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A

NEW.

FOWLER
PROFICIENCY

WRITING ^ S K ILLS

Introduction

INTRODUCTION
New Fowler Proficiency Writing Skills 2 is t h e second part

of a t w o - p a r t c o u r s e which aims to teach the t e c h n i q u e s s t u d e n t s r e q u i r e t o a t t e m p t any o f t h e variations among the six forms of writing task s e t in the revised Cambridge Proficiency examination. Approximately ten per cent of t h e material in Writing Skills has b e e n r e v i s e d f o r this b o o k . All t h e o t h e r material in this book is new. Each of the twenty units c o n s i s t s of f o u r - p a g e s , w h i c h s h o u l d , under normal c i r c u m s t a n c e s , be c o m p l e t e d in t w o l e s s o n s , with a writing task to be done later in approximately o n e hour, the time allowed for it in the examination. The changes in the examination The biggest change in the writing paper of the revised Cambridge Proficiency examination is that it n o w has t w o parts, as do FCE and CAE. P a r t I c o n s i s t s of a c o m p u l s o r y q u e s t i o n comprising i n s t r u c t i o n s and a t e x t or t e x t s w h i c h p r o v i d e candidates with a clear c o n t e x t . T h e r e is always m o r e than o n e p o i n t to a d d r e s s in this q u e s t i o n , and candidates should learn to identify t h e s e points and ensure that they c o v e r t h e m w h e n writing. The q u e s t i o n is discursive, and candidates are e x p e c t e d to w r i t e o n e o f t h e following:
an an a a article essay letter proposal

For t h o s e c a n d i d a t e s w h o have s t u d i e d o n e o f t h e three set texts, Question 5 consists of three q u e s t i o n s , o n e for each o f t h e s e t t e x t s . Candidates are required t o w r i t e o n e o f t h e following:
an an a a a article essay letter review report

T h e t i m e limit (2 hours) and length of writing tasks ( 3 0 0 - 3 5 0 w o r d s ) remain unchanged. T e a c h i n g w r i t i n g skills It is important for students to understand that while credit is given to Proficiency candidates for their use of s t r u c t u r e and v o c a b u l a r y , t h e s e a r e n o t t h e o n l y considerations to be taken into account; organisation and the relevance of the answer to the task are at least equally important. Different writing tasks require s p e c i f i c t e c h n i q u e s t o deal w i t h t h e m , and s u c h t e c h n i q u e s can be taught effectively t h r o u g h m o d e l s written within the capacity of a g o o d student that can be analysed, imitated and practised. T h e s e models are supported with revision of t h e necessary grammatical structures and lexical items by means of accompanying exercises and the reference section and the appendix at t h e end. Doing justice to oneself in an examination T h e Proficiency examination requires a considerably m o r e sophisticated use of English than First Certificate and t h e difference b e t w e e n t h e s e t w o levels is often underestimated by students. The difference, however, is n o t s o m u c h a m a t t e r o f using m o r e c o m p l i c a t e d s t r u c t u r e s or a w i d e r range of vocabulary as of providing a n a n s w e r r e l e v a n t t o t h e q u e s t i o n , well organised in g o o d , clear sentences and paragraphs. The range of q u e s t i o n s o p e n to the e x a m i n e r is considerable, as indicated by the contents pages of this book, but learning the right technique to deal with each is half t h e battle. T h e r e f o r e , it is r e c o m m e n d e d that students pay particular attention to the tips provided throughout the book. These consist of practical advice on what to do and what not to do in a given situation and should make it possible for s t u d e n t s taking t h e exam to realise their full potential.

In P a r t 2, candidates choose one question comprising instructions which give candidates guidance to t h e c o n t e x t . In o r d e r to be successful in Part 2, candidates should be c o m p e t e n t at narrating, analysing, h y p o t h e s i s i n g , d e s c r i b i n g , giving r e a s o n s , persuading, judging priorities, evaluating, making recommendations, giving information and summarising. Candidates are e x p e c t e d t o w r i t e o n e of t h e following, from a c h o i c e of t h r e e :
an a a a a article letter proposal review report

Contents

UNIT

PART

TECHNIQUE

MODELS
S E C T I O N 1: A R T I C L E S

REVISION

PAGE

Describing

My working day A working day in the life of a florist

Adverbs of frequency Prepositions of time Tenses

Describing and narrating

A key moment in my childhood

Past & Perfect Tenses Indirect Speech

10

Discussing an issue

Should mothers go out to work?

Passive Voice: impersonal structures


14

Responding to generalisations

Crime: genes or upbringing?

Compound Adjectives

18

S E C T I O N

2:

L E T T E R S

Describing

Teacher of the Year The most unpleasant person 1 have ever met

Adjectives

22

Giving opinions

The aims of education

Connectors and modifiers: developing an argument

26

Complaining

A letter of complaint to an airline

Indirect Speech Conditionals


Should

30

Applying for a job

Voluntary summer job Student conference

hypothetical

would

34

S E C T I O N

3:

E S S A Y S

Expressing opinions

The future of entertainment

Tenses Inversion

38

Comparing

Films vs Books

Comparison

42

UNIT

PART

TECHNIQUE

MODELS
S E C T I O N 4 : P R O P O S A L S

REVISION

PAGE

Applying for funds

Keeping a museum open

Connectors and modifiers: Clauses of Reason

46

12
10

Assessing choices

The Opera House: renovation or demolition?

Formal language

50

Evaluating a situation

Traffic problem in town centre

54

2
14

Giving reasons

Promoting a new snack

Connectors and modifiers: Clauses of Reason

58

18

S E C T I O N

5 :

R E V I E W S

Reviewing a festival

The Edinburgh Festival

Gerunds and infinitives

62

Reviewing a holiday
22

A weekend break in Venice

Participle clauses

66

Reviewing a magazine

National

Geographic

Connectors and modifiers: developing an argument

70

26

S E C T I O N

6 :

R E P O R T S

Discussing the findings


30

Maintown residents' opinions on how best to spend a donation

Quantifiers Passive Voice: impersonal and personal structures

74

of a survey

Providing solutions
34

Threatened closure of The Catherine Wheel restaurant

78

Evaluating

Mr Quick Dry Cleaner's


Travel the World game

Indirect Speech

82

Reference section
38

86

Appendix

94

42

CPE Writing S h e e t s

96

WmHmmMm

1
a b c d e

Articles

Describing

Before reading t h e question and article below, l o o k at Reference section 3 o n page 8 6 and c o m p l e t e this e x e r c i s e . Put t h e adverb in brackets in t h e m o s t suitable place in t h e s e n t e n c e . I get up at seven o'clock, (usually) My first a p p o i n t m e n t is at 8.45. (generally) I d o n ' t h a v e t i m e to r e a d t h e p a p e r after breakfast, (often) I have k e p t up with t h e latest r e s e a r c h , (always) I have h a d to go o u t in t h e m i d d l e of t h e night, ( s o m e t i m e s )

N o w read t h e q u e s t i o n and t h e article b e l o w and t h e n do t h e e x e r c i s e s that follow. You live and w o r k locally. T h e c a r e e r s office In t h e t o w n publishes a m o n t h l y magazine for s t u d e n t s . T h e magazine has invited local business p e o p l e , d o c t o r s , t e a c h e r s , e t c to w r i t e articles describing their w o r k i n g day. You have d e c i d e d to w r i t e an article for t h e magazine describing y o u r normal w o r k i n g day.

My working day
M o s t G P s t h e s e d a y s b e l o n g , as I d o , to a m e d i c a l p r a c t i c e s h a r e d with four o t h e r d o c t o r s . This has the advantage of o u r being able to employ two n u r s e s a n d two s e c r e t a r i e s . U n l i k e t h e o t h e r doctors in my practice, I am married with two young children and my husband, Michael, has a full-time job in London. Michael and I usually get up every day about six thirty and have a shower and get dressed before we wake the children. We have breakfast at 7.30 and get the children ready for school. Fortunately, my husband passes the school on the way to the station so he d r o p s t h e m off. My first a p p o i n t m e n t is n o t u s u a l l y u n t i l 8.45 b u t t h e c h i l d r e n n e a r l y always n e e d something at the last minute so I don't often have time to read the paper after breakfast. In our practice, we ask patients to telephone for an a p p o i n t m e n t unless they are seriously ill. Most of those who come to the surgery just need a prescription for the chemist or a certificate to stay away from work. I normally finish surgery at about 11 o'clock and then start my rounds, visiting patients in their homes. With luck, I am h o m e for lunch by 1.00, a n d h a v e t i m e t o r e a d o n e o f t h e m e d i c a l journals before the children come h o m e from school at about 3.30.1 have always tried to keep up with the latest research. T h e c h i l d r e n have lunch at school, b u t I am always t h e r e w h e n they arrive h o m e and can give t h e m some tea and get dinner ready for my husband b e f o r e I r e t u r n for t h e e v e n i n g s u r g e r y a t six. Michael gets h o m e before then so I never have to leave t h e m a l o n e . I am n o r m a l l y h o m e again by 8.30. when the children go to bed, and by then t h e working day is generally over. We don't often go out in the evenings because I feel t o o tired but I have sometimes had to get up and go out in the middle of the night to answer an emergency call from one of my patients.

Articles

Underline all t h e adverbs of frequency in t h e article. 6.30

aei

up

C o m p l e t e t h e diary page for t h e d o c t o r in n o t e form, indicating w h a t s h e d o e s at different t i m e s of t h e day, as in t h e e x a m p l e .

7.30 8.45 11.00 1.00 3.30 6.00 8.30

L o o k at Reference sections 13 and 14 o n page 9 0 and c o m p l e t e t h e s h o r t article b e l o w with t h e p r e p o s i t i o n s provided. You will have to use s o m e of t h e m m o r e than o n c e . on

at

in

My working day
l w o r k as a porter (1) t h e G r a n d Hotel (2) Grippon Road. My w o r k i n g d a y 5.30 am, so I h a v e t i m e for a s h o w e r a n d a 6.30 a m . The hotel is a 15s t a r t s very early as l have to be at w o r k by 7 am to t a k e over f r o m t h e night porter. My a\arm clock w a k e s me up (3) good b r e a k f a s t b e f o r e l leave t h e house (4)

minute bus ride a w a y a n d I generally bay a p a p e r to r e a d on t h e j o u r n e y . My j o b is quite interesting as I g e t to m e e t plenty of d i f f e r e n t people; some of t h e m a r e friendly a n d s o m e t i m e s give u s good tips, w h e r e a s o t h e r s c a n b e quite r u d e a n d t r e a t us like s e r v a n t s . Most g u e s t s leave (5) t h e r e is usually a quiet period (6) (7) the early afternoon when the t h e morning, so l am k e p t busy bringing their luggage down to reception while they check out. Then lunchtime b e f o r e things g e t busy a g a i n new guests arrive.

As t h e Grand Hotel is (8)

t h e city c e n t r e , a lot of t o u r i s t s s t a y with us. New Year, when lots of people s t a y

Sometimes t w o c o a c h e s will a r r i v e full of visitors, which a l w a y s m a k e s my j o b m o r e tiring. Another busy t i m e is (9) o v e r n i g h t in t h e city to go to a show, t a k e in t h e sights or go shopping in t h e sales for b a r g a i n s . My shift finishes (10) 3 pm when a n o t h e r p o r t e r t a k e s over. I am lucky t h a t I still t h e evening.

have t h e best p a r t of the a f t e r n o o n f r e e to run a few errands or have a walk (11) t h e p a r k before going home to my family (12)

1
6

Articles

Describing

Look at t h e question below. In w h a t way is it different from t h e q u e s t i o n on page 6?

Your c o l l e g e magazine has d e c i d e d t o run a feature entitled A working day in the life of... . Students have b e e n asked t o w r i t e articles a b o u t p e o p l e w h o d o different jobs. W r i t e a n article describing t h e w o r k i n g day of s o m e o n e y o u k n o w w h o s e job y o u think o t h e r s t u d e n t s w o u l d be i n t e r e s t e d in finding o u t m o r e about.

L o o k at Reference section 1 8 a and c o n pages 91 and 9 2 and t h e n read t h e article below. C o m p l e t e t h e s p a c e s with t h e c o r r e c t form of t h e verb in brackets.

A working day in the life of a florist


P e o p l e a r e often s u r p r i s e d w h e n I tell t h e m t h a t my m o t h e r is a freelance florist. It's q u i t e an u n u s u a l j o b a n d is c e r t a i n l y v a r i e d . My m o t h e r (1) (be) lucky e n o u g h to w o r k from h o m e , so she (2) (not h a v e ) a flower s h o p to r u n . She (3) (arrange) flowers for w e d d i n g s , p a r t i e s , b i r t h d a y s , a n n i v e r s a r i e s a n d o t h e r o c c a s i o n s . A l t h o u g h s h e (4) (put) a small a d v e r t i s e m e n t in a local p a p e r , m o s t of h e r c o m m i s s i o n s so far (5) (come) by w o r d of m o u t h ; w h e n people are pleased with s o m e o n e ' s work, they are quick to r e c o m m e n d t h e m to others. A typical w o r k i n g d a y for my m o t h e r (6) (often start) v e r y early, especially if it is a d a y w h e n s h e h a s to travel to L o n d o n to t h e flower m a r k e t . This (7) (be) a h u g e m a r k e t w h e r e fresh flowers a r e sold t o florists a n d p e o p l e i n t h e t r a d e . T h e m a r k e t (8) (begin) at 6 a m , so s h e (9) ( h a v e to) get up at 4 a m t o b e s u r e o f a r r i v i n g early a n d finding w h a t s h e w a n t s . O n c e s h e (10) ( p u r c h a s e ) t h e b l o o m s a n d foliage, s h e (11) (bring) t h e m b a c k h o m e in h e r v a n . My father (12) (build) a special s h e d for h e r i n t h e b a c k g a r d e n w h e r e s h e c a n w o r k i n p e a c e . Inside s h e (13) ( h a v e ) all t h e e q u i p m e n t s h e (14) ( n e e d ) a n d p l e n t y of s p a c e for d o i n g t h e flower a r r a n g i n g . S p a c e is v e r y i m p o r t a n t b e c a u s e s h e (15) (often do) a r r a n g e m e n t s for w e d d i n g s a n d (16) ( s o m e t i m e s n e e d ) t o m a k e u p t o t w e n t y o r thirty t a b l e d e c o r a t i o n s . O n s o m e d a y s s h e (17) (spend) the morning and the afternoon arranging flowers. S h e (18) ( a l w a y s listen) t o classical m u s i c w h i l e s h e ' s a r r a n g i n g a s s h e s a y s i t h e l p s give h e r i n s p i r a t i o n . O t h e r d a y s , w h e n s h e (19) (not h a v e ) a n y a r r a n g i n g to d o , s h e (20) (visit) p o t e n t i a l clients to d i s c u s s their r e q u i r e m e n t s or s h e m a y go s h o p p i n g for s u p p l i e s s u c h as ribbons, b a s k e t s , c o n t a i n e r s a n d so o n . If b u s i n e s s is q u i e t , s h e c a n s p e n d t h e d a y w i t h h e r family o r c a t c h u p o n h o u s e w o r k . I t h i n k m y m o t h e r i s f o r t u n a t e t o h a v e a j o b s h e loves a n d o n e w h e r e s h e c a n a r r a n g e h e r w o r k i n g t i m e t o suit h e r a n d h e r family's n e e d s . I h o p e t o b e able t o d o t h e s a m e w h e n I start w o r k .

Desct

8 a

C h o o s e o n e of t h e q u e s t i o n s b e l o w and w r i t e an article. Your local n e w s p a p e r has a s e c t i o n for t e e n a g e r s w h o are thinking a b o u t w h a t c a r e e r to f o l l o w w h e n t h e y are older. T h e n e w s p a p e r has invited local p e o p l e to w r i t e articles describing their typical w o r k i n g day. You have d e c i d e d to w r i t e an article for t h e newspaper.

Your t e a c h e r has asked y o u to w r i t e an article describing t h e daily routine of a policeman, a taxi driver or a teacher. W r i t e y o u r article.

You can prepare for either task by doing t h e e x e r c i s e below. D r a w up a diary reference like t h e o n e y o u did for t h e d o c t o r on page 7. Think of t h e a n s w e r s to t h e s e questions: W h a t t i m e d o e s t h e p e r s o n get u p ? W h a t t i m e d o e s h e / s h e h a v e b r e a k f a s t , lunch, d i n n e r ? W h a t t i m e d o e s h e / s h e leave t h e h o u s e t o g o t o w o r k ? W h a t t i m e d o e s he/she start a n d finish w o r k ?

If you w r i t e a b o u t p e o p l e w h o do n o t w o r k regular hours, think of h o w their w o r k i n g day is different. Do they w o r k in t h e mornings, t h e a f t e r n o o n s , at night? Do they do shift work? Is each w o r k i n g day different? Make sure you have understood whether the question requires an article in the first person or the third person singular before you start writing. Check your tenses carefully.

6.00 7.00

2.00 3.00 HH^ 4 . 0 0 5.00 6.00 7.00

9.00 10.00 11.00 12.00 1.00

8.00 9.00

Articles

Describing and narrating

Read t h e q u e s t i o n and t h e article b e l o w and c o m p l e t e t h e e x e r c i s e s that follow. A Sunday n e w s p a p e r has invited r e a d e r s to s e n d in articles for their s e r i e s on childhood. Readers are invited t o w r i t e an article entitled A key m o m e n t in my childhood. W r i t e y o u r article describing an i m p o r t a n t c h i l d h o o d e x p e r i e n c e and say h o w it affected y o u r character.

A key moment in my childhood


T h i s i n c i d e n t o c c u r r e d (1) I was a b o u t t e n years old, just after t h e w a r . I had spent the war years in the country but when it was over my parents returned to L o n d o n a n d I f o u n d myself a s t r a n g e r in a class of 40 boys in a s t a t e p r i m a r y school. I h a d h a d advantages most of the boys had lacked. T h e r e were plenty of books in the house and my parents had encouraged me to read. T h e teacher in this L o n d o n s c h o o l , a m a n called J o n e s , (2) found that w h e n he asked the class a q u e s t i o n , I w a s t h e first to p u t up my h a n d and (3) knew the answer. Because of this, he started calling me ' P r o f e s s o r ' a n d t h o u g h I w a s n o t trying t o s h o w off, a lot of t h e boys obviously t h o u g h t of me as 'The Teacher's Pet'. (4) Mr J o n e s asked a q u e s t i o n a n d several boys failed to a n s w e r it b e f o r e he t u r n e d to m e . (5) I got t h e a n s w e r hopelessly w r o n g a n d h e w a s s o u s e d t o relying o n m e t h a t h e w a s irritated. ' N o , d o n ' t b e silly, Professor,' h e said. (6) l a t e r , t h e bell r a n g a n d w h e n I w e n t d o w n to t h e p l a y g r o u n d , a g r o u p of my c l a s s m a t e s followed m e . I tried to ignore t h e m but they gathered r o u n d me, l a u g h i n g a n d j e e r i n g a n d calling m e n a m e s . (7) a boy I hardly knew pushed his way t h r o u g h t h e g r o u p , s t o o d b e s i d e m e , a n d t u r n e d t o face t h e m . H i s n a m e w a s I a n Scott a n d I c a n still s e e h i m clearly. He h a d fair h a i r a n d b r i g h t b l u e e y e s , a n d a l w a y s wore a r e d jersey. ' W h a t are you laughing a t ? ' h e d e m a n d e d . ' N o n e o f y o u ever k n o w the answer and he just got one question w r o n g , just o n e ! ' H e p u t his h a n d o n m y s h o u l d e r a n d t h e c r o w d fell silent, a n d (8) dispersed. T h a t incident t a u g h t m e two things t h a t I h a v e always r e m e m b e r e d . O n e is t h a t m o s t of us envy those w h o a r e m o r e successful t h a n w e a r e , a n d i t d o e s n o t t a k e very m u c h for a g r o u p of o r d i n a r y p e o p l e to t u r n i n t o a mob, eager to humiliate them. The other is t h a t o n e b r a v e m a n o r w o m a n willing t o face such a m o b can m a k e t h e m a s h a m e d of t h e m s e l v e s a n d b r i n g t h e m to t h e i r senses. I h a v e f o u n d t h a t as t r u e in politics as it was in the playground.

Describing and narrating


2

Articles

T h e w r i t e r u s e s a variety of t i m e e x p r e s s i o n s to e n s u r e that t h e reader k n o w s t h e o r d e r in which t h e main e v e n t s occur. Read t h e article again and fill t h e gaps using t h e w o r d s b e l o w .

a few minutes then this time

one day usually

soon when

suddenly

Answer these questions.

W h y did t h e writer n o t k n o w any of his c l a s s m a t e s ?

I n w h a t way w a s t h e w r i t e r privileged i n c o m p a r i s o n t o t h e o t h e r boys a t s c h o o l ?

W h y w a s t h e writer k n o w n as ' P r o f e s s o r " '

W h y did t h e boys m a k e fun of t h e w r i t e r in t h e p l a y g r o u n d ?

W h a t did this i n c i d e n t t e a c h t h e w r i t e r ?

In t h e article t h e w r i t e r u s e s t h e past simple, t h e past perfect and t h e p r e s e n t perfect t e n s e s . L o o k at Reference section 18c and e o n page 9 2 and underline all t h e e x a m p l e s y o u can find of t h e past perfect and p r e s e n t perfect t e n s e s . T h e n d e c i d e which o f t h e t h r e e t e n s e s a b o v e t h e w r i t e r has used t o : a p r o v i d e an e x p l a n a t i o n of t h e b a c k g r o u n d to t h e story,

tell t h e story of t h e i n c i d e n t .

show t h e effect of t h e story on t h e w r i t e r ' s life since t h e n .

T h e article has five paragraphs. W h a t is t h e p u r p o s e of each one? W r i t e t h e c o r r e c t paragraph n u m b e r o n t h e d o t t e d line. a b c d e A c c o u n t of t h e situation t h a t p r o v o k e d t h e incident C o n c l u s i o n explaining why t h e w r i t e r t h i n k s t h e incident i m p o r t a n t A c c o u n t of t h e i n c i d e n t t h a t is ' t h e key m o m e n t ' G e n e r a l i n t r o d u c t i o n establishing t i m e a n d p l a c e I n t r o d u c t i o n explaining t h e b a c k g r o u n d to t h e incident

II

Articles

Look at t h e s e e x a m p l e s of direct s p e e c h which t h e w r i t e r has used to intensify his writing, a b ' N o , don't be silly, Professor,' he said. ' W h a t are you laughing at?' he d e m a n d e d . ' N o n e of y o u e v e r k n o w t h e a n s w e r and he just g o t o n e q u e s t i o n w r o n g , just o n e ! ' W h i c h e x a m p l e is used to e m p h a s i s e that: 1 2 t h e t e a c h e r w a s angry? t h e w o r d s said h a d a g r e a t effect on t h e w r i t e r ?

Look at Reference section 7 o n page 8 8 and t h e n w r i t e s e n t e n c e s in direct s p e e c h t o e x p r e s s t h e following situations.

He a g r e e d t h a t we h a d b e e n s t u p i d to think we could get away with it.

M r s S m i t h asked h o w long we h a d b e e n listening at t h e d o o r .

He advised me to write d o w n any ideas t h a t c a m e to me w h e n I w a s sleeping.

S h e w a r n e d me n o t to do it again,, or she w o u l d call my p a r e n t s .

T h e y d e n i e d writing graffiti on t h e p l a y g r o u n d walls.

S h e refused to let a n y o n e h e l p h e r with t h e project.

D a v i d r e g r e t t e d wasting so m u c h t i m e d u r i n g t h e school year.

H e r m o t h e r c o m p l a i n e d t h a t she s h o u l d h a v e b e e n m o r e r e s p o n s i b l e .

Articles

Look at t h e q u e s t i o n s below, think of an incident for each o n e and c o m p l e t e t h e paragraph plans which follow with y o u r ideas. a A Sunday n e w s p a p e r has invited readers to s e n d in articles for their s e r i e s on s c h o o l days. W r i t e an article describing an u n f o r t u n a t e incident t h a t o c c u r r e d at s c h o o l . Say h o w y o u think t h e incident c h a n g e d y o u r o u t l o o k on life.

Introduction

Hain Body

Conclusion

A popular magazine is running a c o m p e t i t i o n for t h e b e s t article entitled A chance encounter. You d e c i d e to submit an entry. T h e article should d e s c r i b e an i m p o r t a n t c h a n c e m e e t i n g with s o m e o n e , and say h o w y o u think t h e incident influenced y o u r life.

Introduction

Main B o d y

Conclusion

N o w w r i t e an article in a n s w e r to o n e of t h e q u e s t i o n s a b o v e , using y o u r paragraph plan, and taking t h e things y o u have learnt in this unit into c o n s i d e r a t i o n .

Remember, the person and incident you describe do not have to be real, as long as the description you give is believable.

13

Articles

Discussing an issue

Read t h e question and t h e article b e l o w and t h e n c o m p l e t e t h e e x e r c i s e s that follow. You recently a t t e n d e d a discussion and heard t h e s e c o m m e n t s . T h e discussion w a s a b o u t w h e t h e r m o t h e r s should g o o u t t o w o r k o r not. You found t h e discussion very interesting and have n o w d e c i d e d t o w r i t e a n article for y o u r local n e w s p a p e r discussing t h e s e c o m m e n t s and giving y o u r o w n point of view.

Women have fought foe equality in the workplace and should be allowed to continue working even when they have children.

1 wish 1 coufdstay at home, hut we need the second income.

Children need the stability that only their mothers can provide.

Should mothers go out to work?


