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e Noble-Abel Equation of State:

Derivations for Ballistics Modelling


Ian A. Johnston
Weapons Systems Division

ermodynamic

Defence Science and Technology Organisation

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ABSTRACT

Accurate modelling of gun interior ballistics promotes more e propelling charge design. propellant gas.

such models require a description of the thermodynamic behaviour of the e Noble-Abel equation provides a simple and reasonably

In order to simulate interior ballistic

cient gun and ow elds,

peratures experienced in guns. Most computational must be derived from the equation of state.

accurate equation of state for propellant gases at the high densities and tem-

listics models, however, require additional thermodynamic functions which is note presents the derivation

uid dynamics-based bal-

of such thermodynamic functions for Noble-Abel gases. Although the derivacode, the results are equally applicable to all computational highlighting the di equations. uid dynamics

tions are geared toward the functional requirements of the commercial Fluent solvers. Also presented is a brief numerical example for a typical propellant,

erent thermodynamics of the Noble-Abel and ideal gas

APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE

DSTOTN0670

Published by Defence Science and T echnology Organisation PO Box Edinburgh, South Australia T elephone: Facsimile: ( ) , Australia

Commonwealth of Australia AR No. November, -

APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE

ii

DSTOTN0670

e Noble-Abel Equation of State:

for Ballistics Modelling

ermodynamic Derivations

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

quire a description of the thermodynamic behaviour of the propellant gas. gases at the high densities and temperatures experienced in guns. Most computational

pelling charge design. In order to simulate interior ballistic

Accurate modelling of gun interior ballistics promotes more e ow

elds, such models re-

cient gun and pro-

Abel equation provides a simple and reasonably accurate equation-of-state for propellant

e Noble-

note presents the derivation of a range of thermodynamic functions for Noble-Abel gases. ey include:

tional thermodynamic functions which must be derived from the equation-of-state.

uid dynamics-based ballistics models, however, require addiis

Entropy , Speed of sound, e functional form of the speci c heats, c heats and gas constant,

e relationship between the speci e isentropic process, and

Various partial derivatives of density and enthalpy .

cial Fluent code, the results are equally applicable to all computational solvers.

Although the derivations are geared toward the functional requirements of the commeruid dynamics

( JA

Also presented is a brief numerical example for a high-energy tank gun propellant ), demonstrating the di

state and two of the derived functions.

erence between the Noble-Abel and ideal gas equations-of-

iii

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iv

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Contents
Nomenclature ix

Introduction

ermodynamic Functions . . . . . . . Equation of State Speci c Heats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

e Speci Entropy

c Gas Constant . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

e Isentropic Process Sound Speed . . . . .

Partial Derivatives of State Variables

Example

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Figures
Pressure as a function of density and temperature for JA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Sound speed as a function of density and temperature for JA Entropy as a function of density and temperature for JA . .

vi

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Tables
Properties of JA Propellant Gas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

vii

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viii

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Nomenclature

a b cp cv E e F h n P R s S t T u U v V

Speed of Sound [m/s] Speci Co-volume [m /kg] Speci c Heat at Constant Pressure [ J/(kg K)] c Heat at Constant Volume [ J/(kg K)]

Vector of Fluxes Enthalpy [ J/kg] Pressure [Pa]

Internal Energy [ J/kg]

Intensive Total Energy [ J/kg]

Normal Unit Vector Speci c Gas Constant [ J/(kg K)]

Temperature [K]

Time [s]

Surface Area [m ]

Entropy [ J/(kg K)]

Velocity Vector [m/s] Speci Coe

Vector of Conserved Variables c Volume [m /kg]

Volume [m ]

Density [kg/m ]

Ratio of Speci

cient for Intermolecular A c Heats

raction [m /(kg s )]

ix

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Introduction

environment makes experimental instrumentation and measurement di tion domain. e ability to add or remove di

periments, models provide a range of additional bene

and assess a gun performance characteristics before it is built, tested, purchased or mods ed. Although such a predictive utility can be partially achieved through targeted exts. e extreme interior ballistic cult, whereas it

cheaper gun and propelling charge design. Likewise, modelling can be used to predict

e capability to accurately model gun interior ballistics (IB) promotes faster and

is normally possible to determine all modelled physical quantities throughout a simulamodels to be used to identify the relative action of the various ballistic processes. Modelling also allows automated optimization. For example, charge weight can be minimized erent physical phenomena at will, allows

by optimizing propellant grain geometry subject to muzzle velocity and maximum pressure constraints.

phase, multi-dimensional computational NGEN [ sive. ] code, provide higher-

and applied to calculate projectile base pressure and its resulting acceleration. uid dynamics

ables.

