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Chapter 1 - Introduction to Routing and Packet Forwarding

Chapter 1 - Introduction to Routing and Packet Forwarding CCNA Exploration 4.0 Please purchase a personal

CCNA Exploration 4.0

Chapter 1 - Introduction to Routing and Packet Forwarding CCNA Exploration 4.0 Please purchase a personal

Please purchase a personal license.

Objectives

Objectives • Identify a router as a computer with an OS and hardware designed for the

Identify a router as a computer with an OS and hardware designed for the routing process.

Demonstrate the ability to configure devices and apply addresses.

Describe the structure of a routing table. e

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packets

Labs

Labs H ọ c vi ệ n m ạ ng Cisco Bách Khoa - Website: www.ciscobachkhoa.com
Labs H ọ c vi ệ n m ạ ng Cisco Bách Khoa - Website: www.ciscobachkhoa.com
Inside the Router H ọ c vi ệ n m ạ ng Cisco Bách Khoa

Inside the Router

Routers are Computers

Routers are Computers • Routers have many of the same hardware and software components that are

Routers have many of the same hardware and software components that are found in other computers including:

CPU

RAM

ROM

Operating System

including: – CPU – RAM – ROM – Operating System H ọ c vi ệ n

Routers are Computers

Routers are Computers Routers are at the network center • A router connects multiple networks. This

Routers are at the network center

A router connects multiple networks. This means that it has multiple interfaces that each belong to a different IP network.

Each network that a router connects to typically requires a separate interface. These interfaces are used to connect a combination of both Local Area Networks (LANs) and Wide Area Networks (WANs).

Local Area Networks (LANs) and Wide Area Networks (WANs). H ọ c vi ệ n m

Routers are Computers

Routers are Computers H ọ c vi ệ n m ạ ng Cisco Bách Khoa -
Routers are Computers H ọ c vi ệ n m ạ ng Cisco Bách Khoa -

Routers are Computers

Routers are Computers Routers determine the best path • The primary responsibility of a router is
Routers are Computers Routers determine the best path • The primary responsibility of a router is

Routers determine the best path

The primary responsibility of a router is to direct packets destined for local and remote networks by:

Determining the best path to send packets

Forwarding packets toward their destination

Routers are Computers

Routers are Computers Routers determine the best path H c vi n m ng Cisco Bách

Routers determine the best path

Routers are Computers Routers determine the best path H c vi n m ng Cisco Bách
Routers are Computers Routers determine the best path H c vi n m ng Cisco Bách

Routers are Computers

Routers determine the best path

Routers are Computers Routers determine the best path H ọ c vi ệ n m ạ

Routers are Computers

Routers are Computers Routers determine the best path H ọ c vi ệ n m ạ

Routers determine the best path

Routers are Computers Routers determine the best path H ọ c vi ệ n m ạ

Routers are Computers

Routers are Computers Routers determine the best path H ọ c vi ệ n m ạ

Routers determine the best path

Routers are Computers Routers determine the best path H ọ c vi ệ n m ạ

Router as a Computer

Router as a Computer • Describe the basic purpose of a router – Computers that specialize

Describe the basic purpose of a router

Computers that specialize in sending packets over the data network. They are responsible for interconnecting networks by selecting the best path for a packet to travel and forwarding packets to their destination

Routers are the network center

Routers generally have 2 connections:

WAN connection (Connection to ISP)

LAN connection Not common:

PSTN connection

Router as a Computer

Router as a Computer • "How Routers Work" http://computer.howstuffworks.com/router.htm • Activity 1.1.1.4 H
Router as a Computer • "How Routers Work" http://computer.howstuffworks.com/router.htm • Activity 1.1.1.4 H

"How Routers Work" http://computer.howstuffworks.com/router.htm

Activity 1.1.1.4

Evolution of Routers

Evolution of Routers • Multiprotocol devices providing pure data delivery with o • Intelligent Network Services,
Evolution of Routers • Multiprotocol devices providing pure data delivery with o • Intelligent Network Services,

Multiprotocol devices providing pure data delivery with o

Intelligent Network Services, this allowed us to provide security capabilities like integrated firewall and encryption.

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Integrated voice and data capabilities, allowing routers to provide voice gateway features for IP telephony.

