the disenfranchised, is now
poised to become an influential insider.
Not bad for someone who didn't speak
English until the age of 26.
I
n 1979, after college and some orga-
nizing efforts in Puerto Rico,
Margarita LOpez came to New York
looking for work. She finished up her col-
lege degree in sociology at City College
despite her limited English and went on to
PROFILE
Margarita LOpez,
here with
Congresswoman
Nydia Velazquez
(right), won her
council seat with
organizing skill
and tenant votes.

[tM
do coursework towards an master 's degree
in social work at Columbia University.
Her first job in New York was for the
now-defunct Association for Community
Services on East 4th Street, earning $50 a
week as a social worker. In the late 1980s,
she took the position she would keep until
the day she joined the council-homeless
outreach worker at Goddard-Riverside
Community Center, an Upper West Side
settlement house.
"Her passion was for direct service
work with the homeless," says Goddard-
Riverside organizer Larry Wood. "There
are legends about her work with particular
clients. One woman, who nobody else
would go near with a lO-foot pole-she
was dirty and had lice-Margarita
stripped down and took a shower with her,
to get her de-loused so the ambulance
could take her."
All the while, Lopez spent her spare
time organizing and campaigning for ten-
ants ' rights. She got involved in Lower
East Side public housing battles and
squatter struggles as a volunteer organiz-
er, and, eventually, as a district leader. Her
work naturally led to building coalitions
and brokering deals.
"She has a terrific ability to navigate
the different waters of this political envi-
ronment," says Valerio Orselli, director of
the Cooper Square Mutual Housing
Association. He credits for building a
coalition that guaranteed the survival of
his Lower East Side low-income housing
complex. "Most of all she is persistent,"
he adds.
Lopez has also made enemies, some-
times in spectacular ways. At one anarchic
meeting of the Lower East Side communi-
ty board, notorious for political vaude-
ville, board chair Louis Soler had her and
a few others arrested. Lopez sued for false
arrest; Soler settled. Councilman Pagan
subsequently wrote to then-Borough Pres-
ident Ruth Messinger, asking that Lopez
be removed from the board. She sued him
for libel; the case has yet to be decided.
LOpez has also gone after bigger game,
notably Assembly Speaker Sheldon
Silver, probably the state's most powerful
Democrat. Last year, in a hotly contested
council race, she ran against Silver's aide,
Judy Rapfogel. That primary exposed a
rift in the highly Democratic district
between progressives and Silver's Grand
Street group, more conservative, wealth-
ier whites known by their co-ops' loca-
tion.
Specializing in
Community Development Groups,
HDFCs and
Low .. Cost Insurance and Quality Service.
NANCY HARDY
Insurance Broker
Over 20 Years of Experience.
270 North Avenue, New Rochelle, NY 10801
914,654,8667
"I think it's fair to say that in the past
[Lopez) has been divisive," says Howard
Hemsley, Rapfogel's campaign manager.
Hemsley had locked horns with Lopez for
years on familiar Lower East Side strug-
gles over land use, gentrification and
housing. For example, Lopez supported
the 1988 squatter occupation ofTompkins
Square park; Hemsley, among others,
credits the city with ridding the park of
drug-dealing and crime. He vows to work
for anybody who might run against her in
a second-term race.
Rapfogel had the cash, the best elec-
tion lawyers, a seasoned campaign staff
and overwhelming union support. Lopez
had only two significant endorsements:
Congresswoman Nydia Velazquez, the
first Puerto Rican woman ever elected to
the U.S. House of Representatives, and
Assemblywoman Deborah Glick, a West
Side lesbian activist.
But Margarita Lopez had one huge
advantage. She had been working the dis-
trict's housing projects and community
centers for over a decade. "Twenty years
of activism gets you to shake hands with a
lot of brothers and sisters," she says.
Unlike other politicians, she had been able
to make common cause between rent-reg-
ulated tenants and public housing tenants
threatened with privatization. "More
sophisticated political people told us not
to worry about the projects [along the East
River) ," says her campaign treasurer Lisa
Kaplan. "'Those people don't vote,' they
said. That was not Margarita's strategy,
and that conventional wisdom was
absolutely proven untrue. "
Initial election reports handed
Rapfogel the victory. The next day, The
New York Times reported that Rapfogel
"narrowly edged out Margarita Lopez. "
But Lopez wasn't ready to concede. Some
750 "emergency ballots" had been issued
to voters whose names hadn't shown up
on lists at polling sites, ballots that get
counted only in a contested vote.
Calling on friends in the Latino
Elected Officials Association and the
Victory Fund, a national gay and lesbian
political organization, Lopez challenged
the results. When the voting machines
were opened at election headquarters the
next day and the paper ballots were tal-
lied, Margarita L6pez emerged the win-
ner, 6,471 to RapfogeJ's 6,240---a victory
margin of just 23 I votes.
G
iven her activist past, her narrow
victory and her ongoing war with
the state's top Democrat, no one
seemed more doomed to marginalization
CITY LIMITS
s
in the council than Lopez. But she was
lucky enough to step into office just as
term limits were turning normally mousy
council members into political warriors.
Gubernatorial candidate Vallone began
to flex the council 's muscle, fighting with
the mayor over the budget and Yankee
Stadium. The council budget, passed in
defiance of Giuliani 's spending plan,
increased funding for neighborhood
groups, Lopez's natural constituency. This
put her in a rare position: having almost
all of her wish list endorsed by the usual-
ly tight-fisted Vallone.
With Lopez's prodding, the speaker
has introduced a bill that would prevent
Guiliani from firing 1,000 homeless
agency workers. The bill is likely to pass
this year, and Vallone probably has the
votes to override a Giuliani veto. She also
enlisted Vallone's help in fighting the sale
of the Lower East Side's beloved CHA-
RAS/El Bohio Community Center, and
she was a leading member of a team that
successfully lobbied the speaker to secure
a half-million dollars for the City-Wide
Task Force on Housing Court, Legal
Services and Legal Aid.
The budget battle isn't over yet. But
the mayor has succeeded in delaying the
II/'m sick
and tired 0/

progressives
thinking
that by
nature

power IS
bad."
money the council intended for communi-
ty-based organizations, and Vallone has
yet to file the lawsui t that would force his
hand (see Briefs, page 6).
Although de-funded groups are start-
ing to layoff staff, Lopez isn't quite ready
to pull a safety pin on Vallone. "People
think it 's so simple how you divide a bud-
get," she says. "But you sit at that table.
Let 's see how you would do it, and
whether you would take the consequences
for not funding certain things in order to
fund other things."
When council politics return to nor-
mal, Lopez might not have the ear of the
speaker, even though Vallone staffers say
she's been among a handful of council
members to stump vigorously for the
speaker. At some point, it's almost certain
she'll have to decide whether to challenge
the Democratic leadership or risk alienat-
ing her core supporters, some of whom
have no patience for party politics.
Lopez doesn't accept the schism.
"Progressives and people in our commu-
nity must wake up and understand that
they cannot continue talking about ' Let 's
empower our communities,' and then not
be responsible for the consequences of
that. "
Leon Lazaroff is a Manhattan-based free-
lance wri tel:
Beca use ignorance of the law is no excuse . . .
Throughout the year,
Lawyers Alliance holds
workshops on a variety of legal
issues, including incorporation,
tax exemption, fundraising,
and even special topics such as
housing development and
childcare. Instruction is provided
by leaders in nonprofit law.
Workshops are held at:
99 Hudson Street, 7
th
Floor
New York, NY 10013
from 10:00 am to 1:00 pm
except as noted.
Regist ration is $40*.
To register, or for more
information, call (212) 219-1800.
Lawyers Alliance
for New York
NOVEMBER 1998
Autumn 1998 Schedule
October 15 Child Care: Legal Issues Surrounding the
Incorporation and Administration of Nonprofit
Daycare Centers
October 22 Developing Low-Income Housing Using the Federal
Tax Credit: The Legal Framework
October 26 Incorporation and Tax Exemption (6:00 pm to 8:00 pm)
October 29 Fundraising Law and Regulation
November 12 Community Development Financial Institutions
November 17 Restructuring and Reorganization: Voluntary
Workouts and Bankruptcy
November 19 Legal Aspects of Insurance
December 8
December 10
Corporate Governance
Incorporation and Tax Exemption
* Lawyers Alliance for New York provides a limited number of scholarships.
New York Foundation grantees may attend certain workshops at no cost.
-,

PIPELINE i
,
A few of the
remaining workers
on the payroll
help close down
Infanti Chair
Manufacturing.
F-
Folding Chairs
Local investors wanted to buy a closing Staten Island factory
and save 130 well-paying jobs. But state brownfields rules
torpedoed the deal. By Matthew Ulterino
S
it down to a hand of blackjack in
Atlantic City, and odds are you're
sitting on a chair made by Wanti
Chair Manufacturing Corp. For
more than a decade, the company's four-
building site on Staten Island's north shore
built millions of dollars' worth of furniture
for the region's thriving banquet and casi-
no market. It was a sound company, a suc-
cessful New York City manufacturer that
drew heavily from local residents and paid
good, blue-collar wages.
But Wanti is closing down this fall,
done in by a bad next door neighbor and
outdated state regulations. Toxic chemi-
cals from a shipbuilding and repair opera-
tion formerly run by Bethlehem Steel may
have leeched onto Wanti's land. New York
State environmental rules make investing
in a company that has even a chance of
being contaminated too risky.
"There were plenty of people who
stepped forward with money to keep the
company on Staten Island," says Rich
Ruggeri, Wanti's controller. "But unfortu-
nately, fmding answers to all the environ-
mental issues couldn't come as quick as
the investors' money. Time just sort of ran
out on us."
Today, the buildings look like a manu-
facturing ghost town-littered with idle
machines and half-finished stools-and
the company's 130 employees are looking
for work. ''I'm proud of what we tried to do
here. We had people with us for ten or
twelve years, making 15 bucks an hour,"
says Joe Rancini , operations manager,
watching a production worker dismantle a
machine nearby. "Where are they going to
fmd another job like that?"
infanti's workers are getting an unwel-
come introduction to the blame, cost and fear
that paralyzes economic development on
"brownfields"-contaminated, often aban-
doned, industrial properties that range from
old gas stations to former steel mills. Though
not all unused commercial land is a brown-
field, nearly 6,000 vacant industrial sites
totaling more than 3,000 acres lie vacant in
New York City, according to a mayoral task-
force. These figures don't include sites like
infanti's that are still occupied.
Other states, including many of New
York's neighbors, have made it easier for
investors to clean up brownfields, finding
a way to satisfy environmentalists without
scaring off industrialists. Until New York
joins them, many of the abandoned lots
and shuttered factories in low-income
neighborhoods will remain full of toxins
and empty of jobs.
I
nfanti's troubles began in 1988 when a
competitor, Ohio's Gasser Chair
Company, sued for patent infringe-
ment. It took eight years, but Gasser won
and was awarded $16 million in damages.
The next month, Wanti fIled for bankrupt-
cy to pursue an appeal.
Even while trustees operated the com-
pany under Chapter 11, Wanti was a
viable business. By law, the income from
the sale of the company would be consid-
ered full payment to Gasser for the dam-
ages, leaving future owners free of the set-
tlement debt. In May, with help from the
nonprofit New York Industrial Retention
Network, the trustees contacted Steven
Etkind, a lawyer who had brokered similar
deals. Constraints from the lawsuit gave
Etkind only one month to unload the fac-
tory, but he quickly found interested local
investors, fmanciers who own factories in
California, Ohio and Chicago.
Then Etkind heard that a bank had dis-
covered contaminated groundwater on the
adjacent Bethlehem Steel site in 1992. He
didn't even know what was in the water-
he didn't have to know. "The problem was
the liability," Etkind explains. "Given the
contaminants next door, it wasn't too hard
to guess that Wanti was sitting on top of
contaminated groundwater too."
That was bad news. Like most brown-
fields laws written when the issue came to
the attention of lawmakers in the early
1980s, New York's rules don't simply place
responsibility for a site's environmental
damage with whoever made the mess. As
new owners, Wanti's saviors could be held
liable for any contaminant on their proper-
ty as well. The chain of liability might
even extend to the banks that fmanced the
new owner. If a company defaults on a
mortgage, the lender inherits the contami-
nation and the responsibility.
Everyone involved was well aware that
the purchase carried serious financial
risks. They had all heard stories of devel-
opers who began remediation only to fmd
months or years later that they had under-
estimated the extent-and the cost-of the
problem. Such sites had to be fully cleaned
or the risk of legal action remained.
The investors' best hope lay in a
Volunteer Clean-up Program begun in
1995 by the state Department of
Environmental Conservation, which
allows private companies to negotiate with
the agency to clean sites in return for abso-
lution from future liability. Etkind hoped
CITY LIMITS
DEC could use the program to help
Infanti. But a requisite environmental
assessment would cost as much as several
hundred thousand dollars, money the
financiers refused to pay without assur-
ance that their investment was safe. As it
stands, the state's Volunteer Clean-up
Program is designed to help current own-
ers or buyers already invested in acquiring
a particular piece of land. It does little to
entice developers to brownfields when
they have other options.
"It wasn't any error on DEC's part, they
just weren't able to act on this," Etkind says.
"But given the circumstances, it doesn't
make a lot of sense to let those jobs go." By
June, the investors had heard enough and the
legal deadline had come. Infanti's trustees
sold the assets-minus land and factory-to
Gasser and prepared to be liquidated. A few
months later the bank foreclosed. The prop-
erty now sits unused and unwanted.
I
nfanti was caught in a common trap.
"Most financiers who come to the
table are not comfortable dealing with
environmental sites and environmental
programs," says Mathy Stanislaus, co-
chair of the nonprofit Minority
Environmental Lawyers Association. "You
need to make them more comfortable. The
way to do that is to put boundaries around
their liability and give them financial
incentives. "
Currently, DEC officials are looking to
reduce liability for so-called "innocent pur-
chasers" who buy land contaminated by
former owners. But the agency is less open
to offering tax breaks or grants for clean-
up, bonuses that some other states offer to
entice investment. "The [incentive] is
release from liability for companies and
fmancial institutions-financial institu-
tions especially won't go near a site where
there's contamination," explains Sam
Themstrom, DEC's deputy press officer.
"The program works really well the way it
is now."
Cleaning up New York brownfields is a
nebulous process, however, because the
program conceived and executed by DEC
is not written into law. Developers say
they can't be sure of how long the negotia-
tion and clean-up will last, or even exactly
what clean-up rules are. It's a "somewhat
subjective and very time-consuming"
process that leaves clean-up costs unclear
and investors still open to liability after-
ward, explains Larry Schnapf of Schnapf
and Associates, a law firm which counsels
brownfields buyers and owners.
To put investors more at ease, many
for-profit and nonprofit developers suggest
NOVEMBER 1998
creating a law that links the amount of
clean-up needed to the land's intended use.
For example, Robert Stang, head of
brownfields developer Renewal Realty
LLC, says it's ridiculous that contaminated
groundwater must be made drinkable.
Stang points out that no one has drunk city
groundwater in 100 years.
Statutes in more than 30 states have
created voluntary clean-up with such
changes. Industrial developers can leave
more contaminants on site, provided the
chemicals are capped and the health threat
is mitigated. They know what clean-up is
involved, what it will cost and what the
legal shielding will be. It has become a
quantifiable risk.