HVG

One of the simplest classes of IB models are lumped parameter models, such as IB[ A particular pressure gradient between breech and projectile base is assumed ow (CFD) solvers, such as the ame spreading Two], where the dynamic ring process is represented by mean (lumped) state vari-

within the propellant bed, boundary layer formation, and pressure waves can be modwhich combines a one-dimensional elled using this class of tools. Of intermediate complexity are codes such as XKTC [ ow solver with a lumped-parameter model.

Physical phenomena such as inter-phase drag, axial and radial

delity IB simulations but are computationally expen-

],

the thermodynamics of the propellant gas. Consider the Euler equations, which may be are used by the CFD solvers to describe the ballistic a control volume thought of as a simpli ed version of the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations that en in integral form as ow. Assuming no source terms, for

Irrespective of which approach is used, all models require an accurate description of

the Euler equations can be wri

t
volume, where

U dV +
V S

F dS = 0 ,

variable. For a single-species, single-phase

refer to the volume and surface of the control volume respectively and , ow, the vectors

F is a vector of

is a vector representing conserved

uxes across the surface of the control volume, the scalars

ow quantities at points within the control

U = u , E
primitive variables kinetic energy as Here,

and

F=

(u n) u(u n) + Pn . E(u n) + P(u n)

t is the time U and F may be expressed as


( e

and

u is the

uid velocity vector and

total energy respectively Total energy can be expressed in terms of internal energy and .

, P, and E

represent density absolute static pressure, and intensive ,

n is a unit normal to the control volume surface.

E = e + 1 |u|2 , 2

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and internal energy can be calculated by integrating the constant-volume speci with respect to temperature:

c heat

e=
Equations

T T

cv dT.
uidmust be provided.

ref

an additional equationrelating the state variables of the

contain six variables but provide only

ve relations. To solve the system

For gases at moderate to low density the ideal gas equation of state ,

P = RT,
where tion of state is accurate providing that (

R is the speci

c gas constant, can be used to close the system.

molecular forces are weak. For many practical

free path of the gas is very large compared to the size of the gas molecules, and (

) the average intermolecular spacing or mean ow regimes both of these assumptions Solid loading densities for gun pro-

e ideal gas equa) inter-

are true. However, the high gas densities occurring in a gun chamber during combustion render the ideal gas equation of state inaccurate. pelling charges are typically of the order kg/m . Peak gas densities produced

of propellant is burnt before the projectile has moved very far downbore.

during the ballistic cycle may also approach this magnitude since, in most guns, the bulk

provement in accuracy for high density gases. It is of the form [

While still an approximation, the van der Waals equation of state provides an im]

(P + /v2 )(v b) = RT,


ume occupied by the gas molecules, while the term traction forces. Note that in the case where the gas speci c volume

v 1/.

e co-volume

so-called Noble-Abel equation of state:

the a

molecular a

of state. In ballistics applications, the high propellant gas temperature means that interraction term can be removed without signi raction energy is small in comparison to molecular kinetic energy [ cant loss of accuracy resulting in the , ].

= b = 0, Equation

b compensates for the nite vol/v2 accounts for intermolecular atreverts to the ideal gas equation us

P(v b) = RT.
Equation can be used to describe the propellant gas with su

namic functions corresponding to this equation of state. It is necessary to calculate sound speed, for example, in order to evaluate the Courant-Friedrich-Lewy criterion and maintain numerical stability; the expression for speed of sound in an ideal gas is di erent

ther is required.

lumped parameter and CFD IB models. For lumped parameter modelling, nothing furMost CFD models, however, require a range of additional thermody-

cient accuracy for both

quired quantities for certain implicit CFD schemes. related to) the equation of state.

to that for Noble-Abel gases. Similarly partial derivatives of state variables may be re, e commercial Fluent CFD code [

for example, requires eight thermodynamic functions that must be derived from (or are

],

thermodynamic functions for a Noble-Abel gas. Although this note closely follows the research CFD solvers. Also presented is a numerical example for a typical propellant,

e aim of this note is to present the derivation of such

requirements of the Fluent code, the results are equally applicable to all commercial and comparing thermodynamic quantities calculated under the Noble-Abel equation of state with those of an ideal gas.

DSTOTN0670

ermodynamic Functions
nitions for the thermodynamic functions listed below [ . . . ].

ese functions, and some additional relations, are derived in Sections

e Fluent code requires de

(T, P) T
2.1

c p (T, ) P

h(T, ) (T, ) h T

s(T, ) (T, )

a(T, ) h P (T, )

(T, )

Equation of State
e Noble-Abel equation of state has already been de ned in the introduction as

P(v b) = RT,
equation as however Fluent requires an equation of state in the form

(T, P).

