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Prostitution and Media Indian Perspective

Submitted by Neha Hooda

Symbiosis International University Pune,Maharashtra March 201

DECLARATION
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I hereby declare that the dissertation entitled Prostitution and Media submitted for the Masters in Mass Communication degree is my original work and the dissertation has not formed the basis for the award of any degree, fellowship or any other similar titles.

Place: Pune, Maharashtra Date: 20th March 2010 Signature of the Student

Acknowledgements
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I take this opportunity to thank my research guide, Prof Ruchi Jaggi for her guidance and support in helping me understand the subject and research methodologies.

I would also like to thank my friends and colleagues who have together helped me make this dissertation possible.

INDEX
INTRODUCTION RATIONALE OF THE TOPIC REVIEW OF LITERATURE OBJECTIVES RESEARCH METHODOLOGY OBSERVATION AND ANALYSIS CONCLUSION BIBLIOGRAPHY 5 10 11 50 51 60 66 67

1) INTRODUCTION
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Prostitution does not only have sexual connotations. It is, 1. The act or practice of engaging in sex acts for hire. 2. The act or an instance of offering or devoting one's talent to an unworthy use or cause.

Prostitution, pornography, and other forms of commercial sex are a multibillion dollar industry. They enrich a small minority of predators, while the larger community is left to pay for the damage.

Prostitution, sex and media seem to be related rather closely. According to cultivation theory, a steady diet of television can influence viewers conceptions of social reality such that heavy viewers beliefs about the real world are shaped by the images of television (Gerbner, Gross, Jackson Beeck, Jeffries Fox, & Signorielli, 1978).The Cultivation perspective suggests that television offers a consistent, stable set of messages that serves as a common socialiser (Gerbner, Gross, Morgan,& Signorielli, 1980). Furthermore, heavy consumption of the highly receptive messages of television can create a distorted picture of social reality (Carveth & Alexander, 1985).According to Sapolsky and Tabarlet (1991): Looked at from the cultivation perspective, Prime time television offers a consistent and repetitive set of message regarding sexual behavior. Sixteen times an hour, entertainment programming adds to its particular vision of sexual world. This world is
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noted for its overemphasis on sexual activity between unmarried characters and a disregard for the issue of safe sex. Adolescents and teenagers who regularly watch prime time television are offered a steady mix of marital infidelity, casual sex, objectification of women, and exploitative relationships. As traditional avenues for sexual socialization have diminished in influence, television had become the electronic educator (p.514) Another perspective on how television of films might influence young peoples sexual attitudes and behavior is social learning theory. Whereas cultivation theory posits an influence of media representations of sex on general public perceptions about the prevalence of different sexual practices, social learning theory focuses instead on the specific behavioral influences of individual media portrayals. This theory holds that actions depicted as rewarding, in the sense that they obtain status, success or personal gratification have greater potential as exemplars that others might copy. Successful behaviors performed by attractive characters can serve as role models for others to follow. Thus, adolescents seeing the young adults, gaining popularity and peer popularity as a result of their sexual exploits may be encouraged to engage in similar behavior themselves (Bandura, 1997, 1994). Another approach to explaining the potential influences of television and film depictions of sex on young people is offered by sexual socialization model. Some observers have suggested that significant changes have occurred in the past 30 to 40 years in the sexual socialization process. They point to the sexual liberalization of the 1960s with its emphasis on greater permissiveness and
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shifting

sexual

norms(L.K.Brown,

DiClemente,& Peck,1992; H.T. Christenson,1962 ; Johnson & Goodchilds,1973).As a result, there may be a convergence in the responses of males and females and a lessening of guilt and disgust associated with sex and sexual images (Schmidt & Siguch,1970).There is mounting evidence that adolescent and young adult populations are able to experience increased exposure to sexually explicit material. In the absence of alternative sources of info, the sexual lessons young viewers derive from television foster an inaccurate image of sex that can lead to unrealistic expectations, frustration and dissatisfaction (Baran, 1976a, 1976b, Fernandez Collado,Greenberg,Korzenny, & Atkins,1978). With this comes the concept of media pimping. Media pimping, involves selling fantasies that ultimately hurt people. Two of their central lies are that women are only good for sex, and men are only good for violence.

They claim that they produce sex and violence because that is all that sells. In fact, many other things sell as well or better. (For example, Walt Disney and Steven Spielberg productions often are very successful.) Media pimps often have a tremendous sense of superiority over "common" people, yet lack the intelligence and creativity to high quality work. They truly enjoy selling a degraded view of the human race.

Advertisers often implicitly promise that buying their products will bring happiness, power, and sexual success. After spending their money, the victims of this "bait and

switch" scam find that they get only a pack of cigarettes, a bottle of shampoo, or a magazine full of dirty pictures. They are just as lonely and unhappy as before, but their money is gone.

Media pimps perform another "bait and switch" function, in cooperation with business level pimps. They attract young people hoping for fame and fortune in the legitimate entertainment business, and manipulate them into the lower levels of the sex industry. They degrade ordinary people living ordinary lives, by showing only idealized characters with perfect bodies, high powered jobs, and a lot of money.The characters problems are always solved in an hour or two with a generous dose of sex and violence. Real people, whose lives cannot be hoped to measure up to these ideals are made to feel inferior. The media pimps work to divert people from their ups and downs of real life, into independence in the fantasy world they sell. The sex industry above all sells fantasies irrespective of who gets hurt. In 1975 Cambridge Documentary Films produced "Rape Culture", which showed how "rapist" behavior is encouraged by entertainment, advertising, and male dominated political, moral and cultural organizations in American society. It is something that holds true for most societies. In 2000, Netherlands legalized prostitution. It is now a job like any other.

The Brtitish Travel Company Thomas Cook has been marketing a tour of Amsterdams red light district calling it an unmissable experiencenot unlike a bizarre zoo. Tickets to the tour were half priced for under 12s while under 3s could go free. With all this media has a huge role to play. Media constructs images and perceptions in the minds of its viewers that strengthen a particular kind of belief. Liberalisation has also played a huge role in advancing the spread of the sex industry. The gross violation of human rights is a lot more now and a lot can be attributed to the accessibility that media provides today. Yet there are a few mediums that do their part in curbing this menace but those cases are few and mostly limited to class room discussions or film festival circuits. The main stream media seems to be neglecting its responsibility.

2) RATIONALE FOR THE TOPIC


The study aims to reflect that how intelligent and ethical content seems to have gone out of the window for most. The only cause for media seems to be profits. Short term goals seem to drive the media industry largely. The content providers and the decision makers seem to have forgotten the far reaching effects and impact of their products. The aim of the research is to bring together facts, analysis and realities that get people to think, react, discuss and act. With all this also comes the concept of Prostituting the media. Quotes cited in Who controls C-Span: We don't print the truth. We don't pretend to print the truth. We print what people tell us. It's up to the public to decide what's the truth. Ben Bradley, while Executive Editor of the Washington Post.

Our job is to give people not what they want, but what we decide they ought to have. Richard Salant, former president of CBS News. The 'balanced' report, in some cases, may no longer be the most effective. Can we afford to wait for our audience to come to its own conclusions? I think not. Tena Ryan, senior producer at the Turner Broadcasting System.