Today the router is an integrated platform for providing advanced services in security, content delivery, and voice.

Cisco Router Series

Cisco Router Series H ọ c vi ệ n m ạ ng Cisco Bách Khoa -
Cisco Router Series H ọ c vi ệ n m ạ ng Cisco Bách Khoa -

Extra: Integrated Services Routers

Extra: Integrated Services Routers • The network router is quickly evolving from a device dedicated to
Extra: Integrated Services Routers • The network router is quickly evolving from a device dedicated to

The network router is quickly evolving from a device dedicated to connecting disparate networks to an integrated services device capable of multiple functions beyond routing.

Now, Integrated Services Routers can deliver voice, video, data and Internet access, wireless, and other applications.

Benefits of the Integrated Services Network Router

One Device, Multiple Functions

Same Access at Headquarters and Remote Sites

Centralized Management

Integrated Network Security

Router Components

Router Components • Router components and their functions” CPU - Executes operating system instructions Random

Router components and their functions” CPU - Executes operating system instructions Random access memory (RAM) - Contains the running copy of configuration file. Stores routing table. RAM contents lost when power is off Read-only memory (ROM) - Holds diagnostic software used when router is powered up. Stores the router’s bootstrap program. Non-volatile RAM (NVRAM) - Stores startup configuration. This may include IP addresses (Routing protocol, Hostname of router)

Flash memory - Contains the operating system (Cisco IOS) Interfaces - There exist multiple physical interfaces that are used to connect network. Examples of interface types:

Ethernet / FastEthernet interfaces

Serial interfaces

Management interfaces

Router Components

Router Components Học viện mạng Cisco Bách Khoa - Website: www.ciscobachkhoa.com 19
Học viện mạng Cisco Bách Khoa - Website: www.ciscobachkhoa.com
Học viện mạng Cisco Bách Khoa - Website: www.ciscobachkhoa.com

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Router Components

Router Components H ọ c vi ệ n m ạ ng Cisco Bách Khoa - Website:
Router Components H ọ c vi ệ n m ạ ng Cisco Bách Khoa - Website:
Router Components H ọ c vi ệ n m ạ ng Cisco Bách Khoa - Website:

Cisco router 1841’s Architecture - Front Panel

Cisco router 1841’s Architecture - Front Panel LED Color Status SYS PWR Green Router has successfully
Cisco router 1841’s Architecture - Front Panel LED Color Status SYS PWR Green Router has successfully

LED

Color

Status

SYS PWR

Green

Router has successfully booted up and the software is functional. Slow, steady blinking when system is booting or in the ROM monitor.

SYS ACT

Green

Blinking when packets are transmitted or received on any WAN or LAN interface, or when monitoring system activity.

CF

Blinking

Flash memory is busy. Do not remove the CompactFlash memory card when this light is on.

green

http://www.cisco.com/cdc_content_elements/flash/nextgen/webversion/1800/kaon/1841/index.html?NO_NAV

Cisco router 1841’s Architecture - Back Panel

Cisco router 1841’s Architecture - Back Panel H ọ c vi ệ n m ạ ng
Cisco router 1841’s Architecture - Back Panel H ọ c vi ệ n m ạ ng

Cisco router 1841’s Architecture - Internal

Cisco router 1841’s Architecture - Internal A SO-DIMM, or small outline dual in-line memory module, is
Cisco router 1841’s Architecture - Internal A SO-DIMM, or small outline dual in-line memory module, is

A SO-DIMM, or small outline dual in-line memory module, is a type of computer memory integrated circuit Hc vin mng Cisco Bách Khoa - Website: www.ciscobachkhoa.com

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Demo: View Interactive 3D Model of the Cisco 1841 Integrated Services Router

3D Model of the Cisco 1841 Integrated Services Router

http://www.cisco.com/cdc_content_elements/flash/nextgen/webversion/1800/kaon/1841/index.html?NO_NAV

Router Components

Router Components • Activity 1.1.2.2 H ọ c vi ệ n m ạ ng Cisco Bách

Activity 1.1.2.2

Router Components • Activity 1.1.2.2 H ọ c vi ệ n m ạ ng Cisco Bách

Internetwork Operating System

Internetwork Operating System • Cisco IOS manages the hardware and software resources of the router, including

Cisco IOS manages the hardware and software resources of the router, including memory allocation, processes, security, and file systems. Cisco IOS is a multitasking operating system that is integrated with routing, switching, internetworking, and telecommunications functions.