W o m e n ' s position in society has changed dramatically in r e c e n t years. G o n e are the days when a woman was only expected to get m a r r i e d , have children and k e e p the family h o m e running smoothly, catering for everyone's n e e d s . Nowadays women are able to go to Factors other than what a woman wants also play a role in deciding whether or not a w o m a n goes out to work. T h e cost of living is high and people now expect a comfortable h o m e w i t h all m o d c o n s , f o r e i g n h o l i d a y s e a c h y e a r , fashionable c l o t h e s and so on, all of which cost m o n e y . Very often, one salary is insufficient to meet the needs of a N u m e r o u s arguments have been put forward as to why w o m e n should stay at h o m e and care for their children. F o r example, it is known that children n e e d stability in their lives. Some people believe that this can only come from the m o t h e r and that outside help is detrimental to the children. However, who is to say that outside help cannot provide children with the stability they need? T h e r e is good quality childcare available, although it is often expensive. M o r e importantly, forcing a w o m a n who would rather be out in In conclusion, I believe that the decision about whether a w o m a n stays at h o m e to raise her children or goes out to work is o n e that should be m a d e by each family individually. Everyone's situation is different and such a wide variety of factors must be c o n s i d e r e d that it is impossible to come up with one rule for all. family's m e m b e r s . As a result, t h e w o m a n is obliged to work in order to contribute financially to the family. university, pursue a career and delay marriage and m o t h e r h o o d indefinitely if they choose. However, should those w o m e n who do have a family give up their career in order to stay at h o m e and look after their children, or not? the workplace to stay at h o m e to look after h e r children may create p r o b l e m s of its own. She may b e c o m e b o r e d , frustrated a n d even resentful of h e r children if h e r own n e e d s are not met. F u r t h e r m o r e , it is not every w o m a n ' s d r e a m to stay at h o m e with her children. W o m e n who have worked hard to build themselves a career are understandably reluctant to give it up.

__ _
a providing what each person wants b an c suggested p u t off for s o m e t i m e , m a y b e forever

Articles

Find w o r d s and phrases in t h e article that have a similar meaning to t h e w o r d s and phrases below.

h a s a b a d effect on

angry t o w a r d s

unwilling

a r e partly r e s p o n s i b l e for

things in a h o u s e w h i c h m a k e it m o r e c o m f o r t a b l e to live in

L o o k again at t h e article and a n s w e r t h e q u e s t i o n s below. a W h a t g r a m m a t i c a l s t r u c t u r e d o e s t h e w r i t e r u s e in t h e first s e n t e n c e of t h e s e c o n d p a r a g r a p h to i n t r o d u c e t h e o p i n i o n t h a t m o t h e r s s h o u l d stay a t h o m e t o c a r e for t h e i r c h i l d r e n ?

W h a t e x a m p l e is u s e d as justification of this o p i n i o n ?

W h a t a r g u m e n t d o e s t h e writer u s e to show t h a t this o p i n i o n is w r o n g ?

W h a t a r g u m e n t s are m e n t i o n e d in t h e second p a r a g r a p h to s u p p o r t t h e idea that this opinion is w r o n g ?

H o w m a n y factors d o e s t h e w r i t e r discuss in p a r a g r a p h t h r e e ?

W h i c h s t a t e m e n t is t r u e of this article? (i) (ii) (iii) T h e w r i t e r t h i n k s t h a t m o t h e r s s h o u l d stay a t h o m e with t h e i r c h i l d r e n . T h e writer thinks that m o t h e r s should go out to work. T h e w r i t e r t h i n k s t h a t m o t h e r s s h o u l d d o w h a t i s b e s t for their family d e p e n d i n g o n t h e i r o w n s i t u a t i o n .

H i

Look at Reference section 11 on page 8 9 . Look at h o w this s e n t e n c e taken from t h e article can be rewritten. it is k n o w n that children n e e d stability in t h e i r lives.' The impersonal and personal passive structures can used to give opinions in more formal writing.

... c h i l d r e n a r e k n o w n to n e e d stability in t h e i r lives.

N o w rewrite t h e s e n t e n c e s b e l o w practising impersonal and personal passive structures.

It has b e e n r e p o r t e d t h a t o l d e r p e o p l e benefit from s p e n d i n g t i m e with y o u n g e r m e m b e r s of their families. Older people

A university e d u c a t i o n is said to be invaluable. It

Society is believed to benefit from t h e s e m e a s u r e s . It

It was believed t h a t prison was t h e m o s t suitable p u n i s h m e n t . Prison

F a m i l i e s have b e e n r e p o r t e d to be having fewer c h i l d r e n t h a n in t h e past. It

I t was c o n s i d e r e d t h a t o n - t h e - j o b training w a s b e t t e r t h a n t h e o r e t i c a l k n o w l e d g e . O n - t h e - j o b training

ig an issue

C h o o s e o n e of t h e q u e s t i o n s b e l o w and w r i t e an article. C o m p l e t e t h e paragraph plan with n o t e s before you start writing to help y o u organise y o u r ideas. gh'e a You recently w a t c h e d a television d e b a t e y o u found very interesting. T h e d e b a t e w a s a b o u t w h e t h e r criminals should s p e n d t i m e in prison regardless of their crime. S o m e of t h e points m a d e are outlined below. You have d e c i d e d to w r i t e an article for y o u r local n e w s p a p e r c o m m e n t i n g on t h e s e points and giving y o u r o w n opinion.

All criminals must be punished and


s. the best way to do this is by locking them up.

Not all criminals ore a danger to society.


Shouldn't they be made to help society through community service programmes?

Why should tax payers' money be spent on feeding, clothing and generally looking after criminals! Criminals should be made to pay for their crimes in other ways.

You b e l o n g to y o u r c o l l e g e debating s o c i e t y and a t t e n d e d a d e b a t e a b o u t w h e t h e r it is b e t t e r to have qualifications or e x p e r i e n c e w h e n looking for a job. T h e c o m m e n t s b e l o w w e r e m a d e . You have d e c i d e d to w r i t e an article for t h e c o l l e g e magazine discussing t h e s e c o m m e n t s and giving y o u r o w n opinion.

Many professions demand certain qualifications before you can even be considered for a position.

Nothing prepare a job a person than training.

can better for on-the-job

Different people are suited to different things and not everyone excels in the academic world-

Introduction Main Body

I n t r o d u c e t h e subject in a g e n e r a l way. A n o p i n i o n o n t h e subject Example

A r g u m e n t ( s ) to s u p p o r t this o p i n i o n

...

A r g u m e n t ( s ) to refute this o p i n i o n

...

Conclusion

P r o v i d e a s u m m a r y of y o u r o p i n i o n .

17

Responding to generalisations
I Read t h e q u e s t i o n and t h e article b e l o w and c o m p l e t e t h e e x e r c i s e s that follow.

Your t u t o r has s h o w n y o u t h e following e x t r a c t o n t h e s u b j e c t o f c r i m e . You have b e e n asked to w r i t e an article f o r the college magazine entitled
Crime: genes or upbringing? Write

y o u r article taking t h e points raised on t h e right into c o n s i d e r a t i o n and giving y o u r o w n opinion.

Until the second half of the nineteenth century, it was widely accepted that it is something in a persons biological makeup that determines whether or not he will become a criminal. Since then, however, there have been many theories which claim that criminality is the result of factors in an individual's environment.

Crime: genes or upbringing?


Crime Even punish be is not a new problem of the in in society. used Ages to can is the case, it If could it to is be in argued some that there is today, seen on instruments during display torture Middle European of bear little no need for c r i m e p r e v e n t i o n , nor for criminal rehabilitation. point in people's that nature such to c o m m i t crimes, it follows t h a t t h e r e is little trying teach them b e h a v i o u r is u n a c c e p t a b l e . Difficult as it m a y be to a c c e p t h e r e d i t y as the cause of crime, is In the which argument on it the in all that the is are who criminal external lives true is that by behaviour environment no crime known have is as means dependent criminals

castles. punishing or no of

Although criminal

present-day behaviour to the

methods may barbaric

resemblance

methods

c e n t u r i e s p a s t , opinions on w h a t causes c r i m e remain, to all intents a n d p u r p o s e s , divided.

individual While what people

irrefutable. 'bad' that

widespread not

commonly studies are are it It the a is difficult for many criminal that a the had more a people person certain than a who traits birth to is accept is born The unpopular person's Therefore, criminal individual influences.

neighbourhoods, circumstances Furthermore, studies people good that from social

shown in also

b r o u g h t up involved has been are

in u n f a v o u r a b l e criminal In activity. similar by and

proved

crimes theory criminal. that are are to that Although criminals credence still inherited lost behaviour

committed families

well-adjusted circumstances. view one, l

determined theory ago, that the

biologically,

original

evolutionary ape-like century believe which to a

that for and

a it traits it in

person's is is

genes is that say

are an a

responsible

criminal

behaviour doubtful act fair be In to

appearance there there right

criminologists character from

character believe traits

isolation. that to social

c o n t r i b u t e to criminal t e n d e n c i e s . Do we have condemn people life of c r i m e in this w a y ? F u r t h e r m o r e , if this

behaviour

can

attributed with

conjunction

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Responding to generalisations
2

Articles

C h o o s e t h e s e n t e n c e , a or b, that b e s t d e s c r i b e s w h a t t h e w r i t e r is saying in each paragraph. T h e n read t h e four s e n t e n c e s t o g e t h e r t o s u m m a r i s e t h e argument. Paragraph I a P e o p l e still can't agree on the reasons for criminal behaviour, b T h e m e t h o d s used to punish criminals are sometimes barbaric. Some criminologists believe that it is in some people's nature to commit crimes, and that these people look alike, b Some criminologists maintain that criminal behaviour is hereditary, although this opinion may be difficult to accept. It is easier to accept that people's involvement in criminal activity is due to an unfavourable upbringing, b A n o t h e r theory which proposes that people develop criminal behaviour as a result of being brought up in adverse conditions is also debatable. a Crime is probably caused by a combination of character traits and social influences. b As the argument that crime is caused by a person's genes is unpopular, it is m o r e likely that social influences are to blame. a

Paragraph 2 a

Paragraph 3

Paragraph 4

Tip

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Although you are not expected to be an expert on the subject you are writing about, it is important that your writing is convincing. One way to achieve this is by supporting statements you make with explanations or examples.

3 a

Read t h e article again and a n s w e r t h e following q u e s t i o n s . W h y d o e s t h e w r i t e r m e n t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s o f t o r t u r e o n display i n E u r o p e a n castles?

H o w d o e s t h e w r i t e r express h e r difficulty i n a c c e p t i n g t h e a r g u m e n t t h a t c r i m i n a l b e h a v i o u r i s h e r e d i t a r y ?

W h a t e x p l a n a t i o n d o e s t h e writer give for t h e a r g u m e n t t h a t t h e r e is no n e e d for c r i m e p r e v e n t i o n , n o r for criminal rehabilitation?

W h a t e v i d e n c e d o e s t h e w r i t e r give t o refute t h e a r g u m e n t t h a t criminal b e h a v i o u r i s d e p e n d e n t o n t h e e x t e r n a l e n v i r o n m e n t in w h i c h t h e individual lives?

Find phrases in t h e article which mean t h e s a m e as: a b c d e a r e n o t like in almost every way if it is t r u e it is logical t h a t n o t a t all

if

Articles

Responding to generalisations

T h e w r i t e r used t h r e e c o m p o u n d adjectives in t h e m o d e l article. Read Reference section 2c on page 86 and t h e n underline t h e t h r e e c o m p o u n d adjectives that appear in t h e article.

N o w rewrite t h e following s e n t e n c e s using c o m p o u n d adjectives. a M a n y p e o p l e w h o m e a n well actually d o m o r e h a r m t h a n g o o d .

Locals h a v e to p u t up with t o u r i s t s in high spirits m a k i n g a lot of noise late at night.

F o r t h e r e a s o n s which I m e n t i o n e d a b o v e , I believe t h a t new legislation must be introduced immediately.

Scientists w h o a r e f a m o u s all o v e r t h e w o r l d h a v e b e e n a s k e d to c o n t r i b u t e to the research programme.

It is only fair t h a t p e o p l e w h o w o r k h a r d a r e r e w a r d e d for their effort.

Based on t h e article on page 18, put t h e paragraph plan b e l o w into t h e c o r r e c t order.

Discuss o n e of t h e views m e n t i o n e d in t h e q u e s t i o n , s u p p o r t i n g s t a t e m e n t s with e x a m p l e s a n d e x p l a n a t i o n s .

I n t r o d u c e t h e subject in g e n e r a l t e r m s a n d t h e n indicate t h a t t h e r e a r e different views on t h e subject.

R e a c h a conclusion, s u m m a r i s i n g y o u r p e r s o n a l o p i n i o n in two or three sentences.

Discuss t h e o t h e r view m e n t i o n e d in the q u e s t i o n . Again, s u p p o r t s t a t e m e n t s with e x a m p l e s a n d e x p l a n a t i o n s .

It is not necessary to agree or disagree with one of the opinions expressed in the question. The important thing to remember is that you must discuss the views mentioned, but you can come to your own conclusion, which could be a compromise.

io generalise

en

C h o o s e o n e of t h e q u e s t i o n s b e l o w and a n s w e r t h e q u e s t i o n s a b o u t it before y o u w r i t e y o u r article. a You w o r k in a local travel agency. Your e m p l o y e r has s h o w n y o u t h e following e x t r a c t on t h e subject of tourism. He has asked y o u w r i t e an article for t h e local n e w s p a p e r discussing t h e subject. W r i t e your article responding to t h e points m a d e b e l o w and giving y o u r o w n opinion.

Local people arc, once again, at loggerheads over the local tourism industry. Some people believe thai commercialism is destroying the area, both environmentally and culturally, while others welcome the financial prosperity that visitors to the area bring.

Your t u t o r has s h o w n y o u t h e following e x t r a c t on t h e subject of genetically modified f o o d . You have b e e n asked to w r i t e an article for t h e c o l l e g e magazine discussing t h e subject. W r i t e y o u r article taking t h e points raised b e l o w into c o n s i d e r a t i o n and giving y o u r o w n opinion. The subject of genetically modified food is one which is becoming increasingly difficult to ignore. While it is true that GM foods can provide plant resistance to drought, disease and insects, critics say they are potentially hazardous to the environment and to human health.

W h a t d o you k n o w a b o u t t h e subject i n g e n e r a l ?

ii)

W h a t e x a m p l e s or e x p l a n a t i o n s c a n y o u t h i n k of for t h e first o p i n i o n m e n t i o n e d ?

iii)

W h a t e x a m p l e s or e x p l a n a t i o n s can y o u t h i n k of for t h e s e c o n d o p i n i o n m e n t i o n e d ?

D o y o u a g r e e o r d i s a g r e e with o n e o f t h e o p i n i o n s e x p r e s s e d i n t h e q u e s t i o n ?

C a n you t h i n k of a title for y o u r article?

Letters

Describing

Read t h e q u e s t i o n a n d t h e l e t t e r b e l o w a n d t h e n c o m p l e t e t h e e x e r c i s e s t h a t follow.

competition and L p l a i r i n J why

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write win t h e

Dear Sir/Madam, When I first h e a r d a b o u t t h e competition to find t h e T e a c h e r of t h e Y e a r , one n a m e s p r a n g to mind immediately: Mr David Canavan. He has t a u g h t me law for t h r e e y e a r s now and, in my opinion, this m a n is m o r e t h a n w o r t h y of t h e title. One of t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t m a k e s Mr Canavan so much more than a run-of-the-mill t e a c h e r is his e n t h u s i a s m for his subject, it is impossible to sit t h r o u g h one of his lectures and not be c a u g h t up in it. He m a n a g e s to hold his s t u d e n t s ' a t t e n t i o n a n d m a k e w h a t is a potentially dull subject c o m e to life t h r o u g h his e x a m p l e s a n d a n e c d o t e s . His knowledge a n d e x p e r t i s e is, w i t h o u t doubt, as extensive as his m e m o r y , in t h e t h r e e y e a r s I've known him as a t e a c h e r , l have never once seen him r e f e r to notes, a t e x t book or even stumble t h r o u g h w h a t he has to r e l a t e to us. F u r t h e r m o r e , he is a l w a y s p u n c t u a l a n d well p r e p a r e d , showing t h a t he r e s p e c t s his j o b a n d t h e s t u d e n t s in his classes. In turn, his s t u d e n t s give him t h e r e s p e c t t h a t he d e s e r v e s and, as a result, his classes a r e a l w a y s packed. Another t r a i t which m u s t be m e n t i o n e d is his a p p r o a c h a b i l i t y . His door is always open a n d s t u d e n t s a r e w e l c o m e to drop by with queries f r o m a lecture or to talk to him a b o u t s o m e t h i n g t h a t is troubling t h e m . I remember very clearly one occasion when l w a s in t h e first y e a r of my course. I h a d t a k e n Company Law as one of my subjects a n d Mr Canavan was the t e a c h e r . I h a d arranged to spend one month w o r k i n g in a company, r e s e a r c h i n g t h e effect of new technology on a small business, but the placement fell t h r o u g h at t h e last m o m e n t . Mr Canavan came to my r e s c u e a n d s u g g e s t e d t h a t I should research a legal Issue working f r o m his office, which is exactly w h a t l did. w a s full of i n t e r e s t a n d encouragement and t h e cancellation of my first placement turned out to be a blessing in disguise. As f a r as l am concerned, t h e decision of who is T e a c h e r of t h e Year' is e a s y to m a k e : Mr David Canavan. Yours faithfully,

J a m e s Hudson

22

Describing
In this kind of letter it is very important to s u p p o r t y o u r c h o i c e of p e r s o n with justification for t h e p o i n t s y o u make. Look at James' letter again and c o m p l e t e t h e table below. Characteristic a enthusiastic Justification

.
b having extensive knowledge/memory

respects his subject and students

d
:

approachable

o r which of t h e characteristics d o e s James also give an example?

\ o w imagine a p e r s o n with t h e following characteristics. W h a t e x a m p l e s could be given that w o u l d justify t h e person being characterised in this way? hard-working dishonest tolerant amusing narrow-minded

L o o k at Reference section 2 o n page 8 6 and c o m p a r e t h e s e s e n t e n c e s : H e i s p u n c t u a l a n d well p r e p a r e d . He is a p u n c t u a l , w e l l - p r e p a r e d man. C o m p l e t e t h e s e s e n t e n c e s , c o n v e r t i n g from o n e form t o t h e other. a b c d e He is a dishonest, hypocritical m a n . He is h o n e s t a n d h a r d - w o r k i n g . She is an intelligent, b r o a d - m i n d e d w o m a n . He is r u d e a n d i l l - m a n n e r e d . She is cheerful a n d g o o d - h u m o u r e d .

Read the question b e l o w and c o m p l e t e t h e table with characteristics and justification in support of them. R e m e m b e r t h a t t h e person you describe d o e s n o t have to be real as long as t h e description you give is believable. Your local newspaper is running a competition. It is inviting readers to write letters nominating o n e of their neighbours for the annual 'Neighbour of t h e Year' award. You k n o w s o m e o n e w h o d e s e r v e s this award and decide to write to t h e newspaper. W r i t e your letter, saying w h o your neighbour is and explaining why they d e s e r v e to win the award. Characteristic Justification

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WH

jl SHHii^&SBifiii* ' B
! 3

Letters

Describing

T h e q u e s t i o n on page 22 required a description of a person's character. O t h e r q u e s t i o n s may require s o m e kind of narrative description or a physical description as well. Look at t h e q u e s t i o n b e l o w and t h e n read t h e l e t t e r putting t h e verbs in brackets into t h e c o r r e c t narrative t e n s e . You have recently read an article in a magazine entitled The most unpleasant person I have ever m e t A t t h e end of it, t h e w r i t e r asked readers to w r i t e in with their o w n s t o r i e s . You have decided to w r i t e a letter to t h e magazine a b o u t a p e r s o n you used to w o r k with. W r i t e y o u r letter.

Dear Sir/Madam, After r e a d i n g y o u r article e n t i t l e d ' T h e m o s t u n p l e a s a n t p e r s o n I have ever m e t ' , I felt I just h a d to write a n d tell y o u of my o w n e x p e r i e n c e t h a t involves s o m e o n e I u s e d to w o r k with, Mr L a m p i t t . I (1) ( w o r k ) for a big e n g i n e e r i n g firm called M a r d e x . I (2) ( p r o m o t e ) to t h e p o s i t i o n of ( b e ) very

(start) as a j u n i o r typist, b u t after a few m o n t h s , I (3) s e c r e t a r y to Mr W a l t o n , a kind, g o o d - h u m o u r e d m a n of a b o u t fifty. He (4) p a t i e n t a n d t o l e r a n t a n d (5) (6) I (7) t h e building, I (9) He (10)

(always h e l p ) m e w h e n I m a d e m i s t a k e s . B u t everything

( c h a n g e ) w h e n M r L a m p i t t , t h e n e w a r e a m a n a g e r , arrived a t o u r office o n e day. (arrive) at t h e office early t h a t day a n d w h e n I (8) (enter)

(see) a big, aggressive-looking, m i d d l e - a g e d m a n s t a n d i n g in t h e lobby. ( w e a r ) a d a r k b l u e suit a n d (11) (carry)

a n u m b r e l l a . 'I'm L a m p i t t , t h e a r e a m a n a g e r , ' h e said. ' W h e r e ' s W a l t o n ? A n d w h o a r e y o u ? W h a t d o you d o h e r e ? ' I told h i m a n d (12) (13) (14) tired a n d w o r r i e d . A f t e r t h a t M r L a m p i t t (16) (17) (come) to see us at regular intervals. He even (show) h i m into M r W a l t o n ' s office. M r W a l t o n

( c o m e ) in a few m i n u t e s later, with his usual friendly smile, b u t his face (feU) w h e n h e saw L a m p i t t . H e (15) (suddenly look)

(bring) a m a n called J a c k s o n with h i m , an efficiency e x p e r t . He (18)

( b e ) a thin-faced, u n t r u s t w o r t h y fellow. J a c k s o n u s e d t o spy o n u s a n d m a k e n o t e s a b o u t o u r w o r k . L a m p i t t u s e d t o s h o u t a n d accuse u s o f b e i n g inefficient, lazy a n d useless. P o o r M r W a l t o n (19) o v e r n i g h t . In a few m o n t h s his h a i r (20) (grow) tired a n d old. H e (22) t h e firm. I (24) (get) a j o b with B r a d s h a w ' s , a n o t h e r firm in t h e a r e a . T h e day I (25) ( (see) Mr L a m p i t t . T see y o u ' r e still h e r e , ' he said. T s u p p o s e y o u ' r e t h e (go) w h i t e a n d his face (21) (ask) for early r e t i r e m e n t a n d (23) (leave) (change)

(leave) M a r d e x , I (26) )

best of a b a d lot. Y o u c a n c o m e a n d w o r k for me at t h e a r e a office if you like.' ' N o , t h a n k you, Mr L a m p i t t , ' I r e p l i e d . T expect m y boss t o b e polite, g o o d - t e m p e r e d a n d p l e a s a n t . ' Y o u s h o u l d h a v e s e e n t h e l o o k o n his face! I shall n e v e r forget it or h i m , t h e m o s t u n p l e a s a n t p e r s o n I h a v e ever m e t . Y o u r s faithfully, Sue Crossman

Describing

Letters

T h e letter has five paragraphs. W h i c h paragraph m a t c h e s t h e following points? W r i t e t h e c o r r e c t paragraph n u m b e r on t h e d o t t e d line. a b c d e Last m e e t i n g with Mr L a m p i t t First m e e t i n g with Mr L a m p i t t Introduction L a m p i t t ' s effect on t h e staff Some background information

Read t h e letter again and a n s w e r t h e q u e s t i o n s b e l o w a b o u t Mr W a l t o n and Mr Lampitt. a b c W h a t adjectives d o e s S u e u s e t o d e s c r i b e M r W a l t o n ' s c h a r a c t e r ? D o e s S u e d e s c r i b e M r L a m p i t t ' s c h a r a c t e r o r his a p p e a r a n c e ? W h a t effect did M r L a m p i t t h a v e o n M r W a l t o n ?

d e

W h a t d o e s this c h a n g e i n M r W a l t o n show u s a b o u t M r L a m p i t t ' s c h a r a c t e r ? W h a t e x a m p l e s d o e s S u e u s e to r e i n f o r c e h e r o p i n i o n of his c h a r a c t e r ?

Read this q u e s t i o n and c o m p l e t e t h e paragraph plan that follows. You have recently read an article in a magazine entitled The most interesting person I have ever met. A t t h e end of it, t h e w r i t e r asked readers to w r i t e in with their o w n e x p e r i e n c e s . You have d e c i d e d to w r i t e a letter t o t h e magazine a b o u t s o m e o n e y o u know. W r i t e y o u r letter.

Introduction S t a t e t h a t h e / s h e is t h e m o s t interesting person you have ever met. Main B o d y

Conclusion

S t a t e w h e t h e r y o u still s e e t h e p e r s o n .

C h o o s e e i t h e r t h e letter in e x e r c i s e 5 or 9 and w r i t e y o u r letter. U s e t h e n o t e s y o u have m a d e t o help y o u .

Tip
Remember to support your choice of person with justification for the points you make.

Letters

Giving opinions

Read t h e question and the letter b e l o w and c o m p l e t e t h e e x e r c i s e s that follow. You s e e t h e following e x t r a c t s from t w o letters printed in a magazine. In my opinion, t h e subjects taught at s c h o o l are n o t relevant to real life, and y o u n g p e o p l e are ill-prepared for survival in today's cut-throat w o r l d .
Ian Thompson, businessman

It is o u r duty to provide t h e y o u n g e r g e n e r a t i o n with a general e d u c a t i o n of academic value, regardless of t h e skills n e e d e d to survive in t h e job market.
Sandra Brown, teacher

T h e magazine is inviting readers to e x p r e s s their v i e w s on t h e subject of t h e aims of education. You d e c i d e to w r i t e a letter to t h e magazine, responding to t h e points raised and e x p r e s s i n g y o u r o w n views.