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3) REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Sexuality in the Mass Media: TV sex and its impact The mass media has become an extremely pervasive and omnipresent institution. Young people spend more time in front of the television than they do in school or with their parents, and by the time the average 18 year-old graduates from high school, he or she will have spent 15,000 hours watching television. It is no longer possible, considering the enormous degree of media-saturation in our culture, for the media to have zero effect on any aspect of human life, including human sexuality. The changes in media representations of sex and sexuality over the last fifty years are astonishing. The media industries are no longer forced to portray husbands and wives occupying separate beds, and scenes of sexual activity are rarely avoided or quietly inferred. Sex in the mass media, especially on television, is becoming increasingly frequent and explicit, as many advertisers have come to the realization that "sex sells." Viewers can observe depictions of intimacy and affection, marriage and family life, and gender roles, as well as suggestive and erotic behavior, right in their living rooms. On the one hand, the pervasive, accessible, and popular nature of television makes it an excellent instructor, offering an opportune way to learn about sex and sexuality without embarrassment. However, the images on TV can be harmfully limited, stereotypical and one-dimensional, depicting sex as an activity that is only acceptable for the young, single, beautiful. Also, sex encounters may be continuously and erroneously presented as spontaneous, romantic, and risk-free.
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How much sexual content is shown on television?

About 66% of prime time shows contain some sexual content.

In one study, a solid majority (62%) of scenes in television shows were coded as including some sexual behavior, and 28% of these scenes placed the primary emphasis on sex.

Each new season television programs contain more sexual content than the previous year.

Two thirds of the 1999-2000 television season contained some sexual content (up from one half the previous season).

The sexual content of sitcom scenes shot up from 56% in 1999 to 84% in 2000. The Kaiser Family Foundation (2001) has reported that 80% of the content presented on soap operas is sexual in nature, and Greenberg and Woods (1999:253) reported an average of 6.6 sex acts in each soap hour.

The television programs that are most popular with adolescents have been found to be the most sexual in nature.

How much sexual information do viewers utilize?

Nearly 50% of adolescents report getting information about birth control from the mass media.

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Four out of ten teens (40%) report that they have gained ideas for how to talk to a boyfriend or girlfriend about sex directly from media portrayals.

The mass media was the source of information about sexuality and relationships that was most frequently mentioned in a survey of youth ages ten to fifteen.

Who is having sex on TV?

Almost 23% of the sexual portrayals that were shown in the 2000 season involve characters from the ages of 18-24, and 9% (almost one in ten) involve characters under the age of 18.

The bulk of the sexual action and language occurs between unmarried characters. One study found that unmarried heterosexual characters engage in sexual intercourse four to eight times as much as married characters.

In one study of soap operas, there was only one representation of a married couple engaging in sex for every 24 portrayals of unmarried characters performing sexual acts.

How safe is sex on TV?

The use of contraceptives and the contraction of sexually transmitted diseases on TV are relatively rare. In one study, STDs were only mentioned an average of

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once every ten program hours. In this study, even when a reference was made to the risk of sexual behavior, it was very rarely the primary emphasis of the scene. What are some possible effects of increased exposure to mass media sexuality?

Several studies have linked increased exposure to the mass media with dissatisfaction with virginity among teenagers (Brown & Newcomer, 1991; Peterson, et al, 1991; Kunkel, et al, 1999).

The students who think television accurately portrays sex were more likely to be dissatisfied with their first experience with intercourse (Brown & Newcomer, 1991:80).

Teens that had been exposed to a highly sexual TV drama rated descriptions of casual sex encounters less negatively than teens that had received no sexual content exposure (Bryant & Rockwell, 1994:230).

A study of black women aged 14 to 18 revealed that adolescents who see Xrated movies have less-favorable attitudes toward condom use than other teens (Wingood, et al., 2001:1116).

None of these statistics or research findings indicate that watching sexual content on TV makes viewers take irresponsible steps in their own lives. The research does, however, point to the notion that television viewing may help shape viewers' attitudes and expectations about sexual relationships-- which, in turn, are some of the strongest predictors of their behavior. This hypothesis links sexual attitudes developed from the
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media with troubling sexual statistics, such as the fact that the United States has a higher rate of teen pregnancy than any other industrialized country in the world. Basically, many people are being exposed to massive and explicit sexual messages every day of their lives, probably beginning before they have the knowledge or sophistication to accurately deal with such complicated content. However, the media may help break down the cultural taboos associated with sensitive sexual topics and bridge gaps in our sexual knowledge. Daytime talk shows and TV movies reveal a wide range of human sexual expression and broach topics such as rape, incest and abortion. Because the media can be a double-edged sword, delivering both entertainment and harmful messages, it is important to view sexual media critically. The following are some tips and ideas to help you evaluate the media more carefully and critically.

Internet and its use for prostitution Prostitution is not limited to the streets and brothels alone. Its growth has come up in the shape of personalized escort services being publicized by media. Use of media vehicles like internet are increasingly being used to forward prostitution: a) Use of networking sites as an advertising space b) spam mails on websites essentially indicating that confidential consumer information is being traded c) Pornographic videos, imagery, literature.
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d) Internet prostitution Some examples are as follows: Example1) I m CEO of the firm > DHANRAJ my contact details > +919833194073 or 09833194073 Read the details given below carefully

Girls For Fun And Earn is NOT a CLUB or AGENCY. It is actually a Database of Sexually unsatisfied females who are on the lookout for people who can satisfy them sexually n like to get related with new people....................

We DONT DEAL with PROSTITUTES, WHORES or CALL GIRLS.

PROCEDURE TO SEND MONEY FROM INDIA:u have to deposit the mentioned amount to mine icici bank account by visiting any of its branches or thru net banking if u have an icici internet banking facility.after depositing u have to call Mr DHANRAJ ON +919833194073 for confirming the same ......... as u conferm me u r transfer of funds u have to come online n give me u r email addd in next 45 minutes of u r transfer u get all the details thru email in ur inbox.
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PROCEDURE TO SEND MONEY FROM OUTSIDE INDIA:PROCEDURE: You have to send the money thru WESTERN UNION MONEY TRANSFER by visiting any of their agent locations or thru the net at www.westernunion.com Beneficiary name will be provided to u personally in chat window. After u send the money u have to mention ur FULL NAME AS FILLED IN THE FORM and the MTCN (Money Transfer Control Number). Once the funds have been collected physically, u will be sent the database thru email at ur email address. Source:(http://www.orkut.co.in/Main#FullProfile.aspx?rl=pcb&uid=608683374923 3429852) Example 2 Here im a cool gigolo professional stylish and trendy. in the accompany of mine the babes may get the satisfaction of the heaven. About me I am simply the next door dude who's crazy, yet sensible, upfront, yet down-toearth, oblivious, and yet very much career-driven. I am a big dreamer and strive hard to make sure my dreams turn out true one day. And when it comes to accompany my close friends-I am simply chilled-out, congenial, outgoing, and a complete freak.

I love originality, selfless attitude, and delectability among people, and try to
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move myself aside from whoever's got the 'me, myself and I' attitude towards life. Otherwise I am very easy-going, and believe in living life to it's best, craziest & fullest Female ADD

......... Relation ..... ADD .... . .

. . The above stated information has been taken from popular reputed social networking websites. Likewise many other websites and newspapers forward the sex industry just like they do it for any other industry. Likewise with newspapers that advertise escort services and exotic massage parlors. Pornography and Prostitution There exists inherent association between pornography and prostitution. Pornography, literally a depiction of prostitutes, involves performers, paid to engage in sexual activity, for the express purpose, as Merriam-Webster puts it, of caus[ing] sexual excitement. While the direct relationship between the huge demand for porn and the
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domestic and global demand for prostitution is in the process of being researched and documented, the nature of the two institutions is unquestionably connected. They are the two main pillars of the commercial sex industry, one a gateway to the other, existing only to satisfy demand for increasingly vulgar sexual desires and to line the pockets of those who would profit from such exploitation. To say that pornography has nothing whatsoever to do with the surging sex trafficking industry is simplistic, misguided, and wrong.

