Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 14

Executive Summary

These are the times for growing and competitive business world. For the contemporary business and corporate world, marketing is a must for the survival. In world, the electronics sector is one of the most developed hi-tech sectors which is contributing in the countrys economy.
Leading electronic companies are expanding their business with the aim to expand export market. Recently few new industries have been established with high tech equipments. Digital system include

color and black- and white printing and publishing system ,digital presses and block factories, multifunction devices, laser and solid link network printers, copiers and fax machine. Xerox includes helping business develop online document archives analyze how employees can most efficiently share document and knowledge in the office and building web based process for personalizing direct mail ,invoices brochures and more. Xerox also associated software, support and supplies such as tones pen and ink. The leader of the new business of printing Xeroxs industry focus is on three primary market; high-end production environment, networked offices from small to large and services. It has transcended its heritage of being associated solely with copiers. Today Xerox is much more than fulfilling the needs of all types of customers with product ran The Xerox machine comes from the mind of a frustrated patent attorney and research engineer who hated the slow pace of mimeograph machines. Its more generic name is the photocopier and it was originally thought of in 1937. The first photocopy was the 10-22-38 Astoria. While the photocopier started with not many fans, it grew to be the most recognized office tool of the 20th century.

Chapter: One Introduction

Origin of the report
The process of objective self-study is necessary for any institution wishing to remain vital and vigorous and is particularly crucial for institutions of higher learning. Periodically reexamining the institutions purpose, mission, goals, planning, and assessment helps to maintain quality educational programs and fosters innovative thinking. Only by carefully examining the past and honestly evaluating the present can an institution effectively plan for the future. This report is generated under the academic supervision of our course teacher Wahida Shahan Tinne, Department of BBA, ASA University. This report is prepared as the requirement of natural science. The topic is Xerox machine.

The data the project report contains is all secondary data. The secondary data was collected from the internet, books, journals, magazines and newspapers. Secondary data are those data that have already been collected by someone else and have already passed through the statistical process. The secondary data is the type of data chosen by us.

Key Parts of the report

The main view of the report is to identify how a multinational company operates their business in Globally.

Objectives of the report

Broad Objectives: The main objective of the study is to evaluate the how a multinational company operates there business in the world. Specific Objectives: The main objectives of the report are

To be acquainted with the multinational electronic company. To learn clear knowledge of operating forces. To learn about new product launching process in electronic industry. To have the practical knowledge of theoretical knowledge of Marketing theory. To know the present and future strategies of the company. To focus on the significance of doing the compensation strategy during in the organization.

We are very grateful to our honorable course teacher to give us such opportunity. During preparing our term paper we will learn lots of new things, which are much related to our course materials. It helps us to fulfill our study which is really needed for us. But still we face some problem for our report1. Due to wide spread information of the data, the scope of project becomes very wide. 2. All the matter has been collected through secondary sources; hence, the errors might have crept in. 3. Given the time constraints, all the information could not be gathered. 4. Data being very vast, appropriate information could not be gathered to the point specific requirement needs.

Chapter : Two Xerox machine

Invention of the Photocopier
In October 1937 Chester Carlson, a patent attorney in New York, invented a process called electro photography. In 1938, this was renamed Xerography and the first known photocopy was the "10-22-38 Astoria". The Xerography copying process went on to become one of the most well known inventions of the 20th century. Carlson received world acclaim and became extremely wealthy as his invention created a billion-dollar industry. It is estimated that Carlson gave away almost $100 million to charity and foundations before his death in 1968. Chester Carlson was the inventor of what would become the Xerox machine. What he first invented was xerographic process which was used to make future photocopiers work. He lived to see his invention revolutionize the way copies and duplicates of printed material were made. Carlson died in 1968 after the success of the Xerox 914 photocopier, the first office copier, had already begun.

The first widely used copy machine for offices was invented by James Watt in 1779.It relied on physically transferring some of the (specially formulated) ink from an original letter or drawing to a moistened thin unsized sheet of paper by means of a press. The copy could then be read from the obverse side. The system was a commercial success and was in use in for over a century. In 1937, Bulgarian physicist Georgi Nadjakov found that, when placed into an electric field and exposed to light, some dielectrics acquire permanent electric polarization in the exposed areas.[4] That polarization persists in the dark and is destroyed in light. Chester Carlson, the inventor of photocopying, was originally a patent attorney, as well as a parttime researcher and inventor. His job at the patent office in New York required him to make a large number of copies of important papers. Carlson, who was arthritic, found this to be a painful and tedious process. This motivated him to conduct experiments with photoconductivity. Carlson used his kitchen for his "electrophotography" experiments, and, in 1938, he applied for a patent for the process. He made the first photocopy using a zinc plate covered with sulfur. The words "10-22-38 Astoria" were written on a microscope slide, which was placed on top of more sulfur