Sir, l am w r i t i n g in response to t h e l e t t e r s recently published in y o u r magazine r e g a r d i n g t h e aims of education, while the s u b j e c t of education is one which has always been c o n t r o v e r s i a l , it is s l o w l y being accepted that educators are responsible n o t only f o r s t u d e n t s ' general knowledge, but also for providing y o u n g people with skills for living. Many people feel that so-called academic subjects should be studied by everyone, regardless of s t u d e n t interest or ability. S o m e o l d e r people b e l i e v e that, just as they had to

struggle to pass e x a m s in subjects t h a t would p r o v e to b e o f v e r y little p r a c t i c a l value to t h e m in their w o r k i n g lives, so t o d a y ' s s t u d e n t s should be f o r c e d to do t h e same. Many t e a c h e r s believe t h a t s t u d e n t s m u s t be e x p o s e d to certain s u b j e c t s such as literature and classical languages during t h e course of their school y e a r s precisely because it is highly unlikely t h e y will come into c o n t a c t with such subjects later on in life. On t h e o t h e r hand, although t e a c h e r s m a y h a v e a point regarding the reasons for c e r t a i n subjects being t a u g h t at school, it has b e c o m e increasingly a p p a r e n t over recent years that students must also be given the o p p o r t u n i t y to acquire t h e skills required In t h e world for which they are supposedly being prepared. Many e m p l o y e r s complain of skills s h o r t a g e s , claiming t h a t t h e y o u n g people of t o d a y

a r e ill-equipped to apply t h e o r e t i c a l k n o w l e d g e to a career. Moreover, as many students find the more academic lessons boring, t h e y have no i n t e r e s t in s t a y i n g on at school and, consequently, enter the job m a r k e t with no qualifications or skills. i t is, t h e r e f o r e , e s s e n t i a l that students have the opportunity to study w h a t a r e known as vocational subjects, such as business and information technology, as well as the more academic subjects, in this way, students can be provided with knowledge a n d p r a c t i c a l skills w h i c h a r e m o r e likely t o p r o v e useful in t h e i r a d u l t lives, but not at the expense of m o r e academic qualifications. I l o o k forward to s e e i n g my l e t t e r p u b l i s h e d in a f o r t h c o m i n g issue. Sam Henderson

Giving opinions

Letters

\ o w read t h e letter again and a n s w e r t h e following q u e s t i o n s . - which paragraph d o e s Sam: j b give h e r side of t h e a r g u m e n t , giving e x a m p l e s a n d saying w h o s u p p o r t s h e r view? think of o n e or t w o i d e a s for t h e o t h e r side of t h e issue a n d say w h a t sort of p e o p l e /.re likely to s u p p o r t t h e m ? c i e f explain why she is writing? express h o p e t h a t h e r l e t t e r will be p u b l i s h e d ? i n t r o d u c e t h e subject in g e n e r a l t e r m s ? first suggest which side she is o n ? summarise her personal opinion? >ay to w h a t e x t e n t she disagrees with t h e a r g u m e n t s , a n d give r e a s o n s ?

'. : .v a n s w e r t h e s e q u e s t i o n s a b o u t t h e letter. a b T h e writer m e n t i o n s t h e o p i n i o n s of t h r e e k i n d s of p e o p l e . W h o a r e they?

W h o believes t h a t schools m u s t t e a c h a c a d e m i c subjects b e c a u s e it is t h e only c h a n c e children will h a v e : o learn a b o u t t h e m ?

W h o believes t h a t t o d a y ' s s t u d e n t s s h o u l d b e m a d e t o study a c a d e m i c subjects w h e t h e r o r n o t they a r e interested in them, or good at t h e m ?

W h o believes t h a t y o u n g p e o p l e a r e n o t p r e p a r e d for t h e w o r k p l a c e ?

W h o d o e s t h e writer partly a g r e e w i t h ? H o w d o e s t h e w r i t e r m a n a g e t o i n c o r p o r a t e e v e r y o n e ' s views i n h e r c o n c l u s i o n ?

Although you must have an opinion on the subject to answer a question like the one in the model it is not necessary for you to be completely for or against a subject in order to write about it.

Letters

Giving opinions

Study Connectors and modifiers o n page 9 4 . W h i c h w o r d s o r phrases has t h e w r i t e r used t o : a b c establish b a l a n c e / c o n t r a s t two things ( p a r a g r a p h 1) i n d i c a t e an a l t e r n a t i v e p o i n t of view? ( p a r a g r a p h 3) i n t r o d u c e a s e c o n d r e a s o n of a different kind, b u t o n e t h a t h a s t h e s a m e result a s t h e first? ( p a r a g r a p h 3 ) d indicate t h e logical d e v e l o p m e n t of an a r g u m e n t ? ( p a r a g r a p h 3)

N o w fill t h e gaps using suitable c o n n e c t o r s and modifiers from t h e b o x .


according to as a general rule as a result however on the other hand personally

T o o m a n y p e o p l e a r e studying m e d i c i n e t h e n e a r future.

, t h e r e will be lots of u n e m p l o y e d d o c t o r s in

On t h e o n e h a n d , we c a n n o t s t a n d in t h e way of scientific p r o g r e s s w o n d e r if it's right to i n t e r f e r e with n a t u r e .

, some people

c d e

I w o u l d like to go to university

, it w o n ' t be t h e e n d of t h e w o r l d if I d o n ' t get in.

scientists, h u m a n cloning will, o n e day, be a r o u t i n e p r o c e d u r e . S o m e p e o p l e believe t h a t t a k i n g a y e a r o u t is a w a s t e of t i m e o p p o r t u n i t y t o t h i n k carefully a b o u t t h e future, , I think it's a perfect

, only a small p e r c e n t a g e of p r i s o n i n m a t e s a r e actually a t h r e a t to t h e c o m m u n i t y .

Look at t h e q u e s t i o n b e l o w and a n s w e r t h e q u e s t i o n s .

You s e e t h e following e x t r a c t s taken from t w o letters printed in y o u r local newspaper. You d e c i d e t o w r i t e a letter t o t h e newspaper, responding t o t h e points raised and e x p r e s s i n g y o u r o w n v i e w s .

In my opinion, criminals are a m e n a c e to society. T h e y should be kept o u t of harm's way. I say we lock t h e m up and t h r o w away t h e key!
Nora Robins, senior citizen

T o o much taxpayers' m o n e y i s s p e n t o n t h e upkeep o f prisons. W h y should w e have t o f o o t t h e bill? T h e criminals should pay, n o t t h e law-abiding public!
Brian Chambers, civil servant

Giving opinions
What d o e s N o r a m e a n by 'criminals a r e a m e n a c e to society"?

Letters

Is this always t r u e ? W h y / W h y n o t ?

W h a t a r e t h e c o n s e q u e n c e s o l locking t h e m u p a n d t h r o w i n g away t h e key";

Do you a g r e e with B r i a n ' s p o i n t of view in t h e o r y ? W h y / W h y n o t ?

Is t h e r e any way p r i s o n e r s could pay for t h e m a i n t e n a n c e of prisons?

j s e Sam's letter to help you organise y o u r opinions : a p a r a g r a p h plan and t h e n w r i t e y o u r letter.

Don't forget to mention the kind of people who hold the opinions you discuss in your letter.

-z :he q u e s t i o n b e l o w and, before y o u w r i t e y o u r letter, ask yourself q u e s t i o n s , as in e x e r c i s e 6 a b o v e , belp you think of ideas. fou s e e t h e following e x t r a c t s taken from t w o letters printed in a magazine. N o b o d y can stand in t h e way of scientific progress. Human cloning will, o n e day in t h e n o t t o o distant future, be a routine p r o c e d u r e .
Jan Smythe, scientist

It isn't right to interfere with nature like that. We have no idea w h a t t h e psychological c o n s e q u e n c e s of being a c l o n e could be!
James Witherspoon, social worker

The magazine is inviting readers to e x p r e s s their views on t h e subject of human cloning. You decide to w r i t e a letter to t h e magazine, responding to t h e points raised and e x p r e s s i n g y o u r o w n v i e w s .

7
I

Letters

Complaining

Read t h e q u e s t i o n and t h e letter b e l o w and c o m p l e t e t h e e x e r c i s e s that follow. As a regular c u s t o m e r of a particular airline, y o u w e r e surprised at their inability to c o p e with an u n e x p e c t e d situation. You have d e c i d e d to w r i t e a letter to t h e airline. W r i t e a letter of complaint describing w h a t happened, and saying w h a t y o u think t h e airline should have d o n e .

D e a r Sir/Madam, I am writing to draw your attention to the inconvenience caused to passengers by the lightning strike of your pilots last Thursday, July 2nd, affecting a n u m b e r of flights. A m o n g them was HA 5295 to Barcelona, a flight I take at regular intervals. While I realise that the strike took place at short notice, your preparation for such emergencies is clearly inadequate. I arrived at H e a t h r o w Terminal 2 at 10am, two and a half hours before the flight was due to take off. T h e r e was no indication on the TV monitor that, together with some others, it had just been cancelled. As only two of the six Hispanic check-in counters were m a n n e d , the queues were already very long, but during the forty minutes I stood in one of them, no attempt was m a d e to inform p a s s e n g e r s of cancellations. W h e n I r e a c h e d t h e front of the q u e u e , I was asked by one of the ground staff 1) (decide) immediately if I was willing to fly via Madrid, which would m e a n a t h r e e - h o u r delay. W h e n I asked her why the flight 2) (cancel), she said that she 3) (not know), and she m a d e ' n o apology for the inconvenience caused. In my opinion, the cancellation of the flight 4) (announce) as soon as it was known that the incoming flight had not left Barcelona. All six check-in counters 5) (man) in order to deal with the additional problems caused, and passengers in the queues 6) (inform) of the situation while queuing. If that 7) (do), they 8) (have) time to consider alternatives and telephone relatives before making a decision. Above all, some apology 9) (make) for the delay. If your pilots persist in irresponsible actions of this kind and you are not better organised to cope with the problems that arise, it is almost certain that you will lose custom to c o m p e t i n g airlines. I would be interested to hear what you p r o p o s e to do to avoid such situations in future.

30

Complaining

~-e w r i t e r used r e p o r t e d s p e e c h t o explain w h a t happened at t h e check-in desk. Study Reference section 16 on page 9 1 . Read t h e letter again and c o m p l e t e t h e s e c o n d paragraph by putting t h e verbs in : ckets into t h e c o r r e c t form, using t h e passive w h e r e necessary.

Iz.zy Reference section 4 c o n page 8 7 and Reference section 17 o n page 9 1 . T h e n read t h e letter again and : : ~ o l e t e it by putting t h e verbs in brackets in t h e third paragraph into t h e c o r r e c t form, using t h e passive - ~ = r e necessary.

_;<:< at t h e informal complaint below. W h y w e r e n ' t p a s s e n g e r s in t h e q u e u e s informed of t h e situation while queuing?

- i r e a c o r r e s p o n d i n g s e n t e n c e in t h e m o d e l letter and w r i t e it below.

-e writer then g o e s on to explain w h a t w o u l d have h a p p e n e d in different circumstances: I f j t h a d b e e n d o n e , they w o u l d h a v e h a d t i m e t o c o n s i d e r a l t e r n a t i v e s a n d t e l e p h o n e relatives b e f o r e m a k i n g a


aeciaon."

I~.-ge t h e s e complaints from informal to m o r e formal and u s e t h e w o r d s in brackets to form a conditional s e r c e n c e explaining w h a t p e o p l e w o u l d have d o n e .

W h y d i d n ' t y o u m a n all t h e check-in c o u n t e r s ? ( h a v e e n o u g h staff on duty, p a s s e n g e r s n o t have to s p e n d so long :r. the q u e u e )

W h y d i d n ' t y o u explain t h e situation to t h e p a s s e n g e r ? (tell h i m , n o t lose his t e m p e r )

W h y d i d n ' t you apologise for t h e delay? ( a p o l o g i s e , p e o p l e n o t g e t so angry)

W h y d i d n ' t t h e pilots give a d v a n c e n o t i c e of t h e strike? ( w a r n p e o p l e , m a n y p a s s e n g e r s stay at h o m e )

It is important that you make your points in a firm but polite manner when writing a letter of complaint. This is best done using formal language.

Letters

Complaining

Based o n t h e l e t t e r o n page 30, put t h e paragraph plan b e l o w into t h e c o r r e c t order. W r i t e Introduction,


Paragraph 2, Paragraph 3, Conclusion.

Explain what happened. Say w h a t will h a p p e n if n o t h i n g is d o n e to avoid this h a p p e n i n g again. R e q u e s t a reply. Describe what should have happened, in your opinion. Give r e a s o n for writing; m e n t i o n n a t u r e o f p r o b l e m .

T h e paragraph n o t e s b e l o w are in a n s w e r to t h e q u e s t i o n in e x e r c i s e I. Put t h e m into t h e c o r r e c t o r d e r according to t h e plan in e x e r c i s e 6.

Why didn't t h e y e n s u r e all luggage transferred before Edinburgh plane took off? Why didn't t h e y w a i t till morning to deliver brown suitcase? Why didn't t h e y r e a d t h e label a n d deliver blue suitcase properly? Why w e r e staff in Edinburgh r u d e a n d not apologetic w h e n complained? Expect explanation. Otherwise, will not t r a v e l by Ailing a g a i n Ailing Airlines Flights AA999 from Athens to London a n d AB000 from London to Edinburgh, lune 24th. Luggage not t r a n s f e r r e d Brown suitcase delivered Kirriemuir 2.00 am, |une 25th. Blue suitcase not delivered. Telephone call to airline office in Edinburgh indicated sent by m i s t a k e to Munich. Too late to send it to Kirriemuir, so told t h e m to send it to home a d d r e s s in Athens.

Although perfectly acceptable, o n e of t h e paragraph n o t e s a b o v e d o e s n o t follow t h e plan in e x e r c i s e 6. W h i c h o n e is it?

Complaining

Letters

_ - : -: t h e q u e s t i o n s below, think of a situation for e a c h o n e and c o m p l e t e the paragraph plans which follow with : . - ;eas. a You are a keen cinema-goer. A film festival recently held at y o u r local cinema failed to live up to y o u r e x p e c t a t i o n s . You have d e c i d e d to w r i t e a letter to t h e cinema manager. W r i t e a letter of complaint, describing w h a t happened, and saying w h a t you think should have happened.

Introduction

R e a s o n for writing?

Nature of problem?

Paragraph 2

What happened?

Paragraph 3 Conclusion

What should have happened? W h a t will h a p p e n if n o t h i n g is d o n e ? R e q u e s t a reply.

You recently had a w e e k e n d break at a luxury hotel. D e s p i t e t h e assurances of the travel agent w h o b o o k e d t h e w e e k e n d break, t h e hotel did n o t live up to y o u r e x p e c t a t i o n s . You have d e c i d e d to w r i t e a letter to t h e travel agent. W r i t e a letter of complaint, describing w h a t happened, and saying w h a t y o u think should have happened.

I ntroduction

R e a s o n for writing?

Nature of problem?

Paragraph 2

What happened?

Paragraph 3 Conclusion

W h a t should have h a p p e n e d ? W h a t will h a p p e n if n o t h i n g is d o n e ? R e q u e s t a reply.

N o w w r i t e a letter in a n s w e r to o n e of t h e q u e s t i o n s a b o v e , using y o u r paragraph plan, and taking t h e things y o u - a v e learnt in this unit into c o n s i d e r a t i o n .

Do not express anger or indignation too forcefully. If you appear too aggressive or emotional, you lose credibility and your letter is not as persuasive.

3 3

Letters

Applying for a job

Read t h e question and t h e letter b e l o w and t h e n c o m p l e t e t h e e x e r c i s e s that follow. A charity organisation is looking for p e o p l e w h o w o u l d be willing to w o r k on a voluntary basis at a s u m m e r c a m p for physically disabled t e e n a g e r s . Volunteers w o u l d n e e d to be available for a minimum period of t w o w e e k s in July or August. W r i t e a letter saying that y o u w o u l d like to be c o n s i d e r e d for t h e job and explaining why.

Dear

Sir/Madam,

I am w r i t i n g in reply to your a d v e r t i s e m e n t t h a t appeared in t h e Swansea Gazette last week. I h a v e h e a r d many good things a b o u t y o u r o r g a n i s a t i o n a n d t h e summer camps it r u n s and, t h e r e f o r e , I would like to be considered as a volunteer at this y e a r ' s camp. Currently I am in full-time education and attend the Swansea College of Higher students have considerable vacation time in t h e Education. and,

As you a r e probably aware,

summer

as a result, I would be available for any two-week period during July or August. Despite t h e f a c t t h a t I h a v e never w o r k e d with disabled people, I feel t h a t I h a v e a lot to offer. I am enthusiastic a n d enjoy working as a t e a m member. I can imagine that being part of a summer camp would be very r e w a r d i n g a n d I see it as an o p p o r t u n i t y to m e e t new people and form new friendships. I am not a f r a i d of h a r d w o r k a n d am fit a n d healthy. I have a l w a y s loved sport, especially swimming. At t h e a g e of seven, I joined t h e Swansea Swimming Club and a f t e r two or t h r e e years, t e a m . While at college, my I became a member of the junior swimming Increased and I now coach children love of swimming has

t w o evenings a week. I also belong to t h e college basketball t e a m . I believe my i n t e r e s t in swimming, a n d in s p o r t in general, is s o m e t h i n g I can s h a r e and pass on to the teenagers at t h e camp, as sport is s o m e t h i n g t h a t lots of people can enjoy in spite of physical limitations. F u r t h e r m o r e , I successfully c o m p l e t e d a first-aid course last summer run by t h e Red Cross o r g a n i s a t i o n . Your a d v e r t i s e m e n t g a v e no details a b o u t w h a t t h e j o b would involve and, for this reason, I would w e l c o m e an o p p o r t u n i t y to m e e t you so summer camp and what my duties would be. It would also give you t h e chance to decide if l am suitable for t h e w o r k involved. I am available m o s t mornings and w e e k e n d s as my classes a r e all in t h e a f t e r n o o n . I look forward faithfully, to hearing from you. could find out m o r e a b o u t t h e

Yours

Kevin Lockhart

Applying for a job

Letters

R e a d Kevin's letter again and d e c i d e which paragraph: a b e d e tells us a b o u t Kevin's availability. requests a meeting. gives r e a s o n s for Kevin w a n t i n g t h e j o b . tells us a b o u t Kevin's skills/qualifications. explains t h e p u r p o s e of t h e letter.

K e v i n s u p p o r t s his application with a n u m b e r of points. L o o k back at his letter and find e x a m p l e s of: a b c p e r s o n a l i t y traits interests qualifications

In letters of application, hypothetical situations are often referred t o . Look at t h e clauses b e l o w and find t h e m in <evin's letter. Read t h e m in c o n t e x t and say w h e t h e r t h e y refer to real or hypothetical situations. W r i t e R for real i - d H for hypothetical. a b students have considerable vacation time being p a r t of a s u m m e r c a m p w o u l d be very r e w a r d i n g I am n o t afraid of h a r d w o r k : c f 2 h i j I joined the Swansea Swimming Club sport is s o m e t h i n g t h a t a n y o n e c a n do in spite of physical l i m i t a t i o n s Y o u r a d v e r t i s e m e n t gave no details w h a t t h e j o b w o u l d involve w h a t my d u t i e s w o u l d be I am available m o s t m o r n i n g s a n d w e e k e n d s my classes a r e all in t h e a f t e r n o o n

x k a g a i n at t h e clauses y o u w r o t e H against. W h i c h v e r b form is u s e d to show t h a t t h e situation is h y p o t h e t i c a l ?

iirse, would + bare infinitive can also be u s e d to express o t h e r things.

~.i a c l a u s e in K e v i n ' s l e t t e r t h a t u s e s would + bare infinitive b u t d o e s n o t refer to a h y p o t h e t i c a l situation. W h y h a s :n used this v e r b f o r m ?

Letters

Applying for a job

N o w read this question and Vivien's letter below. C o m p l e t e her letter by putting t h e verbs in brackets in t h e m o s t suitable form. Think carefully a b o u t w h e t h e r t h e clauses refer to real or hypothetical situations.

Every year, t h e university y o u attend participates in a t w o - d a y n a t i o n w i d e s t u d e n t c o n f e r e n c e . T h e subject of t h e c o n f e r e n c e is t h e value of university life b e y o n d t h e lecture r o o m s . T h e university has d e c i d e d to s e n d t w o s t u d e n t s to t h e c o n f e r e n c e and will pay all their e x p e n s e s . T h e university is inviting students to apply in writing, explaining why they should be c h o s e n to r e p r e s e n t t h e university and w h a t they w o u l d learn from t h e e x p e r i e n c e . You have d e c i d e d to apply. W r i t e y o u r letter.

D e a r Sir/Madam. I am writing to put myself forward as a representative for the student conference to be held in Birmingham later this year. Throughout my time here, I (1) (take) an active part in university life, namely the student union and the debating society, and believe that I (2) (benefit) enormously as a result. F u r t h e r m o r e , I (3) (be) an articulate individual and I (4) (be) m o r e than capable of communicating my experiences to other students, given the chance to do so. As many students in their first year do, I (5) (join) the student union within a few days of arriving at university. I soon (6) (become) involved in the organisation of the very popular quiz nights T Ins (7) (lead) to a position on the entertainment committee, of which I (8) ., ( ' . i now chairperson. I (9) (take) pride in the events we organise and I (10) (believe) that an active social life is very important to students, particularly as man;. ( !!) (live) away from home for the first time. T h e student union (12) (be) a place where they can form friendships above and beyond those they will have with students on the same courses as themselves. I (13) (also enjoy) being a m e m b e r of the d e b a t i n g society, which not only (14) (provide) the opportunity of hearing varied opinions on wide-ranging subjects, but (15) (also be) a stimulating way to pass an evening. Taking part in a debate is a challenge that (16) (give) students the chance to hone their public speaking skills, which (17) (stand) them in good stead later in life. Although I (18) (not be) s o m e o n e who plays sport regularly. I (19) (be) very aware of the variety of sports available both here on campus and on weekend excursions and day trips. Friends of mine who (20) (take) advantage of such facilities and opportunities speak highly of them. This (21) (be) another area of university life which I (22) (be) quick to c o m m e n t on at the conference. Finally, to be chosen to represent o u r university at the conference (23) (be) an honour. 1 (24) (undoubtedly find) it a rewarding experience and (25) (hopefully be able to) bring back information and ideas from other students attending other universities a r o u n d the country. I look forward to hearing from you. Yours faithfully. Vivien Cunniniiham

Applying for a job

Letters

vien's letter is slightly different to Kevin's in that s h e gives e x a m p l e s of her o w n e x p e r i e n c e s which s u p p o r t her app ication. Look again at her letter and say which paragraph(s):

;;

a b c d

tells us why Vivien t h i n k s she is suitable. tells us w h a t Vivien feels she w o u l d gain from t h e e x p e r i e n c e . aive examples of what Vivien and people she knows have gained from university life. explains t h e p u r p o s e o f t h e letter. and

e i c t h e q u e s t i o n s b e l o w and c o m p l e t e t h e paragraph plans. T h e n c h o o s e o n e of t h e q u e s t i o n s and w r i t e a letter. You have s e e n an a d v e r t i s e m e n t for a t e m p o r a r y s u m m e r job at t h e t o u r i s t information c e n t r e , run by t h e local council, in t h e t o w n w h e r e y o u live. You have decided to apply for t h e job. W r i t e a letter of application, saying why you w a n t t h e job and giving details of any relevant skills and qualifications y o u have.

1 ntroduction

R e a s o n for writing?

Main B o d y

Why you want the job? R e l e v a n t skills/qualifications?

Conclusion

Request meeting/interview?

You w o r k for a large international company. T h e c o m p a n y has d e c i d e d to s e n d t h r e e e m p l o y e e s to w o r k in o n e of their offices abroad for a period of six w e e k s . Travel and hotel e x p e n s e s will be c o v e r e d . Employees wishing to be c o n s i d e r e d for this o p p o r t u n i t y m u s t w r i t e a letter of application, saying w h e n they w o u l d be able to go, w h y they should be c h o s e n for this trip and w h a t they h o p e to learn from such an e x p e r i e n c e .

Introduction

Purpose of the letter?

Main B o d y

Availability? Suitability? ( + e x a m p l e s i n s u p p o r t )

Conclusion

L e a r n from t h e e x p e r i e n c e ?

When you have finished writing your letter, look again at the verb tenses and forms you have used. Make sure you use ould + bare infinitive when you refer to a hypothetical situation.

Essays

Expressing opinions

Read t h e question and t h e essay b e l o w and t h e n do t h e e x e r c i s e s that follow.

Your t e a c h e r s h o w s y o u t w o e x t r a c t s taken from articles a b o u t t h e future of e n t e r t a i n m e n t . Things are progressing so far that electronic games and technological entertainment will make the live arts obsolete in the future. Nothing can replace the excitement of sitting in a crowded theatre waiting for the curtain to go up. Live arts will never die out because that feeling cannot be aroused by computer games and DVDs.

Your t e a c h e r asks y o u to w r i t e an essay on w h a t will happen to live art in t h e future. W r i t e y o u r essay responding t o t h e points raised and e x p r e s s i n g y o u r o w n opinion.

No one would d i s a g r e e with t h e s t a t e m e n t t h a t technology (1)

(progress)

in leaps a n d bounds, p a r t i c u l a r l y in recent years, and n o w h e r e is this m o r e evident t h a n in t h e field of e n t e r t a i n m e n t . With t h e invention of electronic g a m e s , home cinema s y s t e m s a n d virtual reality, it (2) (be) little wonder that some people (3) (become) (say) t h e t h e a t r e a n d o u t d a t e d a n d disappear In t h e

o t h e r forms of live art (4) y e a r s t o come.

However, t h e live a r t s (5)

(provide)

something

t h a t technology

cannot.

The a n t i c i p a t i o n a f t e r booking your seats, be it to see a play or bear a concert, coupled with t h e e x c i t e m e n t of a live performance cannot be recreated by a DVD or a CD, no m a t t e r how good t h e quality is. As long as t h e experience of live a r t offers s o m e t h i n g m o r e t h a n technology does, it will never b e c o m e obsolete.