"Most of us who deal with brownfields
stay away from New York and just look
elsewhere," says Bruce-Sean Reshin, the
head of MGP Environmental Partners, a
leading brownfields redevelopment frrm.
"I'd rather go to Pennsylvania, New Jersey,
Connecticut and Massachusetts-states
that have offices and programs which are
incredibly helpful. "
The result investors are returning to
many long-abandoned and polluted sites
outside New York. For example,
Pennsylvania's 3-year-old Land Recycling
Program gives financial assistance to
developers, helps sellers find new buyers
and lays out clear standards for investors.
The program cleaned up a record 161
brownfields statewide this year, a number
that spokesman Jim Spontak says has
grown "exponentially" since the law.
In January, New Jersey passed a
brownfields law that protects innocent
purchasers from liability if they start
clean-up immediately, and spells out pro-
cedures that developers can follow without
getting prior approval. Both provisions
would have helped Infanti. These and
other law changes got buyers interested in
the Arkansas Chemical site in Newark,
which had sat unused in city hands for
more than a decade.
D
on't expect these changes to come
to New York soon. Among state
environmentalists and DEC
observers, the agency is known for reject-
ing serious change and outside influences.
Worse, major policy shifts require busi-
ness interests and environmentalists to for-
get deeply entrenched mutual distrust.
Many green advocates, with an eye
toward possible future commercial or resi-
dential uses for brownfields, want tougher
standards, not lighter ones. "You never
know what's going to be on a piece of land
50 years from now," says Anne Rabe, direc-
tor of the Citizens Environmental Coalition,
a statewide group representing communi-
ties near brownfields. "SoHo, after all, used
to be factories, until artists moved there."
Investors counter that it's the image of
big bad business that may be preventing
needed development. "Too many politi-
cians think we're shilling for the big pol-
luters, so they don't really tackle this
issue," Stang offers. "Our laws have to
move from punishing the bad boys to get-
ting sites cleaned up."
That's the idea behind a new bill written
by Queens Democrat Assemblyman Jeff
Aubry of the state legislature's business
council. If passed, the law would establish
standards and timetables for clean-up of
brownfields and more hazardous Superfund
sites. Environmentalists, moderate and rad-
ical, have for the most part rejected the
measure, saying the standards are too loose.
The bill is now in the Assembly's envi-
ronmental committee, chaired by Richard
"We hod people
making 15 bucks
on hour. Where
are they going to
find another job?"
Brodsky, an upstate Democrat who says he
is determined to kill it. "It's the business
council's attempt to let businesses off the
hook," he says.
The latest attempt to get opposing sides
to the table is the Superfund working group
of environmentalists, developers and state
officials, that Govemor Pataki established
in August. Although its main mission con-
cerns hazardous wastes sites, the taskforce
will discuss improvements in the Voluntary
Clean-up Program, including financial
incentives. Pataki has given them until
New Year's Day to share recommenda-
tions.
Solutions can't come fast enough for the
thousands of unwanted brownfields city-
wide, which now include the Infanti site. But
these solutions, when they come, will be too
late for the company's 130 former employ-
ees. Says operations manager Rancini: "I feel
like we were let down."
Matthew Ulterino is a planning consul-
tant on economic development projects.

A city Dush with cash bas brought
Wall Street boom years to local
nonprofits. Hobody's talking about wbat a
sour market could do.
-
CITY LIMITS
By Kathleen McGowan
he stock market was crum-
bling in late August, but,
40%
30%
even though they had hun- 20%
dreds of millions of dollars
at stake, the managers of
some of New York's
largest charitable foundations were
playing it cool.
No panic, no stammered conver-
sations with board chainnen, no "Sell,
sell, sell!" shouted into the handsets.
Just a slightly raised eyebrow.
Or, at least, that's what they like
to emphasize. But ask them about their Internet habits.
"Yeah, I've bookmarked Bloomberg," said the vice-president
of one local housing funding group. "On a personal note, I check
[the on-line stock ticker] every two hours," admitted Mike Pratt,
a program officer at the Schennan Foundation, which funds local
civil rights and housing programs.
If you hadn't noticed, this is the decade of the nonprofit, due in
large part to an unprecedented eight-year bull market that has fat-
tened foundations and led to local government surpluses. Yet
nobody was talking much about what might happen when the boom
collapses. That changed in August. By the end of the summer, the
Dow Jones Industrial Average had lost all its earlier gains in 1998,
dismal news for investors accustomed to ballooning stock prices.
The flux of capital markets may not, at first glance, have much
to do with New York City's neighborhood groups. But in this
city-more than anywhere else-nonprofit budgets are intimately
bound to Wall Street. Stock market instability threatens two of the
most important lifelines for local groups-foundation grants and
city government contracts.
Unlike national nonprofits, which get most of their money from
individual donors, New York's housing and social service groups
are heavily dependent on contracts from local government, which
in tum are dependent on taxes generated from the fmancial mar-
kets. Progressive funders-which support grassroots activism and
underwrite much of the innovation in the nonprofit world-have
Wall Street to thank for sizable gains in foundation assets.
It's put lefty funders in the same boat as portfolio managers,
points out foundation consultant David Kallick. But it takes a
market downturn to bring that to light: "Suddenly," he says, "for
a few days at least, everybody's a capitalist."
S
educed by historic high returns from the stock market,
foundations have moved more money from safe, low-
yield bonds to equities, which have recently produced
double-digit annual returns. Most foundations now have about
haIf their money in the stock market, according to the Council on
Foundations; the biggest invest two-thirds.
Over the last eight years, foundation endowments have blos-
somed. The most recent statistics show that in 1996, assets grew
18 percent-up a total of 37 percent from two years earlier. "The
fact is, money [has been] rolling in," says Stephen Viedennan,
president of the Jessie Smith Noyes Foundation. "If you're figur-
ing a five percent payout, and the income stream is at twenty per-
cent-you figure it out."
The Internal Revenue Service requires foundations to give
away money equal to at least five percent of their endowment
NOVEMBER 1998
20%
30%
Foundation grants
follow stock market
shifts, but since 1974
grantmaking has
increased every year.
196566 197071 197576 198081 198586 1990-91 1995-96
Percenl change from previous year
---- NYSE (omposile Index
SOURCE: "Giving USA"
---- Foundalian Giving
each year. That means a huge windfall for nonprofits. Nationwide,
foundations now give away more than ten times as much money
as they did 20 years ago, according to Foundation Center research.
In 1996 alone, grants increased 13 percent.
In one of last year's most graphic illustrations of the power of
the stock market, the Ford Foundation, the nation's grand patri-
arch of charitable giving, was demoted to second-place by the
$12.7 billion Lilly Endowment, founded with millions of shares
of the pharmaceutical giant Eli Lilly & Company. Fueled by sales
of the anti-depressant Prozac, Lilly stock nearly tripled in value
during the past two years. The foundation's response: an unprece-
dented $42 million grant to the United Negro College Fund.
Local foundations have also begun to step up their largesse.
After years of solid fmancial gains, the board of the New York
Foundation, a prominent funder of grassroots groups, agreed to
revise their funding policies this year. The foundation increased
their average grant size, and extended the funding cycle from
three to five years.
"We had a lot of conversations on the board level about the
importance of responding to the difficult times the city was going
through," says Maria Motolla, the acting executive director.
"There was really something unconscionable about not doing
something differently when we were doing so well fmancially."
s
o what happens if the stock market tanks? Economic dis-
asters abroad have yet to hit home, and few expect a sud-
den deep recession here. But it does look like the days of
the unstoppable bull market are over.
Foundation fund managers pride themselves on being sober
investors, diversifying their portfolios with bonds, Treasury bills,
even real estate and oil. Yet stock gains have been the primary fuel
for the funding boom, and more than a few grantmakers admit this
-
summer's volatile market gave them pause.
"In a year where we felt confident we could increase our level
of funding, we are [now] less confident," says Pratt. Still, like
Pratt, most directors say a bear market would cause them to slow
the rate of increase in new grants-not cut back or withhold
grants. In any case, a funding slowdown would be at least two or
three years in the future.
Historically, foundation funding follows the overall perfor-
mance of the New York Stock Exchange (see chart on page 15).
After 1987, when the Dow Jones average fell by 22.6 percent,
grantmaking was subdued, increasing by 7 percent in 1988, but
only 2 percent in 1988 and 1990.
Since the severe world recession and oil crisis of 1973-1974,
foundation giving has increased every single year. Chris Bell of
the Pinkerton Foundation says only a "worldwide disaster"
would hurt grantmaking. "It's not too much of an issue," he
explains. "If the market drops as much as it did [at the end of
August], we'd still have a lot more money than we did five
years ago."
In fact, none of the dozen foundation officials contacted by
City Limits planned to cut back this year's giving because of the
summer's lousy market. Nor did they report that their fund man-
agers were yet shifting money out of equities. "Most of us are sit-
ting and watching," explains Hayden Foundation President Jilda
Wray. "The effect is not immediately felt."
But they can't help but be sobered by the story of the w.K.
Kellogg Foundation, which funds public health, education, and
youth development. Like Lilly, Kellogg essentially has one source
of money-140 million shares of stock in the cereal company,
according to their 1997 annual report. When the company's stock
plunged this year after profits collapsed, the endowment lost
about a third of its value.
There's More in a Ford
T
hey may now be Number 1\vo in terms of total assets, but
foundation watchers always keep their eyes on the Por'd
Foundation s cash. With $12.4 billion in assets, they've got
money in the most unlikely places.
As of Srptember 1997, a lot of Ford's cash was safely socked away
in blue-chips: 800,000 shares of DuPont, and near'ly 3 million of
General Electric. But like any good investor, the foundation had diver-
sified holdings, including 50,000 shares of Internet guide Yahoo and
58,200 shares in the private jai l managers Wackenhut CorTections
Corporation. And to complement grantmaking, it also tossed some
money to "pl'Ogram related investments" like a 1996 million-dollar
investment in a community development venture capital fund in Maine.
And what would a portfolio be without overseas holdings? Ford is weatb-
ering the financial tUl'llloil abroad better than most. Its holding'S in Brazil
were limited to $23.2 million, mostly in the Uniao de Bancos Brasileil'Os, and
it had only $13.4 million in Malaysian stocks and bonds. Ford' total invest-
ment in Russia: 13,600 shares of AO Mosenergo ADR. -EM
-
The foundation compensated for the losses, managing not to
cut any grants or lose any staff. "What we plan this year is con-
centrating our resources on focusing impact and enhancing exist-
ing programs," says Kellogg communications director Karen
Lake. "Our goal now is to achieve greater levels of effectiveness
with what we're already funding."
S
ince New York's regional industry is money itself, a mar-
ket collapse would hit a major source of city and state tax
income, even as it dampened foundation spending.
The scenario is not new. But New York City's increasing
dependence on Wall Street tax revenue is. According to state
Comptroller Carl McCall, the financial sector now accounts for 17
percent of the jobs in New York City.
In the wake of the October 1987 market crash, Wall Street
losses caused 35,000 layoffs, a downturn in local spending, and a
significant loss to city coffers. New York City's addiction to the
financial services sector has only grown since then. McCall
reports that about 37 percent of the wage growth in the city since
1991 is from finance jobs.
The city's Independent Budget Office, analyzing the 1987
crash, predicts New York City would now lose a total of $426 mil-
lion in tax revenues in a comparable downturn. The loss would
eliminate 1999's projected budget surplus and deepen the deficit
expected in fiscal 2000.
So should a true bear market set in this year, the city budget
would be tightening up at the turn of the century, just as founda-
tion outlays scaled down and federal devolution and welfare lim-
its took hold. Federal government support for community and
regional development nonprofits is expected to decline by about
one-third by 2002, according to a Foundation Center analysis led
by Lester Salamon, director of the Center for Civil Society at
Johns Hopkins University.
Foundations have been able to compensate for part of federal
downsizing: Salamon calculates that grants offset about 22 percent
of federal reductions. But, as nonprofit directors point out, cover-
ing government gaps isn't what they should be doing.
This may be the most significant legacy of a market slow-
down-a freeze on risk-taking and innovation. Traditionally,
foundations fund programs and agencies that are too experimen-
tal to fit into government contract guidelines. That includes com-
bative advocates and nontraditional programs within larger gov-
ernment-funded organizations. Foundation money, like individual
donations, often comes with fewer strings attached, encouraging
creativity.
"A lot of the time, [foundation money] is used to seed new pro-
grams, and test out new ways to deliver services that the govern-
ment doesn't see yet," explains Citizens' Committee for Children
Executive Director Gail Nayowith.
A sharp market downturn could kill nonprofits' favorite inno-
vative projects, and rob the agencies of much of their flexibility
and freedom. "The question is, what happens when the govern-
ment cuts back and says the free market will provide, and the mar-
ket's not doing well either," Nayowith says. She describes the
crippling years of the early I 990s, when government cutbacks
carne on top of a deep recession: "You lose the capacity for inno-
vation, you lose the capacity for system reform, you lose the
capacity to do the kind of programming that needs to be done,
because all you do is survive."
CITY LIMITS
I
,

Frank Lee of the Leegis Group
inspecting the Flushing Chase
branch his firm renovated.
CALL: CHASE MINORITY - &
WOMEN- OWNED BUSINESS
DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM
212-622-4138
Moving in:1he right direction
The bank that Frank built.
When we awarded Frank Lee, of the Leegis Group, the contract to
renovate our Flushing Branch, we felt we made the right choice in
expanding our relationship with his company. He was already a
participant in Chase's Minority- and Women-Owned Business
Development Program ( ~ W B D ) and ran a topnotch construction firm.
Chase takes this relationship-building process very seriously. We
know our future success will depend on how well we do business
with a rapidly growing audience of incredible diversity. Our rela-
tionships with companies like the Leegis Group will assure we
won't miss this important opportunity.
The Chase Manhattan Bank is committed to this course. Carol
Parry, Executive Vice President of our Community Development
Group, promises: "The new Chase will aggressively continue to
solicit business from minority- and women-owned businesses and
will provide a wide array of specialized financial services to this
important and rapidly growing market." Which must be music to
Frank's ears.
:........................ Community Development Group
CHASE. The right relationship is everything.
sM
C 1997 The Chase Manhattan Bank. Member FDIC.
By *ndy Davis
Photos by Aaron Fineman
T IS DUSK on a recent
Monday and 16-year-old Caryn sits perched atop a pay phone in
front of a deli at the comer of Hegeman and Schenck avenues in
East New York. Dressed in a white T-shirt and denim shorts, the
petite teenager dangles a cigarette from her right hand as she jokes
with some neighborhood men.
Caryn, quick-tongued and extroverted, spends much of her
time smoking weed on this comer, directly across the street from
her room at the city's Hegeman Transitional Center, a group resi-
dence for 24 teenage girls who have not found permanent homes.
"I can't live with my mother," Caryn says. As a result, she has
bounced between her mother's and grandmother's houses, with
side trips to aunts in Alabama and Arizona. When she was 14, she
gave birth to a son, who now lives with the Arizona aunt.
Over the last year and a half, she has ricocheted between a
series of group homes run by the Administration for Children's
Services (ACS), from Hegeman to homes in Queens, Staten
Island, the Bronx and back to Hegeman again. Each time, she was
forced to move on after getting into fights or shouting matches
with the management. Sitting out on the street comer tonight,
however, she looks too small to do any harm to anybody.