Cisco creates many different types of IOS images, depending upon the model of the router and the features within the IOS.

The command line interface (CLI) is a much more common method of configuring Cisco routers.

Cisco IOS Software Architecture for 1800 Series

Cisco IOS Software Architecture for 1800 Series • Identified IOS Software includes: Feature and Version H

Identified IOS Software includes: Feature and Version

• Identified IOS Software includes: Feature and Version H ọ c vi ệ n m ạ

Cisco IOS Packaging

Cisco IOS Packaging • Base —entry level image (IP Base, Enterprise Base) • Services —addition of
Cisco IOS Packaging • Base —entry level image (IP Base, Enterprise Base) • Services —addition of

Base—entry level image (IP Base, Enterprise Base)

Services—addition of IP Telephony Service, MPLS, Voice over IP (VoIP), Voice over Frame Relay (VoFR), and ATM (SP Services, Enterprise Services)

Advanced—addition of VPN, Cisco IOS Firewall, 3DES encryption, SSH, Cisco IOS IPsec and Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS) (Advanced Security, Advanced IP Services)

Enterprise—addition of multi-protocols, including IBM, IPX, AppleTalk (Enterprise Base, Enterprise Services)

Product Research Tools

Product Research Tools H ọ c vi ệ n m ạ ng Cisco Bách Khoa -
Product Research Tools H ọ c vi ệ n m ạ ng Cisco Bách Khoa -

Router Boot-up Process

Router Boot-up Process 1. Performing the POST 2. Loading the bootstrap program 3. Locating and loading

1. Performing the POST

2. Loading the bootstrap program

3. Locating and loading the Cisco IOS software

4. Locating and loading the startup configuration file or entering setup mode

the startup configuration file or entering setup mode H ọ c vi ệ n m ạ

Router Boot-up Process

Router Boot-up Process H ọ c vi ệ n m ạ ng Cisco Bách Khoa -
Router Boot-up Process H ọ c vi ệ n m ạ ng Cisco Bách Khoa -

Router Boot-up Process

Router Boot-up Process H ọ c vi ệ n m ạ ng Cisco Bách Khoa -
Router Boot-up Process H ọ c vi ệ n m ạ ng Cisco Bách Khoa -

Extra: Router Boot Process

Extra: Router Boot Process 1. ROM 1. POST 2. Bootstrap code executed 3. Check Configuration Register

1.

ROM

1. POST

2. Bootstrap code executed

3. Check Configuration Register value (NVRAM)

Forth Hex :

0 = ROM Monitor mode

1 = ROM IOS

2 - 15 = startup-config in NVRAM

1, 2

3

4

mode 1 = ROM IOS 2 - 15 = startup-config in NVRAM 1, 2 3 4

2. Check for IOS boot system commands in startup-config file (NVRAM) If boot system commands in startup-config

a.

Run boot system commands in order they appear in startup-config to locate the IOS

b

If boot system commands fail, use default fallback sequence to locate the IOS (Flash, TFTP, ROM)

3. Locate and load IOS, Default fallback sequence: No IOS boot system commands in startup-config

a. Flash (sequential)

b. TFTP server (netboot) - The router uses the configuration register value to form a filename from which to boot a default system image stored on a network server.

c. ROM (partial IOS) or keep retrying TFTP depending upon router model

- If no IOS located, get partial IOS version from ROM

4. Locate and load startup-config

a. If startup-config found, copy to running-config

b. If startup-config not found, prompt for setup-mode

c. If setup-mode bypassed, create a “skeleton” default running-config (no startup-config)

Extra: Router Boot Process

Extra: Router Boot Process H ọ c vi ệ n m ạ ng Cisco Bách Khoa
Extra: Router Boot Process H ọ c vi ệ n m ạ ng Cisco Bách Khoa

Extra: Check for IOS boot system commands in startup-config file (NVRAM)

for IOS boot system commands in startup-config file (NVRAM) H ọ c vi ệ n m
for IOS boot system commands in startup-config file (NVRAM) H ọ c vi ệ n m

Router Boot-up Process

Router Boot-up Process • Verify the router boot-up process: – The show version command is used

Verify the router boot-up process:

The show version command is used to view information about the router during the bootup process. Information includes:

Platform model number

I

IOS

i

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Router Interfaces

Router Interfaces H ọ c vi ệ n m ạ ng Cisco Bách Khoa - Website:
Router Interfaces H ọ c vi ệ n m ạ ng Cisco Bách Khoa - Website:

Routers and the Network Layer

Routers and the Network Layer • The main purpose of a router is to connect multiple

The main purpose of a router is to connect multiple networks and forward packets destined either for its own networks or other networks.