Among the most controversial forms of media sex is pornography. In the last two decade of the 20th century, the pornography industry expanded significantly. Much of this expansion was facilitated by developments in communication technologies. The growth of the home video market created a wider audience for the consumption of pornographic videos. The later evolution of the internet provided a further channel, largely uncontrolled, through which a significant market for pornography could be reached. The production & distribution business serving a large international customer base (Hebditch & Anning, 1998). Media theorists have debated the effects of sexual material in the media, and especially the influences of highly erotic content. One central area of contention about erotica is whether the balance of its effects can be considered socially positive and negative. While much emphasis in public debates has been placed on the offensiveness and potentially harmful effects of media sex, there is an alternate view that erotic material can have important educational or therapeutic functions. These benefits include the
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provision of valuable lessons in sexual technique that can enhance a consumers own sex life or be of assistance in the treatment of sexual dysfunction (Gagnon,1977; Kaplan,1984; Wilson,1978).Such Material may also be of use in helping individuals overcome guilt and anxiety about sex that may impair their ability to establish or maintain meaningful emotional relationships (Buvat, Buvat Berbaut, Lemare, Marcolin, & Quittelier,1990 ). Concern has also been focused on pornographic themes that emphasise the sexual promiscuity of women. Women are depicted as obsessed with sex, and willing to engage in any kind of sex act with any partner. A further characteristic typical of this entertainment format is that women present themselves to men as easy sexual conquests whose principal role is to gratify male sexual needs (Brownmiller,1975 ; Diamond, 1985).Such portrayal, it is agrued, can send the wrong messages about women and sexuality. At the very least, this may cultivate perceptions among men that women prefer a subordinate sexual role and, for some men, only further reinforce already callous attitudes about the opposite sex (Russell, 1988). In the context of pornography,Harris (1994) noted that the U.S.Attorney Generals commission on Pornography (1986) identified five classes of pornographic material: 1. Sexually violent materials portray rape and other instances of physical harm to persons in a sexual context. 2. No Violent materials depicting degradation, domination, subordination or humiliation constitute the largestclass of commercially available materials. These
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generally portray women as masochistic, subservient and over responsive to male interest. 3. Non violent and non-degrading materials typically depict a couple having vaginal or oral intercourse with no indication of violence or co ercision. 4. Nudity shows tha naked human body with no obvious sexual behavior or intent. 5. Child pornography involved minors and though illegal to produce in the United States, still circulates widely through foreign magazines and personal distributions (p.248)

Pornography has got a new meaning and dimension to it now with the spread of easy broadcast facilities and avenues. It has translated into more widespread violation of human rights. The coming of new media has given free speech to most but at what cost? Clearly, it seems to have given an impetus to the thriving sex industry. While there is censorship of every kind for other content that does not do so much harm, there seems to be no check on such content that helps strengthen the spread of sex trade. Media plays a huge role in doing so.

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Pornographic magazines on display. Pornography or porn is the portrayal of explicit sexual subject matter for the purposes of sexual excitement and erotic satisfaction. Pornography may use any of a variety of media, ranging from books, magazines, postcards, photos, sculpture, drawing, painting, animation, sound recording, film, video, or video game. However, when sexual acts are performed for a live audience, by definition, it is not pornography, as the term applies to the depiction of the act, rather than the act itself. Thus, portrayals such as sex shows and striptease are not classified as pornography. Pornography has often been subject to censorship and legal restraints on publication on grounds of obscenity. Such grounds and the very definition of what is or is not pornography have differed in different historical, cultural and national contexts.[1] Over the past few decades, an immense industry for the production and consumption of pornography has grown,[citation needed] with the increasing use of the VCR, the DVD, and the Internet, as well as the emergence of social attitudes more tolerant of sexual portrayals. Performers in pornography are referred to as pornographic actors (or
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actresses), or the more commonly known title "porn star" and are generally seen as qualitatively different from their mainstream counterparts.[citation
needed]

Amateur

pornography has become widely popular and generally distributed via the Internet for free.

History

The Venus of Willendorf, a figurine with exaggerated sexual characteristics

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Oil lamp artifact depicting coitus more ferarum.

Depictions of a sexual nature are as old as civilization (and possibly older, in the form of venus figurines and rock art)[2], but the concept of pornography as understood today did not exist until the Victorian era. Nineteenth century legislation outlawed the publication, retail and trafficking of certain writings and images, regarded as pornographic, and would order the destruction of shop and warehouse stock, meant for sale. However, the private possession of and viewing of (some forms of) pornography was not made an offence until recent times.[3] When large scale excavations of Pompeii were undertaken in the 1860s, much of the erotic art of the Romans came to light, shocking the Victorians who saw themselves as the intellectual heirs of the Roman Empire. They did not know what to do with the frank
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depictions of sexuality, and endeavored to hide them away from everyone but upper class scholars. The moveable objects were locked away in the Secret Museum in Naples and what could not be removed was covered and cordoned off as to not corrupt the sensibilities of women, children and the working class. Soon after, the world's first law criminalizing pornography was enacted by the Parliament of the United Kingdom in 1857 in the Obscene Publications Act. The Victorian attitude that pornography was for a select few can be seen in the wording of the Hicklin test stemming from a court case in 1868 where it asks, "whether the tendency of the matter charged as obscenity is to deprave and corrupt those whose minds are open to such immoral influences." Despite the fact of their suppression, depictions of erotic imagery were common throughout history.[4] Sub-genres In general, softcore refers to pornography that does not depict penetration (usually genitals are not shown right on camera), and hardcore refers to pornography that depicts penetration explicitly. Pornography takes different forms depending on physical characteristics of the participants, fetish, sexual orientation, etc. Reality and voyeur pornography, animated videos, and legally prohibited acts also influence the classification of pornography. Some popular genres of pornography include:

Alt porn Amateur pornography


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Fetish pornography Orientation-based pornography (heterosexual pornography; gay pornography; lesbian pornography; bisexual pornography)

Orgy pornography Race-oriented pornography (e.g. Asian, black, Latino, interracial) Reality pornography Voyeur pornography (e.g. hidden camera pornography, "upskirt" pornography)

Economics of Sex industry Revenues of the adult industry in the United States have been difficult to determine. In 1970, a Federal study estimated that the total retail value of all the hard-core porn in the United States was no more than $10 million.[5] In 1998, Forrester Research published a report on the online "adult content" industry estimating $750 million to $1 billion in annual revenue. As an unsourced aside, the Forrester study speculated on an industry-wide aggregate figure of $810 billion, which was repeated out of context in many news stories,[6] after being published in Eric Schlosser's book on the American underground economy.[7] Studies in 2001 put the total (including video, pay-per-view, Internet and magazines) between $2.6 billion and $3.9 billion.[8] A significant amount of pornographic video is shot in the San Fernando Valley, which has been a pioneering region for producing adult films since the 1970s, and has since
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become home for various models, actors/actresses, production companies, and other assorted businesses involved in the production and distribution of pornography. The porn industry has been considered influential in deciding format wars in media, including being a factor in the VHS vs. Betamax format war (the videotape format war)[9][10] and in the Blu-ray vs. HD DVD format war (the high-def format war).[9][10][11] Non-commercial pornography As well as the porn industry, there is a large amount of non-commercial pornography. This should be distinguished from commercial pornography falsely marketed as featuring "amateurs." The Alt Sex Stories Text Repository focuses on prose stories collected from Usenet. Various Usenet groups are focused on non-commercial pornographic photographs. Technology Mass-distributed pornography is as old as the printing press. Almost as soon as photography was invented, it was being used to produce pornographic images. Some claim[who?] that pornography has been a driving force in the development of technologies from the printing press, through photography (still and motion), to video, satellite TV, DVD, and the Internet. With the invention of tiny cameras and wireless equipments voyeur pornography is gaining ground. Mobile cameras are used to capture pornographic photos or videos, and forwarded as MMS. Computer-generated images and manipulations

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Digital manipulation requires the use of source photographs, but some pornography is produced without human actors at all. The idea of completely computer-generated pornography was conceived very early as one of the most obvious areas of application for computer graphics and 3D rendering. Until the late 1990s, digitally manipulated pornography could not be produced costeffectively. In the early 2000s, it became a growing segment, as the modelling and animation software matured and the rendering capabilities of computers improved. As of 2004, computer-generated pornography depicting situations involving children and sex with fictional characters, such as Lara Croft, is already produced on a limited scale. The October 2004 issue of Playboy featured topless pictures of the title character from the BloodRayne video game.[12] Production and distribution The production and distribution of pornography are economic activities of some importance. The exact size of the economy of pornography and the influence that it has in political circles are matters of controversy. List of pornography laws by region for detailed list The legal status of pornography varies widely from country to country. Most countries allow at least some form of pornography. In some countries, softcore pornography is considered tame enough to be sold in general stores or to be shown on TV. Hardcore pornography, on the other hand, is usually regulated. The production and sale, and to a slightly lesser degree the possession, of child pornography is illegal in almost all
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countries, and most countries have restrictions on pornography involving violence or animals.

