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GRAMMAR II/2003 I

Finite clauses
Simple sentence: made up of a single (main) clause Compound sentence: consisting of co-ordinated (main) clauses Complex sentence: made up of a main clause and one or more subordinate clauses Main clauses are in principle finite (with the verbal element realised by a verb phrase in either the present or the past tense). Subordinate clauses may be finite or non-finite. A. Co-ordination 1 You stay here and/or/but you keep absolutely quiet about it. B. Subordination A subordinate clause fulfils a function in a superordinate clause: I As a separate clause element: Subject: 2 Whether you want to do it is up to you. (Indirect question) 3 It is amazing that he should be so keen to do it. (Extraposed that-clause) Direct object: 4 5 6 7 Adverbial: I hope the money comes soon. (That-clause) I don't like what he told you. (Nominal relative clause) I don't know what he told you. (Indirect question) I don't know whether/if he told you. (Indirect question)

8 She was here when I came. (Time adjunct) 9 If she asks me, I'll refuse. (Adjunct of condition)

II As part of a clause element: Part of 10 The money (that/which) I found was most welcome. (Relative clause) subject: 11 The fact that he was seen near the bank is no proof. (Appositional clause) 12 The idea that she should do it alone is ridiculous. (Appositional clause) 13 The idea (that/which) she wanted to discuss was ridiculous. (Relative clause) Part of direct object: 14 I don't like the story (that/which) he told you. (Relative clause)

Part of subject 15 I'm amazed he should be so ignorant. (Complement that-clause) predicative: Part of adverbial: 16 She answered the questions so elegantly that they gave her the job straight away. (Result clause)

C. Comment clauses

17 John, I noticed, kept looking at the new girl. 18 I noticed that John kept looking at the new girl. (Main clause + object that-clause) 19 It was John who told me that Mary was coming. (It-cleft) 20 It was John, who told me that Mary was coming. (Non-restrictive relative clause) 21 What you don't know is that Mary is coming. (Wh-cleft) Cf. 22 What I just read was quite unbelievable. (Nominal relative clause) 23 Thats why I didnt want to ask her. (Reversed wh-cleft) 24 This is how it all began. (Reversed wh-cleft) 25 This is where I live. (Reversed wh-cleft)

D. Cleft constructions

Only which is used in sentential relative clauses: 26 Jeremy managed to finish on time, which was quite a surprise. What is used in nominal relative clauses: 27 I dont like what she said. (See also and above.) Cf. 28 I dont know what she said. (Interrogative clause) Relative pronouns in adjectival relative clauses in present-day English: who, whom, which, that, . The choice of relative pronoun depends on: restrictive/non-restrictive function of the relative clause personal/non-personal reference syntactic function of the relative pronoun within the relative clause 29 The plan that//which John presented seemed very convincing. 30 John's plan, which I had heard of before, seemed very convincing. 31 She gave me a book, which I didn't like much. (Ambiguous: adjectival or sentential) 32 She's the woman on whom we all depend. 33 She's the woman /that(/who/whom) we all depend on. 34 She's the woman who(/that) can decide our future. 35 Mary, who never was one to waste her time, had finished the job within two hours. 36 The paper which/that carried the news was sued for libel. 37 The paper to which she sent the article never replied. 38 The paper /that/which she sent the article to never replied. 39 I think the girl /that(/who/whom) we met was French or something. 40 She's the best thing ever happened to me. (Colloquial) Syntactic function of relative pronoun Subject Imm. after prep. Other Restrictive Personal Non-personal who, that whom , that, who(m) which, that which , that, which Non-restrictive Personal Non-personal who whom who(m) which which which