The danger (6) quickly a n d it (8)

(be), though, t h a t technology (7) (be) logical to a s s u m e t h a t it (9)

(progress) very (continue)

its r a c e to c r e a t e a new experience or t h e ultimate sound system, in this case, t h e live a r t s as we know t h e m (10) people (IT) (adversely affect), i t . m a y be t h a t , in t h e f u t u r e , (not need) to leave t h e comfort o f ' t h e i r own homes: technology (be) that t h e y o u t h of t o d a y m o r e

m a y b r i n g t h e experience of the live arts to t h e m at home. This (12) even m o r e credible when you (13) t h a n ever b e f o r e (14) a n d (15) (be able to) (consider)

(be used to) being s u r r o u n d e d by hi-tech e q u i p m e n t while away their time playing games, w a t c h i n g t h e

l a t e s t films or listening to their f a v o u r i t e bands all at the touch of a button or two. This g e n e r a t i o n (16) (17) ( g r o w up) with electronic g a m e s a n d technological e n t e r t a i n m e n t a n d (have) no need for t h e a t r e s a n d concert halls.

It (18) (19) I only hope t h a t t h e r e (20) experience music or drama live

(be) s a d to say, b u t I do believe that the live arts (suffer) b e c a u s e of technological a d v a n c e s in t h e world of e n t e r t a i n m e n t . (be) so that t h e live arts enough do people in the future who want to completely obsolete.

not become

Expressing opinions

^^^^^B 9

:
: : - - 5 "

'e-'erence sections 18 a, b and c on pages 91 and 9 2 . Then read t h e essay again, c o m p l e t i n g it with t h e o r m of t h e verbs in brackets. Be careful b e c a u s e o n e of t h e m n e e d s passive v o i c e .
:

_ : :

:ne essay again and a n s w e r t h e following q u e s t i o n s .

H o w has t h e writer a v o i d e d giving away h e r p o i n t of view in t h e first p a r a g r a p h ?

\..

rding t o t h e writer, w h a t d o t h e live arts offer u s t h a t t e c h n o l o g i c a l e n t e r t a i n m e n t d o e s n ' t ?

W h a t is the d a n g e r t h a t t h e writer talks a b o u t in t h e third p a r a g r a p h ?

W h a t is t h e writer's g e n e r a l o p i n i o n a b o u t t h e future of t h e live arts?

.: :

ill n at t h e essay and put t h e following paragraph plan into t h e c o r r e c t order.

- .

: : i a conclusion and give y o u r own point of view.

Discuss o n e p o i n t of view, giving e x p l a n a t i o n s or e x a m p l e s w h e r e possible,

I n t r o d u c e t h e subject in a g e n e r a l way, b u t do n o t state y o u r o p i n i o n yet.

Discuss the o t h e r point of view, giving explanations or examples w h e r e possible.

Essays

Expressing opinions

S o m e t i m e s a w r i t e r w a n t s to make w h a t t h e y are writing m o r e emphatic. O n e way of doing this is to use inversion. L o o k at t h e e x a m p l e below, which w a s taken from t h e first paragraph of t h e essay. '... n o w h e r e is this m o r e e v i d e n t than in t h e field of entertainment.' This could have b e e n written as follows: . . . this is m o r e evident in t h e field of e n t e r t a i n m e n t than a n y w h e r e else.

Read Reference section 4 e o n page 8 7 and Reference section 9 o n page 8 9 and then rewrite t h e following s e n t e n c e s practising inversion. a We a r e r u i n i n g o u r p l a n e t for ourselves a n d for future g e n e r a t i o n s . N o t only b T i m e p a s s e s so quickly t h a t we n e e d to start p r e p a r i n g for t h e future now. So c t h a t w e n e e d t o start p r e p a r i n g for t h e future now. for future g e n e r a t i o n s .

P e o p l e will only realise t h e y s h o u l d h a v e d o n e s o m e t h i n g w h e n it is t o o late. Only they s h o u l d have d o n e s o m e t h i n g .

Life d o e s n ' t offer us such o p p o r t u n i t i e s very often. Seldom such o p p o r t u n i t i e s .

T h e d a m a g e w o u l d n o t h a v e b e e n so g r e a t if p r e c a u t i o n s h a d b e e n t a k e n in t i m e . Had , t h e d a m a g e w o u l d n o t h a v e b e e n s o great.

P o l l u t i o n has n e v e r r e a c h e d such high levels b e f o r e . Never such high levels.

O u r p l a n e t can only be saved by g o v e r n m e n t s w o r k i n g t o g e t h e r . Only b e saved.

If you d e c i d e d w h a t you w a n t to do in t h e future, it w o u l d be easier to c h o o s e a university c o u r s e . Were , it would be easier to choose a university course.

We d i d n ' t realise t h a t t h e c o u n t r y s i d e w o u l d be so b a d l y affected until it actually h a p p e n e d . N o t until how badly t h e c o u n t r y s i d e w o u l d be affected.

O n e g r o u p of t o u r i s t s h a d hardly left w h e n t h e next g r o u p arrived. Hardly t h e next g r o u p arrived.

Expressing opinions

Essays

sse o n e of t h e q u e s t i o n s b e l o w and w r i t e an essay. C o m p l e t e t h e paragraph plan with y o u r n o t e s before :egin writing.

You belong to t h e s c h o o l debating s o c i e t y and recently a t t e n d e d a d e b a t e on t h e i m p o r t a n c e of planning for t h e future. You heard s o m e o f t h e c o m m e n t s below. Your t e a c h e r has n o w asked y o u t o .vrite an essay on t h e s a m e subject, responding to t h e c o m m e n t s and expressing y o u r o w n opinion.

There ifi no point whatsoever- in planning for- the future. Mo one knows where they will be or what they will be doing. It'e a complete waste of time.

lurw can anyone hope to achieve their ambitions future? if they don't jpCanfor the

The besf policy is fake each day as if comes.

Your t e a c h e r has s h o w n y o u t w o e x t r a c t s a b o u t t o u r i s m and environmental damage. It is true that tourism has had an effect on the local countryside, but reports have been exaggerated. for green What is required is support tourism* and encouraging

This area of the country used to be quiet and unspoilt. It is now overrun with tourists for the best part of each year who care little about the noise they make, the litter they leave lying around or the wildlife they disturb. There should be a complete ban on tourism so that what is left of our valuable countryside can be preserved.

tourists to respect the area they are visiting. Besides, if tourism were banned, the local economy would suffer.

Your t e a c h e r asks y o u to w r i t e an essay on t h e effect of t o u r i s m on t h e e n v i r o n m e n t . W r i t e y o u r essay responding to t h e points raised and e x p r e s s i n g your o w n opinion. * green tourism is environmentally friendly tourism

If you support one point of view more strongly than the other, it is better to discuss this point of view in the paragraph before the onclusion. In this way the conclusion will follow logically and you avoid jumping back and forth between opinions.

Introduction: Main B o d y

I n t r o d u c e t h e subject in a g e n e r a l way. Do n o t state y o u r o p i n i o n . O n e point o f view Explanation/example A n o t h e r p o i n t of view Explanation/example

Conclusion:

R e a c h a conclusion. G i v e y o u r o w n p o i n t of view.

Essays
I

Comparing

Read t h e question and t h e essay b e l o w and c o m p l e t e t h e e x e r c i s e s that follow. As s e c r e t a r y of t h e college b o o k club, y o u t o o k n o t e s at a r e c e n t d e b a t e with t h e college film club entitled F/7ms vs Books. You have b e e n asked by y o u r t u t o r t o w r i t e an essay o n t h e subject. W r i t e y o u r essay using your n o t e s and expressing y o u r o w n opinions.

high quality sound and picture home cinemas

healthy use of imagination convenience

WATCHING A FILM

READING A BOOK

no imagination needed

passive viewing

no sound

no pictures

Many people believe t h a t t h e book is f a s t b e c o m i n g an endangered species. It is an indisputable f a c t t h a t m o s t people spend more t i m e w a t c h i n g films t h a n t h e y do reading books. They prefer to sit in f r o n t of a s c r e e n a n d w a t c h a s t o r y unfold b e f o r e their eyes t h a n r e a d . However, it should n o t be t a k e n for g r a n t e d t h a t r e a d i n g is n o t a w o r t h w h i l e activity. W a t c h i n g a film n o w a d a y s can be an scenery and outstanding soundtracks. cinemas and DVDs, h o m e viewing has intense experience indeed. Moreover, Multi-millionnecessary

dollar p r o d u c t i o n s dazzle viewers with s p e c t a c u l a r special effects, b r e a t h t a k i n g it is now no longer to go to t h e cinema to fully appreciate a film, with the introduction of h o m e Improved to such an extent that it has reached a s t a n d a r d which w a s , until v e r y recently, available only in c i n e m a s . However, t h e f a c t r e m a i n s t h a t w a t c h i n g a film is a passive experience, one in which all t h e 'work' h a s been done for t h e viewer; t h e r e is no place for imagination. Reading a book, on t h e o t h e r hand, is a much m o r e demanding experience. Without t h e help of sound a n d i m a g e s available to t h o s e who w a t c h films, readers must use their imaginations to c r e a t e t h e i r own i m a g e s of t h e s t o r y as It unfolds before them, Furthermore, in this w a y , t h e y a r e not influenced by actors' Readers are restricted p e r f o r m a n c e s , or by d i r e c t o r s ' decisions, b u t by w h a t is w r i t t e n on t h e p a g e . books a r e m o r e convenient t h a n films. reason. but t h a t neither by t i m e nor by location; t h e y can read a book w h e n e v e r a n d w h e r e v e r t h e y w a n t , within As a p a s t i m e ,

reading may well be less popular than w a t c h i n g a film,

does not necessarily m e a n t h a t it does not have as much to offer. Personally would not replace the satisfaction of reading the last page of a book with a n y film ending, no m a t t e r how s p e c t a c u l a r .

i f

A t

Comparing

Essays

When you have to compare two things that each have advantages and disadvantages, deal with them in separate paragraphs, concentrating on one at a time.

nz t h e m o d e l essay again and c o m p l e t e t h e paragraph plan.

introduction*

Introduce the subject in a general way, without going into too m a n y details.

Paragraph 2:

P a r a g r a p h 3:

Paragraph 4:

-.- : : n e essay again to help y o u d e c i d e w h e t h e r t h e following s t a t e m e n t s are t r u e or false. 1 : 5 t h e phrases i n t h e essay that justify y o u r a n s w e r s .

a :

T h e majority of p e o p l e w a t c h films m o r e frequently t h a n they r e a d b o o k s . E v e r y o n e s h o u l d k n o w t h a t r e a d i n g is a w a s t e of t i m e . T h e availability o f h o m e c i n e m a s a n d D V D s h a s c h a n g e d t h e quality o f h o m e viewing.

R e a d i n g a b o o k involves m o r e effort t h a n w a t c h i n g a film. 7 . w riter feels t h a t w a t c h i n g a film with a s p e c t a c u l a r e n d i n g is b e t t e r t h a n c o m i n g

to t h e e n d of a b o o k .

- = w r i t e r s u p p o r t s general s t a t e m e n t s with explanations o r e x a m p l e s . Underline t h e phrases o r ; ~ t e n c e s in t h e article that s u p p o r t t h e s e s t a t e m e n t s : a b c d W a t c h i n g a film can be i n t e n s e . Y o u d o n ' t h a v e to go to t h e c i n e m a to fully a p p r e c i a t e a film. R e a d i n g a b o o k is d e m a n d i n g . B o o k s a r e m o r e c o n v e n i e n t t h a n films.

10

Comparing

Read Reference section 2d on page 86 and then find t h e w o r d s and phrases t h e w r i t e r used in t h e essay to c o m p watching a film to reading a book.

N o w c h o o s e t h e c o r r e c t w o r d t o c o m p l e t e t h e s e n t e n c e s below. a b c d e F r i e n d s can be just as s u p p o r t i v e than / as family. F a r more I much p e o p l e work from h o m e n o w t h a n twenty y e a r s ago. T h e o l d e r my b r o t h e r a n d I get, t h e closer I closest we b e c o m e . It's n o t nearly I less as stressful as w o r k i n g in an office. Playing a t e a m s p o r t is as / more enjoyable t h a n playing an individual s p o r t .

Read t h e s e general statements and write examples or explanations for each o n e using comparison w h e r e possible. a O w n i n g y o u r own c o m p a n y offers o p p o r t u n i t i e s for success.

Being self-employed can be very stressful.

H a v i n g an e m p l o y e r p r o v i d e s a sense of security.

T a k i n g o r d e r s is u n a v o i d a b l e w h e n you work for s o m e b o d y else.

Comparing

Essays

to compar;

a : t h e questions and t h e n o t e s below, and write an essay on o n e of the questions, following the paragraph plan.

- c a r e studying business a t college. You t u t o r has asked y o u t o w r i t e a n essay o n t h e advantages and disadvantages of w o r k i n g for an e m p l o y e r and being self-employed. You have m a d e s o m e n o t e s d u r i n g a class on t h e subject. W r i t e your essay using your n o t e s and expressing y o u r o w n opinions.

steady income

sense of security

opportunities for success

independence

WORKING FOR AN EMPLOYER

BEING SELF-EMPLOYED

no freedom

taking orders is unavoidable

income is not guaranteed

can be very stressful

possible.

- s secretary o f t h e c o l l e g e debating society, y o u t o o k n o t e s a t a r e c e n t d e b a t e entitled - - e n d s vs Family. You have b e e n asked by y o u r t u t o r t o w r i t e an essay o n t h e subject. W r i t e y o u r essay .5 ng your n o t e s and expressing y o u r o w n opinions.

supportive

common interests

strong ties

unconditional love

FRIENDS

FAMILY

come and go

fair-weather friends

generation gap

high expectations

Introduction Paragraph 2 Paragraph 3 Conclusion

W r i t e a b a l a n c e d p a r a g r a p h but do not go into t o o m a n y details. Discuss t h e a d v a n t a g e s and d i s a d v a n t a g e s of first topic. Discuss t h e a d v a n t a g e s a n d d i s a d v a n t a g e s of s e c o n d topic. If you have a p r e f e r e n c e , say so and s u p p o r t it with an e x a m p l e , preferably from p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e . I f n o t , you can b a l a n c e y o u r conclusion, suggesting t h a t t h e choice d e p e n d s on c e r t a i n factors. Give an e x a m p l e in each case.

45

Proposals
I

Applying for funds

Read t h e question and t h e proposal b e l o w and c o m p l e t e t h e e x e r c i s e s that follow. You w o r k for a small m u s e u m which is in grave danger of being c l o s e d d o w n if funding is n o t given. At a r e c e n t staff meeting, various o p i n i o n s w e r e voiced:

In order to be cost effective, we must attract more visitors.

We desjyeratefy need to do something ahout the state ojthe hudding.

We must update our educational facilities if school visits are to continue.

You d e c i d e to s e n d a proposal to t h e local council describing t h e current situation, explaining w h a t is required tc save t h e m u s e u m and saying h o w t h e funds w o u l d benefit t h e local community. W r i t e y o u r proposal, using t h e opinions e x p r e s s e d a b o v e and y o u r o w n ideas.

T h e purpose of this proposal is to outline the reasons why funding is required by the Newtown Natural History M u s e u m in order to avoid certain closure. It also aims to show how the local community would benefit, should funding be given.

While we are aware of the fact that the m u s e u m must m a k e some attempt to cover its costs, at present this is not possible for a n u m b e r of reasons. First and foremost, due to the fact that the building is in such a bad state of repair, it is difficult to keep up with m a i n t e n a n c e costs. This, in turn, makes it impossible to allocate money to other aspects of the m u s e u m which would increase the m u s e u m ' s income considerably.

If funding were m a d e available, the money would be spent in two ways. T h e first priority would be to deal with the basic repair work n e e d e d to bring the building up to standard. This would involve jobs such as fixing broken windows and radiators, and repairing sections of the roof. T h e second priority would be to m a k e improvements which would m a k e the m u s e u m m o r e appealing to a variety of people, thus increasing the m u s e u m ' s income. School visits, which were once a major source of income, have declined dramatically because the m u s e u m is not properly equipped for educational visits. This could be rectified immediately by improving the educational facilities of the museum. Schools would be far more likely to visit the m u s e u m if there was a m o d e r n lecture hall with all the necessary equipment available, and if they were provided with student worksheets and teacher information packs. Finally, funding could be spent on organising temporary exhibits from m u s e u m s in other parts of the country together with local advertising, which would attract m o r e local people, as well as giving t h e m a reason to visit the museum on a regular basis.

If the suggestions above were implemented, t h e local community would be able to enjoy a well-maintained m u s e u m . They would have the opportunity to see exhibits from all over the country, and local parents would be assured that their children were being offered worthwhile educational trips to the museum.

Applying for funds

Proposals

nz : - e question and t h e m o d e l again and w r i t e a heading for each paragraph on t h e d o t t e d lines.

o o k at t h e proposal again and a n s w e r t h e s e q u e s t i o n s . a W h a t two r e a s o n s a r e given for t h e m u s e u m ' s inability to cover its costs?

j n d i n g were m a d e available, what would be t h e m u s e u m ' s first priority?

W h a t w o u l d this entail?

W h a t w o u l d be t h e m u s e u m ' s s e c o n d priority?

W h a t w o u l d this e n t a i l ?

A c c o r d i n g t o t h e p r o p o s a l , w h o w o u l d benefit i f t h e suggestions w e r e i m p l e m e n t e d , a n d h o w ?

: - D i e t e t h e diagram plan of t h e m o d e l proposal using t h e phrases below.

fix windows & radiators ~:<e museum more appealing

improve educational facilities repair roof repair work

local

advertising temporary exhibits

Proposals

Applying

for fune

Read t h e q u e s t i o n b e l o w and c o m p l e t e t h e diagram plan with your o w n ideas. T h e r e is a disused p i e c e of land in t h e area w h e r e you live. At a r e c e n t m e e t i n g of t h e residents' association, various opinions w e r e voiced:

Something must be done to that place. It's an eyesore.

ChiCdren in this area have nothing to do and nowhere to go. Why can't it he made to a playground?

I'm surprised there hastt t been a serious


*fru'tf

rid'metal md rubbish*

T h e residents' association has d e c i d e d to make it into a park with a children's playground. You have b e e n asked send a proposal to t h e local council describing t h e current situation, explaining w h a t w o u l d be required to create the park and saying h o w t h e funds w o u l d benefit t h e local community. W r i t e your proposal, using t h e opinions e x p r e s s e d a b o v e and y o u r o w n ideas.

Read Connectors and modifiers H o n page 95 and underline t h e t h r e e w o r d s o r phrases in t h e m o d e l o n page 4 6 that t h e w r i t e r has used to give r e a s o n s .

Rewrite t h e s e n t e n c e s b e l o w using t h e w o r d s in bold. U s e b e t w e e n t w o and five w o r d s . a Y o u n g p e o p l e a r e on t h e s t r e e t s b e c a u s e they don"t h a v e a n y w h e r e else to g o . for The b being on t h e s t r e e t s is t h a t they d o n ' t have a n y w h e r e else to go.

T h e n e w s p a p e r is d o i n g badly b e c a u s e it looks old-fashioned, due T h e n e w s p a p e r is d o i n g badly In o r d e r to m a k e a profit, we m u s t a t t r a c t m o r e advertisers, why The

it looks old-fashioned.

attract m o r e visitors is to m a k e a profit.

T h e r e is no o n e to h e l p t h e u n e m p l o y e d find a j o b . so s o m e of t h e m feel h a r d d o n e by. as Some unemployed t h e r e is no o n e to help t h e m find a j o b .

Applying for funds

U n e m p l o y m e n t is so high in t h e a r e a b e c a u s e t h e car factory closed d o w n two years ago. of U n e m p l o y m e n t is so high in We want to remain competitive, so our image must be updated, since O u r image m u s t b e to remain competitive. c l o s u r e of t h e car factory two years ago.

e your o w n diagram plans for both of t h e q u e s t i o n s b e l o w and w r i t e o n e of t h e proposals using t h e graph plan.

Introduction Paragraph 2 Paragraph 3 Conclusion

Purpose T h e c u r r e n t situation W h a t is r e q u i r e d H o w t h e funds w o u l d b e o f benefit

In order to make your proposal more realistic, go into details on a few things which could be done, rather than just making a long list.

You w o r k for a local n e w s p a p e r which Is in grave danger of being c l o s e d d o w n if funding is n o t given. At a r e c e n t staff meeting, various opinions w e r e voiced:

We must update out image if the paper is to remain competitive in the local market.

We desveratehj need to upgrade the computers and programs in the design department.

In order fo be cost effective, we must attract more advertisers.

You d e c i d e to s e n d a proposal to t h e o w n e r describing t h e current situation, explaining w h a t is required to save t h e paper and saying h o w t h e funds w o u l d benefit t h e local community. W r i t e y o u r proposal, using t h e opinions e x p r e s s e d a b o v e and y o u r o w n ideas.

You live in an area w h e r e u n e m p l o y m e n t is very high and t h e majority of y o u n g p e o p l e have nothing to do. At a r e c e n t m e e t i n g of t h e residents' association, various opinions w e r e voiced:

willing +o

help

u s f i n d jolo.

Something must he done to heev youn peoyhe off the streets.

I nothing

hate to to

having do and go.

nowhere

T h e residents' association has d e c i d e d to s e t up a day c e n t r e . You have b e e n asked to send a proposal to t h e local council describing t h e current situation, explaining w h a t w o u l d be required to s e t up t h e c e n t r e and saying h o w t h e funds w o u l d benefit t h e local community. W r i t e y o u r proposal, using t h e o p i n i o n s e x p r e s s e d above and y o u r o w n ideas.

Proposals

Assessing choices

Read the question and the proposal b e l o w and then complete the exercises that follow.

T h e r e w a s an article recently in y o u r local n e w s p a p e r a b o u t an old building in t h e t o w n c e n t r e . T h e building is in bad c o n d i t i o n and c a n n o t be left as it is: it m u s t e i t h e r be r e n o v a t e d or pulled d o w n . T h e t o w n council are asking residents for their o p i n i o n s and y o u have d e c i d e d to w r i t e a proposal assessing t h e s u g g e s t i o n s and giving y o u r o w n opinion a b o u t w h a t should b e d o n e .

Purpose This proposal aims t o discuss t h e suggestions t h a t have b e e n m a d e r e g a r d i n g the O p e r a H o u s e in M o n s o n R o a d . T h e building is (1) a n d has b e e n out of use (2)

Renovation T h e O p e r a H o u s e was built at the beginning of t h e twentieth century a n d is a fine e x a m p l e of t h e a r c h i t e c t u r e at that time. As such, it is a valuable p a r t of o u r town's history that should be looked after. As far as r e n o v a t i o n is c o n c e r n e d , two suggestions have b e e n p u t forward. T h e first concerns the entire building, (3) Such an undertaking would require (4)

and would take many months to complete. However, it would be worthwhile as our town would then have a functional O p e r a H o u s e to be p r o u d of. T h e second suggestion involves restoring the outside of the building to its former glory, but modernising the inside. Consequently, the attractive architecture will be kept while the building is used for other purposes. A restaurant and a youth centre are two ideas that have been mentioned.

Demolition An alternative p r o p o s a l to renovation is demolition. At t h e p r e s e n t time, t h e building is both unsightly and h a z a r d o u s . Knocking it down would be (5) t h a n renovating it.

M o r e o v e r , it would result in a large site b e c o m i n g available in t h e town c e n t r e for d e v e l o p m e n t . T h e land could t h e n be sold, no d o u b t fetching a high price d u e to its central location. Alternatively, t h e site could be d e v e l o p e d by the town council. O u r town (6) more

parking spaces, so a multi-storey car p a r k n e a r the town's m a i n s h o p p i n g a r e a would s e e m to be a g o o d idea.

Recommendation (7) t h a t o u r town's heritage should be p r o t e c t e d . A l t h o u g h renovation is expensive,

restoring t h e O p e r a H o u s e is t h e best suggestion. Such a building deserves to be a focal point of o u r town. If the cost of total r e s t o r a t i o n is prohibitive, t h e n restoring the facade (8)

50

Assessing choices

Proposals

12

lead t h e proposal again and d e c i d e w h i c h p h r a s e , a or b, is m o s t appropriate for each space. 1 a b a b a b a in a terrible state in d i s r e p a i r for ages for a c o n s i d e r a b l e time b o t h internally a n d externally inside a n d o u t loads of m o n e )

b substantial funding
a
a h " a b 8 a b

considerably less expensive a lot c h e a p e r is d e s p e r a t e l y in n e e d ol reall) n e e d s I think I a m of t h e o p i n i o n is t h e next best thing is t h e best alternative

HPSHL

g^&jflLWi'SL^.^^Ifr lll^SS^^^KtlS^^?^tefflF
M

B ~ US I ^ B H f i P ^ * ' ^sS>

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-^2t 11

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i , *

- exercise 2, you had to d e c i d e which phrase w a s m o s t appropriate in each case. H o w did you make y o u r :~oice? Look at t h e s e n t e n c e s below. T h e underlined parts are e x p r e s s e d t o o informally. Rewrite t h e s e n t e n c e s , rephrasing t h e underlined phrases in a m o r e formal way. a A few h u n d r e d p o u n d s w o u l d be just t h e thing to m a k e y o u n g p e o p l e go in for t h e c o m p e t i t i o n .

T h e r e c e p t i o n a r e a is crying o u t for a lick of paint.

A t t h e e n d o f t h e day, o u r c o m p a n y s t a n d s t o gain f r o m this s c h e m e .

We could t a k e on s o m e of t h e y o u n g s t e r s w h o gave t h e training p r o g r a m m e t h e i r best shot.

e f

Lots of p e o p l e h a v e said they are i n t e r e s t e d in having s o m e w h e r e they can buy drinks or snacks. W h a t might h a p p e n is t h a t a y o u n g s t e r with a n e w qualification will go a n d w o r k s o m e w h e r e else w h e n t h e y finish their c o u r s e .

_ : o k again a t t h e m o d e l . W h i c h w o r d s o r phrases has t h e w r i t e r used t o : a b c d e refer to a p a r t i c u l a r subject? ( p a r a g r a p h 2) limit or c o n t r a d i c t t h e p r e v i o u s p o i n t m a d e to s o m e e x t e n t ? ( p a r a g r a p h 2) show t h e result of an a c t i o n ? ( p a r a g r a p h 2) i n t r o d u c e a s e c o n d r e a s o n for a p a r t i c u l a r p o i n t ? ( p a r a g r a p h 3) offer an alternative suggestion? ( p a r a g r a p h 3)

Proposals

Assessing choices

T h e w r i t e r discusses a variety of points relating to d e m o l i t i o n and renovation before arriving at a c o n c l u s i o n . Fill in t h e paragraph plan b e l o w with t h e phrases in t h e box.

create funds for town council cost effective need multi-storey car park

expensive regain

good use

example of the Opera

of local House

architecture

retain an attractive example of early 20th century architecture

time<onsuming

Purpose Main B o d y Renovation

State the aim of your proposal.

