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Heat Engines and the Heat Engines and the Laws of Thermodynamics Laws of Thermodynamics

(Heat) Engines and the (Heat) Engines and the Laws of Thermodynamics Laws of Thermodynamics

Heat Engine: A device that converts heat into Heat Engine: A device that converts heat into mechanical energy mechanical energy Example: Automobile (Car) Engine Example: Automobile (Car) Engine Movie Clip: Animation Car Engine Movie Clip: Animation Car Engine

Heat Engines and the Heat Engines and the Laws of Thermodynamics Laws of Thermodynamics

Thermodynamics Thermodynamics Thermo=Heat Thermo=Heat

+ +
dynamics=motion dynamics=motion
Thermodynamics=studyofheatandmotion Thermodynamics=studyofheatandmotion

Heat Engines and the Heat Engines and the Laws of Thermodynamics Laws of Thermodynamics

FirstLawofThermodynamics FirstLawofThermodynamics Energy,eventhermalenergy,isconserved. Energy,eventhermalenergy,isconserved. OR,youcan'tgetsomethingfromnothing OR,youcan'tgetsomethingfromnothing


Animation Animation Whenyouheatagasyoucan: Whenyouheatagasyoucan: Dowork Dowork (i.e.movesomething) (i.e.movesomething) OR OR Increasetheinternal Increasetheinternal energy(temperature) energy(temperature) ofthegas ofthegas

Heat Engines and the Heat Engines and the Laws of Thermodynamics Laws of Thermodynamics

FirstLawofThermodynamics FirstLawofThermodynamics
Heataddedtoagas=Q: Heataddedtoagas=Q: Dowork=W Dowork=W (i.e.movesomething) (i.e.movesomething) OR OR (+) (+) Increasetheinternal Increasetheinternal energy(temperature) energy(temperature) ofthegas=U ofthegas=U

Q=W+U Q=W+U
(Remember:=changein=finalinitial,soU=UfUi)) (Remember:=changein=finalinitial,soU=UfUi

Heat Engines and the Heat Engines and the Laws of Thermodynamics Laws of Thermodynamics

Detour:Pressure Detour:Pressure

Area
Force

= Pressure

Pressure =

Force F P= Area A

Heat Engines and the Heat Engines and the Laws of Thermodynamics Laws of Thermodynamics

Force F Pressure= P= Area A

Units for Pressure: Units for Pressure: SI unit is the Pascal [Pa] SI unit is the Pascal [Pa]

F 1 [ Newton] [N] P = 1 [ Pascal ]= or [ Pa]= 2 2 A [1 meter ] [m ]


other units: 1.0 [atmosphere] = 1.01325 x 105 [Pa] 1.0 [pound per square inch] = 1.0 [psi] = 6.895 x 103 [Pa]

Heat Engines and the Heat Engines and the Laws of Thermodynamics Laws of Thermodynamics

Work = Force distance W = Fd


Force Work = Area distance W = Fd Area Work = Pressure Change in Volume

W = P V = P V f V i

1 1 2 2 Remember: W = K = m v f m v i 2 2

Heat Engines and the Heat Engines and the Laws of Thermodynamics Laws of Thermodynamics Example: Pressure inside a Car Engine Piston Let's calculate the work done on a car going from 0 mph to 60 mph (~27 m/s) Assume a car mass of 850 kg

1 1 2 2 W =K = K f K i = m v f m v i 2 2 1 1 2 2 5 W = (850 kg )( 27 m/ s) (850 kg )(0 m/ s) =3.110 [ J ] 2 2


Volume change in piston: 8.7 x 10-4 m3

(3.110 5 [ J ]) W 8 W = P V P= = =4.0210 [ Pa ] V (8.7104 [ m3 ])

FirstLawof FirstLawof Thermodynamics Thermodynamics


isgenerallyexpressedas: isgenerallyexpressedas: (Heatadded)=(WorkDone)+ (Heatadded)=(WorkDone)+ (ChangeinThermalEnergy) (ChangeinThermalEnergy) isreallyjustenergyconservation: isreallyjustenergyconservation: InitialEnergy=FinalEnergy InitialEnergy=FinalEnergy

SecondLawofThermodynamics SecondLawofThermodynamics
Withoutexternalaction,HeatflowsfromHotto Withoutexternalaction,HeatflowsfromHotto Cold. Cold. Whichismoredisorganized(disorderly): Whichismoredisorganized(disorderly): asolid,aliquid,oragas? asolid,aliquid,oragas?
animation animation

Mostorganized Mostorganized Solids Solids Liquids Liquids Gases Gases Leastorganized Leastorganized

SecondLawofThermodynamics SecondLawofThermodynamics
Whichishotter:asolid,aliquid,oragas? Whichishotter:asolid,aliquid,oragas?
LowestTemperature LowestTemperature Solids Solids Liquids Liquids Gases Gases HighestTemperature HighestTemperature Mostorganized Mostorganized Solids Solids Liquids Liquids Gases Gases Leastorganized Leastorganized

Hotsystemsaremoredisorderly(disorganized)than Hotsystemsaremoredisorderly(disorganized)than coldsystems. coldsystems.

SecondLawofThermodynamics
Withoutexternalaction,Coldthingsbecomehot Withoutexternalaction,Coldthingsbecomehot
Hotsystemsaremoredisorderlythancoldsystems. Hotsystemsaremoredisorderlythancoldsystems. =>Withoutexternalaction,orderedthingstend =>Withoutexternalaction,orderedthingstend towarddisorder towarddisorder Entropy=amountofdisorderinasystem Entropy=amountofdisorderinasystem =>Withoutexternalaction,entropyincreases. =>Withoutexternalaction,entropyincreases.

SecondLawofThermodynamics
Consideramachinethatconvertsheattowork: Consideramachinethatconvertsheattowork:

HEAT

Work

Totakealltheheatandconvertittousefulworkwould Totakealltheheatandconvertittousefulworkwould meantakingacompletelydisordersystemandchange meantakingacompletelydisordersystemandchange ittoanorderedsystem. ittoanorderedsystem. ========>VIOLATES2nddLAW<========= ========>VIOLATES2n LAW<========= =>Itisimpossibleforheattobecompletelyconverted =>Itisimpossibleforheattobecompletelyconverted intousefulwork. intousefulwork.

HeatEngines HeatEngines

HEAT

Work
wasteheat wasteheat

=>Someheatmustbeexpelledfromtheengine =>Someheatmustbeexpelledfromtheengine

HeatEngines HeatEngines TH i

Work
wasteheat wasteheat

TLow
Animated Engines Animated Engines

T Hi efficiency=1 T Low

HeatEngines HeatEngines THi


Work

T Hi efficiency=1 T Low

TLow

TLow 0=>efficiencyincreases

TLow =0=>infiniteefficiency!!!
=>ThirdlawofThermodynamics: =>ThirdlawofThermodynamics: YoucantgettoT=0K YoucantgettoT=0K

HeatEngine Refrigerator HeatEngine Refrigerator

TH i

TLow

Work

PVGraphs PVGraphs
F P

W = Fd
d

W =P V
V

W = Fd Work is the area under the curve of a F(d) graph