Pornographic entertainment on display in a sex shop window. There is usually a minimum age to go into pornographic stores. Most countries attempt to restrict minors' access to hardcore materials, limiting availability to adult bookstores, mail-order, and television channels that parents can restrict, among other means. There is usually an age minimum for entrance to pornographic stores, or the materials are displayed partly covered or not displayed at all. More generally, disseminating pornography to a minor is often illegal. Many of these efforts have been rendered practically irrelevant by widely available Internet pornography.

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In the United States, a person receiving unwanted commercial mail he or she deems pornographic (or otherwise offensive) may obtain a Prohibitory Order, either against all mail from a particular sender, or against all sexually explicit mail, by applying to the United States Postal Service. There are recurring urban legends of snuff movies, in which murders are filmed for pornographic purposes. Despite extensive work to ascertain the truth of these rumors, law enforcement officials have been unable to find any such works. The Internet has also caused problems with the enforcement of age limits regarding performers and subjects. In most countries, males and females under the age of 18 are not allowed to appear in porn films, but in several European countries the age limit is 16, and in Denmark it is legal for women as young as 16 to appear topless in mainstream newspapers and magazines.[citation needed] This material often ends up on the Internet and can be viewed by people in countries where it constitutes child pornography, creating challenges for lawmakers wishing to restrict access to such material. Some people, including pornography producer Larry Flynt and the writer Salman Rushdie,[13] have argued that pornography is vital to freedom and that a free and civilized society should be judged by its willingness to accept pornography. The UK Government has criminalised possession of what it terms "extreme pornography" following the highly publicised murder of Jane Longhurst. Effect on sexual crime
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Research concerning the effects of pornography is inconclusive. Some studies support the contention that the viewing of pornographic material may increase rates of sexual crimes, while others have shown no effects, or a decrease in the rates of such crimes. Moreover, all these studies focus on various correlations, but correlation does not imply causation. Feminist objections Feminist critics of pornography, such as Andrea Dworkin and Catharine MacKinnon, generally consider it demeaning to women. They believe that most pornography eroticizes the domination, humiliation, and coercion of women, reinforces sexual and cultural attitudes that are complicit in rape and sexual harassment, and contributes to the androcentric objectification of women.

Pornography in India Pornography in India is illegal and attracts several penal provisions. The law also states that distributing and publishing pornography is illegal. As per the act accessing pornography is not mentioned to be illegal. Pornographic films in India are referred to as Blue Films and are available virtually anywhere; especially in areas where pirated material is already being sold.

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Softcore porn industry exists indeed in India ,with softporn movies industry based in North Indian states .Although the best sex oriented films in India is made in [(Mollywood)].Directors like Bharathan,I V Sasi,Padmarajan in Indian introduced large dose of sexuality in late 70's.

Some

magazine

publications

like

Debonair

(magazine),fantasy,chastity,royal

magazine,dafa 302 etc do exist in India.

Hardcore Pornography is banned in India, however, some hardcore Indian porn is available illegally in Indian markets.

Online pornography in India

Many legal/illegal websites like Savita Bhabhi published by Deshmukh (Deshmukh' is the pseudonym of Puneet Agarwal). Savita Bhabhi is a manga-like erotic cartoon strip about the adventures of a bored and husband-neglected housewife. Royal (magazine) published by Ronak Vyas provide online pornography in India. A Desi Fantasy website solicited and gave access to user-written pornographic narratives but as of January 2010 it seemed to have disappeared into the ether, leaving behind a compendium in a blog hosted outside India. [1] These narratives are in a mixture of English and romanized Hindi/Urdu. They are notable for situations inside traditional extended families that might be considered incestuous as well as for situations outside traditional familes perhaps documenting the sex lives of Indian yuppies whose lifestyles seem to resemble their western counterparts'.

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The Information Technology Act, Chapter XI Paragraph 67, the Government of India clearly considers online pornography as a punishable offense. The Indian Penal Code, 1860 section 293 also specifies, in clear terms, the law against Sale etc. of obscene objects to minors.

Chapter XI

"67. Publishing of information which is obscene in electronic form. - Whoever publishes or transmits or causes to be published in the electronic form, any material which is lascivious or appeal to the prurient interest or if its effect is such as to tend to deprave and corrupt persons who are likely, having regard to all relevant circumstances, to read, see or hear the matter contained or embodied in it, shall be punished on first conviction with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to five years and with fine which may extend to one lakh rupees and in the event of a second or subsequent conviction with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to ten years and also with fine which may extend to two lakh rupees."

In Tamil Nadu ,Dr Prakash was arrested in December 2001 on charges of taking obscene photos of his women patients through hidden cameras and uploaded them on the World Wide Web site, with the help of his US-based brother.

Source:www.wikipedia.com

Anti PornographyNew article


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Browsing child porn will land you in jail

Swati Deshpande, TNN, Feb 16, 2009, 05.59am IST

MUMBAI: The newly passed Information Technology Bill is set to make it illegal to not only create and transmit child pornography in any electronic form, but even to browse it. The punishment for a first offence of publishing, creating, exchanging, downloading or browsing any electronic depiction of children in "obscene or indecent or sexually explicit manner" can attract five years in jail and a fine of Rs 10 lakh.

In its first comprehensive amendment nine years after it was first enacted, the Act proposes to bring "cyber terrorism", "identity theft" and "violation of privacy" into the domain of cyber crime. Critics of the Bill, which is awaiting Presidential assent, say it enables the government to snoop into citizens computers while investigating "any offence". The bill has, however, broken new ground by identifying several new offences and making them punishable. Section 67 of the existing act deals with "publishing obscene information in electronic form". It is a generally worded section that does not specifically define "pornography" or make it an offence, and does not mention "child pornography" at all. But in its amended avatar, Section 67B proposes specifically to punish involvement in sexually explicit online or electronic content that depicts children. It will also be an offence to "cultivate, entice or induce children to online relationship with other children for a sexual act."

"The amendments will certainly have a huge impact on the way cyber crimes are
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handled and investigated in India," said advocate Pavan Duggal, a cyber law specialist in Delhi. Mumbai-based cyber security expert Vijay Mukhi concurred. Both experts noted that an offence of "cyber terrorism" punishable with life imprisonment, for instance, is a vital new addition, and that its definition is exhaustive.

Duggal said, "Once the bill becomes an act, Section 67B will have a huge positive impact, primarily because India does not have a special legislation to tackle child pornography. To that extent, the new IT law is path-breaking".

Legal experts note that while the amendments dont make it illegal to view adult porn, they do make watching child porn an offence (the law would apply to "whoever creates text or digital images, collects, seeks, browses, downloads" child porn). The fear is that the section would kick in even if sites were opened accidentally, because a computer may store information about such a site being accessed.