A router is considered a Layer 3 device because its primary forwarding decision is based on the information in the Layer 3 IP packet, specifically the destination IP address. This process is known as routing.

destination IP address. This process is known as routing . H ọ c vi ệ n

Routers and the Network Layer

Routers and the Network Layer • Routers Operate at Layers 1, 2, and 3 H ọ

Routers Operate at Layers 1, 2, and 3

the Network Layer • Routers Operate at Layers 1, 2, and 3 H ọ c vi
CLI Configuration and Addressing H ọ c vi ệ n m ạ ng Cisco Bách

CLI Configuration and Addressing

Implementing Basic Addressing Schemes

Implementing Basic Addressing Schemes • When designing a new network or mapping an existing network, document

When designing a new network or mapping an existing network, document the network. At a minimum, the documentation should include a topology diagram that indicates the physical connectivity and an addressing table that lists all of the following information:

Device names

Interfaces used in the design

IP addresses and subnet masks

Default gateway addresses for end devices, such as PCs

Implementing Basic Addressing Schemes

Implementing Basic Addressing Schemes • Activity 1.2.1.1 H ọ c vi ệ n m ạ ng

Activity 1.2.1.1

Implementing Basic Addressing Schemes • Activity 1.2.1.1 H ọ c vi ệ n m ạ ng

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Implementing Basic Addressing Schemes

Implementing Basic Addressing Schemes H ọ c vi ệ n m ạ ng Cisco Bách Khoa
Implementing Basic Addressing Schemes H ọ c vi ệ n m ạ ng Cisco Bách Khoa

Basic Router Configuration

Basic Router Configuration Basic Router Configuration • Router name • Passwords • Banner H ọ c

Basic Router Configuration

Router name

Passwords

• Banner
• Banner

Basic Router Configuration

Basic Router Configuration • Router Interface Configuration H ọ c vi ệ n m ạ ng

Router Interface Configuration

Router Configuration • Router Interface Configuration H ọ c vi ệ n m ạ ng Cisco

Basic Router Configuration

Basic Router Configuration • Activity 1.2.2.3 • Verifying Basic Router Configuration – Issue the show

Activity 1.2.2.3

Verifying Basic Router Configuration

Issue the show running-config command

Save the basic router configuration by Issuing the copy running-config startup-config command
Additional commands that will enable you to further verify router configuration are:

show running-config - Displays configuration currently in RAM show startup-config - Displays configuration file NVRAM show ip route - Displays routing table show interfaces - Displays all interface configurations show ip interface brief - Displays abbreviated interface configuration information

Building the Routing Table H ọ c vi ệ n m ạ ng Cisco Bách

Building the Routing Table

Introducing the Routing Table

Introducing the Routing Table • The primary function of a router is to forward a packet

The primary function of a router is to forward a packet toward its destination network, which is the destination IP address of the packet.

Routing Table is stored in RAM and contains information about:

Directly connected networks - this occurs when a device is connected to another router interface Remotely connected networks - this is a network that is not directly connected to a particular router Detailed information about the networks include source of routing information, Network address & subnet mask, and ip address of next-hop router, exit interface

show ip route command is used to view a routing table

Introducing the Routing Table

Introducing the Routing Table • Directly Connected Routes • Static Routes • Dynamic Routes H ọ

Directly Connected Routes

Static Routes

Dynamic Routes

Connected Routes • Static Routes • Dynamic Routes H ọ c vi ệ n m ạ

Directly-Connected Networks

Directly-Connected Networks • Once the interface is " up ," the network of that interface is

Once the interface is "up," the network of that interface is added to the routing table as a directly connected network.

added to the routing table as a directly connected network. H ọ c vi ệ n

Static Routing

Static Routing • Static routes in the routing table – Includes: network address and subnet mask

