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2005 EDITION

PPLE

ENT

NDS

national

design

specification

DESIGN VALUES FOR


WOOD CONSTRUCTION

American
Forest &
Paper
Association
American Wood Council

Updates and Errata


While every precaution has been taken to
ensure the accuracy of this document, errors
may have occurred during development.
Updates or Errata are posted to the American
Wood Councilwebsite at www.awc.org.
Technical inquiries may be addressed to
awcinfo@afandpa.org.

American Wood Council


Engineered and Traditional Wood Products

AWC Mission Statement


To increase the use of wood by assuring the broad
regulatory acceptance of wood products, developing
design tools and guidelines for wood construction,
and influencing the development of public policies
affecting the use of wood products.

The American Wood Council (AWC) is the wood products division of the American Forest & Paper
Association (AF&PA). AF&PA is the national trade association of the forest, paper, and wood products
industry, representing member companies engaged in growing, harvesting, and processing wood and
wood fiber, manufacturing pulp, paper, and paperboard products from both virgin and recycled fiber,
and producing engineered and traditional wood products. For more information see www.afandpa.org.

NDS 2005 Supplement Cover revised June 2007.pmd


2

6/21/2007, 2:57 PM

2005 Edition

NDS
N AT I O N A L

DESIGN

S P E C I F I C AT I O N

DESIGN VALUES FOR


WOOD CONSTRUCTION

Copyright 2005, 2006


American Forest & Paper Association, Inc.

DESIGN VALUES FOR WOOD CONSTRUCTION NDS SUPPLEMENT

Introduction
This Supplement is an integral part of the National
Design Specification (NDS) for Wood Construction,
2005 Edition. It provides reference design values for structural sawn lumber and structural glued laminated timber.

For additional information on development and applicability of lumber reference design values, the grading
rules published by the individual agencies and the referenced ASTM Standards should be consulted.

Lumber

Structural Glued Laminated Timber

The reference design values for lumber in this Supplement are obtained from grading rules published by seven
agencies: National Lumber Grades Authority (a Canadian agency), Northeastern Lumber Manufacturers
Association, Northern Softwood Lumber Bureau, Redwood Inspection Service, Southern Pine Inspection Bureau,
West Coast Lumber Inspection Bureau, and Western Wood
Products Association. The grading rules promulgated by
these agencies, including the reference design values
therein, have been approved by the Board of Review of
the American Lumber Standards Committee and certified
for conformance with U.S. Department of Commerce Voluntary Product Standard PS 20-99 (American Softwood
Lumber Standard).
Reference design values for most species and grades
of visually graded dimension lumber are based on the provisions of ASTM Standard D 1990-001 (Establishing
Allowable Properties for Visually Graded Dimension Lumber from In-Grade Tests of Full-Size Specimens).
Reference design values for visually graded timbers, decking, and some species and grades of dimension lumber are
based on the provisions of ASTM Standard D 245-001
(Establishing Structural Grades and Related Allowable
Properties for Visually Graded Lumber). The methods in
ASTM Standard D 245-001 involve adjusting the strength
properties of small clear specimens of wood, as given in
ASTM Standard D 2555-98 (Establishing Clear Wood
Strength Values), for the effects of knots, slope of grain,
splits, checks, size, duration of load, moisture content, and
other influencing factors, to obtain reference design values applicable to normal conditions of service. Lumber
structures designed on the basis of working stresses derived from ASTM Standard D 245 procedures and standard
design criteria have a long history of satisfactory performance.
Reference design values for machine stress rated
(MSR) lumber and machine evaluated lumber (MEL) are
based on nondestructive testing of individual pieces. Certain visual grade requirements also apply to such lumber.
The stress rating system used for MSR and MEL lumber
is regularly checked by the responsible grading agency
for conformance to established certification and quality
control procedures.

Reference design values in this Supplement for structural glued laminated timber are developed and published
by the American Institute of Timber Construction (AITC)
and APAThe Engineered Wood Association (APA) in accordance with principles originally established by the U.S.
Forest Products Laboratory in the early 1950s. These principles involve adjusting strength properties of clear straight
grained lumber to account for knots, slope of grain, density, size of member, number of laminations, and other
factors unique to laminated timber.
Specific methods used to establish reference design
values have been periodically revised and improved to reflect the results of tests of large structural glued laminated
timber members conducted by the U.S. Forest Products
Laboratory and other accredited testing agencies. The performance history of structures made with structural glued
laminated timber conforming to AITC specifications and
manufactured in accordance with American National Standard ANSI/AITC A190.1-2002 (Structural Glued Laminated
Timber) has demonstrated the validity of the methods used
to establish structural glued laminated timber reference
design values.