Reason? I n t e r n a l a n d external: a r g u m e n t for a r g u m e n t s against E x t e r i o r only: a r g u m e n t for

a r g u m e n t s against Demolition Reason? Selling site: a r g u m e n t for? Development: a r g u m e n t for? Recommendation S t a t e y o u r r e c o m m e n d a t i o n a n d a brief r e a s o n why.

Proposals

- p i e t e t h e paragraph plans for t h e t w o - positions below. T h e n c h o o s e o n e of t h e m and := our article.

You do not always need to have arguments both for and against a suggestion as long as your recommendation ties in with what you have discussed in the main body of the proposal.

You w o r k in a s e n i o r position in a large c o m p a n y that is i n t e r e s t e d in setting up a s c h e m e to help y o u n g p e o p l e in t h e area. T h r e e s u g g e s t i o n s have b e e n m a d e - a c o m p e t i t i o n called Young Inventor with m o n e y as a prize, a scholarship to t h e local college and a training p r o g r a m m e within t h e company. You have n e e n asked to w r i t e a proposal, discussing t h e s e s u g g e s t i o n s and saying which idea y o u think is best.

Purpose Main B o d y Competition

State the purpose of your proposal. Reason? a r g u m e n t ( s ) for a r g u m e n t ( s ) against

Scholarship

Reason? a r g u m e n t ( s ) for a r g u m e n t ( s ) against

Training programme

Reason? a r g u m e n t ( s ) for a r g u m e n t ( s ) against

Recommendation

S t a t e y o u r r e c o m m e n d a t i o n a n d a brief r e a s o n why.

T h e s p o r t s c e n t r e y o u belong to has b e e n given a large a m o u n t of m o n e y to upgrade t h e facilities on offer. T h e m a n a g e m e n t has put forward t h r e e suggestions - redecorating t h e r e c e p t i o n area, creating a cafe/bar area, renovating t h e changing r o o m s - and has asked m e m b e r s of t h e club for their opinion. W r i t e a proposal assessing t h e suggestions and r e c o m m e n d i n g which o n e you think is best.

Purpose Main B o d y Redecorate reception

State the purpose of your proposal. Reason? a r g u m e n t ( s ) for a r g u m e n t ( s ) against

C r e a t e caf/bar

Reason? a r g u m e n t ( s ) for a r g u m e n t ( s ) against

Renovate changing rooms

Reason? a r g u m e n t ( s ) for a r g u m e n t ( s ) against

Recommendation

State y o u r r e c o m m e n d a t i o n a n d a brief r e a s o n why.

Proposals

Evaluating a situation

Read t h e question and the proposal b e l o w and t h e n c o m p l e t e t h e tasks that follow.

You have read an centre. The town problem. W r i t e a p r o b l e m could be

article in y o u r local n e w s p a p e r a b o u t t h e problem of traffic in t h e t o w n council have asked local residents t o suggest possible s o l u t i o n s t o t h e proposal evaluating t h e situation and making s u g g e s t i o n s as to h o w t h e solved.

Purpose This proposal aims to discuss the problem of traffic in the town centre and to make suggestions which might solve the problem.

Current Situation (1) Sadly, this is no longer true due to the large quantity of traffic that passes through the

centre. While some of the vehicles are b o u n d for the town centre itself, there are many that are simply passing through on their way to other destinations. In addition to the increase in exhaust fumes that pollute our air and destroy our buildings, the queues of vehicles which can often be seen are unsightly and hinder pedestrians. A further problem that has resulted from the increase in traffic is that the parking available is insufficient. Therefore, people park their cars in the streets, which obstructs the efficient flow of traffic through our narrow streets.

Recommendations 1 (2) Providing an alternative faster route that avoids the busy town centre would reduce

the n u m b e r of vehicles in the town, as those drivers who are merely passing through would be able to avoid it.

2 (3)

T h e first is to provide a d e q u a t e off-road parking. A multi-storey car park in or

near the town centre would help to ease the problem of parking and reduce the n u m b e r of cars parked on the roadside. In this way, traffic would move m o r e easily through the centre. T h e second solution is to implement a park and ride scheme. People wishing to come into the town centre would park their cars in car parks provided outside the town centre and then travel in on specially provided buses. These buses would run regularly to and from the car parks. This would reduce the n u m b e r of vehicles having to come into the town centre.

Conclusion (4) Although the suggestions outlined above are costly, it would be money well spent if

it m e a n t that o u r town centre was to b e c o m e the attractive place it once used to be.

54

Evaluating a situation

Proposals

n clear well-organised writing, each paragraph begins with a topic s e n t e n c e that tells t h e reader t h e p u r p o s e of : - e paragraph. Read t h e proposal again and put t h e t o p i c s e n t e n c e s b e l o w into t h e c o r r e c t places.

a b c d

As far as t h e p r o b l e m of p a r k i n g is c o n c e r n e d , two solutions exist. Providing an effective solution to t h e p r o b l e m of traffic in o u r t o w n c e n t r e is of t h e u t m o s t i m p o r t a n c e . F o r m a n y y e a r s , o u r t o w n h a s b e e n hailed as o n e of t h e m o s t attractive in t h e a r e a . It h a s b e e n suggested by s o m e r e s i d e n t s t h a t t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n of a ring r o a d w o u l d e a s e t h e situation.

id w o r d s and phrases in t h e proposal (including t h e missing t o p i c s e n t e n c e s ) that are similar in meaning to

: ~ o s e below. a b c d e f 2 h p r a i s e d for b e i n g u n p l e a s a n t to look at get in t h e way of p e o p l e on foot not e n o u g h d o e s n o t allow t h e free m o v e m e n t of building enough put i n t o action very i m p o r t a n t j expensive

S o w l o o k back at t h e paragraph u n d e r t h e heading Current Situation and a n s w e r t h e s e q u e s t i o n s .

i -

H o w m a n y p r o b l e m s s t e m m i n g from t h e i n c r e a s e i n traffic d o e s t h e writer m e n t i o n ? What are they?

13
5

Proposals

Evaluating a situation

W h e n making her r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s , t h e w r i t e r justifies t h e m by explaining h o w t h e y will help. Read t h e secticr called Recommendations again and c o m p l e t e t h e table b e l o w with information taken from t h e proposal.

Recommendation
ring road multi-storey car park

Justification

Read t h e q u e s t i o n s b e l o w and t h e n c o m p l e t e t h e paragraph plans with t h e relevant information given below.

advertise advertise

at

local

schools

and more

the

youth

club

to

get

new young

members

performances

widely

area is not as safe as it once was be high home no offer petition residents stage take observant, production and new car report costs insurance for the anything because has past to suspicious performances increased eighteen school on months or groups of friends attending performances are poorly attended

members ticket for afraid

reduced police are

prices more in

parties the

presence their own

streets

homes that will car appeal alarms, to park more cars people in garages if at all possible

different extra

kinds

of productions burglar

precautions

alarms,

You belong to a local t h e a t r e club that puts on amateur p e r f o r m a n c e s and also arranges trips to professional p r o d u c t i o n s . Unfortunately, t h e t h e a t r e club's m e m b e r s h i p is falling and it is in danger of closing. T h e chairman of t h e club has asked m e m b e r s t o w r i t e proposals evaluating t h e situation and putting forward s u g g e s t i o n s a b o u t h o w t o improve t h e situation. W r i t e y o u r proposal.

Current Situation

Recommendations Increase membership

I n c r e a s e i n t e r e s t in p e r f o r m a n c e s

56

Evaluating a situation

Proposals

You are a m e m b e r of a n e i g h b o u r h o o d watch s c h e m e and you have read an article in your local n e w s p a p e r about t h e increase in burglaries and car theft in t h e area. You have decided to w r i t e a proposal for t h e o t h e r m e m b e r s of t h e s c h e m e in your area outlining t h e problem and suggesting ways of tackling this problem.

Current Situation

Recommendations

Read t h e q u e s t i o n b e l o w and t h e n w r i t e a proposal. A n s w e r t h e q u e s t i o n s in t h e paragraph plan first to help y o u c o m e up with ideas.

You w o r k for a large c o m p a n y that is relocating to a n o t h e r area of t h e city. This m o v e will mean that many m e m b e r s of staff will have difficulty in getting to w o r k . You have b e e n asked to w r i t e a proposal discussing t h e p r o b l e m and suggesting ways of solving t h e problem.

Purpose S t a t e w h a t y o u r p r o p o s a l will d o . Current Situation W h y will p e o p l e n o t b e able t o get t o w o r k easily?

W h a t will p e o p l e do if they c a n ' t g e t to w o r k easily?

W h a t effect will this h a v e o n t h e c o m p a n y ?

Recommendations Provide transport: what kind?

Allow staff t o w o r k from h o m e : h o w w o u l d this w o r k ?

Conclusion S t a t e t h a t it is i m p o r t a n t that s o m e t h i n g is d o n e . S t a t e t h a t y o u r r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s will w o r k .

Proposals

Giving

reasons

Read the question and the proposal below and complete the exercises that follow.

A c o m p a n y is launching a n e w snack o n t o t h e market, and is running a c o m p e t i t i o n inviting p e o p l e to send in proposals for different w a y s of p r o m o t i n g it. T h e c o m p a n y w a n t s p e o p l e t o c o m m e n t o n t h e u s e o f advertising, i n t r o d u c t o r y offers, and t h e kind of image y o u think t h e p r o d u c t should have. W r i t e y o u r proposal, explaining w h y y o u think y o u r ideas w o u l d be effective.

Purpose T h e purpose of this proposal is to discuss different ways of promoting the new snack from Jupiter. It also aims to show that these suggestions would be effective. Advertising 1 T h e first priority would be to h a v e a large advertising c a m p a i g n , as this would m a k e t h e product a household n a m e in a relatively short space of time. T h e advertising campaign should definitely include T V , radio and billboards, but not necessarily newspapers and magazines, since these have relatively small readerships in this country. 2 T h e advertisements should be funny and appealing to people of all ages. T h e reason for this is that, while snacks are eaten mostly by young p e o p l e , they a r e often bought by p a r e n t s and g r a n d p a r e n t s t o o . M o r e o v e r , t h e adverts should depict everyday situations, as p e o p l e can identify w i t h t h e s e . T V a n d r a d i o a d v e r t i s e m e n t s s h o u l d h a v e t h e s a m e c a t c h y j i n g l e , preferably with a m e m o r a b l e slogan, because this will m a k e the product instantly recognisable. Image 1 It is essential that t h e product be given an appropriate n a m e . It could be something that can be associated with the snack itself, but, at the same time, it should be something which is easy to say, and instantly m e m o r a b l e . 2 D u e to the fact that t h e r e are already so many snacks on t h e market, this snack should be p r o m o t e d in such a way that the public believe it to have a special characteristic which makes it u n i q u e . T h i s c o u l d be a p a r t i c u l a r flavour, or it c o u l d be t h a t t h e s n a c k itself is a n e w combination of flavours. I n t r o d u c t o r y offers D e p e n d i n g on the budget allocated for this promotion, introductory offers such as 'buy o n e , get o n e free' could be used to p e r s u a d e people to buy the product. However, at this stage, it is m o r e important to heighten awareness of the product. This could be achieved at major points of sale, w h e r e promotional sales staff could tell customers about the product and give out samples. Conclusion I believe that for a product to be successful, it must be advertised effectively, it must appeal to a wide r a n g e of p e o p l e and it must be instantly recognisable. In my opinion, if t h e suggestions above are implemented, the new snack from Jupiter will be very successful indeed.

Giving reasons

Proposals

*.,ead Connectors and modifiers H o n page 9 5 and underline t h e six w o r d s z r y i r a s e s that t h e w r i t e r has used t o give r e a s o n s .

In proposals of this nature, you should have a good grasp of vocabulary which is relevant to the topic.

-rc w o r d s and phrases in t h e proposal which mean: i b c i * ^.mised p r o g r a m m e of a d v e r t i s e m e n t s s o m e o n e o r s o m e t h i n g t h a t h a s b e c o m e very well k n o w n a s h o r t s o n g t h a t is easy to r e m e m b e r a n d is u s e d in advertising i o r d or phrase that is u s e d to attract people's attention or to suggest an idea ordinary people

f f t h e m o n e y available f k Activities d o n e in o r d e r to i n c r e a s e t h e sales of a p r o d u c t or service t h e m a i n places w h e r e a p r o d u c t is sold p e o p l e w h o a r e e m p l o y e d to sell a p a r t i c u l a r p r o d u c t j i >mall a m o u n t of s o m e t h i n g t h a t can be t r i e d to s e e w h a t it is like

- - :- section(s) d o e s t h e writer: i i k e suggestions for p r o m o t i n g t h e p r o d u c t ? c 4\ -.er opinion on w h a t m a k e s a p r o d u c t successful? , and

m e n t i o n why this p r o p o s a l h a s b e e n w r i t t e n ? s u m m a r i s e h e r ideas from t h e m a i n b o d y o f t h e p r o p o s a l ? s u p p o r t h e r suggestions with r e a s o n s ? , and

V s w e r t h e following q u e s t i o n s a b o u t t h e m o d e l proposal. H e writer believes t h a t o n e o f t h e things s u g g e s t e d i n t h e q u e s t i o n : : be a p p r o p r i a t e or effective. i W h a t is it? While it is perfectly acceptable to disagree with a part of the question, because you have been asked to comment on it in your proposal, it must be dealt with.

W h a t e x a m p l e of an i n t r o d u c t o r y offer d o e s t h e w r i t e r give?

A c c o r d i n g to t h e writer, why w o u l d an offer like this be u s e d ?

W h a t d o e s t h e w r i t e r imply with t h e u s e o f ' d e p e n d i n g o n t h e b u d g e t a l l o c a t e d ...'?

T i e writer believes t h a t t h e r e i s s o m e t h i n g w h i c h i s m o r e i m p o r t a n t t h a n i n t r o d u c t o r y offers, e W h a t is it?

H o w d o e s s h e suggest this could be a c h i e v e d ?

59

Proposals

Giving reasons

i
6 In t h e conclusion, t h e w r i t e r gives t h r e e c o n d i t i o n s for a product's s u c c e s s . T h e s e c o n d i t i o n s actually s u m m a r i s e t h e main points made in t h e main b o d y of t h e proposal. W r i t e t h e relevant points from t h e m o d e l proposal on t h e d o t t e d lines. a It m u s t be a d v e r t i s e d effectively. (Advertising, p a r a g r a p h

(Advertising, p a r a g r a p h ' , (Image, paragraph 2)

( I n t r o d u c t o r y offers)

It m u s t a p p e a l to a wide r a n g e of p e o p l e . (Advertising, p a r a g r a p h

It m u s t be instantly r e c o g n i s a b l e . (Advertising, p a r a g r a p h . (Image, paragraph 2)

Read t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s of t h e s u c c e s s of a drugs a w a r e n e s s campaign and think of relevant points which could be included in a proposal on t h e subject.

For a drugs a w a r e n e s s campaign to be successful, it m u s t be advertised effectively, it m u s t deal with t h e problem in a way that t h e public can relate t o , and it m u s t reach a w i d e range of p e o p l e .

It m u s t be a d v e r t i s e d effectively.

It m u s t deal with t h e p r o b l e m in a way t h a t t h e p u b l i c can r e l a t e to.

It m u s t r e a c h a w i d e r a n g e of p e o p l e .

Giving reasons
r

Proposals

14

e model

>. p a r a g r a p h 1

' rite a proposal on o n e of t h e following q u e s t i o n s . C o m p l e t e t h e paragraph plan before y o u begin writing to e o you, and u s e t h e things y o u have learnt in this unit.

', p a r a g r a p h 2 graph 2) i T h e g o v e r n m e n t is launching a n e w drugs awareness campaign, and is running a c o m p e t i t i o n inviting p e o p l e to send in proposals on w h a t t h e campaign should include. T h e g o v e r n m e n t w a n t s p e o p l e to c o m m e n t on t h e use of advertising, s c h o o l visits, and t h e kind of approach you think t h e g o v e r n m e n t should take. W r i t e y o u r proposal, explaining why you think your ideas would be effective.

offers)

> paragraph 2
r

Introduction: P u r p o s e of p r o p o s a l ? < p a r a g r a p h 2 igraph 2) Main B o d y Suggestions & r e a s o n s : advertising? .

school visits? . ch Conclusion: P e r s o n a l o p i n i o n o n subject? Hi t h e S u m m a r i s e ideas from M a i n Body. S t a t e t h a t suggestions will be successful. approach?

A company Is planning to launch a n e w radio station. T h e o w n e r w a n t s to find o u t w h a t p e o p l e w o u l d like to hear on t h e radio, and is inviting proposals about t h e possible c o n t e n t as well as ideas on h o w to p r o m o t e t h e station. W r i t e a proposal, explaining why y o u think your suggestions should be implemented.

Introduction: Purpose of proposal? Main B o d y Suggestions & r e a s o n s : content? promotion? Conclusion: P e r s o n a l o p i n i o n o n subject? S u m m a r i s e ideas from M a i n B o d y . S t a t e t h a t suggestions will be successful. .

61

Reviews

Reviewing a festival

Read t h e q u e s t i o n and t h e review b e l o w and c o m p l e t e t h e e x e r c i s e s that follow.

An arts magazine is running a feature on festivals. It has invited its readers to s e n d in a review of an arts festival that t h e y have recently a t t e n d e d . W r i t e a review of t h e festival and say w h y y o u think it w a s w o r t h attending.

T h e E d i n b u r g h I n t e r n a t i o n a l Festival i s b e l i e v e d t o b e o n e o f t h e g r e a t e s t c e l e b r a t i o n s o f t h e arts, a t t r a c t i n g a u d i e n c e s from a r o u n d t h e w o r l d . H e l d every A u g u s t , t h e festival actually consists of a variety of festivals, all i n d e p e n d e n t l y o r g a n i s e d . C o m b i n e d , t h e y f o r m o n e of t h e biggest c e l e b r a t i o n s of t h e arts in t h e world, c l a i m i n g (1) (offer) e n t e r t a i n m e n t

for all tastes. T h e biggest p r o b l e m for festival-goers is d e c i d i n g w h a t to see, a n d w h a t to miss.

On arrival in E d i n b u r g h , t h e festival spirit is i m m e d i a t e l y a p p a r e n t . T h o s e w h o c a n n o t afford (2) ( a t t e n d ) t h e a t r e s m a k e t h e m o s t o f t h e free s t r e e t shows o n t h e H i g h

S t r e e t . H u n d r e d s o f visitors from a r o u n d t h e w o r l d w a t c h a s street artists p e r f o r m everything from t i g h t r o p e walking t o fire eating. T h e s e p e r f o r m e r s a r e p a r t o f t h e F r i n g e , which w a s e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1947 ( t h e first y e a r o f t h e E d i n b u r g h I n t e r n a t i o n a l Festival) b y i n d e p e n d e n t c o m p a n i e s w h o p e r f o r m e d in small t h e a t r e spaces w i t h o u t t h e a p p r o v a l of t h e official festival.

This year t h e F r i n g e b r o u g h t t h e C h i n e s e State Circus t o E d i n b u r g h . S u p e r b p e r f o r m e r s d e m o n s t r a t e d incredible b a l a n c e and flexibility, showing off their acrobatic skills. T h e t r o u p e f o r m e d h u m a n p y r a m i d s a n d back-flipped from poles, miraculously avoiding (3) (crash) to t h e g r o u n d . Eight girls k e p t 64 p l a t e s spinning continuously, while boys s m a s h e d bricks with their b a r e h a n d s . A real spectacle, this was family e n t e r t a i n m e n t at its best.

N o trip t o Scotland's capital i n A u g u s t w o u l d b e c o m p l e t e w i t h o u t (4) ( a t t e n d ) t h e E d i n b u r g h Military T a t t o o , a military show with music which is p e r f o r m e d at night. I was lucky e n o u g h to h a v e b o o k e d tickets in advance, as t h e T a t t o o is a sell-out every year. First p e r f o r m e d in 1950 as t h e A r m y of Scotland's c o n t r i b u t i o n to t h e Festival, t o d a y t h e r a n g e of music p e r f o r m e d is as diverse as t h e c o u n t r i e s r e p r e s e n t e d . Set against t h e magnificent b a c k d r o p of E d i n b u r g h Castle, t h e m o s t moving sight a n d s o u n d of t h e evening w a s that of t h e p i p e b a n d s . It was definitely w o r t h (5) (6)
e n

(splash o u t o n ) an expensive seat, as it allowed me ( J y ) t h e spectacle to t h e full.

U n f o r t u n a t e l y , it is impossible (7)

(see) everything on offer at t h e

E d i n b u r g h Festival. T h e r e a r e , q u i t e simply, t o o m a n y shows a n d t o o little t i m e . All in all, it is fair (8) (say) t h a t t h e E d i n b u r g h Festival h a s s o m e t h i n g for e v e r y o n e .

Reviewing a festival

Study Reference section 5 o n page 8 7 and Reference section 8 on page 8 9 . T h e n read t h e r e v i e w again and c o m p l e t e it, c h o o s i n g e i t h e r t h e gerund or t h e infinitive form of t h e verbs in brackets.

Based on t h e review on t h e previous page, put t h e paragraph plan b e l o w into t h e c o r r e c t order. W r i t e


production, Paragraph 2, Paragraphs 3 & 4, Conclusion.

Give descriptive details of o n e or two shows/events. Give y o u r g e n e r a l o p i n i o n of t h e festival as a w h o l e . M a k e a r e c o m m e n d a t i o n . D e s c r i b e t h e g e n e r a l a t m o s p h e r e of t h e festival. Give g e n e r a l i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e festival. M e n t i o n w h e r e a n d w h e n t h e festival t a k e s p l a c e .

h e w r i t e r u s e s t w o main t e n s e s i n his review, t h e p r e s e n t simple and t h e past simple. W h i c h t e n s e d o e s

- e use: a b c to give g e n e r a l i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e festival? describe t h e g e n e r a l a t m o s p h e r e of t h e festival? to d e s c r i b e w h a t he saw at t h e festival?

J n d e r l i n e all t h e verbs in t h e p r e s e n t simple t e n s e and s e e in which paragraphs they mostly occur.

h e w r i t e r u s e s different w o r d s t o talk a b o u t t h e s a m e thing. Vhat w o r d s d o e s t h e w r i t e r use: for p e o p l e w h o a t t e n d t h e festival? , and It is very important to use a wide range of vocabulary when writing at Proficiency level. Try not to repeat words and phrases over and over again.

for different kinds of p e o p l e w h o t a k e p a r t in t h e festival? and

63

Reviews

Reviewing a festival

R e w r i t e t h e s e n t e n c e s b e l o w using t h e w o r d s i n b o l d . U s e b e t w e e n t w o a n d five w o r d s . You may w i s h t o l o o k b a c k a t t h e m o d e l for help w i t h t h e s t r u c t u r e s n e e d e d . a M a k e sure you b o o k well a h e a d if you w a n t to see t h a t play, advance You must b It's w o r t h s p e n d i n g a lot of m o n e y on g o o d seats, splashing It's w o r t h c g o o d seats. w a n t t o see t h a t play.

S o m e p e o p l e believe this festival is o n e of t h e best in t h e world, believed T h i s festival of t h e best in t h e w o r l d .

Y o u could say t h a t t h e b a n d played b e t t e r t h a n ever b e f o r e , fair It's b a n d played b e t t e r t h a n ever b e f o r e .

In o r d e r to t a k e p a r t in t h e festival, t h e p e r f o r m e r s m u s t h a v e p e r m i s s i o n from festival officials, approval T h e p e r f o r m e r s c a n n o t t a k e p a r t i n t h e festival officials.

T h e y s t a r t e d t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l Festival o v e r fifty years ago. established T h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l Festival fifty y e a r s ago.

T h e n o t e s o p p o s i t e are n o t e s a b o u t a n o t h e r festival. Look at t h e q u e s t i o n in e x e r c i s e I again and t h e n put t h e paragraph n o t e s b e l o w into t h e c o r r e c t o r d e r according to t h e plan in e x e r c i s e 3.

Sandra

Up-and-coming

20-year-o\d

singer

and s o n g w r i t e r . Distinctive voice and look. Blue Notes - local y o u n g jazz b a n d . Talented musicians, despite their a g e - p l a y e d their o w n music, as well as s o m e popular jazz. They were the f i n d of the weekend.

5th Annual Youth Music Festival. Gives y o u n g


people the opportunity to s h o w off their

talents, while learning more about music at the same time. Held in a different t o w n every
year. Perth. in my opinion, the Youth Festival fulfils its a i m s - 'to promote young musical talent
1

Friday 26 July - Sunday 28 July 02,

and

Improve and advance music something f o r everyone.

education.

offers

Friendly a t m o s p h e r e . V a r i e t y of fun music w o r k s h o p s . G r e a t effort put into d e c o r a t i n g the site - local schools d e c o r a t e d the m a i n

arena with their own a r t w o r k .

Aprite a review on o n e of t h e following q u e s t i o n s . C o m p l e t e t h e paragraph plan before y o u begin writing to help y o u . U s e appropriate t e n s e s and a w i d e range of vocabulary.

A film magazine is running a feature on festivals. It has invited its readers to s e n d in a review of a film festival that t h e y have recently a t t e n d e d . W r i t e a r e v i e w of t h e festival and say w h y y o u think it w a s , or w a s not, w o r t h attending.

Your college n e w s p a p e r has asked o v e r s e a s s t u d e n t s to w r i t e reviews of festivals held in their c o u n t r i e s . You have d e c i d e d to w r i t e a b o u t a festival that is held in y o u r h o m e t o w n each year. W r i t e y o u r review, describing t h e festival and saying w h y visitors w o u l d enjoy it.

