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Helicopter Simulator

General Description
The system consists of a body, carrying propellers driven by DC motors, and a massive support. The body has two degrees of freedom. Both body position angles (elevation and azimuth) are inuenced by rotation of propellers. The axes of a body rotation are perpendicular. DC motors are driven by power ampliers using pulse width modulation. Both angles are measured by IRC sensors. It is possible to modify the centre of gravity by moving small weight along the main horizontal axis of helicopter by a servomotor. The mathematical model of the helicopter system is a typical MIMO 22 system with signicant cross-couplings.

Figure 1: The helicopter model Humusoft CE 150.

Mathematical Model

Figure 2: Torques action on the body in the vertical and horizontal planes.

Elevation dynamics The torque balance regarding the elevation (pitch) dynamics is as follows: 1 + f1 m G = I I = moment of inertia [Kg m2 ] = elevation angle (pitch) [rad] 1 = main motor driving torque [N m] = centrifugal torque [N m] f1 = friction torque [N m] m = gravitational torque [N m] G = gyroscopic torque [N m] Azimuth dynamics modeling The torque balance regarding the azimuth (yaw) dynamics is as follows: 2 f 2 r = I I = moment of inertia (depends on elevation) [Kg m2 ] = azimuth angle (yaw) [rad] 2 = stabilizing motor driving torque [N m] f2 = friction torque [N m] r = main motor reaction torque [N m]

DC motor and propeller dynamics modeling Dynamics of the DC motors and propellers can be approximated as follows:
2 1 = K1 1 sign(1 ) 2 2 = K2 2 sign(2 )

1 = angular velocity of the main propeller [rad/s] 2 = angular velocity of the stabilizing propeller [rad/s] Sensor and power amplier modeling Since incremental encoders are used for angle measurements, they can be considered with no dynamics. y = k y = k y = elevation angle [deg] y = azimuth angle [deg]. Regarding the power ampliers, they can be considered as ideal, that is ua = K u where M U denotes machine units, which interval is [-1, 1]. u = computer command [M U ] ua = armature voltage [V ]

Complete model
The complete model of the helicopter simulator is reported in Fig. 3.

Empirical (simplied) model

A simplied model is reported in Fig. 4. Since the parameters of this model has been identied (see Table 1), this model can be used as a simulator of the real process. Note that this model has 2 inputs and 2 outputs. - Inputs are the motor commands in machine units MU. - Outputs are the elevation and the azimuth angles in degrees.

Identied values of the empirical model parameters

In Table 1 the values of the empirical model parameters are reported. These values has been obtained both by the helicopter manual and by an identication experiment. Var. k k g a1 b1 a2 b2 B I B I T1 T2 Kr T0r Tpr KGyro Value 180/ 180/ 3.83 102 0.186 0.0445 0.033 0.0294 5 103 4.37 103 8.69 103 4.14 103 0.1 0.25 0.00891 2.7 0.75 0.015 Units [M U/rad] [M U/rad] [N m] [N m/M U 2 ] [N m/M U ] [N m/M U 2 ] [N m/M U ] [Kg m2 /s] [Kg m2 ] [Kg m2 /s] [Kg m2 ] [s] [s] [N m/M U ] [s] [s] [N m/s]