Conditions of Use
Reference design values presented in this Supplement
are for normal load duration under dry conditions of service. Because the strength of wood varies with conditions
under which it is used, these reference design values should
only be applied in conjunction with appropriate design
and service recommendations from the NDS. Additionally, the reference design values in this Supplement apply
only to material identified by the grade mark of, or certificate of inspection issued by, a grading or inspection bureau
or agency recognized as being competent.

AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION

DESIGN VALUES FOR WOOD CONSTRUCTION NDS SUPPLEMENT

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Chapter/Title

Page

Sawn Lumber Grading


Agencies .................................................................................................... s1

Chapter/Title

Species Combinations ..................................... s3

Section Properties ................................................ s11


3.1 Section Properties of Sawn Lumber
and Structural Glued Laminated Timber

1.1 List of Sawn Lumber Grading Agencies

Page

Reference Design Values ................... s29

2.1 List of Sawn Lumber Species


Combinations
2.2 List of Non-North American Sawn
Lumber Species Combinations
2.3 List of Structural Glued Laminated Timber
Species Combinations

LIST OF TABLES
1A Nominal and Minimum Dressed Sizes of
Sawn Lumber ...................................................... s13

4E Reference Design Values for Visually Graded


Decking ............................................................... s51

1B Section Properties of Standard Dressed


(S4S) Sawn Lumber ............................................ s14

4F Reference Design Values for Non-North


American Visually Graded Dimension
Lumber (2" - 4" thick) ......................................... s55

1C Section Properties of Western Species Structural


Glued Laminated Timber ..................................... s16
1D Section Properties of Southern Pine Structural
Glued Laminated Timber ..................................... s22
4A Reference Design Values for Visually Graded
Dimension Lumber (2" - 4" thick) (All species
except Southern Pine) .......................................... s30
4B Reference Design Values for Visually Graded
Southern Pine Dimension Lumber
(2" - 4" thick) ....................................................... s37
4C Reference Design Values for Mechanically
Graded Dimension Lumber ................................. s40

5A Reference Design Values for Structural Glued


Laminated Softwood Timber
(Members stressed primarily in bending) ............ s59
5B Reference Design Values for Structural Glued
Laminated Softwood Timber (Members stressed
primarily in axial tension or compression) .......... s64
5C Reference Design Values for Structural Glued
Laminated Hardwood Timber (Members stressed
primarily in bending) ........................................... s67
5D Reference Design Values for Structural Glued
Laminated Hardwood Timber (Members stressed
primarily in axial tension or compression) .......... s69

4D Reference Design Values for Visually Graded


Timbers (5" x 5" and larger) ................................ s44

AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION

DESIGN VALUES FOR WOOD CONSTRUCTION NDS SUPPLEMENT

AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL

DESIGN VALUES FOR WOOD CONSTRUCTION NDS SUPPLEMENT

SAWN LUMBER
GRADING
AGENCIES

1.1

List of Sawn Lumber Grading Agencies s2

AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION

SAWN LUMBER GRADING AGENCIES

1.1 List of Sawn Lumber Grading Agencies


Following is a list of agencies certified by the American Lumber Standard Committee Board of Review (as of 2004)
for inspection and grading of untreated lumber under the rules indicated. For the most up-to-date list of certified agencies
contact:
American Lumber Standard Committee
P.O. Box 210
Germantown, Maryland 20875-0210
www.alsc.org

Rules for which grading


is authorized

Rules Writing Agencies

Northeastern Lumber Manufacturers Association (NELMA) ............. NELMA, NLGA, NSLB, SPIB, WCLIB, WWPA
272 Tuttle Road, P.O. Box 87A, Cumberland Center, Maine 04021
Northern Softwood Lumber Bureau (NSLB) ................................................................. NLGA, NSLB, WCLIB, WWPA
272 Tuttle Road, P.O. Box 87A, Cumberland Center, Maine 04021
Redwood Inspection Service (RIS) ................................................................................................. RIS, WCLIB, WWPA
405 Enfrente Drive, Suite 200, Novato, California 94949
Southern Pine Inspection Bureau (SPIB) ............................................ NELMA, NLGA, NSLB, SPIB, WCLIB, WWPA
4709 Scenic Highway, Pensacola, Florida 32504
West Coast Lumber Inspection Bureau (WCLIB) ................................................... NLGA, RIS, SPIB, WCLIB, WWPA
6980 SW Varnes Road, P.O. Box 23145, Tigard, Oregon 97223
Western Wood Products Association (WWPA) ....................................................... NLGA, RIS, SPIB, WCLIB, WWPA
522 SW Fifth Avenue, Suite 500, Portland, Oregon 97204
National Lumber Grades Authority (NLGA)
960 Quayside Dr., New Westminster, BC, Canada V3M 6G2