It is easy to recast the ( )

= P/(RT + bP)

to satisfy this requirement.

2.2

Speci

c Heats
c heat at constant pressure as a function of density and

temperature. ey are de

Fluent also requires the speci ned as

For completeness we will consider both speci

c heats in this subsection.

cp
From Reference [

h T cp

and

cv

e T

can be related to the equation of state via

], the gradient of

with respect to pressure at constant temperature

c p P

= T
T

2 v T 2

Evaluating the right hand side for the Noble-Abel equation of state yields

c p P
By Equation

= T
T

2 T 2

RT +b P

= 0.

this also proves that

(c p /) T = 0, and hence c p (, T) = c p (T)


( c heat at constant volume: )

for a Noble-Abel gas. A similar proof is possible for speci

cv v

=T

2 P T 2

=T

2 T 2

RT vb

= 0,

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and thus

cv (, T) = cv (T).
be conveniently implemented in computer code as a curve temperature, the calori Results and show that, for a Noble-Abel gas, the speci

of temperature only .

As an alternative to providing the speci

t or look-up table in terms c heats as a function of

c heat functions can

cally perfect approximation could also be made:

c p = constant
2.3 e Speci

and

cv = constant.

c Gas Constant

temperature only We now proceed to show that these quantities can be related, such that . need to provide two separate tables (or curve if one speci c heat is known then the other may be calculated easily . ts). From Reference [ ]

e previous section showed that both

cp

and

cv

could be expressed as functions of is obviates the

c p cv = T

v T

2 P

P v

Evaluating the partial derivatives from the Noble-Abel equation of state yields

c p cv = T

R P

RT . (v b)2

Upon simplifying, we get the convenient relationship

c p cv = R,
which is the same as that for ideal gases.

2.4

Entropy

tion

Entropy for a Noble-Abel gas may be derived starting from the thermodynamic rela-

Tds = de + PdV.
Substituting with Equations and , we have

ds = cv
Equation

R dT + dv. T vb

may be integrated to calculate the entropy di

erence between two states:

s2 s1 =

T2 T1

cv dT + T

v2 v1

R dv. vb

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grated if the form of integration yields

e second term is easy to evaluate, however the

cv

is known. For the case of a calori

rst term can only be analytically intecally perfect gas (Equation

),

s2 s1 = cv ln

T2 T1 T2 T1

+ R ln

v2 b v1 b 1/2 b 1/1 b

or equivalently in the form required by Fluent, ,

s2 s1 = cv ln
2.5 e Isentropic Process

+ R ln

changes occurring at constant entropy yields a result that will be of use in the following section. For an isentropic process gives

Although not directly important to ballistics modelling, the consideration of state

s1 = s2 , and for a calori T2 T1 = R ln cv v2 b v1 b


R/cv

cally perfect gas Equation

ln
and thus

T2 = T1

v1 b v2 b

.
c volume (Equation

( ) yields

Replacing the temperature terms by pressure and speci

P2 (v2 b) = P1 (v1 b)
and

v1 b v2 b

R/cv

P1 (v1 b)(1+R/cv ) = P2 (v2 b)(1+R/cv ) .


c heats is de ned as

in the expression

e ratio of speci

c p /cv , which together with Equation

results ( )

P(v b) = constant Pv
cally perfect, Noble-Abel gas.

for an isentropic process in a calori the familiar ideal-gas expression

= constant.

is is analagous to

2.6

Sound Speed
e speed of sound in a gas,

propagation. From Reference [

], this is

a,

is de

ned as the speed of reversible pressure wave

a=

1/2 s

We may expand the partial derivative using the chain rule

=
s

P v v

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and since speci

c volume is just the reciprocal of density

=
s

P v

v2 .

volume

We now take the partial derivative of both sides of Equation

with respect to speci

[P(v b) ] = 0, v

and by the product rule

P (v b) + P(v b)(1) = 0. v
Remembering that Equation gas, we therefore have represented an isentropic process in a calori

cally perfect

P v
Finally substitution of Equations , a calori cally perfect Noble-Abel gas: and

=
s

P . vb

into Equation

yields the speed of sound in

a=

v vb

RT.

premultiplying coe

is expression may be thought of as the speed of sound in an ideal gas, cient to correct for the e

the form required by Fluent,

ect of co-volume. It is easily rewri

RT , with a
en in

a=
It can be shown that Equation

1 1 b

RT.

gases which are not calori expression

cally perfect. In Reference [

also holds for the more general case of Noble-Abel

], Anderson derives the general

a2 =
imperfect gases. to speci

P 1 + (1/P)(e/v) T 1 (h/P) T

for the sound speed of non-ideal gases, reacting gases, and thermally and calori modynamic relations given in [ e partial derivatives of Equation ].

c volume at constant temperature can be related to the equation of state via

e partial derivative of internal energy with respect

can be evaluated using two ther-

cally

e v
Upon substition of Equation

=T

P T

P.