and under a bright light. After the slide was removed, a mirror image of the words remained. Carlson tried to sell his invention to some companies, but failed because the process was still underdeveloped. At the time, multiple copies were most commonly made at the point of document origination, using carbon paper or manual duplicating machines, and people did not see the need for an electronic machine. Between 1939 and 1944, Carlson was turned down by over 20 companies, including IBM and General Electricneither of which believed there was a significant market for copiers. In 1944, the Battelle Memorial Institute, a non-profit organization in Columbus, Ohio, contracted with Carlson to refine his new process. Over the next five years, the institute conducted experiments to improve the process of electro photography. In 1947, Haloid Corporation (a small New York-based manufacturer and seller of photographic paper) approached Battelle to obtain a license to develop and market a copying machine based on this technology. Haloid felt that the word "electro photography" was too complicated and did not have good recall value. After consulting a professor of classical language at Ohio State University, Haloid and Carlson changed the name of the process to "xerography," which was derived from Greek words that meant "dry writing." Haloid called the new copier machines "Xerox Machines" and, in 1948, the word "Xerox" was trademarked. Haloid eventually changed its name to Xerox Corporation. In 1949, Xerox Corporation introduced the first xerographic copier called the Model A. [1] Xerox became so successful that, in North America, photocopying came to be popularly known as "xeroxing." Xerox has actively fought to prevent "Xerox" from becoming a generalized trademark. While the word "Xerox" has appeared in some dictionaries as a synonym for photocopying, Xerox Corporation typically requests that such entries be modified, and that people not use the term "Xerox" in this way. Some languages include hybrid terms, such as the widely used Polish term kserokopia ("xerocopy"), even though relatively few photocopiers are of the Xerox brand. In the early 1950s, Radio Corporation of America (RCA) introduced a variation on the process called Electro fax, whereby images are formed directly on specially coated paper and rendered with a toner dispersed in a liquid.

During the 1960s and through the 1980s, Savin Corporation developed and sold a line of liquidtoner copiers that implemented a technology based on patents held by the company. Prior to the widespread adoption of xerographic copiers, photo-direct copies produced by machines such as Kodak's Verifax were used. A primary obstacle associated with the prexerographic copying technologies was the high cost of supplies: a Verifax print required supplies costing USD $0.15 in 1969, while a Xerox print could be made for USD $0.03 including paper and labor. At that time, Thermo fax photocopying machines in libraries could make letter-sized copies for USD $0.25 or more (at a time when the minimum wage for a US worker was USD $1.65).

How a photocopier works (using xerography)

Main article: Xerography

Schematic overview of the xerographic photocopying process (step 1-4) 1. Charging: cylindrical drum is electro statically charged by a high voltage wire called a corona wire or a charge roller. The drum has a coating of a photoconductive material. A photoconductor is a semiconductor that becomes conductive when exposed to light.[2] 2. Exposure: A bright lamp illuminates the original document, and the white areas of the original document reflect the light onto the surface of the photoconductive drum. The areas of the drum that are exposed to light become conductive and therefore discharge to ground. The area of the drum not exposed to light (those areas that correspond to black portions of the original document) remain negatively charged. The result is a latent electrical image on the surface of the drum. 3. Developing: The toner is positively charged. When it is applied to the drum to develop the image, it is attracted and sticks to the areas that are negatively charged (black areas), just as paper sticks to a toy balloon with a static charge. 4. Transfer: The resulting toner image on the surface of the drum is transferred from the drum onto a piece of paper with a higher negative charge than the drum. 5. Fusing: The toner is melted and bonded to the paper by heat and pressure rollers.

This example is of a negatively charged drum and paper, and positively charged toner as is common in today's digital copiers. Some copiers, mostly older analog copiers, employ a positively charged drum and paper, and negatively charged toner. A negative photocopy inverts the colors of the document when creating a photocopy, resulting in letters that appear white on a black background instead of black on a white background. Negative photocopies of old or faded documents sometimes produce documents which have better focus and are easier to read and study.

History of Development

Xerographic office photocopying was introduced by Xerox in 1959, and it gradually replaced copies made by Verifax, Photostat, carbon paper, mimeograph machines, and other duplicating machines. The prevalence of its use is one of the factors that prevented the development of the paperless office heralded early in the digital revolution.

Woodblock printing Movable type Printing press Etching Mezzotint Aquatint Lithography Chromolithography Rotary press Offset printing

200 1040 1454 ca. 1500 1642 1768 1796 1837 1843 1875

Hot metal typesetting 1886 Screen printing Dye-sublimation Phototypesetting Dot matrix printer Laser printing Thermal printing Inkjet printing Stereolithography Digital press
1907 1957 1960s 1964 1969 ca. 1972 1976 1986 1993