Hegeman is a "transitional" safe haven for girls ages 15 to 18.
Many are waiting for other group home assignments. Some, like
Caryn, have nowhere else to go.
But Hegeman, like many of the other group homes run by the
city's huge child welfare agency, is neither safe nor a haven.
Since Caryn has been here her clothes--even her underwear-
have been stolen. Another resident, 15-year-old Shannon, says
that before she showers, she always has to find someone to hold
her cash and beeper. "Everybody in here eats, drinks, sleeps and
bathes with their jewelry," Caryn says.
Many of the girls at the home use drugs, drink and sneak out
for sex with neighborhood men. "This place is called 'Hegeman
Ho House,'" Caryn says, adding that there is "a little bit of truth"
in the name.
She says that when she first came to the house in February
1997, she was approached and offered work by another girl who
was acting on behalf of a pimp. The recruiter offered to hook her
up with a "friend" looking to hire.
She turned them down.
There's not much to do inside the house, so Caryn and the
other girls spend most of their time outside, curfew or not, hang-
ing out with whoever walks by.
The possibilities aren't lost on some local men. "I come here to
associate with chicks," admits one.
"Right now," Caryn says, ''I'm trying to get the hell out ofHegeman."
AST YEAR, some 4,500 children in the
care of the Administration for
Children's Services were placed in
group settings, including transitional
facilities and residences for kids with
mental or medical needs. Most of them
went to homes run by private agencies
that contract with ACS, but, according
to agency officials, about 1,300 passed
through the 30 group facilities run directly by ACS.
The kids that end up in group homes tend to be veterans of the
foster care system, older teens who have bounced from placement
to placement. They are among the most emotionally fragile chil-
dren in the city's care. Many have been abused or neglected; some
have been kicked out by their parents for being impossible to con-
trol. This is their shelter of last resort: Kids are to be sent to a
group home only if the court can fmd no other responsible relative
to take care of them.
The group homes are supposed to be places where hectic lives
are made more calm and kids are given a broad range of psycho-
logical and educational services.
But lawyers, law enforcement officials and the kids them-
selves say some of the homes are little more than poorly run
homeless shelters. And none are worse than those operated by
ACS itself, such as Hegeman. Thefts and assaults are common-
place. Teenagers are allowed to roam the streets at night to take
1he names of minors in the City's care have been
changed in this article.
drugs or wander off with strangers to have sex. On the inside,
there is little structure, supervision, meaningful educational pro-
grams or guidance, critics charge.
The problem attracted public attention in June when newspa-
pers reported that a Family Court judge in Brooklyn held ACS in
contempt after a 14-year-old boy disappeared from a group home
last November. A worker had given him a few dollars and told him
to go catch a movie.
"In absolute terms, ACS's group homes are terrible. Uniformly
terrible," says Craig Levine, an attorney with Children's Rights,
Inc., a national nonprofit advocacy group. Three years ago,
Levine's organization and the Lawyers for Children filed a high-
profile lawsuit against the city and state, charging that ACS has
failed so completely, the federal govemment should put it into
receivership and let a federal judge determine who would run the
city's child welfare system.
Local cops have less lofty aspirations for Hegeman. They
just want the girls to get off the streets, stop getting high and
quit ruMing away. "[Hegeman] has been a chronic problem
location," says a high-ranking police official. "There's a seri-
ous, serious lack of supervision. What's happening is that the
girls are allowed to come and go as they please .... The staff
would call and report four or five of them at a time as missing
persons. It was a strictly cover-your-ass situation to the people
in charge."
It is difficult to get ACS's side of this story. Despite repeated
attempts over a six-week period, agency officials refused to com-
ment to City Limits about allegations of mismanagement and lack
of supervision.
CITY LIMITS
I
T MAY BE SMALL COMFORT to today's Hegeman residents,
but problems there used to be worse. In the late 1980s,
Hegeman was one of several homes used as "diagnos-
tic centers" to assess children's needs for a few weeks
before shipping them elsewhere. But then, as now, the
most hard-to-place residents wound up staying for
months.
In 1988, researcher Steve Lerner was hired by the Foundation for
Childhood Development to examine group homes. The diagnostic
centers, he wrote, "have become glorified shelters where foster teens
are housed in a tense and frequently violent environment, with few
programs to divert energies in more constructive directions."
Lerner found an atmosphere where gangs of kids routinely roamed
the halls to beat up their enemies, residents raided local drug dens,
returning to the house with stolen cash and crack, and 12-year-old girls
were lured into prostitution. Rapes were not uncommon. "Every three or
four months one of our youngsters is raped," a Hegeman house-parent
told him. "Usually two or three of them go out in a car with some boys.
Later, when they separate, one of them gets gang raped."
The situation improved significantly after the Juvenile Rights
Division of the Legal Aid Society sued city and state officials over
the lack of safety and supervision at Hegeman and another diag-
nostic center located a few blocks away on Ashford Street. While
the lawsuit was pending, the city changed its group home man-
agement team.
Even though residents often stayed for months, the new direc-
tors soon found that the old managers had eschewed an overhaul
because the homes had a "transitional" designation. The new team
decided it was time to face facts. "We needed to put in a program,
because these girls were going to be in these homes for a while,"
says Poul Jensen, who overhauled Hegeman and Ashford as a
deputy commissioner during the Koch administration. "We began
to focus on developing activities for the kids to do, so they would-
n't have so much free time." Jensen also began reassigning inef-
fective staff, placing the best workers in positions where they had
the most contact with the children. Conditions improved, and the
lawsuit was eventualJy settled with a consent decree, placing both
homes under court supervision for 30 months.
Since the court order expired in January 1994, however, Legal
Aid lawyers say the homes have slowly but steadily deteriorated.
"I don't think any of the improvements really stuck," says Kay
McNally, one of the Legal Aid attorneys who brought the original
Hegeman-Ashford suit. "As far as we can tell, the problems are increas-
ing again."
The brass at East New York's 75th Precinct have met with ACS
officials in the hope of getting them to control the situation. "They
made their promises," says a police source, "but nothing has changed
so far as I can see."
EGEMAN'S WOES represent the most
extreme problems in ACS group homes, but
they are symptomatic of serious flaws pre-
sent throughout the system.
According to state law, ACS is responsi-
ble for children's basic needs, including
clothing, food, shelter, education, medical attention and, in many
instances, psychological help. But a 1997 court-ordered survey
of 410 case fIles, done in connection with the Children's Rights
lawsuit, found that many ACS kids aren't getting the care they are
entitled to. The situation is especialJy bad for children placed in
group homes and other congregate care residences, according to
audits done by the United Way, the Washington-based Center for
Social Policy and the state's Department of Social Services.
Auditors found that kinship foster care failed to meet chil-
NOVEMBER 1998
drens' fundamental medical, mental health and dental needs in 22
percent of the cases examined. Kids in group care residences
fared much worse: 48 percent did not get the care they needed.
The fmdings aren't news to children's advocates, who say that
ACS often fails to provide a coordinated care regimen for its
kids. Legal Aid's McNally says this year her office is handling a
number of cases involving children who were denied mental
health treatment and other badly needed services for children
with special needs.
In one case, a l4-year-old girl with a history of sexual abuse
and acute mental problems was transferred by ACS directly from
a psychiatric ward to a regular group home without any special
arrangements. "The group home didn't have anyone taking care
of her," says McNally. "There were many times when she didn't
even get medication. People over there kept saying, 'We're not
medical professionals.'"
With nothing to control violent mood swings, the girl got into
fights and disappeared on the streets for days at a time, McNally
reports. "There were sexual involvements," she says.
McNally blames ACS's failure to assign the girl an agency
caseworker to guide her treatment. Staff at group homes are
responsible for day-to-day supervision of the children, but case-
workers are assigned to visit children in the field and help ACS
supervisors make decisions about what services and placements
the children need. In most cases, they are required to meet with
each child at least once a month.
But the girl's Legal Aid attorney had to file a contempt motion
in Family Court before the city even assigned a caseworker.
Later, the girl was transferred to a more appropriate state home.
The problem with caseworkers is one of the city's greatest
shortcomings, according to the Children's Rights file survey.
Systemwide, 20 percent of the 410 cases randomly selected for
scrutiny couldn't even be assessed because the caseworkers or
their supervisors had failed to file vital reports.
"Overall, state standards for the frequency of caseworker con-
tacts were not met," the report's authors noted. In nearly half of
the cases that could be reviewed, children did not get mandated
monthly visits from caseworkers, a situation that was worse for
children cared for directly by ACS.
Legal Aid staffers say that ACS Commissioner Nicholas
Scoppetta, who is embarking on an ambitious overhaul of the
agency's foster care system, has met with them and promised to
examine these problems. "He's expressed a desire to do some-
thing about the quality of the group homes," McNally says.
"However, it needs to be translated into something getting done.
So far, we've certainly not seen any more money or any effort to
restructure the homes."
T
HE SAD TALES are not confmed to facilities
run by ACS directly. Melinda, who was in foster
care most of her life, says she didn't attend
school for the year and a half she stayed in a
Bronx group home run on an ACS contract by
the nonprofit St. Cabrini Home. Instead, she
says she spent many of her days at the Underhill Avenue home
watching television and knitting blankets with needles and yarn
bought by the staff.
Like many group home residents, Melinda was in foster care
from early childhood-her mother died when she was 7. By age 13,
when she was sent to the St. Cabrini home, Melinda had miscarried
her first pregnancy and been arrested several times for fighting. "I
used to be young and stupid," says Melinda, a heavyset 18-year-old
who still has a Mickey Mouse poster in her bedroom.
Melinda and her Legal Aid lawyer say St. Cabrini didn't send
-
--
her to school because of a case against her in Family Court. The
agency expected the judge would refer her to a facility for juve-
nile delinquents at any minute. Instead, after months of delays, the
judge eventually ordered the city to find Melinda a foster home, a
process that took months.
Melinda never went to public school again. She fmally left St.
Cabrini for a foster home, but that placement didn't last long. In
April 1995-a few months after a fire ripped through the
Underhill Avenue house, killing three girls-she had a baby
daughter and ran away to Buffalo. When she came back to New
York, she went to a group home in Queens designed for teen
mothers with children, took a few GEO classes and aged out of
the system.
For now, she and her 3-year-old daughter live with her former
boyfriend's family. She plans to enroll in high school this fall and
says that she wants to study to become a stenographer or paralegal.
"Our policy is to provide education services to group home
residents via local schools or vocational programs," maintains St.
Cabrini spokesperson Tina Green in a written response to City
Limits' questions about Melinda's case. "I have no information to
indicate that any of our former residents have not received such
services."
Providing quality educational services is part of a group
home's obligation, according to state law. At Hegeman, Caryn
says she gets schooling-barely. The girls are awakened by staff
at 6 a.m. Most head off to public school; Caryn and two others are
held back to attend a program inside the house.
At Hegeman's school, the instruction revolves around a GEO
prep course. The day officially goes from 9 until 2, with a break
at 10:30, and a noon lunch break. Caryn says she often leaves dur-
ing the breaks: "They don't try to stop you."
When school's over, even the girls who attend public school
say there's not much to look forward to when they get home.
"After 2, we do whatever the fuck we want to do," says another
resident, Shannon.
Officially, there is a schedule of daily activities posted in the
house. When asked to name what was on the schedule, Caryn,
hard-pressed, responded: "Bingo night, beauty care day, cooking
class." Beauty care day, she says, consisted of someone demon-
strating how to use bottles of shampoo and hair gel.
In addition to keeping the kids busy, the city is supposed to
provide "independent living" assistance to prepare them for life on
their own when they age out of the system. But ACS is deficient
in this area too, according to the case file review, which found that
45 percent of older teenagers systemwide weren't even given a
mandated two-day independent living course. Only 37 percent
were taught how to make personal budgets. Only 18 percent
attended apartment-fmding courses.
Occasionally, there are outings to ball games or to see a movie,
but the girls say they mostly hang out by the house or watch TV.
The lack of education and meaningful activities is dangerous
because it compels kids to seek amusement elsewhere or run
away, says Carl Siciliano, director of SafeS pace, a local nonprof-
it that works with homeless young people. Many of the kids he
deals with ran away from ACS placements because they were
forced to "sit around doing nothing," he says.
Poul Jensen, who is credited for turning Hegeman around in
the late '80s, believes the failure to provide meaningful educa-
tional and recreational programs is the primary cause of violence,
hypersexuality and drug use by group home kids.
"The kids who come into these programs are typically trou-
bled, so when they become involved in some kind of trouble, it's
easy to just blame them," says Jensen, who is now executive
director of Graham Windham Services, one of the private agen-
cies which contracts with ACS. "But I believe that about 70 per-
cent of the problem lies with the program environment, the poli-
cy, the practices and leadership styles.
"Merely blaming the kids allows the program people to avoid
scrutinizing the programs themselves," he says.
I
N FAIRNESS TO the much-maligned ACS, many of the
problems stem from a shortage of resources and a sur-
plus of hard cases to handle.
For years, the city froze the minimum cost per child
per day in an ACS home at $100, a rate that only
recently was hiked to a still-modest $125 for Fiscal
Year 1999. By contrast, kids who are assigned beds in unsecured
group homes run by the city Department of Juvenile Justice get
almost double that amount: $231 apiece.
The low ACS per diem means that group homes hire fewer-
and often less qualified-staffers than OJJ, which houses juve-
niles awaiting trial or sentencing in Family Court. At OJJ, on-site
guardians generally need to have at least four years of child care
CITY LIMITS
experience, according to agency spokesperson Sarina Roffe. State
and city regulations governing ACS only require child care work-
ers to have a high school diploma or a general equivalency degree.
And even keeping less qualified people has always been a chore.
"It was a big problem getting and keeping staff," says Claude
Meyers, who served as interim commissioner of the Child Welfare
Administration in 1994, a year before the agency was re-chris-
tened ACS. "The pay is very low and it's very stressful work. We
would hope [new hires] would have high school diplomas, but
that wasn't always the case."
Although the state requires that there be at least two workers
per ten residents, not all agencies can afford this level of staff mg.
"The state regulations are on the books, but not enforced," says
Edith Holzer, director of public affairs at the Council of Family
and Child Caring Agencies, an organization that represents most
of the private agencies that run ACS group homes.
At OJ], by contrast, the resident -to-staff ratio is supposed to be
eight-to-one, but to meet security demands some homes have even
more staff.
Good Shepherd Services, which runs one group home through
011 and four group homes through ACS, is able to staff its juve-
nile justice home with substantially more people, almost one-on-
one supervision, according to Deputy Executive Director Ayel
Ayed. "If you tell me you can have OJ] funding or ACS, I'll take
OJ] every time," Ayed says.
When it comes to keeping kids off the street, OJ] also has the
concrete threat of confinement to hold over kids' heads. They can
petition a judge to send a misbehaving child back to a secured facil-
ity. "If you have a kid who is screwing up badly, you can get him
[locked up] rather quickly," Good Shepherd's Hugh Wallace says.
In years past, child welfare officials have tried unsuccessfully
to convince state lawmakers to allow them to lock their facilities.
But lawyers for children argue that if programs and supervision in
the group homes were at an acceptable level, children wouldn't run
away in the fust place. "If young people are offered services, they
won't go AWOL," says Craig Levine of Children's Rights, Inc.