, we have

e v

=
T

RT P = 0. vb

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Likewise, the partial derivative of enthalpy with respect to pressure at constant temperature can be evaluated by the relation

h P

= vT

v T

For the Noble-Abel equation of state, this yields

h P
A er substitution of Equations and

= v

RT = b. P
we have

into Equation

a2 =
which can be simpli ed to give

P 1 , 1 b

a=

1 1 b

RT.

given by Equation

is expression is identical to the sound speed for calori .

cally perfect Noble-Abel gases

2.7

Partial Derivatives of State V ariables


e Fluent code additionally requires that various partial derivatives of state variables

be supplied. Derivations of the non-trivial partial derivatives are now provided.

temperature, starting with the chain rule

First we the derive the partial derivative of density with respect to pressure at constant

P
and thus

=
T

v v P 1 v2 v P

=
T

From the Noble-Abel equation of state

(v b) T = P P
so

RT P RT . P2

v P

=
T

Substituting this into Equation

and simplifying yields the result

=
T

1 RT

vb v

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which can be rewri

en in the required form as

=
T

(1 b)2 . RT

stant pressure. A derivation similar to the above gives

Fluent also needs the partial derivative of density with respect to temperature at con-

T
is by de nition equal to ).

=
P

b2 . T
e rst,

Finally two partial derivatives of enthalpy are required by Fluent. ,

b (Equation

cp

(Equation

).

e second,

(h/P) T

is equal to the co-volume

(h/T) P

Example
erence between the Noblee approximate thermody-

mance tank gun propellant, JA namic properties of JA

Abel and ideal gas equations of state and two of the derived functions. propellant gas, including its speci . , will be used as the subject.

A brief example is now presented, to demonstrate the di

A high perforame

temperature, are shown in Table Figure

c heats at the propellant

calculated using the Noble-Abel and ideal gas equations is represented by the coloured is contours. At a typical IB gas density of %. e di erences in pressure are observed to be independent of temperature. c volume (or density) only: kg/m , for example, the pressure di

lant gas, according to the Noble-Abel equation of state.

shows pressure as a function of density and temperature for JA

e variation between pressure

propel-

erence

is to be expected, since the ideal and Noble-Abel equations of state can be related by a substitution in terms of speci Figure

is

v (v b).

state (Equation

pellant gas, assuming that it is calori ). Again, the di

shows sound speed as a function of density and temperature for JA

similar magnitude to those already observed for pressure.

are represented by coloured contours and depend on density only .

erence between the Noble-Abel and ideal-gas values e di erences are of

cally perfect and obeys the Noble-Abel equation of

pro-

Equation

Abel equation of state.

Entropy as a function of density and temperature, is shown in Figure , ) corresponding to a state of e gas is assumed calori K and kg/m

cally perfect. A reference entropy ( has been used. e di

for the Nobleerence

s 1 in

between the Noble-Abel and ideal-gas entropy is shown in the entropy values. e e

gure in terms of absolute

on the particular gun and propellant properties, and the operating regime. In the case of JA guns can be expected to di er by around %. Likewise, peak gun chamber pressure %) when the Noble-Abel equation .

ect of the equation of state on predicted ballistic performance is dependent

propellant, muzzle velocity predictions for typical high performance medium-calibre cantly higher (around

is used instead of the ideal gas equation.

predictions will be signi

is is consistent with the results of Figure

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Table

: Properties of JA

Propellant Gas

Gas Constant, Speci Speci

334 J/(kg K) 1.225 1484 J/(kg K) 1818 J/(kg K) 0.001 m /kg 3410 K

c Heat Ratio,

c v (T f ) Speci c Heat at Constant Pressure, c p (T f ) Co-volume, b Flame Temperature of Solid Propellant, T f

c Heat at Constant Volume,

1500
D ifference [% ]

46 42 38 34 30 26 22 18 14 10 6 2

1000

P [MP a]

500

0 400 3000

4000

[kg

/ 3 m ]

200 0

1000

2000
] T [K

the Noble-Abel equation of state. Coloured contours indicate the di Noble-Abel gas results.