Static routes in the routing table

Includes: network address and subnet mask and IP address of next hop router or exit interface

Denoted with the code S in the routing table

Routing tables must contain directly connected k

k

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b

f

i

networ s use

or dynamic routing can be used

to connect remote networ s

e ore stat c

When to use static routes

When network only consists of a few routers

Network is connected to internet only through one ISP

Hub-and-spoke topology is used on a large network

Static Routing

Static Routing H ọ c vi ệ n m ạ ng Cisco Bách Khoa - Website:
Static Routing H ọ c vi ệ n m ạ ng Cisco Bách Khoa - Website:

Dynamic Routing

Dynamic Routing • Dynamic routing protocols are used by routers to share information about the reachability

Dynamic routing protocols are used by routers to share information about the reachability and status of remote networks. Dynamic routing protocols perform several activities, including:

Network discovery

Updating and maintaining routing tables

discovery – Updating and maintaining routing tables H ọ c vi ệ n m ạ ng

Dynamic Routing

Dynamic Routing • Dynamic routing features: – Automatic Network Discovery : allows the routers to automatically

Dynamic routing features:

Automatic Network Discovery: allows the routers to automatically learn about these networks from other routers.

Maintaining Routing Tables: automatically share routing information with other routers and compensate for any topology changes without involving the network administrator.

IP Routing Protocols:

RIP (Routing Information Protocol)

IGRP (Interior Gateway Routing Protocol)

EIGRP (Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol)

OSPF (Open Shortest Path First)

IS-IS (Intermediate System-to-Intermediate System)

BGP (Border Gateway Protocol)

Routing Table Principles

Routing Table Principles • Activity 1.3.5.1 • 3 principles regarding routing tables: 1. Every router makes

Activity 1.3.5.1

3 principles regarding routing tables:

1. Every router makes its decisions alone, based on the information it has in its routing table.

2. One router’s information in the routing table may not be the same as another router’s routing table.

3. Routing information about a path to a network does not provide information on how to return to the original network.

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Routing Table Principles

Routing Table Principles H ọ c vi ệ n m ạ ng Cisco Bách Khoa -
Routing Table Principles H ọ c vi ệ n m ạ ng Cisco Bách Khoa -

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Routing Table Principles

Routing Table Principles H ọ c vi ệ n m ạ ng Cisco Bách Khoa -
Routing Table Principles H ọ c vi ệ n m ạ ng Cisco Bách Khoa -
Routing Table Principles H ọ c vi ệ n m ạ ng Cisco Bách Khoa -

Routing Table Principles

Routing Table Principles H ọ c vi ệ n m ạ ng Cisco Bách Khoa -
Routing Table Principles H ọ c vi ệ n m ạ ng Cisco Bách Khoa -
Routing Table Principles H ọ c vi ệ n m ạ ng Cisco Bách Khoa -

Routing Table Principles

Routing Table Principles H ọ c vi ệ n m ạ ng Cisco Bách Khoa -
Routing Table Principles H ọ c vi ệ n m ạ ng Cisco Bách Khoa -
Path Determination and Switching Functions H ọ c vi ệ n m ạ ng Cisco

Path Determination and Switching Functions

Packet Fields and Frame Fields

Packet Fields and Frame Fields • Internet Protocol (IP) packet format contains fields that provide information

Internet Protocol (IP) packet format contains fields that provide information about the packet and the sending and receiving hosts

Fields that are importance for CCNA students:

Destination IP address

Source IP address

Version & TTL

IP header length

Precedence & type of service

Packet length

– Precedence & type of service – Packet length H ọ c vi ệ n m

Packet Fields and Frame Fields

Packet Fields and Frame Fields • MAC Layer Frame Format • MAC Frames are also divided

MAC Layer Frame Format

MAC Frames are also divided into fields. They include:

Preamble

Start of frame delimiter

Destination MAC address

Source MAC address

Type/length

Data and pad

Frame check sequence

– Type/length – Data and pad – Frame check sequence H ọ c vi ệ n

Best Path and Metric

Best Path and Metric • A Metric is a numerical value used by routing protocols to

A Metric is a numerical value used by routing protocols to assess a given route

Metrics may be based on a single path variable or multiple variables of a path

2 types of metrics used by routing protocols are:

2.
2.

