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PIERS ONLINE, VOL. 7, NO.

7, 2011

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An Integrated UWB and Bluetooth Antenna with Dual Band-notched Characteristic


K. C. Law, S. W. Cheung, and T. I. Yuk Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China

Abstract This paper presents the design of an integrated Ultrawideband (UWB) and Bluetooth microstrip monopole antenna with a dual band-notched characteristic. The antenna consists of an elliptical ring as the radiator to cover the frequency bands for both the Bluetooth (2.42.5 GHz) and UWB (3.110.6 GHz) applications. A triangular resonator and a meander defected-ground structure (DGS) are used to generate two notches at the centre frequencies of 2.856 and 5.5 GHz. The return loss, radiation pattern, peak gain and eciency of the antenna are studied using computer simulation.

1. INTRODUCTION

Since the Federal Communication Commission (FCC) assigned 3.110.6 GHz frequency band of Ultrawideband (UWB) systems in February 2002 [1], UWB technology has been attracting considerable interests in both the academic and commercial domains due to the potentially high data rate (more than 110 Mbits/s) for short range, low power consumptions and easy connections to dierent devices such as wireless USB, PCs, high-denition TVs, etc. In 2006 [2], the Bluetooth Special Interest Group (SIG) selected the WiMedia Alliance multiband orthogonal-frequency-division multiplexing (MB-OFDM) version of UWB, which could be integrated with the current Bluetooth wireless technology. Nowadays, some portable devices are equipped with the Bluetooth antenna and WLAN antenna. It will be a dicult task to put an additional UWB antenna in the same portable devices due to the limited space available. One of the possible solutions is to use an antenna that can operate in both the UWB and Bluetooth frequency bands. The current IEEE802.11a/n WLAN systems are occupying a small portion of the UWB. Thus there will be interference between the UWB systems and the IEEE802.11a/n systems. To reduce this interference, the antenna can be designed to have a band-notched characteristic. Dierent techniques have been studied to produce the band-notched features [311]. However, in these designs, the suppressed gains and eciencies of the antennas at the notched frequency bands were quite limited and far from zero. In this paper, we propose a planar-monopole antenna using an elliptical ring as the radiator to cover both the UWB and Bluetooth frequency bands with a dual-band notch. As there are other wireless communication systems between the Bluetooth and UWB bands, for example: 3GPP (2.57 2.62 GHz), CDMA2000 (US 2.5 GHz Band) and CMMB (2.6352.66 GHz), a triangular resonator is placed at the centre of the elliptical-ring radiator to create a notch at 2.856 GHz to reduce interference between the Bluetooth system and these wireless systems. The centre frequency of the notch can be controlled by adjusting the dimensions of the triangular resonator. To reduce interference between the UWB system and the IEEE802.11a/n WLAN system (5.155.825 GHz), a meander-DGS is employed to create another notched band at 5.5 GHz. Results show that the peak gain can be suppressed by more than 12 dB at the frequency of around 5.5 GHz, which is deeper than the notches designed for other integrated UWB and Bluetooth antennas [811], and the eciency is close to zero.
2. STRUCTURE OF ANTENNA, MODELING OF MEANDER-DGS AND DESIGN OF ANTENNA 2.1. Structure of Antenna

Our proposed dual band-notched UWB antenna is shown in Fig. 1. In this design, we use the planar-monopole technology to achieve a compact antenna size for applications in small wireless devices. The antenna has an area of 31.5 39.75 mm2 and is designed on a Roger PCB, RO4350B, with a relative permittivity of 3.48, thickness of 0.762 mm and loss tangent of 0.0037. The antenna consists of an elliptical-ring radiator fed by a 50- microstrip line printed on one side of the

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Figure 1: Conguration of proposed antenna: (a) top view, (b) side view and (c) bottom view. Table 1: Optimized parameters of antenna (mm). L 39.75 L5 0.63 W 31.5 rh1 9.7 L1 13 L6 3.68 w1 1.7 rh2 12.8 L2 2.1 gl 14.5 w2 0.8 rv1 9.1 L3 1.5 t1 17.25 w3 0.23 rv2 12 L4 4.58 t2 5.25 w4 0.2

substrate. A triangular resonator is printed inside the elliptical-ring radiator to create a notched frequency band at 2.856 GHz next to the Bluetooth band. The other side of the substrate is a ground plane where a meander-DGS is etched under the feed line and acts as an LC resonator to create another notched frequency band centered at 5.5 GHz. To achieve good impedance matching, the distance, gap, between the radiator and the ground plane is set to 0.6 mm and the width of the feed line is tapered, changing gradually from w1 = 1.7 mm to w2 = 0.8 mm as shown in Fig. 1. The dimensions of the antenna are optimized using computer simulation, with detailed values listed in Table 1.
2.2. Design of Antenna