Non-Rules Writing Agencies


Pacific Lumber Inspection Bureau, Inc. ............................................................................. RIS, WCLIB, WWPA, NLGA
Renewable Resource Associates, Inc. .................................................. NELMA, NLGA, NSLB, SPIB, WCLIB, WWPA
Stafford Inspection and Consulting, LLC ...................................................................................................................SPIB
Timber Products Inspection ......................................................... NELMA, NLGA, NSLB, RIS, SPIB, WCLIB, WWPA
Alberta Forest Products Association ........................................................................................................................ NLGA
Canadian Lumbermens Association ....................................................................................................... NELMA, NLGA
Canadian Mill Services Association .......................................................................................................... NLGA, WWPA
Canadian Softwood Inspection Agency, Inc. .............................................................................. NLGA, WCLIB, WWPA
Central Forest Products Association ........................................................................................................ NELMA, NLGA
Council of Forest Industries ...................................................................................................................... NLGA, WWPA
Macdonald Inspection ................................................................................................................. NLGA, WCLIB, WWPA
Maritime Lumber Bureau ........................................................................................................................ NELMA, NLGA
Newfoundland and Labrador Lumber Producers Association ................................................................................. NLGA
Ontario Lumber Manufacturers Association ........................................................................................... NELMA, NLGA
Pacific Lumber Inspection Bureau ..................................................................................... NLGA, RIS, WCLIB, WWPA
Quebec Forest Industry Council .............................................................................................................. NELMA, NLGA

AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL

DESIGN VALUES FOR WOOD CONSTRUCTION NDS SUPPLEMENT

SPECIES
COMBINATIONS

2.1
2.2
2.3

List of Sawn Lumber Species


Combinations

s4

List of Non-North American Sawn


Lumber Species Combinations

s8

List of Structural Glued Laminated


Timber Species Combinations

s9

AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION

SPECIES COMBINATIONS

2.1 List of Sawn Lumber Species Combinations


Species or Species
Combination
Alaska Cedar
Alaska Hemlock
Alaska Spruce
Alaska Yellow Cedar
Aspen

Species That May Be


Included in Combination

Alaska Sitka Spruce


Alaska White Spruce
Big Tooth Aspen
Quaking Aspen

Baldcypress
Balsam Fir
Beech-Birch-Hickory

Coast Sitka Spruce


Coast Species

Cottonwood
Douglas Fir-Larch
Douglas Fir-Larch (North)

American Beech
Bitternut Hickory
Mockernut Hickory
Nutmeg Hickory
Pecan Hickory
Pignut Hickory
Shagbark Hickory
Shellbark Hickory
Sweet Birch
Water Hickory
Yellow Birch
Amabilis Fir
Coast Sitka Spruce
Douglas Fir
Western Hemlock
Western Larch
Douglas
Western
Douglas
Western

Fir
Larch
Fir
Larch

Douglas Fir-South
Eastern Hemlock
Eastern Hemlock-Balsam Fir

Eastern Hemlock-Tamarack
Eastern Hemlock-Tamarack (North)

Balsam Fir
Eastern Hemlock
Tamarack
Eastern Hemlock
Tamarack
Eastern Hemlock
Tamarack

AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL

Grading
Rules Agencies

Design Values
Provided in Tables

WCLIB
WWPA
WWPA

4A
4A
4A

WCLIB, WWPA
NELMA
NSLB
WWPA
SPIB
NELMA
NSLB
NELMA

4A
4A

4A, 4D

NLGA
NLGA

4D, 4E
4E

NSLB
WCLIB
WWPA
NLGA

4A
4A, 4C, 4D, 4E

WWPA
NELMA
NSLB
NELMA

4A, 4C, 4D, 4E


4D

NELMA
NSLB
NLGA

4A, 4D, 4E

4A, 4D
4D, 4E

4A, 4C, 4D, 4E

4A

4D, 4E

DESIGN VALUES FOR WOOD CONSTRUCTION NDS SUPPLEMENT

2.1 List of Sawn Lumber Species Combinations (Cont.)


Species or Species
Combination
Eastern Softwoods

Grading
Rules Agencies

Balsam Fir
Black Spruce
Eastern Hemlock
Eastern White Pine
Jack Pine
Norway (Red) Pine
Pitch Pine
Red Spruce
Tamarack
White Spruce
Black Spruce
Red Spruce
White Spruce

