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Ian A. Johnston

Weapons Systems Division

ermodynamic

DSTOTN0670

ABSTRACT

Accurate modelling of gun interior ballistics promotes more e propelling charge design. propellant gas.

such models require a description of the thermodynamic behaviour of the e Noble-Abel equation provides a simple and reasonably

peratures experienced in guns. Most computational must be derived from the equation of state.

accurate equation of state for propellant gases at the high densities and tem-

listics models, however, require additional thermodynamic functions which is note presents the derivation

of such thermodynamic functions for Noble-Abel gases. Although the derivacode, the results are equally applicable to all computational highlighting the di equations. uid dynamics

tions are geared toward the functional requirements of the commercial Fluent solvers. Also presented is a brief numerical example for a typical propellant,

DSTOTN0670

Published by Defence Science and T echnology Organisation PO Box Edinburgh, South Australia T elephone: Facsimile: ( ) , Australia

ii

DSTOTN0670

ermodynamic Derivations

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

quire a description of the thermodynamic behaviour of the propellant gas. gases at the high densities and temperatures experienced in guns. Most computational

Abel equation provides a simple and reasonably accurate equation-of-state for propellant

e Noble-

note presents the derivation of a range of thermodynamic functions for Noble-Abel gases. ey include:

Entropy , Speed of sound, e functional form of the speci c heats, c heats and gas constant,

cial Fluent code, the results are equally applicable to all computational solvers.

Although the derivations are geared toward the functional requirements of the commeruid dynamics

( JA

Also presented is a brief numerical example for a high-energy tank gun propellant ), demonstrating the di

iii

DSTOTN0670

iv

DSTOTN0670

Contents

Nomenclature ix

Introduction

e Speci Entropy

c Gas Constant . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Example

DSTOTN0670

Figures

Pressure as a function of density and temperature for JA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Sound speed as a function of density and temperature for JA Entropy as a function of density and temperature for JA . .

vi

DSTOTN0670

Tables

Properties of JA Propellant Gas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

vii

DSTOTN0670

viii

DSTOTN0670

Nomenclature

a b cp cv E e F h n P R s S t T u U v V

Speed of Sound [m/s] Speci Co-volume [m /kg] Speci c Heat at Constant Pressure [ J/(kg K)] c Heat at Constant Volume [ J/(kg K)]

Temperature [K]

Time [s]

Surface Area [m ]

Volume [m ]

Density [kg/m ]

Ratio of Speci

raction [m /(kg s )]

ix

DSTOTN0670

DSTOTN0670

Introduction

environment makes experimental instrumentation and measurement di tion domain. e ability to add or remove di

and assess a gun performance characteristics before it is built, tested, purchased or mods ed. Although such a predictive utility can be partially achieved through targeted exts. e extreme interior ballistic cult, whereas it

cheaper gun and propelling charge design. Likewise, modelling can be used to predict

e capability to accurately model gun interior ballistics (IB) promotes faster and

is normally possible to determine all modelled physical quantities throughout a simulamodels to be used to identify the relative action of the various ballistic processes. Modelling also allows automated optimization. For example, charge weight can be minimized erent physical phenomena at will, allows

by optimizing propellant grain geometry subject to muzzle velocity and maximum pressure constraints.

and applied to calculate projectile base pressure and its resulting acceleration. uid dynamics

ables.

HVG

One of the simplest classes of IB models are lumped parameter models, such as IB[ A particular pressure gradient between breech and projectile base is assumed ow (CFD) solvers, such as the ame spreading Two], where the dynamic ring process is represented by mean (lumped) state vari-

within the propellant bed, boundary layer formation, and pressure waves can be modwhich combines a one-dimensional elled using this class of tools. Of intermediate complexity are codes such as XKTC [ ow solver with a lumped-parameter model.