Pornography has two perspectives in relation to prostitution. One, whether porn producers are utilizing trafficked individuals in their productions. Second, the possibility that porn consumption can lead to increased demand for prostitution, which fuels human trafficking; indeed, studies and articles demonstrate the connection between johns pornography consumption and their acting out of the demonstrated behavior with prostitutes. Further, testimonial evidence demonstrates the role pornography plays as a training tool for inexperienced prostitutes, forced or otherwise.
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Pornography as an industry on the internet is fluid. It is seamless and has a global reach. The statistics are truly staggering. According to compiled numbers from respected news and research organizations, every second $3,075.64 is being spent on pornography. Every second 28,258 internet users are viewing pornography. In that same second 372 internet users are typing adult search terms into search engines. Every 39 minutes a new pornographic video is being created in the U.S. Its big business. The pornography industry has larger revenues than Microsoft, Google, Amazon, eBay, Yahoo, Apple and Netflix combined. 2006 Worldwide Pornography Revenues ballooned to $97.06 billion. 2006 & 2005 U.S. Pornography Industry Revenue Statistics, 2006 Top Adult Search Requests, 2006 Search Engine Request Trends are some of the other statistics revealed here. The following top 10 list has been compiled using credible sources and appear here in no certain order. Anyone interested in Internet Filter Software and Internet Security Suites Software will find plentiful information about creating and maintaining a safe and secure internet experience at home and work.

Pornography Time Statistics

Every

second

$3,075.64

is

being

spent

on

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pornography.

Every second - 28,258 internet users are viewing pornography.

Every second - 372 internet users are typing adult search terms into search engines.

Every 39 minutes: a new pornographic film is being made.

Source: Internet A website titled http://www.indianmoviesmania.com/ has a footnote as below:

JOIN with the most Trusted Billing Companies

Credit Cards & Online Checks join with a Trusted


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Billing Company

Join thru CCbill

Card & other Card Holders Join with a Trusted Billing Company Join thru Paymonde

Your privacy is our main priority. Your transaction will be on an 128 bit ecrypted Your information is used only for credit card verification purposes. This site contains materials of adult nature. If you find adult material portraying nudity offensive or if you are under 21 years old, or you are from a country, state, or community where Adult Materials are prohibited, please do NOT proceed to enter this site. Parents please
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server.

protect

your

children:

Adults

Only!

All Rights Reserved Copyright 2004-2005. Indianmoviesmania.com All model are over 21 years of age and all records keeping is in compliance with the requirements compliance with the requirements of Title 18 US.C 2257

Such information as stated above clearly hints at the systematic way with which this burgeoning industry is growing rapidly. Representation of the other sex: content analysis Pornographic films cater to both men and women with customized content. The depiction of the opposite sex takes on very different approaches for both. While the content catering to the male gaze tends to be humiliating towards women essentially aimed at boosting the power and confidence of the male by treating women brutally and deriving pleasure from the womans helplessness and pain. Some of the examples of such degrading content are as follows: Rough sex is more than just physically beating a whore into submission. Its mental, too. (http://www.roughsex2.com/ghetto-gaggers/mamba/) The content was followed by a highly disturbing image of a black women beaten and bruised chained with frontal nudity.

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The first slap across her stupid face set the tone. She knew it was for real. The second slap almost had her in tearsIf that wasnt humiliating enough, puking into a dog bowl while that would break down the spirit of any girl. The money she made would quickly be spent but the shame of what she did would last a lifetime. She just looked so broken. When she took the loads to her face, she sat there mentally and physically trashed. It was a masterpiece. (http://www.roughsex2.com/) The text was followed b a series of images where the initial images showed a confident women and eventually the woman looked distressed and in a position of helplessness. The idea seemed to give a false notion of power to the male gaze by breaking the spirit of women .It was purely brutal. When some men were interviewed on the basis of such imagery they were also found to be disturbed and expressed their displeasure stating that certain forms of pornography especially the brutal forms are not liked by most. The cataogery of BDSM was one such highly disturbing caterory that works on role play. BDSM is a form of consensual roleplay between two or more individuals, who use their experiences of pain and power to create sexual tension, pleasure, and release. The compound acronym, BDSM, is derived from the terms bondage and discipline (B&D, B/D, or BD), dominance and submission (D&s, D/s, or Ds), sadism and masochism (S&M, S/M, or SM).

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Collars are a commonly used symbol of BDSM and can be ornamental or functional Some of the tags that catch attention are as follows: Extreme Porn, Face F******, Face Slapping, First Timer, Interracial Porn, Puke B*****, Rough Sex

Sex & Prostitution & depiction of prostitutes in Films and the small screen Sexual or Erotic Films focus on themes with either suggestive, erotic or sensual scenes or subjects, sometimes with depictions of human nudity and lovemaking, but not always of an extremely explicit, gratuitous or pornographic nature. These kinds of films often appeal to the emotions of the viewer, with their emphasis on pleasure, physical desire, and human companionship. Films of romance with heart-throb sexy lead characters may have sexual elements, but these are often secondary to the main plot goal - the search and attainment of love.

Sex in film refers to the presentation in motion pictures of sex acts, including love scenes. Sex scenes have been depicted in film since the silent era of cinematography. Many actors and actresses have exposed parts of their bodies or dressed and behaved
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in ways considered sexually provocative by contemporary standards at some point in their careers. Some films of the sexual nature have been criticized by religious groups and/or banned by governments because of the amounts of sex scenes.

Sex in film should be distinguished from nudity in film. Nudity and sexuality are features of pornographic films. In softcore films, sexuality is less explicit. Erotic films are suggestive of sexuality, but need not contain nudity. A film on naturism or about people where nudity is common may contain non-sexual nudity. In some genres of film sexuality is rarely depicted.

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sex_in_film

Deodorant Advertising and 'The Rakhi Sawant Effect' On the advertisement front predominantly in the Male Deodorant segment having already present high recall brand like Axe and the newly launched brands like WildStone, Fuel and Denver.

Couldn't help but notice that the whole category is just working on the 'Attract women' platform. No matter how stupid it may sound, in India, Deodorant as a category anyways doesn't sell as much depending on how it 'smells' but how it 'attracts'.Axe has done wonders internationally on the same positioning and the easiest way to replicate the same model is to 'lift' the positioning bit too. Nothing wrong with that. But i have a problem with the execution of the positioning. There is a difference between being
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naughty using verbal undertones and just being plain sleazy

Fuel : Ignite the Fire!!!

A Desert, Guy at a petrol pump, Sprays Fuel Deodorant, a HOT girl comes near, Smells the guy, and opens her shirt to flaunt her cleavage and bra, pulls the guy towards her!!! (http://brandeur.blogspot.com/2009/07/advertising-and-rakhi-sawant-effect.html)

Mandi (1983) Benegal's next film, Mandi (1983) was a satirical comedy about politics and prostitution, starring Shabana Azmi and Smita Patil. Mandi (1983)