A music magazine is running a feature on festivals. It has invited its readers to s e n d in a review of a music festival that t h e y have recently a t t e n d e d . You have d e c i d e d to w r i t e a b o u t a rock festival y o u a t t e n d e d last summer. W r i t e a review of t h e festival and say w h y y o u think it w a s w o r t h attending.

Introduction: G e n e r a l i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t festival? Where? When? Paragraph 2 General atmosphere? Paragraphs 3 & 4 D e s c r i p t i v e details? Conclusion General opinion? A recommendation?

65

Reviews

Reviewing a holiday

Read t h e question and t h e review b e l o w and t h e n c o m p l e t e t h e e x e r c i s e s that follow.

You belong to a holiday club. T h e club magazine regularly reviews different kinds of holidays and has invited club m e m b e r s to send in reviews of w e e k e n d city breaks they have had. T h e best o n e s will be published in t h e magazine. W r i t e a review of a w e e k e n d city break you enjoyed, explaining w h a t t h e city had to offer and w h a t made your holiday special.

H a v i n g always w a n t e d to visit V e n i c e , I j u m p e d at t h e c h a n c e w h e n my friend C a r o l w o n a w e e k e n d away for two p e o p l e a n d a s k e d m e t o a c c o m p a n y h e r . T h e m e n t i o n o f V e n i c e usually b r i n g s t o m i n d canals, g o n d o l a s a n d tourists, b u t it actually offers a g r e a t d e a l m o r e , as I f o u n d o u t .

A s w e w e r e only going t o b e i n V e n i c e for a little o v e r two days, w e h a d b o t h r e a d u p o n t h e city b e f o r e arriving: w e d i d n ' t w a n t t o risk missing s o m e t h i n g w h i l e w e w e r e t h e r e . W e t o o k a w a t e r b u s from t h e a i r p o r t t o S a n M a r c o , which i s t h e s t o p n e a r t h e f a m o u s S t M a r k ' s S q u a r e . A s w e c r o s s e d t h e s q u a r e t o find o u r h o t e l w e g a z e d u p a t t h e magnificent Basilica, o n e o f V e n i c e ' s m a n y f a m o u s sights. W e visited i t t h e following m o r n i n g a n d saw S t M a r k ' s t o m b a n d t h e s t u n n i n g gold m o s a i c s inside. A f t e r w a r d s , w e f o u n d a t r a t t o r i a for lunch a n d h a d delicious s e a f o o d pizza. T h e a f t e r n o o n f o u n d u s w a n d e r i n g t h e m a z e o f n a r r o w s t r e e t s criss-crossing t h e c a n a l s , a n d p o p p i n g into many of the churches scattered throughout the city. As we discovered, V e n i c e is n o t an easy city to navigate, b u t b e c a u s e it is fairly small, you c a n n e v e r really lose y o u r way.

O n S u n d a y , w e visited just o n e o f t h e m a n y n e a r b y islands, M u r a n o , w h e r e t h e glass factories a r e . W e s p e n t t h e m o r n i n g t h e r e a n d w a t c h e d skilled c r a f t s m e n blowing glass into all m a n n e r of s h a p e s a n d designs. We also c h o s e small glass gifts for friends a n d relatives, which w a s n o t as easy as it s o u n d s as we w e r e spoilt for c h o i c e . S u n d a y a f t e r n o o n w a s s p e n t s o u v e n i r h u n t i n g . B o t h C a r o l a n d I t r e a t e d ourselves t o beautiful h a n d - p a i n t e d m a s k s t h a t a r e traditionally w o r n a t carnival t i m e . Sadly o u r w e e k e n d h a d almost c o m e t o a n e n d . J u s t t i m e for o n e m o r e delicious m e a l a n d t h e n i t w a s b a c k t o t h e h o t e l t o p a c k as we w e r e leaving in t h e m o r n i n g .

My only r e g r e t is t h a t I d i d n ' t s e e all I w a n t e d t o : t h e r e j u s t w a s n ' t t i m e . I s u p p o s e I'll h a v e to go b a c k a g a i n a n d stay for l o n g e r . H o w e v e r , this w e e k e n d away w a s w o n d e r f u l a n d all t h e m o r e special b e c a u s e I w a s able to s h a r e it with a g o o d friend of m i n e . I shall n e v e r forget it.

Reviewing a holiday

Reviews

Look at t h e review again and say in w h i c h p a r a g r a p h ( s ) t h e w r i t e r : a b c d e f tells us why t h e holiday w a s special? relates w h a t she a n d h e r friend d i d ? m e n t i o n s for t h e first t i m e which city she w e n t t o ? gives us h e r last t h o u g h t s a b o u t t h e holiday? explains h e r r e a s o n for going on t h e holiday? tells us w h a t she a n d h e r friend saw? and and

Read t h e review again and a n s w e r t h e s e q u e s t i o n s .

W h a t d o e s t h e writer's u s e of ' j u m p e d at t h e c h a n c e ' tell us a b o u t h e r feelings t o w a r d s going to V e n i c e ?

W h i c h w o r d in t h e s e c o n d p a r a g r a p h reinforces t h e fact t h a t ' V e n i c e is n o t an easy city to n a v i g a t e ' ?

W h y w a s c h o o s i n g gifts for friends a n d relatives ' n o t as easy as it s o u n d s ' ?

_ o o k at t h e Reference section 10 o n page 8 9 . N o w l o o k at t h e s e s e n t e n c e s taken from t h e review and i n s w e r t h e q u e s t i o n s below. a b c d Having always wanted to visit Venice, I j u m p e d at t h e c h a n c e ... T h e a f t e r n o o n f o u n d us w a n d e r i n g t h e m a z e of n a r r o w s t r e e t s criss-crossing the c a n a l s a n d ... ... p o p p i n g i n t o t h e m a n y c h u r c h e s scattered t h r o u g h o u t the city. *

We s p e n t t h e m o r n i n g t h e r e a n d w a t c h e d skilled c r a f t s m e n blowing g l a s s into all m a n n e r of s h a p e s and d e s i g n s .

i) (ii)

W h i c h participle clauses give us m o r e i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t a n o u n ? WhichparticipleclausehasthemeaningofftecaM.se?

a n d ....

iii) W h i c h participle clause refers to an a c t i o n ?

67

Reviews

Reviewing a holiday

R e w r i t e t h e s e n t e n c e s b e l o w using participle clauses.

She decided to stay at h o m e at the w e e k e n d because she didn't feel well.

T h e hotel they stayed in overlooked the picturesque bay.

Peter recognised o n e of the air stewardesses w h o was working on his flight to Amsterdam,

After I'd c h e c k e d that my passport and ticket were in my bag, I left the house,

He put the luggage in the boot of the car, got in and started the engine,

We took advantage of the c h e a p a c c o m m o d a t i o n that was offered to us.

I realised I was going to miss my train, so I started running.

He interrupted the guide w h o was talking about the castle to ask where the toilets were.

Study Reference section 2 b o n page 8 6 . Using adjectives can bring a description t o life. Underline phrases in t h e m o d e l r e v i e w w h e r e t h e w r i t e r has u s e d m o r e than o n e adjective t o d e s c r i b e a n o u n .

N o w rewrite t h e s e s e n t e n c e s with the adjectives in the correct place.

We stayed in Palm Court, a hotel on the coast, (seventy-bedroomed, luxurious)

Instructors showed us how to use our equipment correctly, (diving, fully-qualified)

There was a beach very nearby, (beautiful, sandy)

For breakfast, there was bread everyday, ( h o m e - m a d e , fresh)

T h e staff were k e e n to do whatever they could to make our stay m o r e enjoyable, (friendly, well-trained)

T h e children's playground was full of swings, slides and climbing frames, ( w o o d e n , brightly-coloured)

Reviewing a holiday

Read t h e t w o q u e s t i o n s b e l o w and c o m p l e t e t h e p a r a g r a p h plans w i t h y o u r o w n ideas. T h e n w r i t e o n e review based o n y o u r n o t e s below.

You b e l o n g to a parent and child g r o u p that p r o d u c e s a magazine four t i m e s a year. T h e magazine is inviting m e m b e r s to w r i t e r e v i e w s of successful package holidays they have had for their s u m m e r issue. T h e holiday m u s t be suitable for families with s c h o o l - a g e d children. You had such a holiday last s u m m e r and have d e c i d e d to w r i t e a review for t h e magazine. W r i t e y o u r review describing t h e holiday and explaining w h y it is suitable for families with children.

Introduction

Where? R e a s o n for c h o o s i n g t h e holiday? With whom?

Main B o d y Brief description Accommodation? Activities? Facilities? Surrounding area?

Conclusion

S t a t e t h a t holiday w a s good/successful/etc. S t a t e w h y it is suitable for families with children.

T h e Student U n i o n at y o u r university is organising an activity holiday. Any s t u d e n t s w h o have already enjoyed such a holiday have b e e n asked to w r i t e a review of it so t h e Entertainment C o m m i t t e e can c h o o s e a holiday that w o u l d be suitable. W r i t e a review for t h e c o m m i t t e e describing t h e holiday and saying w h y it w o u l d be suitable.

Introduction

W h a t k i n d o f activity h o l i d a y ? W h e r e and when? With whom?

Main B o d y D e s c r i p t i o n of t h e holiday: Accommodation? Activities? W h a t m a d e i t enjoyable?

Conclusion

S t a t e t h a t y o u enjoyed t h e holiday/would r e c o m m e n d it/etc. S t a t e t h a t i t w o u l d b e suitable.

In your description, concentrate on the aspects of the holiday which support yo UT choice and mc he it suitable for the review you've been asked to write.

Reviews
Wm
I

Reviewing a magazine

Read the question and the review b e l o w and complete the exercises that follow.

Your college library has d e c i d e d to take o u t five magazine subscriptions. Students have b e e n asked to r e c o m m e n d a magazine. W r i t e a review r e c o m m e n d i n g a magazine, saying w h y y o u think t h e library should subscribe to t h e magazine of y o u r c h o i c e .

T h e N a t i o n a l G e o g r a p h i c Society i s t h e w o r l d ' s largest n o n - p r o f i t scientific a n d e d u c a t i o n a l o r g a n i s a t i o n . F o u n d e d in 1888, National Geographic is t h e society's flagship m a g a z i n e . ( T h e society also p u b l i s h e s Adventure, Traveler, World, National Geographic for Kids m a g a z i n e s , as well as a w a r d -

w i n n i n g b o o k s a n d C D - R O M s , a n d i t h a s its o w n T V c h a n n e l . ) I n a d d i t i o n t o k e e p i n g t h e r e a d e r a b r e a s t of ecological issues a n d t h r e a t s to wildlife, National Geographic also e n c o u r a g e s u n d e r s t a n d i n g of v a r i o u s c u l t u r e s all over t h e world.

As its n a m e suggests, m a n y of t h e articles in t h e m a g a z i n e in q u e s t i o n have a g e o g r a p h i c a l slant. H o w e v e r , this d o e s n o t m e a n t h a t it is of i n t e r e s t only to g e o g r a p h y s t u d e n t s . T h e r e a r e also i n t e r e s t i n g articles o n such topics a s t e c h n o l o g y a n d t h e i n f o r m a t i o n r e v o l u t i o n , a s well a s c u l t u r a l f e a t u r e s on societies from t h e four c o r n e r s of t h e g l o b e . As a result, s t u d e n t s from m a n y different faculties w o u l d h a v e g o o d r e a s o n to r e a d National Geographic, s h o u l d t h e library d e c i d e to t a k e o u t a subscription.

T h e articles a r e , for t h e m o s t p a r t , w r i t t e n from a n objective, u n b i a s e d yet involved p o i n t of view. T h e y a r e well r e s e a r c h e d a n d give a full historical p e r s p e c t i v e on t h e issue b e i n g c o v e r e d . O n e of National Geographic^ m o s t o u t s t a n d i n g f e a t u r e s , h o w e v e r , is t h e i n c r e d i b l e p h o t o g r a p h y which a c c o m p a n i e s every article. P h o t o g r a p h s of this quality a r e a rarity, b u t it is n o t surprising t h a t t h e y a r e b r o u g h t to us by National Geographic w h e n y o u c o n s i d e r t h e t i m e a n d m o n e y it s p e n d s in its effort to raise p u b l i c a w a r e n e s s of t h e w o r l d a r o u n d us.

A y e a r ' s subscription to National Geographic costs 29, a n d includes 12 m o n t h l y issues of t h e m a g a z i n e , a w o r l d m a p with t h e first issue, a n d as m a n y as 5 full-colour wall m a p s u p p l e m e n t s in s e l e c t e d issues of t h e m a g a z i n e , which c o u l d be p u t up in t h e library for g e n e r a l r e f e r e n c e p u r p o s e s . M o r e o v e r , all s u b s c r i p t i o n s h e l p s u p p o r t w o r l d w i d e scientific r e s e a r c h , exploration, and geography education.

In brief, m a n y students would benefit from a college subscription to a m a g a z i n e like National Geographic, which has so m u c h to offer. I believe that it deserves a place on t h e college library shelves.

Reviewing a magazine

Reviews

17

Study Connectors and modifiers o n page 9 4 . W h i c h w o r d s o r p h r a s e s has t h e w r i t e r u s e d t o : a b c d m e n t i o n an extra p o i n t after a p o i n t ? ( P a r a g r a p h 1) s h o w t h a t a p o i n t limits t h e p r e v i o u s p o i n t m a d e to s o m e e x t e n t ? ( P a r a g r a p h 2) i n d i c a t e t h e logical d e v e l o p m e n t or c o n s e q u e n c e of an a r g u m e n t ? ( P a r a g r a p h 2) i n t r o d u c e a s e c o n d r e a s o n of a different kind, b u t o n e t h a t h a s t h e s a m e result as t h e first? ( P a r a g r a p h 4) e bring t h e a r g u m e n t to a c o n c l u s i o n in a few w o r d s ? ( P a r a g r a p h 5)

Rnd w o r d s and phrases in t h e review which mean: a b c d e f 2 h the most important magazine that the organisation produces i n f o r m i n g t h e r e a d e r a b o u t t h e latest d e v e l o p m e n t s i n p o i n t of view special articles a b o u t s o m e t h i n g pay m o n e y to receive r e g u l a r c o p i e s of a n e w s p a p e r or m a g a z i n e impartial o n e of a r e g u l a r series of m a g a z i n e s or n e w s p a p e r s extra s e p a r a t e sections t h a t a r e sold with a n e w s p a p e r or m a g a z i n e

Read t h e m o d e l review again and tick t h e points which are m e n t i o n e d . a b c d e I g h i j k 1 m n o age of m a g a z i n e c o m m e n t s on articles cost details a b o u t w r i t e r s free gifts m e t h o d s of p a y m e n t n u m b e r of issues n u m b e r of p a g e s p o i n t s of sale possible r e a d e r s h i p size of m a g a z i n e special f e a t u r e s title topics of interest type of m a g a z i n e

rr

~z

Reviews

Reviewing a magazine

N o w c o m p l e t e the paragraph plan with t h e w o r d s you ticked in e x e r c i s e 4.

Introduction Main B o d y m a i n p o i n t s t h a t s u p p o r t t h e writer's choice: P a r a g r a p h 2? P a r a g r a p h 3? Paragraph 4? Conclusion R e a s o n s for r e c o m m e n d i n g t h e m a g a z i n e .

C o m p l e t e t h e table b e l o w with t h e phrases in t h e box.

47.50 business

52

anyone

interested in

current affairs

award-winning journalism

and photography rpny health

clear and concise politics

first published 1933 technology the arts

Newsweek

Points
title age of magazine topics of interest possible readership comments on articles special features cost number of issues

Current affairs magazine

N o w c o m p l e t e t h e table b e l o w w i t i y o u r o w n ideas.

Points
title age of magazine topics of interest possible readership comments on articles special features cost number of issues

Children's magazine

72

Reviewing a magazine

Reviews

Read t h e t w o questions b e l o w and c o m p l e t e t h e p a r a g r a p h plans. You may use your ideas from e x e r c i s e s 6 and 7, or o t h e r points if you think they are m o r e appropriate. Then write o n e review based on y o u r n o t e s below.

T h e head t e a c h e r of t h e primary s c h o o l w h e r e y o u w o r k as a t e a c h e r has decided to take o u t magazine subscriptions for s o m e children's magazines. She has asked all t h e t e a c h e r s to w r i t e a review of a children's magazine which they believe w o u l d be appropriate. W r i t e a review, explaining w h a t y o u think it has to offer.

Introduction Main B o d y main points that support your choice: Paragraph 2? Paragraph 3? Paragraph 4? Conclusion R e a s o n s for r e c o m m e n d i n g t h e m a g a z i n e ?

You w o r k for t h e university newspaper. A local journalist has kindly offered to pay for yearly subscriptions to a n u m b e r of magazines or n e w s p a p e r s . He has asked i n t e r e s t e d parties to w r i t e a review of a magazine or n e w s p a p e r which t h e y think w o u l d be a useful r e s o u r c e for t h e university newspaper. W r i t e y o u r review, saying w h y y o u think it w o u l d be suitable.

Introduction Main B o d y m a i n points that s u p p o r t y o u r choice: Paragraph 2? Paragraph 3? Paragraph 4? Conclusion R e a s o n s for r e c o m m e n d i n g t h e m a g a z i n e ?

18
1

Reports

Discussi]

igs of a sun

Read t h e q u e s t i o n and t h e r e p o r t b e l o w and c o m p l e t e t h e e x e r c i s e s that follow.

T h e local council has received a c o n s i d e r a b l e d o n a t i o n from a local resident, and has d e c i d e d to u s e t h e m o n e y to s e t up a local newspaper, radio station or TV channel. A survey w a s carried o u t to find o u t h o w local residents think that t h e m o n e y should be spent. You have b e e n asked to w r i t e a r e p o r t for t h e local council based on t h e opinions t h e residents gave in t h e survey, making appropriate recommendations.

Introduction T h e purpose of this report is to discuss the findings of a survey which was carried out in the week beginning 17th February, 2003. 200 people aged 18-65 were asked a number of questions concerning Maintown Council's proposal to establish a local newspaper, radio station or TV channel. Newspaper Generally speaking, this option was quite popular with those interviewed. T h e majority of people in the 50-65 age group believed that a local newspaper would be very useful, and that they would probably buy it on a regular basis. This option was also quite popular with local residents in their forties. A few people interviewed also pointed out that, of t h e three proposals, this is the only o n e whose revenue would not d e p e n d on advertising alone, as people would have to pay to buy a newspaper. T h e younger people who were interviewed, on t h e o t h e r hand, said that they would only buy a local p a p e r if it was written exclusively for young people. TV Channel Of all t h e projects proposed, this was the least popular. Few people interviewed thought that setting up a local TV channel was a good idea. T h e general consensus was that it would be so expensive to run that it is unrealistic to believe that this could be a successful long-term project. Radio Station Maintown Council's idea to set up a local radio station received the approval of t h e majority of the residents who were interviewed, regardless of age. It is believed that a radio station would be both popular and relatively easy to run, without being too expensive. Some people also mentioned that it would appeal to all age groups as well as to people with different interests if there were a variety of p r o g r a m m e s on different subjects. Conclusion To sum up, while a local TV channel would not be popular with residents, both a local newspaper and a radio station would have something to offer t h e community. Taking into account the fact that it is in t h e council's interest to m a k e decisions based on voters' wishes, it is r e c o m m e n d e d that Maintown Council establish a local radio station.

Don't confuse reports with proposals! Questions like the one above may look similar to a proposal as people have been asked to choose between different things they would like to happen, but the purpose of writing is to report on the survey, not to propose anything.

Discussing the findings of a

Reports

Read t h e r e p o r t again and c o m p l e t e t h e paragraph plan.

Introduction

State the purpose of the report. Give details of survey.

Main B o d y

Conclusion

Read t h e r e p o r t again and a n s w e r t h e following q u e s t i o n s .

What information is given about the survey in the first paragraph?

., a n d . b H o w d o e s the writer manage to include reasons for the popularity (or lack of popularity) of the three things proposed?

What reason(s) are given for: c the popularity of the idea of setting up a local newspaper?

the unpopularity of the idea of setting up a local TV channel?

the popularity of the idea of setting up a local radio station?

Why d o e s the writer m e n t i o n voters' wishes in the conclusion?

Study Reference section 15 o n page 9 0 , t h e n underline all t h e quantifiers t h e w r i t e r has used in t h e r e p o r t .

Discussing the findings of a survey

R e w r i t e t h e s e n t e n c e s b e l o w using t h e w o r d s in bold. U s e b e t w e e n t w o and five w o r d s . You may w i s h to l o o k back at t h e m o d e l for help with t h e s t r u c t u r e s n e e d e d . a F u r t h e r m o r e , s o m e m e m b e r s of staff m e n t i o n e d t h a t t h e y w o u l d only go to t h e gym if t h e r e w a s an i n s t r u c t o r , few Furthermore, an instructor. b W h e n a s k e d a b o u t t h e c o m p a n y ' s i d e a to invest in gym e q u i p m e n t , e v e r y b o d y w h o w o r k s for t h e c o m p a n y said it w a s a g o o d idea, all W h e n a s k e d a b o u t t h e c o m p a n y ' s i d e a t o invest i n gym e q u i p m e n t , c o m p a n y said it w a s a g o o d i d e a . c M o s t of t h e p e o p l e w h o w e r e i n t e r v i e w e d t h o u g h t t h a t local r e s i d e n t s w o u l d enjoy a s u m m e r c o n c e r t , few t h o u g h t t h a t local r e s i d e n t s w o u l d n ' t enjoy a s u m m e r c o n c e r t . d A c c o r d i n g to t h o s e w h o t o o k p a r t in t h e survey, a s u m m e r fete w o u l d be enjoyable a n d it w o u l d be profitable too. both A c c o r d i n g t o t h o s e w h o t o o k p a r t i n t h e survey, a s u m m e r fete profitable. e W e e k e n d b r e a k s at h e a l t h spas received t h e a p p r o v a l of m o s t of t h e e m p l o y e e s , majority W e e k e n d breaks at health spas received the the employees. and for the m e n t i o n e d t h a t t h e y w o u l d only g o t o t h e gym i f t h e r e w a s

Read Reference section 11 on page 89. L o o k back at t h e m o d e l r e p o r t o n page 7 4 and find t h e following sentence: 'It is b e l i e v e d t h a t a r a d i o station w o u l d be b o t h p o p u l a r a n d relatively easy to r u n , w i t h o u t b e i n g t o o expensive.' This is an e x a m p l e of t h e impersonal passive structure. It has b e e n used instead of t h e s e n t e n c e b e l o w to avoid having to repeat 'the residents', which w a s used in t h e preceding s e n t e n c e in t h e report: T h e residents believe that a radio station w o u l d be b o t h popular and relatively easy to run, w i t h o u t being t o o e x p e n s i v e . It could also have b e e n w r i t t e n using t h e personal passive structure: A radio station is believed to be b o t h popular and relatively easy to run, w i t h o u t being t o o e x p e n s i v e .

R e w r i t e t h e s e s e n t e n c e s , using t h e s t r u c t u r e s s h o w n a b o v e . a T h e m a n a g e r s believe t h a t u n i f o r m s w o u l d i m p r o v e t h e c o m p a n y ' s i m a g e .

T h e e m p l o y e e s t h i n k t h a t a day c a r e c e n t r e w o u l d be a g r e a t asset to t h e c o m p a n y .

T h e r e s i d e n t s claim t h a t funding h a s b e e n m i s u s e d in t h e past by t h e local council.

T h e charity believes t h a t a s u m m e r fete w o u l d be a g o o d way to raise m o n e y .

H e a d t e a c h e r s think t h a t T h e N a t i o n a l P a r e n t T e a c h e r ' s A s s o c i a t i o n h a s d o n e a lot t o i m p r o v e e d u c a t i o n .

Read t h e q u e s t i o n s below, and w r i t e a r e p o r t on o n e of t h e q u e s t i o n s , following t h e paragraph plan, and using s o m e of t h e things you have learnt in this unit.

You are t h e p e r s o n n e l manager of a large c o m p a n y which has decided that it must do s o m e t h i n g a b o u t t h e health of its e m p l o y e e s . A survey w a s carried o u t to find o u t w h a t e m p l o y e e s think w o u l d be t h e b e s t idea: sending all e m p l o y e e s to a health spa for a w e e k e n d break, buying s o m e gym e q u i p m e n t or hiring a gym instructor. You have b e e n asked to w r i t e a r e p o r t for t h e board of d i r e c t o r s based on t h e o p i n i o n s t h e e m p l o y e e s gave in t h e survey, making appropriate r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s .

T h e local council has d e c i d e d to hold a s u m m e r e v e n t in t h e t o w n square. A survey w a s carried o u t to find o u t h o w local residents think that t h e m o n e y should be spent: on a s u m m e r c o n c e r t , a s u m m e r fete or a s u m m e r play. You have b e e n asked to w r i t e a r e p o r t for t h e local council based on t h e o p i n i o n s t h e residents gave in t h e survey, making a suitable r e c o m m e n d a t i o n .

Introduction

State the purpose of the report. Give details of survey.

Main B o d y

Discuss findings of t h e survey, using a s e p a r a t e p a r a g r a p h for e a c h of t h e t h r e e things m e n t i o n e d in t h e q u e s t i o n . G i v e r e a s o n s for t h e i r p o p u l a r i t y / u n p o p u l a r i t y .

Conclusion

S u m m a r i s e t h e findings of t h e survey. Make a recommendation.

19

Reports

itions

Read t h e question and t h e r e p o r t b e l o w and t h e n c o m p l e t e t h e e x e r c i s e s that follow.

You are an i n d e p e n d e n t consultant offering advice to small b u s i n e s s e s . You have b e e n a p p r o a c h e d by t h e o w n e r of a restaurant w h o n e e d s y o u r help. T h e r e has b e e n a decline in business and t h e restaurant is in danger of closing d o w n . You have investigated t h e situation and are n o w ready to w r i t e y o u r r e p o r t analysing t h e possible r e a s o n s for this decline and making s u g g e s t i o n s as to h o w t h e situation c o u l d b e improved. W r i t e y o u r report.