Figure

: Pressure as a function of density and temperature for JA

erence between ideal gas and

propellant gas, according to

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D ifference [% ]

46

2000

42 38 34 30 26 22 18 14 10 6 2

1000

a [m/ s]

0 400 3000

4000

[kg

/ 3 m ]

200 0

1000

2000
] T [K

Figure

to the Noble-Abel equation of state. Coloured contours indicate the di and Noble-Abel gas results.

: Sound speed as a function of density and temperature for JA

propellant gas, according erence between ideal gas

4000
D ifference [J / (kg K )]

210 190 170 150 130


s [J / (kg K )]

2000

110 90 70 50 30 10

- 2000

400

[kg

/ 3 m ]

200 0

1000

2000
] T [K

3000

4000

the Noble-Abel equation of state. Coloured contours indicate the di Noble-Abel gas calculations.

Figure

: Entropy as a function of density and temperature for JA

erence between ideal gas and

propellant gas, according to

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References
. Anderson, R. D. & Fickie, K. D. ( ) IBHVG A User Guide, BRL-TRs , Ab-

erdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Nusca, M. J. & Conroy P J. ( , .

Combustion in Gun Systems, AIAA Paper Gough, P S. ( . )

) Multiphase CFD Simulations of Solid Propellant .

Maryland.

e XNOVAKTC Code, BRL-CR-

, Aberdeen Proving Ground,

Powell, E. G., Wilmot, G., Haar, L. & Klein, M. ( Interior Ballistics of Guns, Vol. York, United States, pp. Fluent, Inc. (

dynamic Data for Interior Ballistics Calculations, in H. Krier & M. Summer .

) Equations of State and

of Progress in Astronautics and Aeronautics, AIAA, New

eld, eds,

ermo-

. .

) Fluent

Users Guide. ) Fundamentals of Classical ermodynamics, rd

Van Wylen, G. J. & Sonntag, R. E. ( edn, John Wiley & Sons, chapter Anderson, J. D. (

McGraw Hill, New York, United States.

) Modern Compressible Flow With Historical Perspective,

nd edn,

DSTOTN0670

Page classi

cation: UNCLASSIFIED
1. CA VEAT/PRIV ACY MARKING

DEFENCE SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY ORGANISATION DOCUMENT CONTROL DATA

2. TITLE

3. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION

namic Derivations for Ballistics Modelling

Noble-Abel

Equation

of

State:

ermody-

Document Title Abstract

(U) (U)

(U)

4. AUTHORS

5. CORPORATE AUTHOR

Ian A. Johnston

Defence Science and Technology Organisation PO Box 1500 Edinburgh, South Australia 5111, Australia

DSTOTN0670
8. FILE NUMBER

6a. DSTO NUMBER

6b. AR NUMBER

013-525 LRR 05/056

6c. TYPE OF REPORT

Technical Note 12

November, 2005 7

7. DOCUMENT DATE

2005/1076178

9. TASK NUMBER

10. SPONSOR

DSTO

11. No OF PAGES

12. No OF REFS

13. URL OF ELECTRONIC VERSION

14. RELEASE AUTHORITY

p://www.dsto.defence.gov .au/corporate/ reports/DSTOTN0670.pdf

Chief, Weapons Systems Division

15. SECONDARY RELEASE STATEMENT OF THIS DOCUMENT

Approved For Public Release


OVERSEAS ENQUIRIES OUTSIDE STATED LIMITATIONS SHOULD BE REFERRED THROUGH DOCUMENT EXCHANGE, PO BOX 1500, EDINBURGH, SOUTH AUSTRALIA 5111

16. DELIBERATE ANNOUNCEMENT

No Limitations
17. CITATION IN OTHER DOCUMENTS

No Limitations
18. DSTO RESEARCH LIBRARY THESAURUS

Interior ballistics

Equations of state
19. ABSTRACT

ermodynamic properties

Gases

Guns

Propellants

sign. In order to simulate interior ballistic dynamic behaviour of the propellant gas. guns. Most computational

Accurate modelling of gun interior ballistics promotes more e ow

accurate equation of state for propellant gases at the high densities and temperatures experienced in

e Noble-Abel equation provides a simple and reasonably

elds, such models require a description of the thermo-

cient gun and propelling charge de-

modynamic functions which must be derived from the equation of state.

uid dynamics-based ballistics models, however, require additional ther-

all computational

ward the functional requirements of the commercial Fluent code, the results are equally applicable to propellant, highlighting the di erent thermodynamics of the Noble-Abel and ideal gas equations. Page classi cation: UNCLASSIFIED

tion of such thermodynamic functions for Noble-Abel gases. Although the derivations are geared touid dynamics solvers. Also presented is a brief numerical example for a typical

is note presents the deriva-