In June, The New York Times reported that ACS was again lob-
bying for the right to build a locked facility-a claim that agency
spokesper on Leonora Weiner denies. "There are no plans for a
locked building," she says.
NE NIGHT AT THE END OF AUGUST, CARYN,
a few friends and a guy from the neighborhood
are back outside Hegeman's front door, talking,
drinking from a pint bottle, smoking a blunt. "I
wanted to go to a group home so I could hang
out," says Maria, a 15-year-old who has been
at Hegeman four months, and that's exactly what she's doing.
At around 10 p.m., a man driving a car pulls up on Schenck
Avenue. Caryn runs over and jumps in the passenger seat and the
pair speeds off. No one pays much attention. About 15 minutes
later, the two of them wheel back around, and Caryn gets out, a
fresh blunt in her hand.
The girls continue talking and laughing, and when the car cir-
cles back a few minutes later, another girl hops in the car. The car
pulls away from the curb again.
More smoking, more drinking, more talking. A little while
later, an ACS staffer leaving for the night notices a City Limits
reporter and photographer talking with the girls. She swings back
in the building. A few minutes later, the home's uniformed securi-
ty guard comes out, and without a glance at the kids smoking a
few feet away, demands that the press leave.
Wendy Davis was an attorney in the Legal Aid Society's Juvenile
Rights Divisionfrom 1991 to 1997. She is currently the editor of
the Manhattan Spirit.
--
OPEN SOCIETY INSTITUTE
INDIVIDUAL PROJECT FELLOWSHIPS
The Open Society Institute (OS!), a private operating foundation established and supported by George Soros to foster the
development of open societies around the world, invites applications for Individual Project Fellowships. Fellowships are
awarded to individuals from a wide variety of professions pursuing efforts on issues of importance to promoting an open
society either in the United States or internationally. Funded projects encompass all program areas contained within OS!.
Areas of particular interest but are not limited to:
access to courts and legal services drug policy reform political participation
contemporary arts and culture education professional and ethical conduct in law,
medicine, and journalism criminal justice immigration and civic identity
death and dying inner-city community building reproductive rights
APPLICATIONS MUST BE RECEIVED BYNOVEMBER 16, 1998.
Please do not send unsolicited materials
FOR ApPLICATIONS
Download the application from our Web Site: WWW.SOROS.ORG/FELLOW/INDIVIDUAL.HTML
Receive the application by post by contacting us at: FELLOWS@SOROSNY.ORG OR 212.548.0119
. BankersTrust Company
Community Development Group
A resource for the non-profit
development community

Gary Hattem, Managing Director
Amy Brusiloff, Vice President
130 Liberty Street
10th Floor
New York, New York 10006
Tel: 2122507118 Fax: 2122508552
CITY LIMITS

to
It If 0 Wi
L _______________________________
Choose
and Lose
Every eighth grader
in New York gets to
select a high sclwol.
But witlwut enough
infonnation or help
to navigate a confusing
system, thousands
wind up at sclwols
they don't want
By Carl Vogel
NOVEMBER 1998
Public
BducatioD

-
I
NBBD TO KNOW !
I
_________________________________________________________________________________________________ J
mari Edwards found out the hard way what
happens when the computer isn't kind.
Despite good grades at Satellite East Junior
High School, despite nights of sitting with his
mother, Nila, at the kitchen table, poring over a
book that lists every high school in New York
City, despite making eight reasoned and care-
ful choices, he carne home with shocking
news-he was shut out. He would have to attend the dangerous, low-
performing neighborhood school, Jefferson High School.
"1 went bananas," Nila recalls. "I took off from my job and
Young
and Restless
T
-sen ann' the GIlly IbIdaIts wIIo have to
cape willi ..... cIIoIce--soIM ' kids also
have to make school dec .... School decentral-
izatIoa gave more local control to .......... lIIiddIe
scIIooIs. It .. created 32.....,.. ud ..... systanIs.
So. dlltrletl-IIIOII: notably lower 1I11111atta11', District 2
lid DIItrtct 4 illlarlem-allow IbIdaIts to ... ajunlor
bIgII, .-II ... tile hfIh schooIsysIaI. 0tMrs permit
traRII'en, but don' encourage them.
nEvary district bas Ita own appIIcatiaa ..... , ....
is .... -wIde, noIIIla& Is .......... ". tile .......
board, n upIaIaa SoRIa 1Iendez-cutn, the ..........
attney at Advocates for CIIIIdren. "Unless JOlin very
savvy ..... about ICIIooI refwm, you aren't getting the
~ n
In 1993, CIIanceIIor JoeapIa fIrAaadaz .... d a naaIutIon
that .. .., ....... tchooI and IIIIddIe 18IIaoI1b..-t to
trill." httn. dIIIrIIts, a ..... __ ....... a
.. an Illy 7,. .......... year go tills route,
accardlnl II lin aarplll, ...... r8l8ll'l1I .. at the Public
EdlcatBI AlIBGiatIoR. If IIIIViRI wIddn a dlsb1ct is dIft'IcuIt,
gatllll a wi tile real test fI.........uc navigation.
"It's lira ......,.. rllfdoms, .. llamphll says. "111ey treat
you Ira a tnibJr If you try to find out about taking your
cIIIId to IIIIlIIar disbict. n TIle ..... tIIat tile variaa. pro-
........ quiet: StudeRts taIre tbair sIIare of state
fuadIIIa willi tIaI r tIIey move to a .. district, widell
IIIigIIt explain adIIIinIstrator' _lips. -cv
-
went to the school that day to demand they take care of us. I hys-
tericaUy talked with his counselor, I almost had to act insane .. . It
would have been over my dead body that he went to Jefferson,
because it might have ended up being his dead body."
Omari's counselor pulled some strings to fmd an open slot at
Telecommunications Arts and Technology High School, which
had been his third choice. He graduated in June. This faU he start-
ed at Morehouse College studying computer science; Nila says he
wouldn't have had the chance without his education at
Telecommunications.
Each March, more than 10,000 eighth-grade students come
home clutching a printout with the same bad news: They weren't
accepted by their high school picks. But those kids don't have
Omari's good grades, well-connected counselor and dedicated
mother. So they end up at neighborhood schools like East New
York's Jefferson High, which had a graduation rate of only 42 per-
cent in 1997.
Judging by the sheer numbers of students that do get into a
school they picked, New York's public school choice system is a
stunning success, sending tens of thousands of kids criss-crossing
the city to the school of their choice each day. But it's also a jum-
ble of confusing paperwork, missed opportunities and hidden pit-
falls. Many students and their families make poor decisions, pick-
ing a school just because it's famous, or local, or because it has
excellent PR. Those kids are counted in the statistics as a suc-
cessful placement, even if the school isn't right for them.
Mary Butz has seen this in action. Butz, principal of the 5-
year-old Manhattan Village Academy in Chelsea, is an intense,
engaging woman. When talking about her public high school, she
pops out of her seat to grab examples of her 350 students' work:
essays that must be defended in front of a graduation committee,
courseloads designed like college classes, a mandatory communi-
ty service program.
It's not what you'd necessarily expect in a New York City pub-
lic school-an energetic principal discussing sophisticated cours-
es in a stylish office. Surely, every student succeeds at this schoo!'
Not necessarily.
"A kid has to make an active choice to be here," Butz says. "I
don't know if I would have come here when I was in high
school-I was a good crammer, and these courses don't work that
way. With our class schedule, there's not much time off ... Kids
start saying, 'I want to go to a real schoo!.'"
To Butz, the pattern has become familiar. An incoming fresh-
man has no idea of the academy's demands and does poorly .
Parents refuse to let their child transfer from such an impressive
school, and the kid, frustrated, gives up and drops out or transfers,
with few credits to show for the time at Manhattan Village.
The teens that follow that trajectory, says Butz, are usually the
students who are "randomed in." Manhattan Village and most
other high school programs that aren't zoned get their freshmen
via the Education Option system, one of the more complex meth-
ods of choice in New York (see "Five Ways In"). School adminis-
trators get to choose half the incoming class from an application
list of eighth graders who have picked the schoo!. The other half
are randomed in-chosen off that same list by lottery. Both halves
must follow a strict formula that admits students with a wide array
of reading abilities in a convoluted calibration to balance student
requests with school priorities.
Butz insists she's not just interested in attracting only brainy
CITY LIMITS
r------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
! PUBLIC EDUCATION
I
I
INSTITUTE roR
EDUCATION AND
SOCIAL POLICY AT
NE'W'YORK
UNIVERSITY
Some of the best thinking in the
city on education issues comes
out of this New York University
think-tank. Progressive but
grounded in the real world,
thanks to director Norm
Fruchter, a former community
school board member.
212-868-1640.
ACORN
These hell-raisers may be best
known for stalking loathsome
landlords, but their investment
in education includes running
aOLODEX
two small schools and making
Rudy Crew answer ugly ques-
tions. Their IISecret Apartheid
ll
reports published in 1995
exposed how parents of color
were being discouraged from
sending their children to largely
white schools. 718-246-7900.
EDUCATION
PRIORITIES PANEL
When the Board of Education
changed the choice system in
1986, EPP was there, lobbying
for more options for kids com-
ing from bad schools. Still crit-
ical of how choice functions,
this coalition is one of the few
groups that has wandered the
halls of power. 212-964-7347.
NEW' VISIONS rOR
PUBLIC SCHOOLS
New York is known as the incuba-
tor for the small-schools move-
ment that sprung up this decade.
Many of the most interesting ones
belong to New Visions, a nonprofit
coalition of innovative programs.
212-645-5110.
CROSS CITY
CAMPAIGN roR
URBAN SCHOOL
BErORN
This Chicago-based group keeps
abreast of who's trying what in
cities across the country, includ-
ing Chitown's bipolar mix of local
district power and strong cen-
tral authority. 312-322-4880.
kids. From the central list of children who have chosen Manhattan
Village, she says she tries to admit every eighth grader who came
to the school to look around and meet the staff, regardless of their
test scores. She just wishes more kids came for that crucial visit.
"1 don't think it's a choice if they don't know what they're getting
into," she maintains.
one promoting free-market schooling should swing by for a look.
School choice plays out here on an unparalleled scale. New York
shows what happens when choice is implemented without enough
information-or enough choices.
Back in the 1950s, the majority of New Yorkers went to school
in their own community, whether they were satisfied with the
school down the block or victims of racial segregation. The excep-
S
chool reform is more faddish
than sneaker design, and the
ideas of the moment are
vouchers and charter
schools. Vouchers for private
schools, championed by conservatives
for years, may soon see the light of
day. Several multimillion-dollar pri-
vate donations have primed the pump,
and a June Wisconsin court decision
may allow public spending as well.
"I don't think
tions were the specialized high schools
for the best and the brightest, and voca-
tional schools for students who wanted
to learn a trade. Just like everything
else, that changed in the 1960s. School
kids were willing to move around to
find a better school, and no Board of
Education rule prohibited it. If a princi-
pal said you could attend, you were in.
it's a choice if
they don't know
what they're Principals realized that attracting
hard-working, smart students made
their schools-and them-look pretty
good. So in the 1970s, schools started
launching specialty programs designed
Charters-privately run schools
connected to the school district and
paid for out of the public purse-are
. . "
gettIng Into.
even hotter. The flfst charter school in the U.S. opened only seven
years ago. Today, there are more than 800 in 33 states, and the fed-
eral government has earmarked $80 million this year to start
more. New York doesn't have them yet, but Governor George
Pataki sponsored a charter school bill last spring. The bill failed,
but school watchers expect his plan to resurface.
New York City might not have charters or vouchers, but any-
NOVEMBER 1998
to bring in the best kids, the roots of Education Option. "From
1978 or so to 1986, the whole array of choices for the high school
level geometrically increased," says Steve Phillips, superintendent
of alternative high schools and programs from 1983 to 1997.
"Virtually every high school opened some kind of program."
Poor parents began to chafe at their children's limited options.
"Individual schools were exercising admission processes that
-
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I
NBBD TO KNOW i
I
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IN PRINT
"DIRECTORY
or THE PUBLIC
HIGH SCHOOLS"
Also known as "The Guide" and "The Textbook."
With a quick listing for every school and pro-
gram, it's usually the only info families get to
help choose a school. Too bad it doesn't contain
test scores or graduation rates. Full of insight-
f u descriptions like, "School uniforms are
mandatory" and "Our mission is to meet the
needs of all of our students within an atmos-
phere that nurtures." 718-935-3415.
"THE PARENT'S GUIDE
TO NEW YORK CITY'S
BEST PUBLIC
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS"
This book gives the lowdown on nearly 150
shorty schools-everything from class size
to application deadlines. Published just last
year, its data should still hold true, and the
thoughtful introduction on what to look for
in a school helps parents with kids entering
any grade. 718-868-1640.
BOARD or EDUCATION
WEB SITE
Like most things from 110 Livingston, this
site isn't that easy to figure out. However,
there is important information here, includ-
ing city and state report cards on every
school. www.nycenet.edu
"A CONSUMER'S GUIDE:
NEW YORK CITY PUBLIC
HIGH SCHOOLS AT A
GLANCE"
Tiny when compared to the Board of Ed's guide,
but way more savvy. This extensive chart from
the Public Education Association has an entry
for each city high school, with a Consumer
Reports-style symbol rating teacher experi-
ence, average SAT score, average attendance
and so forth. Essential. 212-868-1640.
didn't look equitable," Phillips says. Programs that required a
student interview were accused of racial screening, for example.
So in 1986, after two years of negotiation with education advo-
cates, the Board of Ed changed the Education Option system,
introducing the lottery and limiting admission criteria to school
records.
Then, in 1993, Chancellor Joseph Fernandez gave his blessing
to the burgeoning small-schools movement; 53 such high schools
have opened since then, and new programs have continued to be
added to larger schools, as well. There are now a total of 216 high
schools offering programs ranging from social justice to medical
science at locations with as few as 100 students or as many as
4,000.
E
ach year, about 65,000 public school eighth graders
articulate-New York City's own special jargon for
moving into high school-according to Robert
Klein, director of the office of automated admissions.
"It's probably the best system in the country," he
says. "Other cities advertise they do it [allow students a choice],
but their numbers aren't close to ours."
Klein says that more than 40,000 of those students get into a
school outside their neighborhood. At the other end of the spec-
trum are about l3,000 kids that have no choice but to go to their
zoned school- none of the schools they picked picked them. And
the other 12,000 chose to go to their zoned school. Klein and the
Board of Ed consider them satisfied with that school, and many
surely are. But this category also includes students that didn't look
into other schools or never turned in their choices.
In November, every public school eighth grader in the city is
supposed to turn in a form with up to eight high school picks. An
automated system matches kids with schools, and in March, the
students fmd out where they've been accepted. "If kids make real-
istic choices, they'll do okay," Klein says. "They'll get some-
thing."
But making a realistic choice isn't easy. The Edwards may
well have made a common-and avoidable-strategic error:
putting an unrealistic option as Omari's first choice. "Schools are
disinclined to chose a student that puts them as the second choice.
But so many people waste their first choice with a school they
don't have much capacity to get into," says Noreen Connell, the
executive director of the Education Priorities Panel, a coalition of
New York school reform groups. "There are lots of losers and
when you lose, you lose big."
"Elaborate, almost Byzantine" was how EPP described the
system in a 1991 report. Its conclusion: "The admissions process
remains complicated, confusing and cumbersome for students,
families and educators alike."