Current Development

Color photocopy Colored toner became available in the 1950s, although full-color copiers were not commercially available until 3M released the Color-in-Color copier in 1968, which used a dye sublimation process rather than conventional electrostatic technology. The first electrostatic color copier was released by Canon in 1973. Color photocopying is a concern to governments, as it facilitates counterfeiting currency. Some countries have incorporated anti-counterfeiting technologies into their currency specifically to make it harder to use a color photocopier for counterfeiting. These technologies include watermarks, microprinting, holograms, tiny security strips made of plastic (or other material), and ink that appears to change color as the currency is viewed at an angle. Some photocopying machines contain special software that can prevent copying currency that contains a special pattern. Digital Technology There is an increasing trend for new photocopiers to adopt digital technology, thus replacing the older analog technology. With digital copying, the copier effectively consists of an integrated scanner and laser printer. This design has several advantages, such as automatic image quality enhancement and the ability to "build jobs" (that is, to scan page images independently of the process of printing them). Some digital copiers can function as high-speed scanners; such models typically offer the ability to send documents via email or to make them available on file servers. A great advantage of digital copier technology is "automatic digital collation." For example, when copying a set of 20 pages 20 times, a digital copier scans each page only once, then uses the stored information to produce 20 sets. In an analog copier, either each page is scanned 20 times (a total of 400 scans), making one set at a time, or 20 separate output trays are used for the 20 sets. Low-end copiers also use digital technology, but tend to consist of a standard PC scanner coupled to an inkjet or low-end laser printer, both of which are far slower than their counterparts in high-end copiers. However, low-end scanner-inkjets can provide color copying at a far lower

cost than can a traditional color copier. The cost of electronics is such that combined scannerprinters sometimes have built-in fax machines.

By 1955 other companies were seeing the potential of the Xerox machine and wanted to build their own. Ricoh was the first to get into the market. By 1975 this company's products had become a competitor to the Xerox photocopier. Other brands--Minolta, Panasonic, Sharp and Canon--entered the market soon after. Canon was the most successful and went on to create the first color photocopier in 1985.

Photocopying has many advantages, firstly the format and medium from the original; another advantage is compared to most processes photocopying generally costs less, especially if the original is a monochrome document, as well as this apart from the photocopier itself no other reading machine interface required.

There are a few disadvantages to photocopying, one of these are the fact that if you have kept the original piece more space will then have to be made, information is also lost especially from graphic objects (apart from fine art). Also the photocopier machine itself is expensive. Health issues Exposure to ultraviolet light is a concern. In the early days of photocopiers, the sensitizing light source was filtered green to match the optimal sensitivity of the photoconductive surface. This filtering conveniently removed all ultraviolet. Currently, a variety of light sources are used. As glass transmits ultraviolet rays between 325 and 400 nanometers, copiers with ultravioletproducing lights such as fluorescent, tungsten halogen, or xenon flash, expose documents to some ultraviolet.


Concerns about emissions from photocopy machines have been expressed by some in connection with the use of selenium and emissions of ozone and fumes from heated toner. However, these concerns may be due to misunderstanding or exaggeration. There are real concerns over the emissions from this equipment. The manufacturers manuals clearly identify concerns and publish rules for both the sitting of the machines adjacent to people and the need for air in the locality. There are various warnings regarding emissions from the manufacturers and this should not be disregarded.

Recommendations to Xeroxs Company

Company should regulate pricing strategy between all levels of distribution. Company should conduct regular training programmers. Company should focus on the point of contact with customers, retailers and make sure they are satisfied. Also, the company should continuously attract the customers by providing them promotional offers. The company should work more on price, so that it can be reduced to competitor levels. All company should also conduct an advertising campaign stressing on the benefits and advantages of Xerox product.

A photocopier is a machine that makes paper copies of documents and other visual images quickly and cheaply. Most current photocopiers use a technology called xerography, a dry process using heat. Copiers can also use other technologies such as ink jet, but xerography is standard for office copying. Photocopying is widely used in business, education, and government. There have been many predictions that photocopiers will eventually become obsolete as information workers continue to increase their digital document creation and distribution, and rely less on distributing actual pieces of paper. There is an increasing trend for new photocopiers to adopt digital technology, thus replacing the older analog technology. With digital copying, the copier effectively consists of an integrated scanner and laser printer. By 1955 other companies were seeing the potential of the Xerox machine and wanted to build their own.

Ricoh was the first to get into the market. By 1975 this company's products had become a competitor to the Xerox photocopier. Other brands--Minolta, Panasonic, Sharp and Canon-entered the market soon after. Canon was the most successful and went on to create the first color photocopier in 1985Photocopying has many advantages, the format and medium from the original.

Ms. Wahida Shahan Tinne Lecturer Department of Finance ASA University

1. www.scribd.com

External links
Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Photocopiers

Detailed description and simulation of the electrophotographic print process How a colour copier works How to use a photocopier as a printout device for computer files A brief history of the photocopier


1. ^

a b

"Factbook". http://www.xerox.com/go/xrx/template/019d.jsp?

2. ^ "Encarta definition of 'photoconductor'".

http://encarta.msn.com/dictionary_/photoconductor.html. Retrieved 2009-11-20.

3. ^ Hills, Rev. Dr. Richard L., James Watt, Vol 2, The years of toil, 1775-

1785; pp 190-211, Landmark Publishing Ltd, ISBN 1-84306-045-0.