1.

Hop count - this is the u packet must travel through to get to its destination Bandwidth - this is the “speed” of a link also known as the data capacity of a link

n mber of ro

u ters a

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Router Paths and Packet Switching

Router Paths and Packet Switching • Equal cost metric is a condition where a router has

Equal cost metric is a condition where a router has multiple paths to the same destination that all have the same metric

To solve this dilemma, a router will use Equal Cost Load Balancing. This means the router sends packets over the multiple exit interfaces listed in the routing table.

Equal Cost Paths and Unequal Cost Paths: a router can send packets over multiple networks even when the metric is not the same if it is using a routing protocol that has this capability.

if it is using a routing protocol that has this capability. H ọ c vi ệ

Path Determination

Path Determination • The path determination function is the process of how the router determines which

The path determination function is the process of how the router determines which path to use when forwarding a packet by searching its routing table.

One of three path determinations results from this search:

Directly connected network Remote network No route determined

– –

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Switching Function

Switching Function • Switching Function of Router is the process used by a router to switch

Switching Function of Router is the process used by a router to switch a packet from an incoming interface to an outgoing interface on the same router.

A packet received by a router will do the following:

Strips off layer 2 headers. i

E

header to find best route to destination. Re-encapsulates layer 3 packet into layer 2 frame. Forwards frame out exit interface.

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IP

dd

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ress ocate

d i

L

est nat on

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n

ayer 3

Switching Function

Switching Function • Step 1: PC1 has a packet to be sent to PC2 H ọ

Step 1: PC1 has a packet to be sent to PC2

Function • Step 1: PC1 has a packet to be sent to PC2 H ọ c

Switching Function

Switching Function • Step 1: PC1 has a packet to be sent to PC2 H ọ

Step 1: PC1 has a packet to be sent to PC2

Function • Step 1: PC1 has a packet to be sent to PC2 H ọ c

Switching Function

Switching Function • Step 1: PC1 has a packet to be sent to PC2 H ọ

Step 1: PC1 has a packet to be sent to PC2

Function • Step 1: PC1 has a packet to be sent to PC2 H ọ c
Function • Step 1: PC1 has a packet to be sent to PC2 H ọ c

Switching Function

Switching Function • Step 2: Router R1 receives the Ethernet frame H ọ c vi ệ

Step 2: Router R1 receives the Ethernet frame

Function • Step 2: Router R1 receives the Ethernet frame H ọ c vi ệ n

Switching Function

Switching Function • Step 2: Router R1 receives the Ethernet frame H ọ c vi ệ

Step 2: Router R1 receives the Ethernet frame

Function • Step 2: Router R1 receives the Ethernet frame H ọ c vi ệ n

Switching Function

Switching Function • Step 2: Router R1 receives the Ethernet frame H ọ c vi ệ

Step 2: Router R1 receives the Ethernet frame

Function • Step 2: Router R1 receives the Ethernet frame H ọ c vi ệ n

Switching Function

Switching Function • Step 2: Router R1 receives the Ethernet frame H ọ c vi ệ

Step 2: Router R1 receives the Ethernet frame

Function • Step 2: Router R1 receives the Ethernet frame H ọ c vi ệ n

Switching Function

Switching Function • Step 2: Router R1 receives the Ethernet frame H ọ c vi ệ

Step 2: Router R1 receives the Ethernet frame

Function • Step 2: Router R1 receives the Ethernet frame H ọ c vi ệ n

Switching Function

Switching Function • Step 2: Router R1 receives the Ethernet frame Học viện mạng Cisco Bách