],

the thermodynamics of the propellant gas. Consider the Euler equations, which may be are used by the CFD solvers to describe the ballistic a control volume thought of as a simpli ed version of the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations that en in integral form as ow. Assuming no source terms, for

t

volume, where

U dV +

V S

F dS = 0 ,

refer to the volume and surface of the control volume respectively and , ow, the vectors

F is a vector of

U = u , E

primitive variables kinetic energy as Here,

and

F=

( e

and

u is the

total energy respectively Total energy can be expressed in terms of internal energy and .

, P, and E

E = e + 1 |u|2 , 2

DSTOTN0670

and internal energy can be calculated by integrating the constant-volume speci with respect to temperature:

c heat

e=

Equations

T T

cv dT.

uidmust be provided.

ref

For gases at moderate to low density the ideal gas equation of state ,

P = RT,

where tion of state is accurate providing that (

R is the speci

free path of the gas is very large compared to the size of the gas molecules, and (

) the average intermolecular spacing or mean ow regimes both of these assumptions Solid loading densities for gun pro-

are true. However, the high gas densities occurring in a gun chamber during combustion render the ideal gas equation of state inaccurate. pelling charges are typically of the order kg/m . Peak gas densities produced

of propellant is burnt before the projectile has moved very far downbore.

during the ballistic cycle may also approach this magnitude since, in most guns, the bulk

While still an approximation, the van der Waals equation of state provides an im]

ume occupied by the gas molecules, while the term traction forces. Note that in the case where the gas speci c volume

v 1/.

e co-volume

the a

molecular a

of state. In ballistics applications, the high propellant gas temperature means that interraction term can be removed without signi raction energy is small in comparison to molecular kinetic energy [ cant loss of accuracy resulting in the , ].

= b = 0, Equation

b compensates for the nite vol/v2 accounts for intermolecular atreverts to the ideal gas equation us

P(v b) = RT.

Equation can be used to describe the propellant gas with su

namic functions corresponding to this equation of state. It is necessary to calculate sound speed, for example, in order to evaluate the Courant-Friedrich-Lewy criterion and maintain numerical stability; the expression for speed of sound in an ideal gas is di erent

ther is required.

lumped parameter and CFD IB models. For lumped parameter modelling, nothing furMost CFD models, however, require a range of additional thermody-

quired quantities for certain implicit CFD schemes. related to) the equation of state.

to that for Noble-Abel gases. Similarly partial derivatives of state variables may be re, e commercial Fluent CFD code [

for example, requires eight thermodynamic functions that must be derived from (or are

],

thermodynamic functions for a Noble-Abel gas. Although this note closely follows the research CFD solvers. Also presented is a numerical example for a typical propellant,

requirements of the Fluent code, the results are equally applicable to all commercial and comparing thermodynamic quantities calculated under the Noble-Abel equation of state with those of an ideal gas.

DSTOTN0670

ermodynamic Functions

nitions for the thermodynamic functions listed below [ . . . ].

(T, P) T

2.1

c p (T, ) P

h(T, ) (T, ) h T

s(T, ) (T, )

a(T, ) h P (T, )

(T, )

Equation of State

e Noble-Abel equation of state has already been de ned in the introduction as

P(v b) = RT,

equation as however Fluent requires an equation of state in the form

(T, P).

= P/(RT + bP)

2.2

Speci

c Heats

c heat at constant pressure as a function of density and

temperature. ey are de

cp

From Reference [

h T cp

and

cv

e T

], the gradient of

c p P

= T

T

2 v T 2

Evaluating the right hand side for the Noble-Abel equation of state yields

c p P

By Equation

= T

T

2 T 2

RT +b P

= 0.

( c heat at constant volume: )

cv v

=T

2 P T 2

=T

2 T 2

RT vb

= 0,

DSTOTN0670

and thus

cv (, T) = cv (T).

be conveniently implemented in computer code as a curve temperature, the calori Results and show that, for a Noble-Abel gas, the speci

of temperature only .

c p = constant

2.3 e Speci

and

cv = constant.

c Gas Constant

temperature only We now proceed to show that these quantities can be related, such that . need to provide two separate tables (or curve if one speci c heat is known then the other may be calculated easily . ts). From Reference [ ]

cp

and

cv

c p cv = T

v T

2 P

P v

Evaluating the partial derivatives from the Noble-Abel equation of state yields

c p cv = T

R P

RT . (v b)2

c p cv = R,

which is the same as that for ideal gases.