The Talmud of articulation is a baby-blue softcover the size of
a phonebook, the "Directory of Publ ic High Schools." Each
school gets one or two pages of basic listings, including hours,
convenient bus routes and acceptance rates.
The book includes no outside assessments, such as the high
school's safety record or the number of students who passed the
state-administered Regents exam. "We don't think that's what
parents and students use to decide on a school," says one mem-
ber of the committee that rewrote the directory for this school
year. "They could fmd that sort of infonnation when they go to
the school."
CITY LIMITS
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! PUBLIC EDUCATION'
I
I
The descriptions-written by the schools themselves-are
boilerplate, with little real flavor (see "In Print"). For example,
the listing for Manhattan Village Academy never mentions its
long classes or scheduling demands and doesn't explain what
preparing a portfolio means. Community service is listed as an
option, not a requirement.
POWER MAP
A student's personal articulation Sherpa is his or her
guidance counselor, who is responsible for collecting
forms, answering questions and providing any other
help-be it emotional, administrative or advisory.
RUDY CREW
Genenlly ignored in the hubbub over his S50,_-a-year
raise is the fact that The Other Rudy has made it to a fourth
year as Chancellor, something of a modem-day record. Although
most advocates area' thrilled about his priorities and his moves to
.min smaII-scbooI proliferation, theYll settle for stabiIiQ.
But it's pretty hard to get any quality time with a
counselor. The 1991 EPP report noted that
there were an average of 427 New York City
junior high school students per guidance
counselor.
The Board of Education is no longer
required to track that ratio-but the
average amount of money spent
on counselors per student has
dropped by 20 percent
this decade. Regulations
require a junior high to
hire only a single coun-
selor for the entire
school.
"I think most junior
high schools only have one
person doing articulation,"
says Angela Reformato, the
United Federation of Teachers
guidance counselor chapter
leader. "In the majority of
schools, the counselors are
articulating close to 600 or 700
kids."
That leads to a one-size-fits-
all approach to school choice
guidance. "In large junior high
schools, essentially the guidance
counselors organize a factory
model system to get all the kids
through," says Norman Fruchter,
MARGARET HARRINGTON
Crew's tough chief of school programs and
support services, Peg Harrington,
as she is known, has pushed for making
l1he Guide" more informative and is try-
ing to streamline the confusing school
selection process.
LYNDA SARNOFF
You won' find her name in the
newspapers, but Samoft', the director of
high school student support services, is
a key back-otru:e bureaucrat when
it comes to writing school choice materi-
als and teaching counselors how to
navigate the system.
executive director of Institute for
Education and Social Policy at New York
University. "[The kids] get a packet with a
good write-up and five minutes of a guidance
Rudy Crew
32 SUPERINTENDENTS
TIle real authority lies in the hands of the 32 district
superintend.u who run the junior high schools. Each has
enormous power in allocating resources for counseling and
holding schools responsible for eighth-graders
l
high 1
school plans. Parents who want to apply a>
counselor's time. I think some counselors just do
triage, helping the kids they think can benefit the
most, and in some ways I don't blame them. It's a
straight function of ratios."
It goes without saying, therefore, that most coun-
selors don't have time to schedule meetings with parents.
But without help from counselors, even the most dedicated
parents can make mistakes. Omari Edwards' counselor
answered many small questions about the application proce-
dure, but he and his mother never had a formal appointment.
Nila spoke with his counselor only after her son was shut out.
And to this day, she can't figure out why he didn't get any of his
choices.
NOVEMBER 1998
pressure should start with the supes. 1
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HBBD TO KHOW :
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N
o one knows how many families receive help from
their counselor in the choice process. The decentral-
ized school boards have only loose guidelines on
articulation, and the process varies from district to
district and school to school. For families looking
for coaching or help deciphering education-speak, it can seem like
there's nowhere to tum. If they're lucky, their school holds an
assembly to answer families' questions.
rive Ways I n
The choice system might oft'er hundreds of dilTerent pro-
grams, but there are only fIVe types of admissions policies.
Far and away the most common is Education Option.
SPBCIALIZED
The big three-Bronx Science, Brooklyn Tech and
Stuyvesant To get in, a student must take a separate
exam-a total of only 3,035 students out of 60,961 appli-
cants were accepted last year. Applying to one of these
schools does not _nt toward a student's eight choices.
SCREENED
Admission is based on an audition or academic record.
The directory lists the average math, English, social stud-
ies and science scores of the students accepted last year.
UNSCREENED
There aren't many; they take entries strictly by lottery.
EDUCATION OPTION
Ed-Op schools admit their students in three cate-
gories-16 percent read above their grade level, 68
percent read at grade level and 16 percent read below
their grade level. Half of an incoming class is picked by
the school's administrators, half is "randomed in."
ZONIID ACADEMIC
COMPREHENSIVE HIGH SOHOOLS
Any child living within a zoned high school's borders
must be admitted. While some are stellar, most of the
truly scary schools are in this category.
-
There isn't much more help at the citywide level. Each bor-
ough has a center for high school intake-but it's open only in
September. The central board's office of high school admissions
has counselors, but they primarily handle kids trying to transfer
from one high school to another. Phone calls to the office yielded
more replies of "We don't handle that" than answers.
The Board of Ed does organize a high school fair each year.
The weekend in October brings in about 10,000 families to a car-
nival atmosphere, with booths, barkers, light shows and give-
aways. This annual jubilee aside, Board of Ed officials maintain
that the primary responsibility for preparing children for high
school cboice lies at the district level.
"The main work with parents is really at their school. We don't
know the record of the kid," says Larry Edwards (no relation), the
Board of Education's superintendent for grades K-12. "We can
give facts about the process, but I don't know Johnny. If people
need help, it's at their school. You can't escape it. "
Edwards started in the New York City school system 40 years ago
as a junior high school teacher. He's proud of the fact that nearly 80
percent of the applicants get into one of their chosen schools, perhaps
because be, more than anyone else, knows how hard it is to place tens
of thousands of kids every year. "The issue is how to humanize a sys-
tem that is voluminous," he admits. "We attempt to do things to make
this more user-friendly. This is a very important decision in life."
The Board of Ed has made some improvements. Recently the
board has developed training sessions for junior high school guid-
ance counselors, and now provides materials for a class unit on
high school options. The directory's redesign has gotten good
marks, and, for perhaps the first time ever, counselors had the
book in hand at the start of the school year.
Central administration has also decided that next year, students
will get five choices instead of eight. It's an attempt to make the
paperwork easier for the students and the overtaxed computer sys-
tem. "We wouldn't have done it just to make it more manageable
for us," says Lynda Sarnoff, director of high school student sup-
port services. "Computer analysis found that most kids get one of
their first five choices anyway. "
The board cites advocate and parent concerns as one reason for the
new directory and other changes. Advocates, while pleased by the
changes, continue to demand more staff to help children and their fam-
ilies make smart choices. "There needs to be more help at the level of
guidance counselors, some kind of process to get knowledgeable vol-
unteers," says Judy Baum, a spokesperson at the Parent Education
Association. "As it stands, some kids get lost in the system. "
Fruchter agrees. "You're never going to have enough guidance
counselors," he says. "I think there's a role for youth-serving com-
munity organizations. This could be a function for the Beacon
Schools, which are mostly in junior high schools."
But the basic problem is the biggest: There just aren't enough
good schools to choose from.
"It's not so much a choice as a competition for a limited num-
ber of spots," Connell says. "The reality is there aren't enough
good high schools. You can go on endlessly with the rules and reg-
ulations of the game of musical chairs. But if 20 people are going
around three chairs, 17 of them are going to lose."
Larry Edwards puts it his own way. "We can't say yes to every-
body. It's just not possible," he says. "The problem is how to
accommodate folks and yet fiLl all the schools. They all want to go
to five or eight of the schools, and I just can't do it."
CITY LIMITS
Passive Progressive
larger community and
societal interests."
The authors are
By Garland Yates
"Community Organizing: Building
Social Capital as a Development
Strategy," by Ross Gittel and Avis
Vidal, Sage Publications, 1998,
196 pages, $23.95.
A
s the director of a foundation effort to spur
comprehensive change in five poor neigh-
borhoods across the country, I looked for-
ward to reading "Community Organizing:
Building Social Capital as a Development
Strategy." Strengthening social capital-the relationships
among a neighborhood's residents and institutions that engen-
der action on community concerns-is essential.
The question is, how do you create social capital? I think orga-
nizing is both the most obvious and best answer. But many funders
don't share my certainty. While most funders working on compre-
hensive community development agree that organizing is as impor-
tant as housing, social services, education and economic opportuni-
ty, there is disagreement about how organizing should work.
The book's authors-Ross Gittel and Avis Vidal, academics
at the University of New Hampshire and the Urban Institute
respectively-favor the consensus organizing approach.
Invented by Michael Eichler, consensus organizing brings pe0-
ple from poor neighborhoods together with powerful corporate
players to work on issues that they all can agree on. This book
focuses on how the Local Initiatives Support Corporation
(LISC), a national intermediary that links investors with low-
income neighborhoods, used the method as the centerpiece of its
effort to create community development corporations in Little
Rock, West Palm Beach and New Orleans.
The authors don't make outsized claims for LISC's demon-
stration project, but neither do they say how dismal the results
were. With its history as a housing developer, LISC deserves
kudos for focusing on organizing, and Eichler should be com-
mended for adding a tool to the activist toolbox.
However, the book does more than endorse an unproven
strategy; it denigrates one with an impressive track record.
Traditional organizing, the authors contend, is too confronta-
tional in the community development context, alienating the
people you need to achieve change.
The book's critique of organizing networks-it mentions the
Industrial Areas Foundation and ACORN by name-is unfair
and unsupported by the facts. "Although in the short run, bene-
fits may be derived by a disempowered group through conflict
organizing," they write, "long-term conflictual organizing
efforts could lead to social and political division, harm the abil-
ity of different groups to work together, limit the amount of
funding and access to outside resources, and be detrimental to
NOVEMBER 1998
either being inflamma-
tory or don't know what
they're talking about. In the
Southwest, the lAF got drink-
ing water into desperate barrios
and today works with 150 pub-
lic schools. Banks that
ACORN fought for years over
redlining are now major part-
ners in its loan-counseling
program. These aren't short-
term accomplishments. And
the groups' confrontational
approach didn't forever
alienate government and the
private sector.
Perhaps the authors per-
ceive confrontation the way
they do because they've never sat at a
negotiating table. After all, if you as an individual confront a bank
president and call him a racist, he probably won't come help you
paint over graffiti on a Saturday afternoon. But if you represent a
powerful, cohesive organization, and confront that bank presi-
dent over his institution's policies, his reaction will be different.
This book's message about consensus organizing could be
dangerous. It's likely to fmd a receptive audience among fun-
ders who, despite pronouncements about wanting to improve
conditions for the poor, really are motivated by institutional
self-interest. Consensus organizing lets them participate in
community development without risking controversy. By pre-
senting the ascendance of consensus organizing as a fait accom-
pli , this book cuts off a much-needed debate.
I think funders must allow communities to choose their own
issues and organizing approach. Anything else is manipulative.
It's especially bad when white outsiders dictate organizing
methods to poor people of color who have good reason to feel
disenfranchised and discriminated against.
Consensus organizing might work in middle-class neighbor-
hoods or in places where a seasoned group wants to work in
new ways. But in unorganized communities, people are likely
to come together around injustices. Foundations are in a unique
position to help organizers, though. They could prepare banks
or government to be called on the carpet, promising to chip in
resources if the community's grievances are addressed.
In the growing field of comprehensive community initia-
tives, organizing has received less support than housing, social
services and the like. That's because funders see organizations
like the lAF and ACORN as scary and uncontrollable. But that's
not a good enough reason to avoid working with them.
If the authors of this book were trying to make funders com-
fortable and position themselves as consultants to the field, they
succeeded. If they wanted to spark real debate about the role of
organizing in building social capital, they failed, and did a dis-
service to those of us who take the issue seriously .
Garland Yates manages the Annie E. Casey Foundation's
Rebuilding Communities Initiative.
REVIEW
... ~ .. , .............
-
, .......... .-
Rendering Rudy
F
orget the press, cabbies and community gardeners. The New Yorkers who scrutinize Rudy the most bru-
tally judge him with pen and ink. The city's editorial cartoonists have made it their business to assess the
mayor's every receding hair, oversized tooth, anger flare-up and unyielding policy-then magnify. What
these political artists think of Rudy off the page has a lot to do with how they portray him in print. Fear of criti-
cism, inflexibility and cross-dressing may not be pretty in person, but apparently they make Giuliani fun to draw.
Robert Crossman.
Th. H." York Ob ~ . r
"In drawing Rudy Giuliani, it's impor-
tant to emphasize his forehead. It houses
his most developed organ: the scallopini
of zeal. I think I'll just stand by that."
Doug Marlette ..
H.".dGY, Th. HGflon
"The thing with him is he has these deep-set
eyes and an overbite ... and he's just kind of
prissy. It's just a little bit of a puritanical qual-
ity in his mouth. You know he likes to dress
up like a woman, and it's kind of prissy. I
did a bunch of cartoons for The Nation. I
drew him like a dominatrix, and in his
mind the city just wants to be disci-
plined."
-
Mark Alan Stamaty
H." York
"He reminds me of those sculptures that used
to be everywhere in the Soviet Union, very stark,
colorless and driven by a certain rninimalism. I think
his politics are like that, so I tend to depict him that
way.
"He's kind of a drill sergeant. He wants everything
in order, and he's got this very stripped-down view of
things. He certainly indulges in frivolity. On the other
hand, he has a sparseness.
"That's his personality. His features are great-he's got
that big forehead, that funny hairline that's receding, a
sharp pointed nose, oversized teeth and piercing eyes.
Even the shape of his forehead fits into that stark social
realism model. He's fun to draw.
"His personality being what it is, it's an easy fit with
his features. He doesn't look like John Lindsay, for
instance. They both look like their politics. Lindsay had
curly, wavy locks: He looks like a liberal, he looks like
he's friendly to art. Giuliani doesn't have those visu-
als. Though people in arts certainly can have any type
of forehead. "
CITY LIMITS
~ R.J. Matson
City Limit., Th. H." York Ob ,..,.r
"I always start by drawing Giuliani with a huge forehead, which of
course suggests a huge ego. The eyes are drawn sunken, as if the fore-
head is casting a shadow on them.
"I never draw him with a neck. That suggests he's not really relaxed.
He's always kind of tense. I saw him speak once and he just didn't seem
comfortable. He's probably a really charming, bright guy; he's just really
awkward in public.
"It's very hard to draw him smiling; it's much easier to draw him
snarling. I should try a happy Rudy. The only time I draw him smiling is
when he's in a Yankees uniform. He truly loves baseball, I can't fault him
for that."
Bill Schorr ..
Dally H.".
"I've been doing Rudy for about a year, so I'm still learning him. His per-
sonality is so intense, the ego is unbelievable. He hates criticism. He's thin-skinned
like Nixon in that way. In spite of his personality flaws, most of his policies, I
think, are pretty good.
"One of the problems drawing him is that for most caricatures, there's usu-
ally something in the eyes to play with. Nixon had heavy eyebrows.
Carter had sadness when things weren't going well. Reagan had an
innocent look. A large part of Rudy is an absence of expression there.