Shyam Benegal films often explore broad social themes through a closely focused lens, in detailed studies of relationships among
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a handful of people. Mandi ("market") is broader in scope, featuring a large number of characters whose relationships form an intricate web in which concepts like loyalty, morality, and duplicity are tangled. A wry film with a healthy dose of black comedy, Mandi presents a sarcastic look at the tension between venerable but questionable traditions and modernity in its various forms. Rukmini bai (Shabana Azmi) is a madam who runs her brothel with a stern and demanding hand. Aided by her melancholy houseboy Dhungrus (Naseeruddin Shah), Rukmini is protective of her girls, especially the brothel's virginal prize, Zeenat (Smita Patil), who is permitted to spend her days practicing her music and kathak instead of submitting to the kotha's more lascivious customers. When a sanctimonious moralist, Shanti Devi (Gita Siddharth), flexes her political muscle in an attempt to drive the brothel out of town, Rukmini turns to her landlord Mr. Gupta (Kulbushan Kharbanda) for assistance, but finds in him only a conditional ally. Caught in the crossfire is the town's mayor, Agrawal (Saeed Jaffrey), who is under the powerful Shanti Devi's thumb but also beholden to Rukmini, lest she air his own dirty laundry. Rounding out the vast network of players is a terrified mute girl (Sreela Majumdar) married under pretext and sold by her new husband to Rukmini; a dirty-minded photographer (Om Puri) who prowls around trying to snap naked pictures of the tawaifs; a police-wala who does his "night duty" at the brothel; Agrawal's son, engaged to Gupta's daughter but madly in love with Zeenat; Shanti Devi's beleaguered assistant (Pankaj Kapur); a crazed and pious hermit (Amrish Puri) who shows Rukmini how to extract wishes from a variety of holy objects; and all the girls of the brothel (including Soni Razdan and Ila Arun), with their varying levels of satisfaction and loyalty to Rukmini.
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Source: http://www.filmigeek.com/2008/01/mandi-1983.html The film is about the life of prostitutes and how they are placed in the society. This happens to be one of the few Hindi films that have been subtle yet brought out the disparity in actions of a society that talk of women empowerment and shuns a section of them in the same breath. Their image to the outside world is still of being cheap and dirty, yet the film goes on to show the interplay of relationships between them. It is a good mix showing women who are forced in to the trade with those who have become accustomed to it. The film questions the government attitude, societal conventions of perception about them. The narrative flows such the prostitutes are given space to talk about relationships, displacement, faith and other aspects of a human being. In most of the films on prostitution, only the filth of the work is talked about with no regards to the prostitutes as human beings.

Laga Chunari Mein Daag 2007 is another one of the few works that came about showing the reasons that led one into a profession like an escort service and how they are placed in the society in various relationsips. The key factor of the film was not sensationalism of the act, but the character involved in the act.

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Laaga Chunari Mein Daag is a moving tale about a woman's life and her journey through many hardships in order to support her family. The cast is as follows: Batki (Rani Mukerji) and Chutki (Konkona Sen Sharma) are the daughters of Shivshankar Sahay (Anupam Kher) and Sabitri (Jaya Bachchan). They live together on the banks of the River Ganges in Banaras. Life is sweet and full of fun for the two. The family are relatively poor but try to stay strong. Batki is especially protective of her family and is determined to make sure Chutki completes her education. Their father, Mr Sahay, a former economics teacher, is unable to cope with an unfair dismissal at the college and his bitterness increases with every passing day.

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So with no money coming in, Bakti's education is stopped. Instead Abhishek she helps her mother. Bachchan

As life gets meaner by the day Batki decides to go to Mumbai so that she can feed her family back in Banaras. Alone and unsupported in the midst of the urban jungle of Mumbai, Badki battles with dark forces, keeping her focus on supporting her family and continuing Chutki's education. She deliberately morphs into someone else, leading a secret double-life full of murky compromises. When Chutki comes to Mumbai to work, things take a dramatic turn. Badki's life turns into a minefield, as she hides her secrets from Chutki. Chutki makes her way in the world and falls in love with Vivaan (Kunal Kapoor), a Mumbai city boy. Batki too, finds love with Rohan (Abhishek Bachchan), a top city lawyer, but runs away from him thinking that it is not part of her destiny. Instead, she battles menace and blackmail alone, not letting these dark shadows fall on Chutki or her family. But her dual life is revealed, and the two sisters face each other in a confrontation neither expects. And when love beckons Badki again, the whole family is thrown in a
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Rani Mukerji

tumultuous storm. Everything threatens to explode, destroying all of them in this moving drama. Source: http://www.bbc.co.uk/shropshire/films/bollywood/2007/09/lcmd_preview.shtml

Apart from films aimed at cornering women as prostitutes and showing a very stereotypical role, some films are made that aim at sensitizing the public at large about the menace of human trafficking and prostitution.One such example can be found on www.culturesunplugged.com The website features many such films aimed at protecting human rights from violation. One such film called Traffic has its story as follows: Traffic:Asia Pacific: An MTV EXIT Special : Director: Wayne Yates | Genre: Documentary | Produced In: 2008 Synopsis: Traffic is a unique and powerful program presented by multiple celebrities in multiple languages that addresses the issue of human trafficking in Asia-Pacific. Told through the stories of real people, the show features Ana, trafficked from the Philippines and forced into prostitution; Eka, an Indonesian woman, trafficked into forced domestic servitude in Singapore; and Min Aung, from Burma, trafficked to Thailand and imprisoned for 2 years in a factory. Their harrowing stories are told along side other people in the trafficking chain, including a trafficker who has been forcing girls into prostitution for over 20 years, a young man who pays for sex, an anti-trafficking police officer, and a woman who runs a shelter for abused victims. The film gives an insight into the realities of trafficking, addresses the part we all play in the issue, and gives
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information on how to protect ourselves as well as what we can do to help end exploitation and trafficking. The only trouble with such content is of reach. Majorly restricted to festival circuits and intellectual conversations, such content is not able to reach and sensitize the people who are consumers of prostitution and its product of pornography.

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4) OBJECTIVES
The objective is to understand the following: 1) The impact of sexual content on the viewers. 2) To observe the guided behavior coming from heavy exposure to explicit content 3) Politics of representation of women as regards to men in such content 4) Establish the link between media sex, pornography, prostitution and human trafficking.

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5) RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
The method of research has been content analysis, interviews, discussions, film analysis and observation of generally prevalent behaviors. Much of work has been on the lines of pornography, media sex, and representation in films with regards to prostitution.

Some of interviews on the issue of pornography are as follows: Noted Bollywood director Mahesh Bhatt, known for his free-spirited movies, life and views says: "I have always maintained that there's nothing degrading in the displaying of any part of the human body. This amazing creation of mother nature is also considered by Hinduism as a gift so special that you are only worthy of it after several rebirths as other lowly creatures. And those who are embarrassed or offended by the display of it are those whose minds have been damaged by ideology - religious or feminist - just because we have pornography in movies today does not mean it did not exist earlier. Remember the toilet graffiti we used to snigger about in school, the charcoal drawings of breasts and vulvas on rocks and tree trunks? Let me assure the alarmists that pornography is nothing new. It's just that today, with the communication revolution, it has become a business, a big business, which grosses billions of dollars a year, as much as spectator sports and movies combined. Far from poisoning the mind, pornography shows the deepest truth about sexuality stripped of all romantic veneer. The stark
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images in porn are shock devices to break down middle-class norms of decorum, reserve and tidiness. Pornography is now evolving towards becoming high art. It's high time we take a fresh look at this phenomenon which is rooted in the human biological impulse." (http://www.atimes.com/atimes/South_Asia/FH18Df03.html)

Salil Sangra, Student Portrayal of what happens in a pornographic film is an inspiration to follow for those with no knowledge about sexual practices. Talking of brutal explicit content, for an educated viewer it would not affect the behavioral patterns but cud happen to someone experimenting with sexuality for the first time. Relationship of dominance is shown as paramount. There seems to be no way to restrict it. Hindi films have a huge influence on the viewers. As far as porn is concerned, it helps in throwing light on the human anatomy.Even if explicit content is there it is seen for the thrill of it and not always with an intention to apply it. To some extent the ides of association does exist in the mind of the viewer. There exists a big home video market in kolkatta. It consists of amateurs and newly married people who either make such content to sell it or for the thrill of doing it. It is a lot more unprofessional but close to reality so the market value is high. In comparison normal porn would be too regular and unrealistic. Amit Basia, Businessman It is usually the need for money, an alcoholic spouse or single mothers who cant support themselves engage in escort services abroad and most are not happy about it. Some are misled and their passports snatched , locked in a hotel and are forced to
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perform in a dance bar. They are allowed to stay in premise only. Being in a foreign land and being legally handicapped, they are afraid to run away. The ones that I have met are usually in the bracket of 15 -35 years. Russian, Scandinavian, European and American women have an exotic factor for businessmen like me travelling abroad.