2.4

Entropy

tion

Entropy for a Noble-Abel gas may be derived starting from the thermodynamic rela-

Tds = de + PdV.

Substituting with Equations and , we have

ds = cv

Equation

R dT + dv. T vb

s2 s1 =

T2 T1

cv dT + T

v2 v1

R dv. vb

DSTOTN0670

cv

),

s2 s1 = cv ln

T2 T1 T2 T1

+ R ln

v2 b v1 b 1/2 b 1/1 b

s2 s1 = cv ln

2.5 e Isentropic Process

+ R ln

changes occurring at constant entropy yields a result that will be of use in the following section. For an isentropic process gives

R/cv

ln

and thus

T2 = T1

v1 b v2 b

.

c volume (Equation

( ) yields

P2 (v2 b) = P1 (v1 b)

and

v1 b v2 b

R/cv

c heats is de ned as

in the expression

e ratio of speci

results ( )

P(v b) = constant Pv

cally perfect, Noble-Abel gas.

= constant.

is is analagous to

2.6

Sound Speed

e speed of sound in a gas,

], this is

a,

is de

a=

1/2 s

=

s

P v v

DSTOTN0670

=

s

P v

v2 .

volume

[P(v b) ] = 0, v

P (v b) + P(v b)(1) = 0. v

Remembering that Equation gas, we therefore have represented an isentropic process in a calori

cally perfect

P v

Finally substitution of Equations , a calori cally perfect Noble-Abel gas: and

=

s

P . vb

into Equation

a=

v vb

RT.

premultiplying coe

is expression may be thought of as the speed of sound in an ideal gas, cient to correct for the e

RT , with a

en in

a=

It can be shown that Equation

1 1 b

RT.

a2 =

imperfect gases. to speci

P 1 + (1/P)(e/v) T 1 (h/P) T

for the sound speed of non-ideal gases, reacting gases, and thermally and calori modynamic relations given in [ e partial derivatives of Equation ].

cally

e v

Upon substition of Equation

=T

P T

P.

, we have

e v

=

T

RT P = 0. vb

DSTOTN0670

Likewise, the partial derivative of enthalpy with respect to pressure at constant temperature can be evaluated by the relation

h P

= vT

v T

h P

A er substitution of Equations and

= v

RT = b. P

we have

into Equation

a2 =

which can be simpli ed to give

P 1 , 1 b

a=

1 1 b

RT.

given by Equation

2.7

e Fluent code additionally requires that various partial derivatives of state variables

First we the derive the partial derivative of density with respect to pressure at constant

P

and thus

=

T

v v P 1 v2 v P

=

T

(v b) T = P P

so

RT P RT . P2

v P

=

T

=

T

1 RT

vb v

DSTOTN0670

=

T

(1 b)2 . RT

Fluent also needs the partial derivative of density with respect to temperature at con-

T

is by de nition equal to ).

=

P

b2 . T

e rst,

b (Equation

cp

(Equation

).

e second,

(h/P) T

(h/T) P

Example

erence between the Noblee approximate thermody-

Abel and ideal gas equations of state and two of the derived functions. propellant gas, including its speci . , will be used as the subject.