"When I started watching him on TV, I realized: He doesn't
have a neck, his head just grows out of his shoulders. And his
mouth, there's just teeth and they protrude in that weird smile.
"The best people for cartoonists are those with strong person-
alities, the character that people love or hate. Cartoonists hold
onto the personality flaws because they fit into their approach to
government. With Rudy, he is his administration. His policy and
personality are as melded as anyone I've ever seen."
NOVEMBER 1998
~ Randy Jon
nn.r Clre'.
"Giuliani is not an easy guy to draw, but he's inter-
esting. I've been drawing him for the Inner Circle the
last five years. They host kind of an odd musical to roast
the mayor at a charity ball with the journalists who
cover City Hall.
"I don't look at his personality much. I always draw
him with deep eyes, a downturned nose. This year he
did "The King Am I," so I had to draw him without hair.
He doesn't have a lot of hair in real life, either. One year
he took off his wig, showing that he's really quite bald.
It was a little more than I wanted to know about him.
"He's a tough guy, battling people at the Million
Youth March. Then he's singing and not having qualms
about wearing a dress. I liked him after that. He's a bet-
ter singer than Dinkins. Dinkins was really a terrible
singer. He was always off-key."
-
--
Strong Division
AMMO
F
alling stock prices and foreign currency woes
may be giving the country's capitalists a case of
the shi vers, but according to the Economic
Policy Institute's latest real-world economic
analysis, they've got little to worry about. The richest I percent
now own nearly 40 percent of the country's wealth. CEOs earn
116 times the pay of average workers, and average CEO com-
pensation has doubled since 1989.
But our economy has failed most of the rest of us. Despite
seven years of growth and productivity increases, real wages
for most Americans have yet to recover from the recession early
in the decade. The United States still has the highest poverty
rate-and the most unequal distribution of wealth-in the
developed world.
The sixth edition of EPI's "State of Working America" puts
fIgures like these into context for regular working stiffs. The
book demolishes fast-and-loose claims of a new economy and
dismal visions of the end of work with comprehensive and
beautifully charted data. EPI gives you facts that both conserv-
atives and liberals would rather forget.
Wage deterioration has spread from the working class to
white-collar workers, but has hit white men worst of all.
Increasing poverty has as much to do with declining wages as
with single motherhood. The stock market boom has done vir-
tually nothing for the middle class. Our supposedly high-tech
economy has generated few well-paying jobs.
The authors' analyses are clean and pointed, their writing direct
Childhood's End
and succinct. The graphs alone make this volume a winning
resource, but it's a great primer on economic trends as well. "State
of Working America," $24.95, 1-800-EPI-4B44.
elv. Youth a Chane.?
Reaching out to youth was a hallmark of anti-poverty pro-
grams in the 1960s, but community developers in the '80s tend-
ed to ignore or marginalize the young people in their targeted
neighborhoods. Indeed, they saw teenagers as a threat to com-
munity revitalization, rather than as potential partners. But as
the era of Ronald Reagan-when the word "youth" was often
preceded by "at risk"--drew to a close, the antagonism between
community developers and youth organizers began to thaw.
The International Youth Foundation has published a series
of three paperbacks inspired by a spring conference where rep-
resentatives from both camps hashed out how-tos and how-not-
tos. The fIrst volume explores issues which invite cooperation
between community development and youth programs; the sec-
ond details challenges, such as the underfunding of youth orga-
nizations, that threaten to derail joint efforts; and the third pro-
fIles New York's Beacon Schools. "Community and Youth
Development Series," IYF, Free, 7014 Westmoreland Ave.,
Takoma Park, MD 20912.
Rul.s of the Woe'd
Wending your way through the welfare system in New York
these days is tougher than fInding a Hank Williams tune on Hot
97. So people who help welfare
applicants will get up and dance
when they see the Community Food
New York State and National Percent Change 1985 to 1995
Resource Center's informative new
guidebook.
Indicators
Infant mortality rate
(deaths per 1,000 live births)
Rate of teen deaths by
accident, homicide, and suicide
(deaths per 100,000 teens ages 15-19)
Juvenile violent crime arrest rate
(arrests per 100,000 youths ages 10-17)
Percent of teens not attending
school and not working
(ages 1619)
W 0 R S E ~ BETTER
.....
Pulling together the relevant fed-
eral, state and city rules-including
citations of regulations and
statutes-this guide lays it all out,
from allowable training expenses to
how assessment of employability
works. And if you think that sounds
boring, you've never argued with an
indifferent HRA bureaucrat about
what the rules allow.
The guide is handy in the here
and now, but its author has grander
ambitions for it in the long run. "I
hope that over time, as people get
used to the issues, they can use this
guide to think about how to change
the rules," says Don Friedman. In
the meantime, this is the overview
on how welfare works-or doesn't
work-that NYC welfare chief
Jason Turner never published. 'i\n
Advocate's Guide to the Welfare
Work Rules," $10, CFRC, 212-344-
0195.
CITY LIMITS
MANAGER, TEMPORARY SERVICES. Innovative Brooklyn-based CDC seeks a socially
motivated entrepreneur to manage an innovative temporary staffing business.
Must demonstrate excellent entrepreneurial, managerial, administrative, PR/mar
keting and communication skills. Responsibilities include: strategic planning, per
sonnel management and supervision, marketing, budgeting, and fiscal control.
Resume & salary requirements to Manager Search, c/o FAC, 141 5th Ave.,
Brooklyn 11217. Or fax 718-8574322. EOE.
OfFICE MANAGER. The Supportive Housing Network of New York, a statewide c o a l ~
tion of 120 nonprofit housing agencies, is seeking an office manager/executive
assistant. Need energetic, organized individual with excellent communication skills
to manage busy, growing office and provide administrative support to executive
director. Responsibilities include bookkeeping, advocacy, correspondence, mem-
ber services. Requirements: BA, familiarity with MS Office Suite, Access database.
Ability to juggle multiple tasks. Salary: Midto-high $20s, depending on experience.
Fax cover letter & resume to Maureen Friar, Executive Director at 212-870-3334.
ASSISTANT TO TltE DIRECTOR. Work closely with director of the Howard Samuels
State Management & Policy Center at The Graduate School and University Center
of The City University of New York (25 W. 43rd St., NYC 10036). Responsibilities
include maintaining director's calendar, handling mail, telephones, visitors to the
office, filing, copying and maintaining a database. Staff includes ten researchers
and an administrator of grants. Candidate should be familiar with general office
operations. Good computer and communication skills required. Minimum 2 years
of college and/or related office experience. Salary: $20,000-$25,000, plus ben-
efits. Fax resume and cover letter to Kay: 212-642-1934.
SERVICE REPRESENTATIVE. Prestigious NYC professional association needs ser-
vice professional. Assist member organizations w/group purchasing needs.
Excellent problem-solving, communication & organizational skills. Bil ingual
Spanish preferred. Fax resume & salary history to: 212-594-7360.
GRANT PROGRAM INTERN. Major civic nonprofit seeks intern to oversee adminis-
tration of grant program. Process application, check references, evaluate pro-
posals, give technical assistance. Some college required. Knowledge of MS Word
a plus. Bilingual & knowledge of diverse communities preferred. Salary: $13/hr.
EOE. Resume by ASAP to: TG, CCNYC, 305 7th Ave., 15th Fl. , NYC 10001. Or
jobs@citizensnyc.org.
Citywide nonprofit housing organization seeks DIRECTOR OF GOVERNMENT AND COM-
MUNnY REI.A11ONS. Strong written and verbal communication skills; knowledge of
five boroughs required. Knowledge of govemment housing programs and policy pre-
ferred. Fax resume to: DGCR Search. NHSNYC. 212-727-8171. No calls.
SAFETY AND IIEAL11ITRAlNINGIORGANIZER. Conduct safety programs for nonprofit labor
coalition. Safety/health background; union experience; teaching/communication
skills; Spanish/Chinese a plus. Salary $38,457-$42,707 plus benefits. Resume,
cover letter to NYCOSH, 275 Seventh Ave., NYC 10001. AA/EEO emplover.
TriCity Peoples Corporation is recruiting a DIRECTOR OF COMMUNnY DEVUOPMENT
with at least 5 years experience in housing and community revitalization who is
able to lead an organization in building a strong niche in housing and economic
development. We are seeking a candidate who possesses the skills and exper
tise to form partnerships and leverage community resources to expand housing
and economic development opportunities for the West Side Park community of
Newark. Specific skills sought include: fundraising, hands-on housing/lending,
finance, staff management and planning. Salary range: $40,000-$50,000 com-
mensurate with experience, plus fringe benefits. Send cover letter. Salary require-
ments to: Search Committee, Tri-City Peoples Corporation, 675-681 South 19th
St., Newark, NJ 07103. Anticipated placement: November 1998.
WEATHERlZATlON DIRECTOR wanted for nonprofit housing group to prepare & man-
age contracts, negotiate with building owners, comply with DOS poliCies. Salary:
mid- high-$20s. DOE. Excellent benefits. Resume/cover letter to: HCC, 777 10th
Ave .. NYC 10019.
ADMINISTRATIVE ASSISTANT. To process applications for Senior Citizen
Homeowner Assistance Program and work with program manager.
Responsibilities: Maintain client files; conduct telephone interviews, home vis-
its; and assist in bringing loans to a closing. Requirements: computer skills,
written and oral communications skills, knowledge of public transportation,
knowledge of the boroughs. Applicants should be selfmotivated, able to work
independently and handle multiple tasks. Written and oral communication skills
in Spanish helpful. Competitive salary and full benefits package. Fax resumes
to: The SCHAP Program at 212-431-9783. Or for additional information call
212-431-9700.
OfFICE MANAGER. Citizens Union, the oldest good-government organization in New
York, needs an Office Manager. Responsibilities: communications to board and
membership, publications and websites, supervision of staff, making it all h a ~
pen. Requirements: computer skills, especially databases and desktop publish-
ing, writing and layout skills, organize and manage various projects. initiative and
judgment. Salary mid-$30s. Resumes, mail only, to Conn Nugent, Citizens Union,
198 Broadway. NY, NY 10038.
SENIOR ASSET (PROPERlY) MANAGER. Fifth Avenue Committee, a Brooklyn-based
nonprofit, community development corporation seeks a Senior Asset Manager to
lead a growing property management department (250 units in 25 buildings and
NOVEMBER 1998
growing). Responsibilities: Supervise one senior property manager, five+ super
visors. Create operating budgets, variance reports. Ensure compliance with super-
vising agencies. Unit inspections, maintenance and repairs. Construction-tcrman-
agement transition. Leases, rent collections, legal cases. Managing contractors,
vendors and bidding. Qualifications: 5 years' property management experience, 2
years college or technical institute. Computer proficiency. Good knowledge of
building systems. Compensation: mid to upper $30s. Good benefits package.
Send resume with cover letter to: Senior Asset Manager, Fifth Avenue Committee,
Inc .. 141 5th Ave .. Brooklyn, NY 11217. Fax: 718-8574322.
LfGISlATIVE ADVOCATE, for settlement house/community center federation.
Reponsibilities include monitoring city and state legislative and budgetary
actions; coordinating meetings with legislators, public officials and other advoca-
cy groups; and writing testimony and policy briefs. Excellent writing and commu-
nication skills, ability to meet deadlines and work with a broad range of groups is
required. Experience in government relations helpful. Salary $35-$40,000,
depending on experience. Resume and writing sample: Legislative Advocate,
UNH, 70 W. 36th St., NY, NY 10018.
The Center for Urban Community Services (CUCS) has the following positions
available in its midtown supportive housing residence for lowincome and former-
ly homeless individuals, including those with special needs such as mental ill-
ness, substance abuse and/or HIV/AIDS: CLINICAL COORDINATOR.
Responsibilities: supervision of a core services team, site management and pro-
gram development, contract, regulatory and policy compliance, interteam coordi-
nation, resource development, managed care linkages and the implementation of
fiscal parameters. Requirements: CSW, strong writing and verbal communication
skills, computer literacy and a minimum of 4 years of applicable experience in the
social work field (with related populations) including supervisory, administrative
and management experience. Bilingual preferred. Salary: Low $40s commensu-
rate with experience and competitive benefits. SENIOR SOCIAL WORK CUNICIAN.
Responsibilities: direct client care, group work and program development in a
core services team. Requirements: CSW, 3 years of applicable post-master's
direct service experience with related populations, good writing and verbal com-
munications skills and computer literacy. Bilingual preferred. Salary $38,000 plus
competitive benefits. Resumes and cover letters to: Joyce Jackson, CUCS/The
Times Square, 255 W. 43rd St., NYC 10036.
La Casa de Don Pedro, Inc. a community-based organization in Newark's North
Ward seeks candidates for the following positions: DIRECTOR OF YOUTH AND FAM-
ILY SERVICES, HOUSING PROJECT MANAGER, ECONOMIC AND JOB DEVUOPMENT PR0-
JECT MANAGER, PROJECT COORDINATOR OF PARENTlNG SKILLS AND EARLY CHIUMtOOD
DEVUOPMENT, SENIOR COMMUNnY ORGANIZERS, CUNICIAN. Interested parties
should contact La Casa de Don Pedro, Inc., Attn: Deputy Executive Director MRB,
75 Park Ave., Newark, NJ 07104. Fax resumes to: 973482-1883 or e-mail
Rocasio@aol.com.
SWICASEWORKER. 60-unit supportive housing program; case management, home
visits, advocacy, referral. College graduate, 3 years' experience with homeless,
SA and PWA. Extensive knowledge of city programs and community resources.
Salary mid-twenties. Send cover letter, salary history and resume to: George
Delancy, Coalition for the Homeless, SSHP, 89 Chambers St., New York NY
10007. No Faxes. EOE.
COORDINATOR. The Neighborhood Economic Development Advocacy Project
(NEDAP) seeks a full-time Coordinator for the New York City Community
Reinvestment Task Force, a citywide network that advocates for fair banking
practices in low-income neighborhoods and communities of color, tracks regula-
tory agencies and legislative developments, and promotes regulatory account-
ability. Qualifications: BA, excellent communication skills, demonstrated com-
mitment to social and economic justice. Advocacy/organizing experience pre-
ferred. Send resume and cover letter to: NEDAP, 126 University Place, 5th Floor,
New York, NY 10003.
EMANCIPATlON FROM POVERTY PROGRAM COORDINATOR. The Riverside Church, an
interdenominational religious institution of national and international stature has
a unique opportunity for an organized and determined self-starter with a track
record of successful program development and community organizing. The EFP
Coordinator will be responsible for making the Church's Emancipation from
Poverty Initiative operational by building and strengthening community, political,
economic and business networks to secure resources that will enable significant
numbers of individuals to achieve economic self-sufficiency. The ideal candidate
will have a passion for social justice, a master's degree in Public Administration,
Business, Urban Planning or a related field, a minimum of eight years' combined
experience in community organizing, organizational development, fundraising
and/or marketing. Experience working with volunteers is essential. Excellent ver-
bal, written, interpersonal and presentation skills required. Salary mid to high
$50s, excellent benefits package. For confidential consideration, please submit
your resume to: HR Dept. Riverside Church, 490 Riverside Dr., New York, NY
10027. Or fax to 212-870-6800. No phone calls please. EOE M/F.
Fir BOOKKEEPER for Bronx public health nonprofit. Assist fiscal manager with
A/P, vendors, petty cash, payroll , vouchers, deposits, etc. Qualifications: Prior
nonprofit bookkeeping, spreadsheet, w/p, writing, organizational skills, BS/
Accounting, although we will train right individual. Salary: $26,000-$30,000
DOE. Resume/cover letter (no calls) to: R. Gills, NY Harm Reduction Educators,
Inc., 903 Dawson St., Bronx, NY 10459. Fax: 718-842-7001. AA/EOE/ADA
employer.