Vikram Jeet Sood, Software Engineer Hindi films and English film like American pie leave nothing to imagination. All it takes is to type the word sex in a google search engine and a plethora of images and explicit content pops up. MMS transfers are another source of sexual gratification. Likewise escort service have a benefit of secrecy, access attached to them. There are some fake escort service as well who ask you to pay by card through an online transfer and then not provide the service. Also paying in kind like buying drinks, dinner and taking the girl home after a good time are a kind of prostitution growing rapidly in metros where one stands are constantly on a rise. This liberalization has greatly been possible due to the media content being fed to the viewers day in and day out. Also what seems to be the big fuss about breaking a prostitution story. Constantly flashing news of what happened it to generate more trp and more ad revenue for the channel, Nothing is done for the help and up liftment of the prostitute.

Renuka Jakhar, PR professional

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I think pornography is too repetitive, dont know how people can watch it. It is mechanica & staged. Its impact is majorly on young kids who have started dating recently as they watch porn with their partner and try to copy the same act. In some cases coercion in used. Such content also tends to get addictive without realization. Persoanlly, I am not aware of porn for women. But I would like content to be tailored to my needs like more of foreplay, chemistry and spark between the characters. I would prefer to watch it alone and implement it with my partner. One drawback of porn is that it leads to fall in self confidence, depression as a false sense of inadequacy in terms of physical attributes is created.In my opinion home videos also look fake. Porn clipsare easily available on you tube so distribution is not really a trouble with people who make home videos.

Ashdeep Sood, Graphic Designer I believe that to some extent media contirbutes in encouraging prostitution. Young girls have sex on their mind (like every other normal human being) but when movies or adverts with "explicit" content are made then some girls get the desire to try something new and to top it up they get paid for it. So they have "fun" and make money. These has been found more common in college girls who get limited pocket money from home, especially those, living away in a different city from their hometown. So I think movies and media in general contributes and encourages girls to enter into prostitution. Because for some of them it is about enjoying sex rather than money as they are from very well off families. Plus now young people from smaller towns live and work in bigger cities which give them the freedom to do whatever they want as there is nobody to keep
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a check on them. This often leads to girls getting into prostitution and pornography as returns are quick. The bottom line is that their thoughts are somewhere provoked and influenced by the media today. Recently I met a guy who, inspite of having a young wife and two little kids goes to prostitues for his "pleasures". The girl is a call centre employee and earns decent. But then again, she stays in a city far away from home and this gives her the freedom to do whatever she wants. There is no parents' check on her. Plus having sex and enjoying it and getting paid for it what she wants, because that triples her monthly income. This is a typical example of what I have mentioned earlier. The second scenario is of teenage girls n boys who watch "hot n steamy" scenes in movies and the want to try something "new" with their friends and classmates. This is common amongst children of age 12-16 due to high curiosity levels about their bodies and thoughts that are developing at this stage.They want to try something that they see on screen and the most common "availability" is from fellow classmates of opposite (in some cases same) sex.

To understand the relationship better between prostitution and media, I threw a discussion open to a mix of professionals. The views were mixed and here is what they had to say: Suchint Miglani , Marine Engineer They have a strong relation. People who watch more sexual content are more likely to initiate intercourse and progress to more advanced noncoital sexual activities. As a

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result, they move to prostitutes if they don't have a right partner out of frustration.A lot of people also go for prostitutes as they want to practice variety as portrayed in media.

Varun Marwah , Marketing Professional Relating "watching sexual content" and "advanced non-coital sexual activities" is kind of questionable. I think we are missing a very important point here is that when in past when Sex in media and Porn sites never existed then also Prostitution was in its full Swing. Majority of People watch it for enjoyment.

Jatin Rai, Businessman Any ad can have thousands of different implications & myriads of effects on millions of personalities that watch the ad. We can say that sexually explicit content can give rise to prostitution, aggression, domestic violence, child abuse etc. But then the question is that for certain brands or product categories is there an equally or probably more effective alternate way to convey their message? Neha Singh, Sound Engineer

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I think maybe yes and I think it depends a lot on your target segment. I saw a hoarding of durex n all it had was a the back pocket of a pair of jeans and a very subtle message on it.

Jatin Rai , Businessman You pointed out right. It all depends on your TG. This kind of ad can work well on a hoarding in metro or MTV but won't work much on DD. So you need to have different strategies. Group discussion on sex in media

Nishank Sharma, Management Trainee India is still in the jurassic era as far as censorship goes.Ftv was banned for 10 days because of the same reason and I that is foolishness.If foul language could be allowed in the movies, what's wrong with the mass media?? Every other country allows late night adult content.I think the ideology of Indian censor board is kind of confused between politics and ethics

Ujjwal Khullar, Media Trainee

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As a matter for content it is sensationalism for the 70+% rural and semi-urban population. That is why some channels which many do not think are up to the level for being a news channel are still among the top. It gets TRPs. and thus ad revenues. Women in ads are mostly showed as sex objects, but then men are also portrayed as some desperate. As mass media holds the power to affect the ideologies of whole nation - specially growing children and teenagers, some better content can be and should be put up. Common man sees the glamour world as a completely different and may be 'unreachable' world. But products with ads which are show common man as common man are successful example: tata tea.

Consumer is not a fool today. 'Axe' users know that it doesn't attract women like it claims to do. People know that women are sensible enough not to be attracted by some smell alone. So sex object theory has gone old and needs to change for the sake of brand + content. Gaurav Batla, Investment Banker, Female as sex objects is an example of 'the male gaze'.

Jatin Rai ,Businessman Follow the laws of free market. Produce what is in demand. Human psychology is to crave for things that are banned. Initially it is out of curiosity & then it is because of rebel nature. We talk a lot about regulation & hence we advertise it, we ourselves are responsible for creating a demand for it. Take example of Chinese market. Sex is not a
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taboo, people don't hesitate to talk about it, practice it & sexually explicit material is easily available. Therefore, it isn't on the priority list of people. People there seek other things. In the recent past there has been a huge shift in contraceptive advert. Earlier brands like Nirodh would show couple walking in rain in an embrace, Masti would show a horse to depict manhood. But now the messages are very clear & bold. There are explicit messages like that of Manforce & responsible messages like Condom Hamesha. 'http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZScv6npywTo'.

Its fine both the ways but I feel that more explicit messages do create initial spur but responsible messages create a long lasting impression & effect. There is also a difference in intent of message. Sexually explicit ads promote a particular brand while responsible ads promote the usage of contraceptives (irrespective of the brand) but that isn't a rule.If again depends on how you want to position your brand. If I want to generate quick sales then I'd go for exciting & 'talk of the gang' ads but if I want to create a long lasting brand image that is acceptable to all sections of society then I'd go for responsible ads.