The meander-DGS etched on the ground plane behaves like a parallel LC resonant [12, 13]. At resonance, the signal from the feed line will be coupled into the meander-DGS, producing a notched characteristic for the antenna. The inductance and capacitance of the LC resonant circuit can be changed by using the dimensions of the meander-DGS and hence used to adjust the notched frequency. As an illustration, Fig. 2(a) shows the simulated notched frequency versus length L4 of the meander-DGS. To create a notch at a particular frequency, we can simply select the required value from Fig. 2(a). There is no exact method to design a general microstrip triangular resonator, except for equilateral and isosceles right-angled triangular resonators [14, 15]. Usually, curve tting is used as a guideline to design the triangular resonators, which is used in our studies here. We rst study the eects of the base t2 and height t1 of the triangular resonator on the resonant frequency by computer simulation. Fig. 2(b) shows the simulated resonant frequency versus t1 for dierent t2 . It can be seen that t2 has an insignicant eect on the resonant frequency, but the resonant frequency has a linear relationship with the height t1 . From these results, we can use linear interpolation to relate the centre frequency in GHz to t1 by the following equation: f = 0.1893 t1 + 6.122 (1)

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Figure 2: Simulated resonant frequency versus (a) length L4 and (b) height t1 for dierent bases t2 .

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Figure 3: Simulated (a) return losses, (b) peak gain and (c) eciency with or without notches.

Figure 4: Simulated radiation pattern of proposed antenna. 3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

The antenna has been designed with two notches, centered at 2.856 and 5.5 GHz, on a RO4350B substrate using computer simulation. The simulated return losses of the antenna, with a single notch and dual notch are shown in Fig. 3(a). The return loss of the antenna without notch is also shown in the same gure for comparison. It can be seen that, in all these conditions, our proposed antenna has the bandwidths (for return loss > 10 dB) from 2.31 to over 12 GHz, fully satisfying the bandwidth requirement for UWB applications (3.110.6 GHz). For the antenna without any notch, the bandwidth is from 2.44 to over 12 GHz. With the triangular resonator, the lower operating frequency extends to 2.36 GHz and the notch at 2.856 GHz has a bandwidth (for return loss < 10 dB) from 2.66 to 3.08 GHz. With the meander DGS, the notch is centered at 5.5 GHz with a bandwidth from 5.11 to 6.21 GHz, which can suppress interference to/from the WLAN systems operating in the frequency band from 5.155.825 GHz. It should be noted that the triangular resonator and the meander-DGS do not aect each other. The simulated peak gain and eciency of our proposed antenna with two notches are shown in

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Figs. 3(b) and 3(c), respectively. At the notched frequency of 5.5 GHz, the gain and eciency are signicantly dropped by more than 12 dB and to about 1.4%, respectively. Such large drops are due to the high attenuation characteristic of the meander-DGS. At the notched frequency of 2.856 GHz, the gain and eciency are dropped by about 5.4 dB and to about 16.8%, respectively. Across the frequency band from 2.512 GHz, the gain varies from 2 to 5.5 dB and the antenna eciency is above 95%. Figure 4 shows the simulated radiation patterns of the antenna at the notched frequencies of 2.856 and 5.5 and at 8 GHz. The radiation patterns in the H-plane at these frequencies are omnidirectional. Radiation is substantially smaller at 5.5 GHz. At 8 GHz, the radiation pattern in the E-plane at 8 GHz shows two nulls in the z-direction which is typical for a monopole antenna. At 2.858 and 5.5 GHz, the radiation patterns are smaller and distorted.
4. CONCLUSION

The design of an integrated UWB and Bluetooth antenna with a dual band-notched characteristic has been presented. The size of the antenna is only 31.539.750.832 mm3 . A triangular resonator and meander-DGS have been employed to produce a dual-band notch centered at 2.856 and 5.5 GHz, with the corresponding peak gains dropping by about 5.4 dB and 12 dB and eciencies to about 16.8% and 1.4%.
REFERENCES

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