Introduction This report has been written following my inquiries and observations. It outlines my findings relating to the decline in business and also (1) The Menu The Catherine Wheel has always b e e n well known for its good quality food and wine. This, however, has led to complacency. T h e choice of food (2) encourage customers to return. It is my opinion (3) T h e m e n u is therefore predictable, which does not In addition, people are m o r e willing to

try a wider variety of foods than they once were and the m e n u could reflect this with the inclusion of m o r e adventurous choices. This could be d o n e by m e a n s of a Specials board, or the m e n u could be a d a p t e d on a regular basis, although this would be fairly costly in terms of printing. Other Establishments In the past twelve months, three new restaurants have o p e n e d up within walking distance of The Catherine Wheel, two of which are proving to be extremely successful. They are attracting customers in their late twenties to early forties, the age g r o u p most likely to eat out on a regular basis, by providing good food in an upbeat environment. At present (4) decor and music should be m a d e . Opening Hours Currently t h e restaurant only opens on Monday to Saturday nights from 6 pm until 11.30 pm. This limits the n u m b e r of customers that can be served. P e o p l e c o m e into the restaurant after 11.30 pm and ask for a table (5) (6) Conclusion Although business has declined over t h e recent m o n t h s at The Catherine Wheel, the situation is rectifiable. My investigation has highlighted the causes of the problem and I feel certain that the measures outlined above will improve t h e situation. O p e n i n g hours could be extended, especially at weekends. F u r t h e r m o r e , it may be worth opening at lunchtime. T h e r e are few places in town that offer good food in the middle of t h e day, so In o r d e r to c o m p e t e with these establishments, changes to

Providi
1 Read t h e question and t h e r e p o r t b e l o w and t h e n c o m p l e t e t h e e x e r c i s e s that follow. You are an i n d e p e n d e n t consultant offering advice to small b u s i n e s s e s . You have b e e n a p p r o a c h e d by t h e o w n e r of a restaurant w h o n e e d s y o u r help. T h e r e has b e e n a decline in business and t h e restaurant is in danger of closing d o w n . You have investigated t h e situation and are n o w ready to w r i t e y o u r r e p o r t analysing t h e possible r e a s o n s for this decline and making s u g g e s t i o n s as to h o w t h e situation could b e improved. W r i t e y o u r r e p o r t .

Introduction This report has been written following my inquiries and observations. It outlines my findings relating to the decline in business and also (1) The Menu The Catherine Wheel has always b e e n well known for its good quality food and wine. This, however, has led to complacency. T h e choice of food (2) encourage customers to return. It is my opinion (3) T h e m e n u is therefore predictable, which does n o t In addition, people are m o r e willing to

try a wider variety of foods t h a n they once were and the m e n u could reflect this with the inclusion of m o r e adventurous choices. This could be d o n e by m e a n s of a Specials board, or the m e n u could be a d a p t e d on a regular basis, although this would be fairly costly in terms of printing. Other Establishments In the past twelve months, t h r e e new restaurants have o p e n e d up within walking distance of The Catherine Wheel, two of which are proving to be extremely successful. They are attracting customers in their late twenties to early forties, t h e age group most likely to eat out on a regular basis, by providing good food in an upbeat environment. At present (4) decor and music should be m a d e . Opening Hours Currently the restaurant only o p e n s on Monday to Saturday nights from 6 pm until 11.30 p m . This limits the n u m b e r of customers that can be served. P e o p l e c o m e into the restaurant after 11.30 pm and ask for a table (5) O p e n i n g h o u r s could be extended, especially at weekends. F u r t h e r m o r e , it may be worth opening at lunchtime. T h e r e are few places in town that offer good food in the middle of t h e day, so (6) Conclusion Although business has declined over t h e recent m o n t h s at The Catherine Wheel, the situation is rectifiable. My investigation has highlighted the causes of the problem and I feel certain that the measures outlined above will improve the situation. In order to c o m p e t e with these establishments, changes to

Providin

Reports

Read t h e r e p o r t again and d e c i d e w h e t h e r a or b is t h e m o s t suitable w a y to finish t h e s e n t e n c e s . 1 a b a b a b a b a b 6 a b gives y o u s o m e ideas that may help puts forward s o m e suggestions that may improve the situation has remained unchanged for a considerable length of time has stayed pretty much the s a m e for as long as everyone can r e m e m b e r that it's about time y o u had a change that y o u reassess the m e n u on offer The Catherine Wheel is really boring in comparison The Catherine Wheel s e e m s very staid in comparison only to be turned away but are told to leave the opportunity should be taken advantage of y o u should cash in on this

W h e n writing a r e p o r t it is i m p o r t a n t to have clear paragraphs t h a t a d d r e s s a particular point. In this r e p o r t , each paragraph in t h e main b o d y deals with o n e p r o b l e m and its possible s o l u t i o n ( s ) . L o o k again at t h e r e p o r t and c o m p l e t e t h e table b e l o w in n o t e form.

Problem
Paragraph 2

Solution

Paragraph 3

Paragraph 4

Look at this s e n t e n c e taken from t h e r e p o r t and a n s w e r t h e q u e s t i o n that f o l l o w s . T h e m e n u is therefore predictable, which d o e s not encourage customers to return.'

What d o e s which refer to? a b the m e n u the fact that the m e n u is predictable

The sentence could be rewritten as follows: T h e fact that the m e n u is predictable d o e s not encourage customers to return.

oviding solutions
5 Rewrite t h e s e n t e n c e s b e l o w practising t h e s t r u c t u r e s y o u s a w in e x e r c i s e 4. a T h e fact t h a t t h e food is g o o d v a l u e m a k e s p e o p l e c o m e b a c k t i m e a n d again. T h e food b T h e fact t h a t M a r y w a s b r o u g h t up in Italy m e a n s s h e often e a t s p a s t a . Mary c T h e waitresses a r e r u d e a n d unhelpful, which gives t h e r e s t a u r a n t a b a d n a m e . T h e fact t h a t d T h e fact t h a t J e r e m y h a t e s c o o k i n g explains why he always e a t s out. Jeremy e T h e m e a l w a s e x t o r t i o n a t e l y expensive, which spoiled my b i r t h d a y c e l e b r a t i o n . T h e fact t h a t

Look at t h e s e n t e n c e b e l o w taken from t h e r e p o r t and a n s w e r t h e q u e s t i o n which follows.

' I n t h e p a s t twelve m o n t h s , t h r e e n e w r e s t a u r a n t s h a v e o p e n e d up within walking d i s t a n c e of The Catherine Wheel, two o f w h i c h a r e p r o v i n g t o b e e x t r e m e l y s u c c e s s f u l '

W h a t d o e s which refer t o ? a b the new restaurants The Catherine Wheel

T h e s e n t e n c e could b e r e w r i t t e n a s follows:

I n t h e p a s t twelve m o n t h s , t h r e e n e w r e s t a u r a n t s h a v e o p e n e d u p w i t h i n walking d i s t a n c e o f The Catherine Wheel. T w o of t h e m a r e p r o v i n g to be e x t r e m e l y successful.

Join t h e s e n t e n c e s b e l o w together, practising t h e structure y o u m e t in e x e r c i s e 6. R e m e m b e r that t h e relative p r o n o u n whom is used after a preposition t o refer t o a p e r s o n . a O n e h u n d r e d c u s t o m e r s w e r e interviewed. M a n y o f t h e m said t h e y w e r e satisfied with t h e service p r o v i d e d .

F i v e l o c a t i o n s w e r e c o n s i d e r e d . T w o of t h e m w e r e ideal.

T w o c a n d i d a t e s a p p l i e d for t h e j o b . B o t h of t h e m w e r e u n s u i t a b l e .

M r J o h n s o n r e a d t e n j o b a d v e r t i s e m e n t s . N o n e o f t h e m w a s w h a t h e w a s l o o k i n g for.

I h a v e t e l e p h o n e d t h r e e h o t e l s in t h e a r e a . All of t h e m a r e fully b o o k e d .

Providing solutions

Reports

19

Read t h e t w o q u e s t i o n s b e l o w and c o m p l e t e t h e paragraph plans for each q u e s t i o n with n o t e s .

You are e m p l o y e d as manager of a small gift s h o p . Unfortunately, t h e gift s h o p is n o t doing as well as it used t o . W r i t e a r e p o r t to t h e o w n e r explaining t h e r e a s o n s for this and putting forward s o m e s u g g e s t i o n s a s t o h o w t h e situation could b e improved.

Introduction Main B o d y

State the purpose of your report. Heading? Problem 1 Solution(s) Heading? Problem 2 Solution(s) Heading? Problem 3 Solution(s)

Conclusion

State that something must be done. S t a t e t h a t y o u r suggestions will solve t h e p r o b l e m / i m p r o v e t h e s i t u a t i o n .

You w o r k at a s p o r t s c e n t r e . T h e s p o r t s c e n t r e is n o t as busy as it u s e d to be and is under t h r e a t of c l o s u r e . You have b e e n asked to w r i t e a r e p o r t analysing t h e r e a s o n s for this and suggesting s o l u t i o n s t o t h e problem.

Introduction Main B o d y

State the purpose of your report. Heading? Problem 1 Solution(s) Heading? Problem 2 Solution(s) Heading? Problem 3 Solution(s)

Conclusion

State that something must be done. S t a t e t h a t y o u r s u g g e s t i o n s will solve t h e p r o b l e m / i m p r o v e t h e s i t u a t i o n .

C h o o s e o n e of t h e q u e s t i o n s from e x e r c i s e 8 and w r i t e a report.

When you write your report don't forget to use headings like those in the report on page 78. Stan a new paragraph for each point you make.

20
I

Reports

Read t h e q u e s t i o n and t h e r e p o r t b e l o w and t h e n do t h e e x e r c i s e s that follow. You w o r k for a c o n s u m e r magazine that is running a feature on local b u s i n e s s e s . You have b e e n asked to research a local dry cleaner's for t h e feature. W r i t e a r e p o r t a b o u t t h e s e r v i c e that is offered by this dry cleaner's, including details of w h e t h e r it is g o o d value for money.

Introduction This report evaluates the service offered by Mr Quick Dry Cleaner's on M a r k e t Square, which o p e n e d three months ago. The Test F o u r items of clothing were taken into the cleaner's: a man's suit, a lady's silk blouse, a pair of woollen trousers and a leather jacket. T h e blouse had a red wine stain on the front which was m o r e than a week old, the trousers had had salad dressing spilt on t h e m , t h e suit was in n e e d of freshening up a n d t h e leather jacket had marks on the elbows from everyday wear. T h e clothes were taken to t h e shop at 9.30 am on a Tuesday morning. T h e assistant told me that t h e g a r m e n t s would be ready in a week's time. I explained that t h e suit was n e e d e d urgently for an u n e x p e c t e d business m e e t i n g and asked for it to be ready the following afternoon. She said that this could be d o n e and pointed out that it would cost extra. The Results At 3.30 pm on t h e W e d n e s d a y afternoon, the suit was not ready. T h e assistant asked me to come back in an h o u r and apologised for the delay and inconvenience. No explanation was given. At 4.30 pm, I r e t u r n e d and the suit was ready. T h e following week, t h e other items were collected. T h e red wine and salad dressing stains had b e e n removed successfully. T h e leather jacket still had some marks on t h e elbows but looked a great deal better than w h e n it h a d been taken in. T h e cost of the cleaning c a m e to 63 euros for all items. Conclusion In my opinion, Mr Quick Dry Cleaner's provides a good service at a reasonable cost. Despite t h e fact that the suit was not ready w h e n I first went to collect it, the assistant was polite and apologetic and the suit was ready by the end of t h e afternoon. Considering the cleaning took a week to do, perhaps the n a m e of the cleaner's is a little misleading.

Read t h e r e p o r t again and a n s w e r t h e s e q u e s t i o n s . In which paragraph d o e s t h e w r i t e r m e n t i o n : a b c d e f his o p i n i o n of t h e service offered? t h e cost of t h e service? t h e c o n d i t i o n of t h e c l o t h e s t a k e n to be c l e a n e d ? t h e p u r p o s e of t h e r e p o r t ? w h e n t h e c l o t h e s w o u l d be r e a d y ? t h e c o n d i t i o n of t h e c l o t h e s w h e n t h e y w e r e c o l l e c t e d ?

82

Evaluating

Reports

T h e w r i t e r u s e s indirect s p e e c h in his r e p o r t but avoids using t h e verbs say o r tell repeatedly. L o o k at t h e r e p o r t again and list t h e o t h e r reporting verbs t h e w r i t e r uses.

Study Reference section 7 o n page 8 8 and t h e n r e w r i t e t h e s e n t e n c e s b e l o w practising indirect s p e e c h and using t h e reporting v e r b s given. r r o r o o a 'If I w e r e y o u , I'd t a k e y o u r car to a different g a r a g e , ' he said, advise

jj

on

tj g t changes in
or e

tenses.

' T h i s f o o d is cold a n d my cola is flat,' I said, complain

'I'll s p e a k to my lawyer if s o m e t h i n g isn't d o n e straightaway,' s h e said, threaten

' Y e s , I ' m afraid I h a v e o v e r b o o k e d t h e flight,' he said, admit

' I ' m sorry, b u t I really c a n ' t r e f u n d y o u r m o n e y , ' s h e said, refuse

' Y o u r flight is d e l a y e d b e c a u s e of b a d w e a t h e r , ' he said, explain

N o w read this q u e s t i o n and c o m p l e t e t h e paragraph plan with y o u r o w n ideas.

You b e l o n g to an a m a t e u r photography club. T h e club magazine is doing an article on photographic s t u d i o s in t h e area and t h e s e r v i c e s they offer for w e d d i n g photography. You recently g o t married and have b e e n asked to w r i t e a r e p o r t on t h e photographic s t u d i o y o u used. W r i t e y o u r r e p o r t , including details o f t h e s e r v i c e y o u w e r e given and w h e t h e r o r n o t y o u w o u l d r e c o m m e n d it.

Introduction

State the purpose of your report. Name? Where?

The Test

(What? When? Where?)


The Results

Conclusion

S t a t e y o u r o p i n i o n o f t h e service offered.

Reports

l u a t i m

This kind of r e p o r t may a s k you to w r i t e a b o u t a p r o d u c t rather than a s e r v i c e . L o o k at this q u e s t i o n b e l o w and then read t h e r e p o r t that follows.
II

You w o r k for a w o m e n ' s magazine and have b e e n asked to research a child's t o y or g a m e for t h e D e c e m b e r issue, which will have a feature on gift ideas for children. W r i t e a r e p o r t explaining w h a t t h e t o y or g a m e is and w h y it w o u l d make a suitable gift.

Introduction This r e p o r t c o n c e r n s t h e b o a r d g a m e Travel the World, which is sold at most Early Learning Centre shops throughout the country. The Game T h e b o a r d g a m e is designed for children of five plus and can be played by two to four players. It consists of an attractive board with a colourful m a p of the world. T h e countries labelled on t h e m a p are those that commonly a p p e a r on m a p s that school children use. T h e r e is also a spinner that determines the m e t h o d of transport (car, bus, boat, helicopter or aeroplane) and the n u m b e r of spaces to be moved (1 to 4). Players, who have chosen t h r e e ticket cards, start from one of t h e countries shown on o n e of their tickets and travel a r o u n d the b o a r d visiting the other two countries shown on their tickets before finishing at the country they started from. The Test Travel the World was played by my niece and nephew, who a r e seven and eight years old respectively. T h e rules were explained to t h e m and they started playing. T h e g a m e progressed well and was fun as (1) for covering stretches of water and no good on land. The Results Both my niece and nephew have asked for their own game, so (2) g a m e a n u m b e r of times, which (3) They spent over an h o u r playing the Adult help was n e e d e d initially to explain t h e object of the g a m e For example, they discovered that a helicopter or plane could travel over any surface, but t h e boat was only good

and how it should be played, but after this they were able to play autonomously, with only occasional adult i n t e r v e n t i o n . It s h o u l d be n o t e d , however, t h a t c h i l d r e n of five or six w o u l d p r o b a b l y n e e d m o r e a d u l t assistance as (4) Conclusion I r e c o m m e n d that this g a m e is included in our D e c e m b e r issue as a suitable gift for children of primary school age because (5) F u r t h e r m o r e , the g a m e does not take too long to play, which (6) It is also reasonably priced and would m a k e an ideal gift.

Evaluating

Reports

T h e w r i t e r u s e s t h e clauses b e l o w to explain t h e points she makes in her report. Can y o u put t h e m into t h e c o r r e c t place in t h e report? a b c d e f t h e y w o u l d be u n a b l e to r e a d their tickets it w a s obviously successful m e a n s c h i l d r e n w o n ' t lose interest in it b e f o r e a w i n n e r is f o u n d it is b o t h e n t e r t a i n i n g a n d e d u c a t i o n a l it s o o n b e c a m e clear t h a t it w a s m o r e difficult to g e t from c o u n t r y to c o u n t r y t h a n it first a p p e a r e d indicates t h a t it h e l d t h e i r interest

Read t h e r e p o r t again and pay careful attention t o t h e t e n s e s t h e w r i t e r has used. N o w a n s w e r t h e s e questions. a Is t h e w r i t e r referring to past, p r e s e n t or future t i m e in: p a r a g r a p h 1? paragraph 2? paragraph 3? paragraph 4? paragraph 5?

W h y d o e s t h e w r i t e r switch b e t w e e n p a s t a n d p r e s e n t t e n s e s i n this way?

J.

Read t h e q u e s t i o n b e l o w and t h e n c o m p l e t e t h e paragraph plan with y o u r o w n ideas.

You w o r k as a r e s e a r c h e r for a c o n s u m e r magazine. T h e magazine is going to do a feature on h o m e e n t e r t a i n m e n t equipment. You have b e e n asked to try o u t a p i e c e of e q u i p m e n t (video, DVD, s t e r e o , e t c ) and w r i t e a r e p o r t describing w h a t t h e e q u i p m e n t is u s e d for. You should include details of h o w easy it is to u s e and w h e t h e r or n o t it is g o o d value for money.

Introduction The Test

State the purpose of your report. W h o t e s t e d it? Brief d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e test

T h e Results Conclusion

W h a t h a p p e n e d (briefly)? State whether or not you r e c o m m e n d the product and why

W r i t e a r e p o r t in a n s w e r to t h e q u e s t i o n in e i t h e r e x e r c i s e 5 or 9. U s e y o u r n o t e s to help y o u .

Remember to use a variety of tenses depending on what you are referring to.

Reference Section
an
A n i s used before a vowel sound: a n elephant, a n umbrella, an aeroplane; but not w h e n u is pronounced like ' y o u ' : a useful book. It is also used before h when h is not pronounced: an h o n e s t man. W h e n we mention something for the first time, we normally use a / a n ; when that thing is referred to again, we use the definite article t h e , because by n o w it is understood which o n e we mean: C o m p o u n d adjectives C o m p o u n d adjectives are made up of t w o p a n . They are usually hyphenated, and t h e second part is often a present or past participle. C o m p o u n d adjectives are used to describe a wide variety of nouns, but t h e m o s t c o m m o n o n e s describe personal appearance and character. The meaning is usually w i t h , h a v i n g
or being:

He's

(He's a man with Comparison

red-haired, broad-shouldered man. red hair and broad shoulder:

A photographer
permission. He got

took so

his

photograph that he

without the (a) W e can use a s . . . a s and n o t a s / s o . . . a s wit|

angry

broke

photographer's

camera.

adjectives for comparison: We also use a / a n in numerical expressions (for example, in expressions of frequency or quantity):
She has classes about three times a a week. litre here. Petrol costs sixty pence

as tall as his sister intelligent as she is.


He's

but

not as/so

(See also t h e , u s e a n d o m i s s i o n )

(b) W e use m o r e / l e s s . . . t h a n with s o m e adjectives and the comparative form -er... t h a n with others:

He's more talented but lazier than I am.


Adjectives of o n e syllable and two-syllable adjectives ending in -y (plus a few others) form the comparative with - e r . T h e spelling changes from -y to -i w h e n - e r is added ( h e a v y - h e a v i e r ) . Most two-syllable adjectives and all longer adjectives form the comparative with m o r e . (c) If we want to emphasise t h e difference in a comparison, w e use f a r o r m u c h with the adjective:
She's

Adjectives
a Position

Adjectives generally c o m e before the noun or as a c o m p l e m e n t after be and s o m e other


verbs ( l o o k , s e e m , f e e l etc.) She's a

pretty

girl.

She

looks

very

pretty.

W h e n we use m o r e than o n e adjective before a noun we do not usually write a n d b e t w e e n t h e adjectives. We use commas if the combination is not usual, but not if it is very c o m m o n . Compare: usual) W e use a n d w h e n the adjectives are a complement after b e , s e e m , f e e l , etc.: He's short and fat./She seems charming

far/much more intelligent

than he is.

With plural nouns after the adjective we use


far or m a n y :

He's a nice little man. (common) She's a shy, secretive woman, ( n o t

Far/Many more people

came than I expected

W e use n o t n e a r l y a s / s o . . . a s t o emphasise

and

intelligent.
W i t h three adjectives, we usually put a c o m m a after t h e first:
We were b Order

cold, wet

and

tired.

a negative difference. We're n o t nearly as/so well off as they are. (d) The superlative form is made with - e s t or m o s t . W h e n w e compare m o r e than t w o people or things we use the superlative even w h e n the number involved is not mentioned: She's the prettiest girl in the class. (There are m o r e than t w o students.) (e) Remember t h e irregular forms:
good bad little much/many far better worse less more *farther/ further best worst least most farthest/ furthest

In normal usage, we prefer to put s o m e adjectives before others: He's a nice little man (NOT little nice). The rule is that general adjectives like n i c e or p r e t t y c o m e before m o r e precise o n e s . N o t e t h e s e examples: a I've read the first hundred pages. (ordinal-cardinal) b An intelligent young man (mental ability-age) c A large round ball (sizeshape) d A green cotton dress (colour-material) e A German car factory (nationality/origin-purpose)

*Both forms are used for distance, but we say


f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n ( = 'additional')

E l d e r / e l d e s t are irregular forms of o l d but are only used for members of the family: my e l d e r brother. (f) W h e n we want to say that t w o things happen t o g e t h e r or in proportion to each other, we use t w o comparative forms:

The older

I get,

the more impatient

I become.

86

Reference section

3
f t w o parts. : second pie. scribe a :ommon

Adverbs of frequency
a Adverbs of frequency, like a l w a y s and o f t e n and o t h e r single-word adverbs of indefinite time like r e c e n t l y , generally go before t h e main verb but after forms of b e :
Margaret late, is never late; Jane never comes home either.

Alternatives to b are:
If we were to offer you the job, accept it? Were we to offer you the job,... would you

T h e s e suggest that the offer is unlikely. 3 Alternatives to c are:


Had If I I known, I ... would have informed you.

This is m o r e formal than:


had known

They usually go b e t w e e n an auxiliary and the main verb or after the first auxiliary if t h e r e are t w o o r more:
/ have never seen such a good film. She must sometimes have wondered made the right decision. if she had

Gerund
a General The gerund is the term used for a verb form ending in - I n g w h e n it is used like a noun. It has the same form as the present participle:
/ like reading and listening to music.

Conditional sentences
a Present and future W e generally use t h e present t e n s e for the condition and a future t e n s e for t h e main clause, but n o t e t h e alternative with t h e imperative:
If I see him tomorrow, I'll give him your message. If you see him tomorrow, give him my message.

Possessive forms are used with the gerund. In informal English, the object form of the personal pronoun or t h e noun is often used instead:
Do you mind my/me going without you? Do you agree with Anthony's/Anthony getting married so young?

Modals may also be used in t h e main clause:


If you go out, you must put on your coat. It's cold.

Preposition + gerund A preposition is s o m e t i m e s followed by a gerund verb form:


Before leaving the house, he turned out the lights.

Imaginary situations in p r e s e n t or future W e use t h e past t e n s e for the condition and t h e conditional t e n s e ( w o u l d + infinitive) for the main clause. W i t h t h e verb b e , we usually use w e r e for all persons:
If I were (was) rich, I'd buy a house by the sea. If we offered you the job, would you accept it?

Past situations In talking about the past, we usually use t h e past perfect t e n s e for the condition and the conditional perfect ( w o u l d h a v e + past participle) for the main clause:
If I'd known told you. what was wrong, I would have

S o m e verbs are followed by the preposition to and t h e gerund, n o t the infinitive with t o . The m o s t c o m m o n o n e s are a m o u n t t o , b e dedicated to, be devoted to, be given to, be limited to, be o p p o s e d to, be resigned to, be/get used to, c o m e near to, limit oneself to, look forward to, object to, resign oneself to. G e r u n d and p r e s e n t participle The form is the same but t h e r e is a difference b e t w e e n t h e m in usage:
Playing He games his is healthier he than watching them.

(gerund)
broke leg (while was) playing football.

But if the present situation is a direct result of an unfulfilled condition in the past, the main clause may be in the conditional tense:
If I'd studied more when I was have a better job today. at school, I would

(participle) d G e r u n d and infinitive ( i m p e r s o n a l structure) We prefer to use the gerund at t h e beginning of a sentence, the infinitive in an impersonal structure:
E a t i n g people is wrong. It is wrong to eat people.

Permanent condition If a condition is always true we use t h e present t e n s e for both parts of t h e sentence:
If it doesn't rain, the rivers dry up animals die of thirst. and the

Variations I As alternatives to a we can suggest that t h e possibility is n o t very likely:


If you should see him, will you give him my

G e r u n d and infinitive after c e r t a i n v e r b s C o m m o n verbs followed by the gerund, apart from those that are followed by a preposition, are:
avoid, consider, delay, deny, dislike, enjoy, escape, face, feel like, finish, forgive, can't help, imagine, involve, mention, mind, miss, practise, resist, risk, can't stand, suggest, understand.

message? (please give him my message) T h e r e is also a formal variation of this:


Should you see him, ...