Step 2: Router R1 receives the Ethernet frame

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Switching Function

Switching Function • Step 3: Packet arrives at router R2 H ọ c vi ệ n

Step 3: Packet arrives at router R2

Switching Function • Step 3: Packet arrives at router R2 H ọ c vi ệ n

Switching Function

Switching Function • Step 3: Packet arrives at router R2 H ọ c vi ệ n

Step 3: Packet arrives at router R2

Switching Function • Step 3: Packet arrives at router R2 H ọ c vi ệ n

Switching Function

Switching Function • Step 3: Packet arrives at router R2 H ọ c vi ệ n

Step 3: Packet arrives at router R2

Switching Function • Step 3: Packet arrives at router R2 H ọ c vi ệ n

Switching Function

Switching Function • Step 3: Packet arrives at router R2 H ọ c vi ệ n

Step 3: Packet arrives at router R2

Switching Function • Step 3: Packet arrives at router R2 H ọ c vi ệ n

Switching Function

Switching Function • Step 3: Packet arrives at router R2 H ọ c vi ệ n

Step 3: Packet arrives at router R2

Switching Function • Step 3: Packet arrives at router R2 H ọ c vi ệ n

Switching Function

Switching Function • Step 3: Packet arrives at router R2 H ọ c vi ệ n

Step 3: Packet arrives at router R2

Switching Function • Step 3: Packet arrives at router R2 H ọ c vi ệ n

Switching Function

Switching Function • Step 3: Packet arrives at router R2 H ọ c vi ệ n

Step 3: Packet arrives at router R2

Switching Function • Step 3: Packet arrives at router R2 H ọ c vi ệ n

Switching Function

Switching Function • Step 4: The packet arrives at R3 H ọ c vi ệ n

Step 4: The packet arrives at R3

Switching Function • Step 4: The packet arrives at R3 H ọ c vi ệ n

Switching Function

Switching Function • Step 4: The packet arrives at R3 H ọ c vi ệ n

Step 4: The packet arrives at R3

Switching Function • Step 4: The packet arrives at R3 H ọ c vi ệ n

Switching Function

Switching Function • Step 4: The packet arrives at R3 H ọ c vi ệ n

Step 4: The packet arrives at R3

Switching Function • Step 4: The packet arrives at R3 H ọ c vi ệ n

Switching Function

Switching Function • Step 4: The packet arrives at R3 H ọ c vi ệ n

Step 4: The packet arrives at R3

Switching Function • Step 4: The packet arrives at R3 H ọ c vi ệ n

Switching Function

Switching Function • Step 4: The packet arrives at R3 H ọ c vi ệ n

Step 4: The packet arrives at R3

Switching Function • Step 4: The packet arrives at R3 H ọ c vi ệ n

Switching Function

Switching Function • Step 4: The packet arrives at R3 • Step 5:The Ethernet Frame with

Step 4: The packet arrives at R3

Switching Function • Step 4: The packet arrives at R3 • Step 5:The Ethernet Frame with

Step 5:The Ethernet Frame with encapsulated IP packet arrives at PC2

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Switching Function

Switching Function • Step 5: The Ethernet Frame with encapsulated IP packet arrives at PC2 1.

Step 5: The Ethernet Frame with encapsulated IP packet arrives at PC2

1. PC2 examines the destination MAC address, which matches the MAC address of the receiving interface, its Ethernet NIC. PC2 will therefore copy the rest of the frame into its buffer.

2. PC2 sees that the Ethernet Type field is 0x800, which means that the Ethernet frame contains an IP packet in the data portion of the frame.

3. PC2 decapsulates the Ethernet frame and passes the IP packet to the IP process of its operating system.

Summary

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Configuration Register Setting – 1800 Series

Configuration Register Setting – 1800 Series • The order in which the router looks for system

The order in which the router looks for system bootstrap information depends on the boot field setting in the configuration register.

The configuration register is a 16-bit register in NVRAM.

To ensure that the upper 12 bits are not changed, first retrieve the current values of the configuration register using the show version command.

Then use the config-register command changing only the value of the last hexadecimal digit.

,

changing only the value of the last hexadecimal digit. , H ọ c vi ệ n

Configuration Register

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Configuration Register

Configuration Register Boot Field Configuration Register Bit Descriptions Boot Field (Bits 3, 2, 1, and 0)

Boot Field Configuration Register Bit Descriptions

Boot Field (Bits 3, 2, 1, and 0)

Meaning

0000

At the next power cycle or reload, the router boots to the ROM monitor.

(0x0)

0001

Boots the first image in flash memory as a system image.

(0x01)

0010 - 1111 (0x02 - 0xF)

At the next power cycle or reload, the router sequentially processes each boot system command in global configuration mode that is stored in the configuration file until the system boots successfully. If no boot system commands are stored in the configuration file, or if executing those commands is unsuccessful, then the router attempts to boot the first image file in flash memory.

Configuration Register

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