(Continued on page 36)
Me
lOAnDA
(Continued/rom page 35)
The Women' s Prison Association, a nonprofit serving women prisoners, ex-offend-
ers and their children seeks the following positions: DIRECTOR OF PROGRAM PlAN-
NING AND RESEARCH. Develop governmentally funded program initiatives and
develop/ manage the agency's information system. Prepare funding proposals to
governmental agencies, negotiate new contracts, work closely with program staff.
Familiarity with public social service systems, fluency in policy and practical con-
cerns, quantitat ive and research skills, excellent writing and analytic ability, and
knowledge of computer-based information systems required. $48,000-$58,000.
DIRECTOR OF ANANC. Seeking experienced professional with finance and man-
agement expertise. Oversee all aspects of financial management of agency,
including cash management/accounting and participate in strategic planning for
the organization. $65,000-$85,000. BUDGET AND REPORTS MANAGER. Manage
portfolio of governmental contracts and restricted private funds. Generate bud-
gets, monitor spending, analyze variances, prepare budget modification and all
required reporting. Work closely with program staff. Familiarity with diverse gov-
ernmental agency requirements, good analytic skills, writing and oral communi-
cation skills required. $45,000-$55,000. ACCOUNTING MANAGER. Responsible for
all aspects of agency accounting system. Experience with American Fundware
required; CPA preferred. $40,000-$50,000. Resume and cover letter, including
salary history and position of interest, to: Human Resources, WPA, 110 Second
Ave .. NY. NY 10003. Or fax to 212-677-1981. EOE.
Red Hook Public Safety Corps, an AmeriCorps program, seeks energetic TEAM
LEADER to manage full -time volunteers performing community service aimed at
improving public safety and victim aSSistance. Requirements: bachelor's degree
preferred, ability to manage numerous projects simultaneously, organizational
and interpersonal skills, training/supervisory experience and knowledge of
Spanish helpful. Salary: $20s plus benefits. Fax resume to 212-397.<J985. Or call
212-373-8082 for more information.
CoNSULTANT SERVI CES
Proposals/Grant Writing
HUD Grants/Govt. RFPs
MI(HA(L 6. BU((I
CONSULTANT
Hoosing/Prognm Developmen,
Real Estate Sales/Rentals
Technical Assistance
Employment Programs
Capacity Bui.lding
Community Relations
HOUSING, DEVELOPMENT & FUNDRAISING
5-7123
7-6238
IOaol.com
451 WEST 48th STREET, SUITE 2E
NEW YORK, NEW YORK 10036-1298

UItiiii PIMnIng
KIbyn AbIIan
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_ PIoIpIc:tPIIDI ... M
EInIaIIIyn. NY 11231
711.71l.174411'11t1e&_
..
..
Public Relations
Special Events
Marketing Plans
Media Relations
WBY PAY RENn
FORECLOSED HOMES FOR SALE
-Low Down Payment! -No Closing Costs!
Renovated Houses Available
Nassau, Suffolk, Queens and Brooklyn
Live the dream and own your own home.
We work with poor credit.
Call Craig at (BOO) 613-1424 Port Bealty Group, LLC
-
ADMINISTRATIVE ASSISTANT. Economic and community development project locat-
ed in Mott Haven, South Bronx is seeking an experienced, bilingual, self-starter.
Excellent computer, communication & organizational skills. Ability to handle the
public and keen attention to details. Superior knowledge of Word Perfect 6.1
essential, knowledge of MIS systems a plus. Bil ingual proficiency
(Spanish/ English) a prerequisite for consideration. Salary commensurate with
experience. Excellent benefits package. Forward resume/ cover letter to: Estel
Fonseca, NSP, 384 E. 149th St., Suite 400, Bronx, NY 10455. Fax: 718-585-
1525.
The Pratt Area Community Council (PACC) is a growing not-for-profit community-
based organization. We combine tenant and community organizing, tenant and
homeowner services, affordable housing development and management, and
economic development to build the Brooklyn communities of Ft. Greene, Clinton
Hill and Bedford-Stuyvesant. PACC has the following positions available: ECONOM-
IC DEVD.OPMENT DIRECTOR to implement community economic development ini-
tiative designed to create jobs, develop businesses and revitalize a blight ed corn-
mercial corridor. Self-starter. Previous business or community development expe-
rience. Commitment to community development and not-for-profit experience pre-
ferred. Send cover letter and resume to: PACC, 201 Dekalb Ave., Brooklyn, NY
11205. Fax: 718-522-2604.
DIRECTOR, Philadelphia Jobs Initiative. Nationally recognized community develop-
ment financial institution in Philadelphia seeks Director of Jobs Initiative program.
The Initiative is part of a six-city national foundation initiative working to connect
residents of low-income communities with jobs. Candidates must possess
lent communications and analytical skills and at least three years' experience in
workforce development, including program development, human resources man-
agement or evaluation. Apply to: Jeremy Nowak, CEO, Delaware Valley Community
Reinvestment Fund, 718 Arch St. , Suite 300N, Philadelphia, PA 19106.
SPECIALIZING IN REAL ESTATE
J-51 Tax Abatement/ Exemption . 421A and 421B
Applications . 501 (c) (3) Federal Tax Exemptions . All forms
of government-assisted housing, including LISC/ Enterprise,
Section 202, State Turnkey and NYC Partnership Homes
KOURAKOS & KOURAKOS
Attorneys at Law
Bronx, N.Y.
(718) 585-3187
New York, N.Y.
(212) 551-7809
Does your nonprofit need corporate, real estate,
tax or other business legal services?
Lawyers Alliance for New York has a staff of skilled lawyers
and a roster of 400 volunteer attorneys from leading NY firms.
We specialize in providing free or low-cost legal services to
nonprofit corporations. We also offer helpful publications and
workshops on many nonprofit legal issues.
To find out if we can help your nonprofit, call 212 219-1800
Lawyers Alliance
99 Hudson Street, New York, NY 10013 for New York
Committed to the development of affordable housing
GEORGE C. DELLAPA, ATTORNEY AT LAW
15 Maiden l ane, Suite 1800
New York, NY 10038
212-732-2700 FAX: 212-732- 2773
Low-income housing tax credit syndication. Public and private
financing. HDFCs and not-Jor-profit corporations. Condos and co-ops.
J-5/ Tax abatement/exemptions. Lending Jor Historic Properties.
CITY LIMITS
30lW6Y

ORGANIZER. Highbridge Community Life Center is seeking an experienced neigh-
borhood/issues organizer. Qualifications: knowledge of housing regulations and
issues, computer literacy, bilingual English/ Spanish, team player. Fax resume to
Personnel Director. 718-6814137.
EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR, Housing Conservation Coordinators, a 24-year-old not-for-
profit housing advocacy organization, is recruiting an Executive Director with 3 to
5 years of experience in the housing field. Candidates should have experience
with administration, fundraising, outreach and community relations, staff man-
agement, and strategic planning. Successful candidate will demonstrate a vision
that will move the organization into its next phase. Salary: $40,OO().$45,OOO
plus benefits. Send letter and resume to Mark Wolz, President, HCC, 777 10th
Ave .. 10019.
DIRECTOR OF RESEARCH. Mental health agency seeks diversified person to devel-
op mental health research agenda. Work with quality assurance, fundraising and
MIS departments. Skills required are SPSS, Access, R&R, and knowledge of Fox
Pro. Must have advanced degree and excellent writing skills. Salary commensu-
rate with experience. Excellent benefits and pleasant work environment. Send or
fax resume with salary history and requirements to: Director of Personnel,
Beacon of Hope House, 116 East 16th St., 5th Roor, New York, NY 10003. Fax:
212-982-2869. EOE.
COORDINATORITRAINER. National nonprofit parenting education program, serving
NYC & Westchester, bilingual program coordinator/trainer. Person must be self-
motivated and able to manage projects from start to finish. Strong communica-
tion skills and English/Spanish writing proficiency required, training skills a plus
(agency will train). Car recommended. Fax resume with salary requirements to
914-941-7566.
Hudson Guild, a not-for-profit settlement house located in the Chelsea
neighborhood of Manhattan in its 104th year of providing essential direct
F & I> Con.su..lt:in.g
Specializing in Organizing Tenant Associations
-Does your apartment or building need repairs?
-Are you being overcharged rent?
- Are you paying unlawful fees?
For $4 per person, per meeting, we conduct informative monthly meetings,
produce newsletters, write correspondence, complete complaint forms and help
you improve the quality of your tenancy.
(Also, ask about our Eldercare Planning homevisits)
For Information: 212.591.1167
Reach 20,000 readers in the nonprofit sector,
government and property management.
ADVERTISE YOUR BUSINESS
OR SERVICE IN THE CITY LIMITS
PROFESSIONAL DIRECTORY!
Call John Ullmann at
(212) 479-3344 Ext. 404 or (917) 598-1068
NesoH Associates
management solutions for non-profits
Providing a full range of management support services for
non-profit organizations
management development & strategic planning
board and staff development & training
program design, implementation & evaluation
proposal and report writing
Box 130 75A Lake Road Congers, NY 1092()O teVfax (914) 2686315
NOVEMBER 1998
support and community building programs to Chelsea area residents, has
the following position available: COORDINATOR, Chelsea Housing Group.
Chelsea Housing Group is Hudson Gui ld's tenant advocacy program.
Coordinator will provide direct advocacy and paralegal services to Chelsea
tenants, negotiate with landlord attorneys, accompany tenants to court as
necessary, supervise tenant organizer position. Must have strong tenant
advocacy background, extensive knowledge of rent stabilization laws and
housing court processes essential. Familiarity with NYCHA and HPD pre-
ferred. You will provide direct and follow-up services to clients, maintain
accurate and timely case records, programmatic and statistical reports,
maintain and update resource files, conduct outreach for program, assist
with organizing and implementing community-wide education and training
workshops. Salary starting at $33K with excellent benefits. We are an
Equal Opportunity Employer. Mail resume to: Human Resources/CHG,
Hudson Guild, 441 W. 26th St ., New York, NY 10001. Fax: 212-268-9983.
E-mail: vtorres@unhny.org, subiect: CHG.
The Tenants' and Workers' Support Committee, a Latino/a and African-American
worker-organizing and community development organization in Alexandria, VA,
seeks an ASSOCIATE DIRECTOR and a COMMUNnvlWORKER ORGANIZER. AD respon-
sibilities: Develop staff and member training program; oversee jobs, health, edu-
cation and women's leadership duties; supervise 3 to 5 staff; some administra-
tive duties. AD qualifications: 3 years' organizing experience, excellent
English/Spanish communication, computer profiCient, commitment to progres-
sive social change. Organizer responsibilities: Organize community support for
Living Wage Campaign and develop worker organizing committees with primarily
Latina hotel workers. Requires one year's organizing experience, fluent Spanish/
English. Salaries DOE. Good benefits. Resume with references. TWSC, P.O. Box
2327, Alexandria, VA 22301.
(Continued on page 38)
LAWRENCE H. McGAUGHEY
Attorney at Law
Meeting the challenges of affordable housing for 20 years.
Providing legal services in the areas of General Real Estate,
Business, Trust & Estates, and Elder Law.
217 Broadway, Suite 610
New York, NY 10007
(212) 513-0981
DEBRA BECHTEL - Attorney
Concentrating in Real Estate & Non-profit Law
Title and loan closings 0 All city housing programs
Mutual housing associations 0 Cooperative conversions
Advice to low income co-op boards of directors
313 Hicks Street, Brooklyn, NY 11201,
(718) 780-7994 (718) 624-6850
COMPUTER SERVICES
Hardware Sales:
IBM Compatible Computers
Okidata Printers
Lantastic Networks
Software Sales:
NetworkslDatabase
Accounting
Suites! Applications
Services: NetworkIHardware/Software Installation,
Training, Custom Software, Hand Holding
Morris Kornbluth 718-857-9157
-
30AAB

(Continued/rom page 37)
The Center for Urban Community Services, Inc. (CUCS). an innovative commu-
nity-based nonprofit, has the following MIS position available: NETWORK SUP
PORT SPECIALIST. To provide network administration, database development
and end-user support, including installing, configuring and repairing PC hard
ware and installing and supporting application software. Requirements include:
2 years' directly applicable experience, including superior PC hardware, soft-
ware and network troubleshooting skills; experience with multiple operating
environments, including Windows, NetWare and UNIX; knowledge of IP and IPX,
bridging and routing, and UTP and fiber optic cabling. Ability to communicate
effectively with non-technical staff a must. UNIX and WAN system admInIstra-
tion experience a plus. Salary: mid $30s plus complete benefits. Resumes &
salary history to Tina Verras, CUCS, 120 Wall St., 25th Floor, NY, NY 10005.
CUCS is committed to workforce diversity.
LGAl. DIRECTOR. Acclaimed youth services agency seeks attorney to supervise
the civil legal services work of six full-time staff, and direct legal education and
outreach programs. Should have at least five years of legal experience, including
minimum of two years in a supervisory capacity. Must possess excellent com-
munication skills, organizational skills, knowledge of poverty law issues and a
passion for the work. Salary $50K with excellent benefits. Send resume to: Jill
Chaifetz. The Door, 121 Sixth Avenue, New York. NY 10013. EOE.
COMMUNITY LIAISON. Economic and community development project located in
Mott Haven, South Bronx is seeking an experienced, bilingual community outreach
worker. Develop and maintain linkages to community residents, CBOs, churches,
schools and businesses. Deliver oral presentations to broad array of audiences.
Assist in the preparation/distribution of a community newsletter. Promote program
services/events through contact with: media outlets, development/distribution of
public relations materials and telephone outreach. Minimum B.A. Excellent verbal,
written communication and organizational skills. Ability to effectively interface with
public. Proficiency in WordPerfect 6.1 essential. Knowledge of Microsoft Publisher
a plus. Verbal and written bilingual proficiency (Spanish/English) a prerequisite for
consideration. Salary commensurate with experience. Excellent benefits package.
Forward resume/cover letter to: Estel Fonseca, NSP, 384 E. 149th St., Suite 400,
Bronx, NY 10455. Fax: 718-585-1525.
Saint Nicholas Neighborhood Preservation Corp. seeks to fill two employment
positions: ASSISTANT DIRECTOR, Business Development to provide one-on-one
business counseling, classroom entrepreneurial training, financing, business plan
development and referrals to other service providers, and administer loan fund.
Requirements: college degree and two years of experience in related field.
Experience in running own business a plus. Fluency in Spanish a plus. SITI MAN
AGER. Employment to start up and manage welfare-to-work demonstration pro-
gram serving non-English speaking TANF recipients. Requirements: three years of
related experience, strong supervisory and management skills, bilingual in
Spanish a must. Mail resume to N. Lasher, St. Nicks, 11-29 Catherine St.,
Brooklyn. NY 11211. Or fax: 718-963-1905.