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6) OBSERVATION AND ANALYSIS


Prostitution and Media There exists a strong relationship between prostitution and media. Media popularly plays on what sells which essentially translated into sexual content of varying moderations. When such content goes on and the viewers of all possible demographics are exposed to it on a continual basis, a desire, a need to indulge in such practices comes in to force. To satiate such a desire they turn to various means. One such mean is a possibility of paying for sex with a possibility to implementing what has been seen in the media. Since much of content that come up on initial searches is full of sleaze and devoid of any responsibility towards the characters in the act, the same message is transferred to the viewer and in many cases acted upon. In personal relationships it creates disrespect and demeans human beings in various ways. Films like Harishchandraci Factory are very few that can entertain audience without the possibility of titillating them. Clean fun without sexual innuendoes seems to be hard to be found. Explicit media content in various forms does not satiate any needs but it very subtley creates the need for more. Eventually as one pays for it, the burgeoning industry of human trafficking in given a boost. Relationship between erotic content and pornography Example: A film by Mani Kaul called The Cloud Door was one such film that was intended to be a work of erotica but ended up on the list of pornographic sites in
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chunks. Another question that content makers need to ask themselves is that how should they convey the message of their art for the understanding of public at large. There have been films like Satyam Shivam Sundaram, Raam Teri Ganga Maili, Kama Sutra Fire and LSD lately that have tried to play on the voyeuristic mind. At a larger level very few remember the story for the narrative but more for the tantalizing effect of the content. The execution of an idea must be done sensibility. There seems to be no qualms about sensuous imagery backed with a strong narrative. However, sex for sexs sake proves to throw jarring images on the viewers. Media stereotyping of prostitution and prostitutes On a larger level prostitutes are considered to be bad people with no heart of their own. There characters are never shown as well rounded. They are only portrayed as women deeply interested in sex. On Indian telivison, serials like GHAR KI LAKSHMI BETIYAN has a character called Parvati portrayed as a vamp. Much of her character takes from that of a typical prostitute in terms of characterization. Her major role seems to be that of a home breaker. Then there has been DEV D that goes on to explain prostitution as it exists in modern day urban India showing the impact of a spread of a mms that leads a student further into prostitution and destroys her family life. To some extent, the
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character of Lenny, the girl playing the prostitute is given a soul of her own, yet it is majorly kept in the back ground. An analysis of media misrepresentations Whenever a report comes out in the newspaper or channel about a rescue operation, it is more to generate a buzz hence making the paper or channel more visible for trp and ad revenue purpose. In case of celebrity sex scandals they inevitably make the headlines leaving many other important new behind. Much of it has propaganda value for the celebrity in question. Like those of Rakhi Sawant or Paris Hilton for that matter. In case of escort services the major findings come when a racket is bust by the police. In the same breath we can say that there also exist advertisement of various massage parlours offering Russian, Italian, Mexican, Indian and all other possible types of masseurs for the consumers pleasure. The deep hypocrisy is inevitably blatant when we see that on one hand checks are being out and on the other hand the same are easily being publicised. Features on what draws people to such a profession are far and few like the India Today story in January 2008 on escort services. On the topic of those who are forced in this profession, not much is done for the victim. They seem to remain in a vicious circle from which they cannot escape. When there's a sex scene on the television or movie screen, every audience member melts. Even when the actors portray prostitution it's a very passionate and steamy sex scene that is enjoyable for the audience. But in real life the existence of prostitution is
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demeaning to all woman kind. When someone thinks about prostitutes they don't consider it a both sex issue. They immediately think of only women selling their bodies for sex. The fact of the matter is that a huge percent of men are prostitutes also. Prostitution is a dirty word. In the Indian context those involved in it also become dirty. It does not matter that many become a part of this trade due to force. All are labelled as the same. Also the use of colloquial words and phrases as popularised through media content is also something that solidifies the notion of prostitutes as people who are just dirt. This misrepresentation whether through text, language, location, costumes has become so stereo type that it has totally taken the humanity aspect away from the sex workers. A kind of image has been solidified in the minds of the viewer.

Misrepresentation in the media portrays women prostitutes as sexual transmitters of AIDS to men. Yet careful study of the available data shows male-to-female transmission of the HIV virus is the overwhelming mode of heterosexual transmission of AIDS. The media coverage shows little concern for the health of prostitutes at risk for AIDS, but rather for their role as possible disease vectors. Prostitutes are eagerly singled out as a target group despite a dearth of evidence points in large measure to their precarious position in society. And it highlights the impact media has when it acts as an uncritical sounding-board for government and medical press releases about a disease with dire social as well as physical consequences.
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The other aspects of an individuals personality are totally ignored and made to appear like they do not exist. A film like Born Into Brothels brings the actuality of a prostitutes life as it is shot on location at SonaGachi in Kolkatta. Yet it remains to be seen that what impact leaves on the prostitutes of the area. Made by a foreigner on Indian soil, the film pushes its dimensions and takes a life of its own as it talks about the children of the prostitutes and the future that awaits them.

The politics of marketing and money

The less represented group of sex workers mostly comes in to the lime light when it can add to the shock value and help build better profits. They often become a part of the content. The usage is even strong when the sensationalism happens due to the involvement of a celebrity like a bollywood star like in the cases of casting couch. Prostitutes remain a part of the content however no clear programming seems to be in place that would also take into account of them as potential viewers. Much of what happens to trafficked men, women and children is an effect of the media content that titillates its viewers to buy sex for various reasons This one sided route signifies the clear intention of making profits and the game play of TRPs. This happens even in the times when the concept of social responsibility is constantly growing.

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Since a certain kind of content helps gross in revenue, it is put up for the public. However, some amount of responsibility must also be taken for the impact of such content. Such impact usually turns into more and more poor people from the developing nations being forced into sexual slavery, so as to bring out cheap explicit content that fuels many other wars like terrorism, narcotics etc. What is even more sad is that such content is supported by global giants like Google etc who easily throw up results to add to the revenue of such an industry building on gross violation of basic human rights. In an av material even if the viewer makes a personal choice to get exposed, the characters being portrayed may also be without any force; yet the impact is felt elsewhere as impressions remain in the mind of the viewer and because of such content, someone somewhere is forcefully pushed into prostitution.

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7) CONCLUSION
Media serves as a source of information and learning for people exposed to such content. In this sense media sex acts as a social learning tool and sexual socialization. It is not only the depiction of sex but also the talks surrounding it that do this.This can provide an agenda for sex. The impact of sexual content in media stems from the graphic depiction of sexual technique and also from the underlying tones of the narrative surrounding such a setting. Violent explicit content should be strictly banned as it harms more than it benefits. The impact of media sex may occur not just at a behavioural level, but also at a cognitive level.A regular diet of explicit media content may condition inaccurate beliefs about female sexuality, shift moral codes and values towards greater acceptance of sexual promiscuity, and create distorted impressions about the normality of unusual or exaggerated sexual practices. The reaction of media consumers to media sex and the degree to which their social attitudes, beliefs and perceptions are influenced by such content are mediated by other factors. Thus, not everyone responds in the same way to sexually explicit portrayal.The nature and instrumentality of individuals consumption of media sex are closely linked to whether explicitly sexual media content is used purely for entertainment purpose and whether it performs a deeper function of psychological alteration. For some individuals, media sex is a diversion where as for others it is a substitute.

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8) BIBLIOGRAPHY
Gunter,B. (2002).Media Sex: What are the issues?,1,14, 82, 85, 88, 95,109, 238, 239 http://www.opposingviews.com/counters/trafficking-and-porn http://www.scribd.com/doc/18412262/INTRODUCTION-Prostitution-Pornography-AndOther-Forms-of-Commercial-Sex-Are

http://www.allacademic.com/meta/p_mla_apa_research_citation/2/2/8/9/1/p228910_ind ex.html http://www.rapeis.org/activism/media/media.html http://www.prostitutionresearch.com/c-prostitution-research.html http://www.womenlobby.org http://www.business-humanrights.org http://pisrd.org/reports/Prostitutes/Annexure%201.pdf http://www.psu.edu/courses/wmnst/wmnst001_atd1/Prostitution/emily.html http://fathersforlife.org/culture/prostitution.htm#media-prostitution https://www.researchgate.net/publication/20887877_Prostitutes_as_pariah_in_the_age _of_AIDS_a_content_analysis_of_coverage_of_women_prostitutes_in_The_New_York _Times_and_the_Washington_Post_September_1985-April_1988
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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hardcore_pornography http://www.soc.ucsb.edu/sexinfo/article/sexuality-in-the-mass-media http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_pornographic_sub-genres http://www.filmsite.org/sexualfilms.html

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