In s o m e cases, either a gerund or infinitive may be used but there is usually a difference in meaning or usage:

Reference section

(a) a d v i s e , a l l o w : Infinitive with a personal object, otherwise gerund:


They these don't flights. allow smoking/you to smoke on

Indirect speech: paraphrase


S o m e verbs can be used in indirect speech to indicate the way things are said and t h e purpose of what was said. In the table below, n o t e t h e purpose of the verb from the example in direct speech, and the constructions possible with the verbs we can use instead of s a y and t e l l in indirect speech:
Purpose Verb Direct speech and paraphrase

(b) b e g i n , s t a r t : when these verbs are used in continuous tenses, only an infinitive can follow:
It is starting to rain.

(c) g o o n means 'continue' with the gerund but with the infinitive indicates a change of topic or action:
She on first to explained outline the problem solutions. and then went some

accusation accuse admission admit

'You stole it, didn't you?'

I accused him of stealing it.


'Yes, I took it' He admitted having taken it 'You should take more exercise.' advice advise He advised her to take more exercise He advised taking more exercise. 7 think you're right' agreement agree She agreed with melthe idea. 'All right I'll help you' She agreed to help me. 'That's the best method.' We agreed that it was the best method. We agreed on the best method. apology apologise 'I'm sorry I arrived late.' He apologised for arriving late. complaint complain 'You should have done the job better.' He complained that they

( d ) l i k e , h a t e , l o v e , p r e f e r . In t h e conditional for example, w o u l d l i k e - w e use the

infinitive. L i k e and l o v e generally take the gerund to express general feelings, the infinitive w h e n they refer to regular habits:
/ like swimming. I like to go for a swim on Sunday mornings.

H a t e and p r e f e r usually take the gerund in general, the infinitive on particular occasions.
(e) r e m e m b e r , f o r g e t , r e g r e t take the

infinitive with future reference, the gerund with past reference:


Remember to ask Sarah to give that you that meal

recipe.
Do at

('Don't forget').
remember eating wonderful

you

Sarah's?

('Have you t h e m e m o r y of it or have you forgotten that occasion?') (f) s t o p with the gerund means 'give up'. With the infinitive, the verb indicates purpose:
/ stopped to buy the newspaper and then drove on.

should have...
7 wish he wouldn't do that'

She complained to me about him.


denial deny 'I didn't steal it'
He denied t h a t he h a d s t o l e n it. He denied h a v i n g s t o l e n it.

invitation

invite

( g ) t r y followed by the infinitive means 'attempt, make an effort'. With the gerund it means 'experiment, adopt a different method':
I've Well, been trying to try turning open key this door for some time! the other way round!

offer refusal

offer refuse regret

the

Indirect questions: w o r d order


In indirect questions, the question uses the affirmative or negative, not interrogative form: the w o r d o r d e r is always subject before verb. If t h e direct question has no question w o r d , the indirect question c o m e s after i f / w h e t h e r ; if it has a question w o r d , this w o r d is repeated in the indirect question:
She I wants to know I iflwhether be you are English. wonder where will tomorrow.

regret

'Would you like to come to the party?' He invited h e r ( t o c o m e ) to the party. 'I'll help you, shall I?' She offered to h e l p m e . 'I won't do it.' He refused to do it. 'I wish I hadn't broken it.'
She regretted h a v i n g b r o k e n it.

She regretted t h a t s h e h a d
b r o k e n it.

reminder

remind

suggestion suggest

'Don't forget to post it.' She reminded h i m to p o s t it. 'Why don't you go with her?'
He suggested t h a t I s h o u l d go

N o t e the changes in form in the present and past simple tenses:


(Does he speak English?) Ask him speaks English. say?) I wonder what he said. (What did he iflwhether he

threat

threaten

If the question w o r d is already the subject in t h e direct question, the w o r d order will not change unless the verb is b e :
(What (Who is happened she?) I next?) wonder Tell who me she is. what happened next.

warning

warn

with her. 'Let's go for a walk!' She suggested g o i n g for a walk. 'If you don't go away, I'll call the police.' He threatened to call the police if they didn't go away. 'Be careful. The roads are icy.' He warned h e r to be careful. He warned h e r o f / a b o u t the icy roads. He warned her t h a t the roads were icy.

Reference section

Infinitive
a Form

Lucy when Only realise

only she when

realised had Lucy

how

difficult the be.

the

course did

would she

be

started it had started it would course

The infinitive is generally formed with t o . Verbs followed by the infinitive without to are many auxiliary verbs ( c a n , m a y , etc.), m a k e (in the active, but not t h e passive), l e t (which has no passive), h e l p (which can be used with or without t o ) , verbs o f the senses like s e e , h e a r
( s e e Participle clauses). T h e negative infinitive is

how difficult

10 Participle clauses
a Adjectival

made b y putting n o t before t o :


/ advised her n o t to sell the house.

The perfect infinitive is made with to h a v e + past participle:


I'm sorry to have kept you waiting (= 'that I kept

We can use the present participle, ending in - i n g , and the past participle, ending in - e d , in clauses that are rather like relative clauses. The present participle is only used w h e n t h e action is happening at the same time as the main verb:
The girl (who is) The man next b door to me. dancing with John is my sister. (who was) injured in the car crash lives

you waiting').
b Infinitive after v e r b

Adverbial

Many verbs are followed by the infinitive with to and s o m e can also be followed by t h e gerund
(but s e e Gerund for differences in meaning and

Present, past and perfect ( h a v i n g + past participle) participles can all be used:
Looking up from my book, I noticed a stain on the

usage).
c adjective + infinitive

ceiling. ('When I looked...')


B u i l t in the last century, the house is still in good

repair. ('Although it w a s built...')


Having spent most of his life abroad, he found it strange to return to his own country. ('Because he

S o m e adjectives can be followed by t h e infinitive:


/ was surprised to see her.

W h e n the infinitive is used with a preposition this can c o m e at the end of the sentence and in such sentences the object is not placed after the verb:
She was very pleasant to talk to. ( N O T 'to talk t o

had spent...)
Never having played the game before, I found it

rather confusing. ('As I had never played...')


c W i t h verbs of the senses

her.')
d Q u e s t i o n w o r d s + infinitive W e can use h o w , w h a t , w h o , w h e r e , w h e n

and w h e t h e r with the infinitive after verbs like


a s k , tell, k n o w , u n d e r s t a n d : / don't know where to go. Tell me how to do it

After verbs like s e e and h e a r we can use an object and either the infinitive without to or t h e present participle. In general, the infinitive is used w h e n talking about a completed action and the participle when we saw or heard it w h e n it was incomplete:
/ saw her cross the / saw him road and go into the shop.

Inversion
Inversion is used to make a s e n t e n c e m o r e emphatic. The verb form is inverted and the question form is used w h e n a sentence or a clause begins with a negative form.
He had never met such he met an obnoxious an person before. person. Never before had such obnoxious

(completed actions).
crossing the road and heard the car approaching and then it hit him. (incomplete).

In the passive t h e infinitive is formed with t o :


She was seen to cross the road and go into the shop.

11 Passive Voice: impersonal and personal structures


T h e verbs b e l i e v e , c o n s i d e r , e x p e c t , h o p e , k n o w , r e p o r t , s a y , t h i n k , etc can b e used i n the

They didn't see Not This for Not for I until she medicine other only other had cold is this cold

her until she

called

out their names. did they see but but her. also

called out their names is not only good good

following passive structures:


for headaches for headaches symptoms. medicine symptoms. down down that I when when the the doorbell doorbell understand rang. rang. her. Personal structure also Impersonal structure

It + passive verb + t h a t + clause


It is thought important that every foreign day. languages are becoming more

hardly sat had I so sat fast

Hardly She

subject + passive verb + full infinitive


spoke couldn't Foreign more languages important every are day. thought to be becoming So fast did she speak that I couldn't understand her.

Reference section

Note R e m e m b e r that there are four full infinitive forms: (Present/Future)


present infinitive work in be France. France. He is said to He is said to

She's swimming in the lake. In the corner of the room (= inside) but atlon ( n corner of the street (= outside).

He's at the cinema (he's g o n e t o s e e a film). /'// meet you at the cinema, (outside, o r near

t h e door)
They aren't here. They must be in the cinema. TV

p r e s e n t c o n t i n u o u s infinitive working in

(inside the building)


On the screen (surface), on the radio, on

(Past)
perfect He He infinitive have have worked in been France. France. b is said to is said to

into, onto, out of, off

p e r f e c t c o n t i n u o u s infinitive working in

W i t h verbs of movement, we generally use intc


and o n t o , though i n and o n are c o m m o n :
He fell intolin ontolon the his water. bicycle. He got

12 Phrases in apposition
O n e way of giving additional information about a person or thing is to use a phrase in apposition (instead of a relative clause with a relative pronoun and a form of b e ) .
Mr The city, Taylor, was (who built... is) the is) team the manager, oldest said... in the cathedral, (which building

O u t o f indicates the opposite m o v e m e n t t o


i n t o and o f f the opposite m o v e m e n t t o o n t o .

(See in and on in a above, for the idea of being 'inside' or 'on a surface'. Compare:
He We'll took have the to knives take and the forks tyre out of the wheel. drawer.

(opposite o f i n t o / i n )
off the

(opposite o f o n t o / o n )

13 Prepositions of place
a at, in, on

14 Prepositions of t i m e
a t , in, on

U s e this list as a check:


at for exact periods of time: at five o'clock, at
dinner time, at this moment. at for festivals: at Christmas, at Easter, New Year. others are: at night at present (but during the (= now) weekends, at at

A t i s used:
for particular points: at the end of the road,
at number 27.

for places w h e n we are concerned with their purpose or location, not their size or shape:
at She the station, at (= at the the post in supermarket. office. the post office, buying works

day),

(Compare: some stamps

She's

inside).)

on for days and dates: on Monday, on


June Sunday I Oth, on Christmas on Day (compare at for night

for places (small t o w n s , villages etc.) the speaker d o e s not consider very important or d o e s not k n o w very well: at Melton
Mowbray, Melton a town near Leicester. (Someone

the festive period), on summer evenings, on


morning, Friday

w h o lived there would probably say: / live in


Mowbray.)

in for longer periods of time: in August, in


spring, in 1985, the Middle Ages, in the nineteenth century, in in the past, in the future

I n suggests: 'inside' or a situation with three dimensions:


in t h e kitchen, in the High S t r e e t (but USA = on Main S t r e e t ) because of the

(compare

at

present)

in for periods of time within which or at t h e enc of which something may happen: in the
morning, in five minutes, in a week's time.

houses on both sides, a large area, like a country, province, city:


in New Zealand, in Kent, in Manchester.

15 Quantifiers
Quantifiers s h o w h o w many things or h o w much of something we are talking about. S o m e quantifiers (ie
b o t h , ( a ) f e w , t h e m a j o r i t y o f ) combine with countable nouns; s o m e (ie a g r e a t d e a l o f , ( a ) l i t t l e , ( n o t ) m u c h ) with uncountable and s o m e (ie all ( o f ) t h e , e a c h , e i t h e r ) with both kinds.
T h e majority of the people school with my brother. There's a little cheese in at the the fridge, party were at

O n suggests:
a surface: on t h e wall, on Earth, on a small island. a line: on the coast, on t h e River Thames, on the road, on the way to left-hand side of the street. on the

if you're

hungry. me!

Also n o t e t h e following:
They're sailing in their boat on the lake.

All of my colleagues work very hard. Don't eat all of the ice cream; leave some

for

Reference section

16 Reported speech
a Statement W h e n w e convert direct speech t o reported speech and the introducing verb is in the past, the t e n s e changes. Expressions of time and place also change unless t h e speaker is still in the same place on the same day ( h e r e is still h e r e , and t o d a y is still t o d a y ) . U s e t h e conversion table for reference and n o t e that in all cases t o l d me could replace said: Direct Reported
I'm working hard. She said she was working I travel by train. I'm going to change my job. /'// see you on Sunday. I've never seen it before. I spoke to him on Monday. I can run faster wan him. The train may arrive late. I must go to the doctor. (with general future She said she to go ... would have meaning) She said the train might arrive... She said she had to go ... She said she had never seen... She said she had spoken ... She said she could run ... train. She said she change... She said she would see ... was going to hard. She said she travelled by

Orders and requests T h e s e are made with t h e imperative in direct speech. In reported speech we use the object + infinitive after t e l l (for orders) and a s k (for requests): Direct Reported D o n ' t worry. She told him not to
worry. Please keep quiet! She asked them to keep quiet

W h e n we do not reproduce t h e actual w o r d s used in direct speech we can paraphrase what w a s said by using o t h e r verbs (offer, s u g g e s t , etc.) (See Indirect speech: paraphrase)

17
a

Should
should a n d o u g h t to S h o u l d and o u g h t t o indicate obligation o r advice. W e prefer o u g h t t o i f w e are doubtful that t h e obligation will be m e t or the advice will be taken:
You've a you got a bad cough. You should/ought to see doctor. will.

You ought to see a doctor, but I don't suppose

The past forms are s h o u l d / o u g h t t o h a v e + past participle. They are used to express regret in the first person, blame or criticism in the second and third:
/ shouldn't have said that to her. It was Then very you

unkind,
You

(regret)
have been more careful. (blame o r criticism)

should

wouldn't have broken it

Other changes here there this that now then yesterday t h e day before, t h e previous day tomorrow t h e day after, t h e next day, t h e following day last w e e k t h e w e e k before, t h e previous week next w e e k t h e w e e k after, the next w e e k , the following w e e k ago before b Questions N o t e t h e w o r d o r d e r of indirect questions (see I n d i r e c t q u e s t i o n s ) . T h e t e n s e changes in reported questions are the same as for statements (see table in a above). Direct
Have you seen the he film? She asked me where he lived. live? Where does

Should a n d

would

S h o u l d and w o u l d can both be used for t h e first person in the conditional tense, and as the past of s h a l l for t h e first person in reported speech. But they have separate meanings and usage. (For w o u l d s e e Conditional s e n t e n c e s 4 b , 4 c and 4 e . ) W h e r e they are often seen in combination is w h e r e s e n t e n c e s of advice or regret/blame (see s h o u l d a) are followed by conditional
sentences: motor cycles these You fires They in the shouldn't forest (would not) (should If they kept not) not) them start. If you had, this allow out,

wouldn't (would

should have taken

my advice. have

wouldn't

happened.

18 Tenses
a Present tenses The present simple t e n s e is used for actions that occur repeatedly or at any time, often with adverbs of frequency like a l w a y s and time expressions like e v e r y d a y . The question form and negative are formed with do as auxiliary:

Reported
She asked me if I had seen ...

Reference section

She lives in the country but she doesn't work there. Do the you ever future? wonder to what's those going to happen so in

to talk about actions which have taken place repeatedly up to t h e present:


I've seen that film six times.

3
who wait, they say.

with f o r , s i n c e and expressions like all


m y life: I've lived in the village for ten years, but my husband has lived here all his life.

Everything comes

The present simple tense can be used to refer to future time. The present continuous t e n s e is used for actions that are going on at present and for temporary situations. The t e n s e is formed by the verb be + present participle:
Look! What a They're is she waving doing at these us! days? She's writing

They are not used with past time expressions, which always require a past tense. Compare:
/ I haven't saw her seen her recently/for days a long ago. time. yesterday/three

novel.

The present continuous t e n s e can be used to refer to future time.


b Future tenses

We use the present perfect for questions and answers referring to past events without a time reference, but the past must be used w h e n a time is mentioned:
Have you seen No, d the film at the Palace? Saturday. I haven't/Yes, I saw it on

T h e future simple t e n s e is used to: I make predictions, promises and threats.


It will be worth all your hard work. I will love you forever. I will never speak to you again! Past simple and continuous

T h e past simple is used to refer to past actions in t h e o r d e r they occurred, but also for customary or continuing actions in past time:
He s p e n t his to the childhood in London, and did not married at the move age country until he got

offer to do something.
/ will buy the tickets.

of twenty-five.

make a sudden decision.


/ will answer the phone.

It is often used after the verbs t h i n k , b e l i e v e , etc and with phrases like I a m s u r e ... t o give our opinion about what will happen in t h e future.
/ think our holiday will be great. I'm sure you will like Susan when you meet her.

The past continuous is used for continuing actions in past time in relation to a main action in the past simple.
He met his wife in the city; at that time he was

studying at the university, (before and after he m e t her) In everyday situations, we usually find t h e s e t e n s e s in three combinations: 1 a sequence of completed actions (past simple):
She sat came down. in, took off her hat and coat, and

The future continuous is used to: 1 talk about an action that will be in progress at a specific time in the future.
She will be waiting when we arrive.

talk about arrangements for the future.


They will month. be travelling through Italy next

Be going to is used to: 1 talk about plans and arrangements.


We are evening. going to visit Grandma tomorrow

an action taking place before and possibly after a completed action (past continuous and simple):
/ was talking to my father on she came in. the phone when

3 2 make a prediction about t h e future based on a present situation.


Look.' He is going to win the race. c Present perfect and past tenses

t w o actions continuing side by side in past time (past continuous):


While out he of the was talking to me I was looking window.

Past and past perfect tenses

The present perfect tenses are used: I to talk about actions or situations that began in the past and are still going on, s o m e t i m e s with a time expression which refers to the present:
I've been working hard this year.

W e use the past perfect tenses w h e n w e are already talking about the past and want to refer to a previous time:
When him he for finally arrived, over three met her, hours. he had never been in love. we had been waiting for

Until he

Past and conditional tenses

games and sports: She plays tennis and


goes skiing.

W e use the conditional t e n s e ( w o u l d +

infinitive) in combination with the past w h e n we refer forward in time in a narrative:


/ hoped that she would soon feel better. (Compare: / h o p e you will soon feel better.) g T e n s e s in 'timeless' t i m e

subjects of study: She studies history and


geography.

languages: She can speak English. ( N o t e that

we talk about t h e E n g l i s h (the people as a group, as in a3 above), but nationality has no


article: I'm English.)
4 mountains: E v e r e s t , A c o n c a g u a .

We do not normally use the present t e n s e s as the main narrative t e n s e s unless we are dealing with what always happens - for example, 'a typical day in s o m e o n e ' s life' or in describing what happens in books, films, etc. N o t e the use of t e n s e s in this kind of narrative:
'Hamlet' comes already Soon takes on seen the his place he in is Denmark. mourning his but to to night the appear come the When father, Hamlet who have c stage

meals and clock times: She has breakfast at


eight o'clock. She likes getting up early.

gerunds:

died before

play began, ghost (or saw they will

audience

Use and omission

Hamlet's tell him before).

friends. what

afterwards, seen

they have

W e use t h e w h e n referring t o something specific, not w h e n we are talking in general terms; something specific includes something previously mentioned. C o m p a r e t h e following:
We The want war in peace, that not distant war. country is still going on.

the, use and omission


The use of t h e definite article in English often differs from usage in other languages. Check each example against your o w n language.
a Use

(a specific war) T h e is not used unless t h e noun is followed by a clause that modifies it; for example, a relative clause, or a phrase containing of that modifies it. N o u n s modified by adjectives before them or prepositional phrases after t h e m do not require t h e :
Life is hard. Modern The the life life life that is more century. we lead today is ancestors. more complex than of our complex than life in the nineteenth

W e use t h e when talking about:


1 weights and measures: Petrol is sold by the
litre, (but: It's sixty pence a litre.)

2 3

musical instruments: She can play the violin. groups o r classes of people: t h e young, the blind (NOT the youngs) but t h e verb form is

20

Used to
used to and would

plural:
The different young/Young from my people today are very generation.

rivers, seas, oceans, mountain ranges (but


not mountains o r lakes): t h e T h a m e s , t h e
Mediterranean, the Atlantic, the A l p s .

Used to, followed by the infinitive, refers to what habitually happened in the past in contrast to what happens now. T h e negative is either
u s e d n o t t o o r d i d n o t u s e t o . U s e d t o has

no present form. For customary actions in t h e present, we use t h e present simple tense:
/ used to live in London, but now I live in Bristol.

unique objects and points of the compass:


the world, the sun, the m o o n , the north. though The there moon may be is the others. earth's moon,

W e say t r a v e l n o r t h (direction) but t r a v e l

We usually prefer w o u l d + infinitive for repeated actions in past time in a c o n t e x t already established by a verb in the past simple t e n s e or u s e d t o . It d o e s not always indicate a contrast with present time but rather
'Whenever/Every grandmother would put walk to her every on time this The clothes happened...'. whole and family we would When I was a child, we used to visit my

t o t h e n o r t h (compass point, area).


b Omission

Sunday. their best

W e d o not use t h e w h e n speaking about the following:

house.

Appendix
C O N N E C T O R S A N D MODIFIERS
Expressing opinion in modern English depends to a considerable e x t e n t on the c o r r e c t use of connecting w o r d s and phrases that help the reader or listener to understand what is being said. Such w o r d s or phrases can be used to s h o w h o w an argument is organised, to prepare the reader for w h a t is coming n e x t or to convey the t o n e of w h a t is being said. In completing a writing task, above all o n e that requires you to organise an argument or e x p r e s s an opinion, use this Appendix for reference. It is also worthwhile, w h e n e v e r you c o m e across any of the w o r d s or phrases listed b e l o w in this b o o k or in your general reading, to make a n o t e of it and s e e h o w it is being used. 3 Balance This can be established by clauses using w h i l e . In presenting opposing arguments of equal strength, use O n t h e o n e h a n d and O n t h e o t h e r h a n d . T o indicate that you are reaching: balanced conclusion, use O n b a l a n c e . 4 Result To s h o w the result of an action, or to indicate the logical d e v e l o p m e n t of an argument from examples y o u have given, use A s a r e s u l t , I n
consequence, Consequently.

DEVELOPING A N A R G U M E N T 1 Sequence

Making a list of points:


Point I : I n t h e f i r s t p l a c e , T o b e g i n w i t h , T o s t a r t w i t h , F i r s t o f all, F i r s t a n d f o r e m o s t

(when it is t h e m o s t important point).


Point 2 : S e c o n d l y , I n t h e s e c o n d p l a c e (used

if t h e r e are further reasons to c o m e ) ; In a d d i t i o n t o t h a t (usually t h e s e c o n d and final


reason); A p a r t f r o m t h a t , W h a t i s m o r e

(conversational), M o r e o v e r (formal) (used for s e c o n d reasons of a different kind, but tending t o w a r d s the same conclusion as the first); B e s i d e s (for a s e c o n d reason so strong that it makes t h e first almost irrelevant). Final point: F i n a l l y , L a s t l y ; A b o v e all (only used if t h e last point is t h e m o s t important). Conclusion: I n c o n c l u s i o n , T o s u m u p (usually at t h e beginning of t h e last paragraph,
n o t at the end of a list); T a k i n g e v e r y t h i n g into account, All things considered, All in B ESTABLISHING FACTS In fact, T h e fact of t h e m a t t e r is t h a t . . . ; As a

m a t t e r o f f a c t (indicating that the hearer may b e surprised by it).


A t f i r s t s i g h t , O n t h e f a c e o f i t (used i n contrast

t o I n f a c t t o s h o w the difference b e t w e e n appearance and fact). I n p r a c t i c e , used i n contrast t o I n t h e o r y , I n p r i n c i p l e to establish w h a t happens in reality; In e f f e c t , close to In f a c t in meaning, suggests 'for practical purposes'.
C EXPRESSING P E R S O N A L O P I N I O N I n m y opinion, I n m y view, T o m y m i n d , A s I

a l l (reaching a conclusion, w h e t h e r or n o t t h e points listed agree); I n b r i e f , I n s h o r t , I n a w o r d (the last t w o conversational) (only used if w h a t you say is brief).
2 Contrast

s e e i t (conversational); P e r s o n a l l y , F o r m y p a r t

This can be established by clauses with but or c o n c e s s i o n clauses with although, in spite of etc. C o n n e c t o r s are also available, h o w e v e r , to s h o w that a point contradicts or limits t h e previous point(s) made t o s o m e e x t e n t
However, Nevertheless, All the same, At t h e s a m e t i m e ; A f t e r a l l ( a strong argument

(contrasting t h e individual v i e w with that of t h e majority); A s f a r a s I ' m c o n c e r n e d (conversational) = 'In so far as it affects me'. D MODIFYING 1 General statements
G e n e r a l l y , In general, As a rule, As a g e n e r a l rule, O n the w h o l e , I n the m a i n , F o r the m o s t part.

against previous points that has apparently n o t been considered); I n c o n t r a s t ( a direct contrast t o w h a t has g o n e before); O n t h e o t h e r h a n d (used for balance - s e e b e l o w but also alone to indicate an alternative point of view). 2

Partly c o r r e c t
T o s o m e extent, T o a certain extent, U p to a p o i n t .

Appendix

Limit of k n o w l e d g e
A s far a s I k n o w , T o the best o f m y k n o w l e d g e ; F o r a l l I k n o w (conversational)

e s p e c i a l l y appears as an adverb, n o t as a

c o n n e c t o r at t h e beginning, like c l e a r l y ,
obviously. F REPHRASING In other w o r d s , T h a t is to say.

suggests ignorance. 4 Assigning responsibility


A c c o r d i n g t o ...; B y a l l a c c o u n t s (indicating

responsibility lies with a number of people). 5 Limited validity


U n d e r t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s , A s i t is, T h i n g s b e i n g a s t h e y a r e (conversational) (what i s G R E F E R R I N G TO A SUBJECT OR P E R S O N A s r e g a r d s ..., W i t h r e g a r d t o ..., I n t h i s c o n n e c t i o n , A s f a r a s ... I s c o n c e r n e d . H G I V I N G REASONS A s / s i n c e / b e c a u s e + clause, t h e r e a s o n f o r + E INTENSIFYING noun, t h e r e a s o n w h y + verb, b e c a u s e o f / d u e t o + noun/noun p h r a s e / t h e f a c t t h a t . I T E R M I N A T I N G DISCUSSION I n a n y c a s e , A n y w a y , A t a n y r a t e (the last t w o

said is only valid in present circumstances, n o t in ideal circumstances).

Obviously
Clearly, Obviously, Of course, Needless to say, A s everyone k n o w s , I t g o e s without saying.

m o r e conversational). All t h e s e suggest 'whatever 2 Especially I n p a r t i c u l a r , E s p e c i a l l y . N o t e that happens', 'whatever the facts are', and in effect imply that nothing else can be said or needs to be said.

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