GOVERNMENT SENIOR BUDGET ANALYST, Office of the Bronx Borough President,
Policy and Budget Office. Qualifications: In-depth knowledge of New York City
expense and capital budgets (3+ years relevant experience). Excellent analytical
skills. Computer competent, including spreadsheet applications. Flexible, dead-
line oriented and committed to teamwork. Salary commensurate with experi-
ence, comprehensive benefits. Please send or fax resume and cover letter to:
Mr. Hyman Frankel, Director, Policy and Budget Office, 851 Grand Concourse,
Room 207, Bronx, NY 10451. Fax: 718-537-3583. Equal Opportunity Employer.
M.F.H.V.
FUNDRAISING DEVD.OPRIEVENTS COORDINATOR. For citywide nonprofit. Maintain
donor database, assist with events, interact with vendors, research funders, assist
directors. Strong database skills required include history of maintaining & modify-
ing complex system. Draft correspondence, reports, statistical tables and write
profiles. Accurate and Detail oriented. College degree. MS Access, Word & Excel
required. Donor Perfect a plus. Salary mid-$30Ks. Resume: on, CCNYC, 305 7th
Ave. NYC 10001 or jobs@citizensnyc.org. Include dvlpievents in the subject line.
Planned Parenthood of NYC is currently recruiting for two full-time SOCIAL WORK
ER positions. Community Initiatives: Establish a new program component aimed
at reducing teen pregnancy and promoting sexual health, including in-depth
intervention for sisters and daughters of teen mothers and an academic men-
toring effort. Key contact to school and other community-based organizations.
Provides limited individual counseling and works as part of a team to provide
high quality, integrated services. Requires at least three years' experience in
providing services to youth and familiarity with effective pregnancy prevention
strategies. CWS required. Bilingual Spanish/ English required. Bronx Center:
Guides, directs and maximizes the quality and provision of counseling and
social services to clients within our Health Centers in the South Bronx or
Downtown Brooklyn. Counsels individuals directly, intervening with individuals
requiring special services and makes referrals as appropriate. Orients, trains
and supervises center counseling and social service activities. Requires at
least two years' related or applicable experience. CSW required. Bilingual
Spanish/English preferred. Interested candidates should fax their resume with
cover letter and salary requirement to the Human Resources Manager at 212-
274-7218. No phone calls, please. PPNYC is an Equal Opportunity Employer:
Women and minorities are encouraged to apply.
&1:1
Education Law Center (ELC), a Newark-based, nationally recognized nonprofit
advocacy organization specializing in education law, seeks a STAFF ATTORNEY to
provide legal representation for disadvantaged and disabled students in K-12 pub-
lic schools. The successful applicant must have excellent legal skills and a
demonstrated commitment to public interest law. Experience preferred. Please
send resume, writing samples and references to: Ellen M. Boylan, Esq., Education
Law Center. 155 Washington St .. Suite 205. Newark. NJ 07102.
Local Economic Development Corp. seeks individual to market, counsel borrow-
ers and provide administrative support for LOAN FUND. Requirement: sales skills,
fluent in both English and Spanish, and knowledge of small business develop-
ment. Send resume to: K. Hill. SOBRO. 370 E. 149th St.. Bronx. NY 10455.
EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR, FIT, with new Trenton-area nonprofit housing trade associa-
tion and resource center. Member organizations include key players in housing
development, counseling, education and lending. 3 years' similar experience pre-
ferred. Send resume to CAHRC. 10 Wood St.. Trenton. NJ 08618.
NYC OUTRACH COORDINATOR. The Coordinator will provide ongoing support to
the nearly 100 Archdiocesan-affiliated emergency food and shelter programs.
Provide guidance to programs in the areas of general management and
resources. Maintain statistics re: advocacy and fundraising efforts. BA or BS
degree. Nutrition degree preferred. Knowledge of Microsoft Word and Excel nec-
essary. Access helpful. Excellent communication and organizational skills.
Ability to accept flexible hours and travel throughout Manhattan, Staten Island
and the Bronx. Prior nonprofit experience and work with people in need.
Excellent benefits, 19 holidays. Send resume, salary requirements and include
job title in your response to 1011 Rrst Ave., rm. 1113, NY, NY 10022. Or fax
to 212-826-8795.
The South Bronx Overall Economic Development (SOBRO), one of NYC's largest
economic and community development corporations is seeking energetiC, entre-
preneurial persons for the following positions: HOUSING SPECIALIST. Manages
SOBRO's housing services initiatives, including: providing technical assistance to
property owners and tenant associations, establishing training sessions, assisting
property owners with stabilizing properties and when appropriate assisting tenants
with gaining ownership of a distressed property. Salary low to mid $30s. COMMU
NITY LIAISON, Housing Services. Responsible for providing support in various hous-
ing and community development initiatives, including: conducting outreach to prop-
erty owners, homeowners and tenant groups to inform them of anti-abandonment
programs and housing services, and coordinating and assisting with technical
assistance to other nonprofits. Mid to high $20s. COMMUNITY LIAISON, Tenant
Services. Responsible for providing tenant support to the residents of Mott Haven,
including employment linkages, training programs and negotiation/ mediation
assistance with landlordS. Mid to high $20s. Please send resume and cover letter
to: Ms. Karen Hill. SOBRO, 370 East 149th St .. Bronx. NY 10455.
PROGRAM DIRECTOR. National nonprofit CDC intermediary seeks creative and
experienced Program Director to manage its multi-site New Jersey program. The
poSition requires a strong background in leadership development, fundraising,
real estate finance and community revitalization. Ability to work with grassroots
groups, foundations, corporate executives and government is essential.
Competitive salary and excellent benefits. NJ residency will be required. Send
cover letter and resume to Richard Manson, Vice President, LlSC, 733 Third Ave.,
New York. NY 10017.
DIRECTOR OF DEVD.OPMENT. Bronx-based community development organization
seeks highly motivated, creative individual to oversee housing & economic devel-
opment activities. Responsibilities include supervising housing specialist, project
manager of retail development, and fundraising. 3 plus years' experience in real
estate or community development, strong communication and administration
ski ll s required. Salary commensurate with experience and education. Resume
and cover letter to: Carla Pennyman, MBD Community Housing Corp., 1762
Boston Road, Bronx, NY 10460. Fax: 718-542-7694.
Acclaimed multi-service youth agency seeks DIRECTOR OF HEALTH SERVICES for
leadership and development of health services programs and systems. Master's
in Public Health or related field required. Minimum of 5 years' experience in
healthcare administration and program development, including training and
supervision in an ambulatory care setting and healthcare delivery to adoles-
cents. Grant writing experience a must. Send resume to: Michele White, The
Door, 121 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10013. EOE.
OFFICE SPACE
SUB-TENANTS SOUGHT. Prisoners' Legal Services of New York, 105 Chambers
Street, corner of Church St., has 5 offices, 4 windowed, available for sub-leas-
ing to individuals or groups until at least April 1, 1999. Two other nonprofits sub-
lease space on the same floor and there is a nice, collegial environment. If inter-
ested call David Leven at 212-513-7373.
OFf1CE SPACE FOR RENT. If you are looking for a new, clean, well-lit office (one
room) for $600 a month in a congenial atmosphere near City Hall, please call
Lynne Wei kart at City Project, Inc., 212-866-0700.
CITY LIMITS
The Pratt Area Community Council (PACC) is a growing not-for-profit community-
based organization. We combine tenant and community organizing, tenant and
homeowner services, affordable housing development and management, and
economic development to bui ld the Brooklyn communities of Ft. Greene, Clinton
Hill and Bedford-Stuyvesant. PACC has the following positions available: As part
of our organizing team, an ORGANIZER to work with tenants and community asso-
ciations to address bui lding and community-wide issues. Knowledge of housing
laws and regulations, tenants right s and HPD programs helpful. Self-starter, bilin-
gual English/ Spanish a plus. SUPPORT SERVICE COORDINATOR to provide counsel-
ing, workshops and case management to low-income tenants. Experience in case
management and counseling required. Some evening or weekend hours. PROP-
ERTY MANAGER to join our management team to perform low-income apartment
rentals, collections and building inspections. Knowledge of rental subsidies and
building systems helpful. Must be computer literate. Commitment to community
development and not-for-profit experience preferred. Women and people of color
are strongly encouraged to apply. Competitive salary. Send cover letter and
resume to: PACC, 201 Dekalb Avenue. Brooklyn. NY 11205. Fax: 718-522-2604.
EMPlOYMENT COUNSELOR. Provide individual counseling to unemployed adult men
and women, as well as support groups to enhance skills and advance in job search
readiness. Collaborate with program' s job developer in utilizing openings for unsub-
sidized jobs which we recruit citywide. Minimum of college degree required, along
with experience in counseling labor-market-disadvantaged adults. Program's loca-
tion is in Brooklyn with easy access to subway lines. Please phone 718-788-3500,
or fax resume to 718-788-9277. Center for Family Life in Sunset Park.
DlRECTOR_ Bronx EOC Child Care Center seeks a leader with strong fiscal , program
and facility management skills to direct the daily operat ions of a child care cen-
ter. The CCC serves infants through 4-year-olds whose parents attend adult train-
ing programs in the Bathgate Industrial Park. Requirements: MA in ECE plus per-
manent NYS Cert. N-6. Minimum of 5 years' leadership experience. Advocacy
expertise essential. Knowledge of NYC Welfare to Work Init iative and child care
funding a plus. HEAD TEACHER, Requirements: MA in ECE with NYS Certification.
Bilingual in Spanish/ English a plus. Send cover letter and resume to: Mary Hayes,
BEOC Child Care Center, 1600 Bathgate Ave., Bronx, NY 10045. EOE/ AA. Prompt
response encouraged.
Progressive and multiservice settlement house seeks: Fir DIRECTOR ($35K).
Manage a well established senior center with varied programming, including com-
puter instruction for older adults, a nutrition program and a large active volunteer
base. Community organizing background a plus. MSW with at least 2 years' super-
visory experience in aging. Submit resume to K. Lauritzen, Kew Gardens
Community Center, 8(}'()2 Kew Gardens Rd., Kew Gardens, NY 11415. Or fax to
718-268-0295.
PIr DIRECTOR (28 hours, $28K). Supervise the directors of 4 senior centers,
including 2 newly developed centers with model programming. Handle staff and
program development. Community organizing a plus. Submit resumes to B.
Kattan, The Forest Hills Community House, 108-25 62nd Dr. , Forest Hills, New
York 11375.
CASE MANAGER ($26K). Manage case load of homebound elderly clients. Assess
for services. BA a must, BSW preferred plus 2 years' experience with the elderly.
Computer fluency a must. Submit resume to E. Golan, the Forest Hills Community
House 108-25 62nd Dr., Forest Hills, New York 11375.
Economic and community development proj ect located in Mott Haven, South
Bronx is seeking experienced, sel f-star ters: BUSINESS SPECIALIST,
Responsibilities: To coordinate a Small Business Entrepreneurship Training
Program primarily targeted for minority- and women-owned enterprises.
Implement a business curriculum designed to train entrepreneurs in the devel-
opment of a marketable business plan/ financial portfolio. Provide technical
assistance regarding securing loans, establishing credit, marketing, taxes, etc.
Develop li nkages with area retail and manufacturing business, lending institu-
tions and other business organizations. Qualifications: Bachelor's degree with 3-
5 years of business counseling or business development experience. Strong
knowledge of small business and entrepreneurship development and business
planning. Excellent writing and communication skills. Proficiency in WordPerfect
6.1. Fluency in English and Spanish a plus. Salary: $35,000+, commensurate
with experience. Excellent benefits package. ADMINISTRATIVE ASSISTANT_
Responsibilities: Handle main desk and telephone; direct all incoming visitors
and calls. Utilize computer to organize, update and maintain MIS data, reports,
forms, charts, tables and notices. Organize and maintain administrative files
including fiscal , personnel and contract information. Qualifications: Excellent
computer, communication and organizational skills. Ability to handle the public
and keen attention to details. Superior knowledge of WordPerfect 6.1 essential ,
knowledge of MIS systems a plus. Bilingual language proficiency
(Spanish/ English) a prerequisite for consideration. Forward resume/cover letter
to: Estel Fonseca, Project Director, Neighborhood Strategies Project, 384 E.
149th St., Suite 400, Bronx, NY 10455. Fax: 718-585-1525.
MFY Legal Services, Inc. serving Manhattan reSidents of the Lower East Side,
Chinatown, East Harlem, Clinton and Manhattan Valley has immediate openings
for an OFFlCE MANAGER and a TIMPORARY RECEPTIONIST (one year). The recep-
tionist must be fluent in Engli sh, Mandarin and Cantonese. Excellent vacation and
benefits. Please call 212-417-3763 for fax of full posting.
PROJECT DIRECTOR, MSW for new effort by consumer advocacy group to organize
relatives of nursing home residents to press industry adoption of proven innova-
tive approaches and "best practices. ' Resume/ cover letter to FRIA (Friends and
Relatives of Institutionalized Aged) . 11 John St., #601, New York, NY 10038. Fax:
212-732-6945.
Citizens Advice Bureau aftercare program for formerly homeless families has an
opening for a CASE MANAGERIWORKSHOP FACILITATOR. Position requires a bache-
lor' s degree and experience with running support groups or workshops. Fax
resume and cover letter to Julie Belizaire at 718-993-7950.
SPECIAL EVENTS COORDINATOR. Progressive advocacy and direct service nonprofit
seeks energetic person to coordinate and manage events. Must work indepen-
dently and as part of a team. Excellent communication skills, BA/ BS and 2 years '
experience required. EOE. Send resume, cover letter and writing sampl e to:
Development Director, Coalition for the Homeless, 89 Chambers St., New York,
NY 10007.
RECEPT10NIST/ADMINlSTRAnvE ASSISTANT. Articulate, enthusiastic self-starter
needed for dynamic nonprofit. Must possess heavy multi-line phone reception
experi ence, excellent organizational skills, a working knowledge of MS Word, a
professional demeanor and appearance. Provide info referrals. MS Access a plus.
Salary negotiable, commensurate with experience. EOE. Resume to KZ, CCNYC,
305 7th Ave., 15th R. , NYC 10001. Or e-mail (attn: KZ) atjobs@citizensnyc.org.
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Const ructi on loan
Development Of Supermarket
Harlem Community
An investment
195,000
Financing For Renovation
156 HOUSing Units
Hunt s POint
Bronx Community
EAB.
EAB.
with invaluable
\ returns.
\
At EAB Community Development Corporation, we're constantly
working with private and public entities to turn limited resources into
powerful tools for improving communities in New York City. And so far it's
working. Through partner hips with organizations such as the Jew York City
Housing Partnership, Neighborhood Housing Services of ew York City and
Abyssinnian Development Corporation, EAB Community Development
Corporation has provided moderate income New Yorkers with affordable
housing opportunities, as well as economic development for communities as a
whole. To find out what else is possible with EAB's Community Development
Corporation, call Diane Borradaile at 212-370-8547.
Member ABN AMRD Group
III
'"'"
19, 775,000
"-
Financing for Renovation
165 Hous1nO Units
Bedford -Stuyvesant
Brookl yn Community
EAB.
..
000, 000
'"'"
"-
Construction loan
IlZ Semor Cltizen Housing Units
Day Care Facility
Hempstead Community
EAB.
There's a reason people bank
1998 EAB EAB Member FDIC. Equal Opportunity Lender.