A high perforame

calculated using the Noble-Abel and ideal gas equations is represented by the coloured is contours. At a typical IB gas density of %. e di erences in pressure are observed to be independent of temperature. c volume (or density) only: kg/m , for example, the pressure di

propel-

erence

is to be expected, since the ideal and Noble-Abel equations of state can be related by a substitution in terms of speci Figure

is

v (v b).

state (Equation

pro-

Equation

Entropy as a function of density and temperature, is shown in Figure , ) corresponding to a state of e gas is assumed calori K and kg/m

s 1 in

between the Noble-Abel and ideal-gas entropy is shown in the entropy values. e e

on the particular gun and propellant properties, and the operating regime. In the case of JA guns can be expected to di er by around %. Likewise, peak gun chamber pressure %) when the Noble-Abel equation .

propellant, muzzle velocity predictions for typical high performance medium-calibre cantly higher (around

DSTOTN0670

Table

: Properties of JA

Propellant Gas

334 J/(kg K) 1.225 1484 J/(kg K) 1818 J/(kg K) 0.001 m /kg 3410 K

c Heat Ratio,

1500

D ifference [% ]

46 42 38 34 30 26 22 18 14 10 6 2

1000

P [MP a]

500

0 400 3000

4000

[kg

/ 3 m ]

200 0

1000

2000

] T [K

the Noble-Abel equation of state. Coloured contours indicate the di Noble-Abel gas results.

Figure

DSTOTN0670

D ifference [% ]

46

2000

42 38 34 30 26 22 18 14 10 6 2

1000

a [m/ s]

0 400 3000

4000

[kg

/ 3 m ]

200 0

1000

2000

] T [K

Figure

to the Noble-Abel equation of state. Coloured contours indicate the di and Noble-Abel gas results.

4000

D ifference [J / (kg K )]

s [J / (kg K )]

2000

110 90 70 50 30 10

- 2000

400

[kg

/ 3 m ]

200 0

1000

2000

] T [K

3000

4000

the Noble-Abel equation of state. Coloured contours indicate the di Noble-Abel gas calculations.

Figure

DSTOTN0670

References

. Anderson, R. D. & Fickie, K. D. ( ) IBHVG A User Guide, BRL-TRs , Ab-

Maryland.

Powell, E. G., Wilmot, G., Haar, L. & Klein, M. ( Interior Ballistics of Guns, Vol. York, United States, pp. Fluent, Inc. (

eld, eds,

ermo-

. .

) Fluent

Van Wylen, G. J. & Sonntag, R. E. ( edn, John Wiley & Sons, chapter Anderson, J. D. (

nd edn,

DSTOTN0670

Page classi

cation: UNCLASSIFIED

1. CA VEAT/PRIV ACY MARKING

2. TITLE

3. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION

Noble-Abel

Equation

of

State:

ermody-

(U) (U)

(U)

4. AUTHORS

5. CORPORATE AUTHOR

Ian A. Johnston

Defence Science and Technology Organisation PO Box 1500 Edinburgh, South Australia 5111, Australia

DSTOTN0670

8. FILE NUMBER

6b. AR NUMBER

Technical Note 12

November, 2005 7

7. DOCUMENT DATE

2005/1076178

9. TASK NUMBER

10. SPONSOR

DSTO

11. No OF PAGES

12. No OF REFS

OVERSEAS ENQUIRIES OUTSIDE STATED LIMITATIONS SHOULD BE REFERRED THROUGH DOCUMENT EXCHANGE, PO BOX 1500, EDINBURGH, SOUTH AUSTRALIA 5111

No Limitations

17. CITATION IN OTHER DOCUMENTS

No Limitations

18. DSTO RESEARCH LIBRARY THESAURUS

Interior ballistics

Equations of state

19. ABSTRACT

ermodynamic properties

Gases

Guns

Propellants

sign. In order to simulate interior ballistic dynamic behaviour of the propellant gas. guns. Most computational

accurate equation of state for propellant gases at the high densities and temperatures experienced in

all computational

ward the functional requirements of the commercial Fluent code, the results are equally applicable to propellant, highlighting the di erent thermodynamics of the Noble-Abel and ideal gas equations. Page classi cation: UNCLASSIFIED

tion of such thermodynamic functions for Noble-Abel gases. Although the derivations are geared touid dynamics solvers. Also presented is a brief numerical example for a typical

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