Eastern White Pine


Eastern White Pine (North)
Hem-Fir

Hem-Fir (North)
Mixed Maple

Mixed Oak
Mixed Southern Pine

Mountain Hemlock
Northern Pine

Northern Red Oak

Northern Species

California Red Fir


Grand Fir
Noble Fir
Pacific Silver Fir
Western Hemlock
White Fir
Amabilis Fir
Western Hemlock
Black Maple
Red Maple
Silver Maple
Sugar Maple
All Oak Species
graded under NELMA rules
Any species in the Southern
Pine species combination, plus
either or both of the following:
Pond Pine
Virginia Pine
Jack Pine
Norway (Red) Pine
Pitch Pine
Black Oak
Northern Red Oak
Pin Oak
Scarlet Oak
Any species graded
under NLGA rules except
Red Alder, White Birch,
and Norway Spruce

Northern White Cedar


Ponderosa Pine

AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION

Design Values
Provided in Tables

NELMA
NSLB

4A

NELMA
NSLB

4D, 4E

NELMA
NSLB
NLGA
WCLIB
WWPA

4A, 4D, 4E
4E
4A, 4C, 4D, 4E

NLGA

4A, 4C, 4D, 4E

NELMA

4A, 4D

NELMA

4A, 4D

SPIB

4B, 4C, 4D

WWPA, WCLIB
NELMA
NSLB

4D
4D, 4E

NELMA

4A, 4D

NLGA

4A, 4C, 4E

NELMA
NLGA

4A, 4D, 4E
4D, 4E

2
SPECIES COMBINATIONS

Eastern Spruce

Species That May Be


Included in Combination

SPECIES COMBINATIONS

2.1 List of Sawn Lumber Species Combinations (Cont.)


Species or Species
Combination
Red Maple
Red Oak

Red Pine
Redwood
Sitka Spruce
Southern Pine

Spruce-Pine-Fir

Spruce-Pine-Fir (South)

Western Cedars

Western Cedars (North)

Species That May Be


Included in Combination
Black Oak
Cherrybark Oak
Laurel Oak
Northern Red Oak
Pin Oak
Scarlet Oak
Southern Red Oak
Water Oak
Willow Oak

Loblolly Pine
Longleaf Pine
Shortleaf Pine
Slash Pine
Alpine Fir
Balsam Fir
Black Spruce
Engelmann Spruce
Jack Pine
Lodgepole Pine
Red Spruce
White Spruce
Balsam Fir
Black Spruce
Engelmann Spruce
Jack Pine
Lodgepole Pine
Norway (Red) Pine
Red Spruce
Sitka Spruce
White Spruce
Alaska Cedar
Incense Cedar
Port Orford Cedar
Western Red Cedar
Pacific Coast Yellow Cedar
Western Red Cedar

Western Hemlock
Western Hemlock (North)
Western White Pine

AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL

Grading
Rules Agencies

Design Values
Provided in Tables

NELMA
NELMA

4A, 4D
4A, 4D

NLGA
RIS
WWPA, WCLIB
SPIB

4D, 4E
4A, 4D, 4E
4D, 4E
4B, 4C, 4D, 4E

NLGA

4A, 4C, 4D, 4E

NELMA
NSLB
WCLIB
WWPA

4A, 4C, 4D, 4E

WCLIB
WWPA

4A, 4C, 4D, 4E

NLGA

4D, 4E

WWPA, WCLIB
NLGA
NLGA

4D, 4E
4D, 4E
4D, 4E

DESIGN VALUES FOR WOOD CONSTRUCTION NDS SUPPLEMENT

2.1 List of Sawn Lumber Species Combinations (Cont.)


Species or Species
Combination
Western Woods

Grading
Rules Agencies

Any species in the Douglas


Fir-Larch, Douglas Fir-South,
Hem-Fir, and Spruce-Pine-Fir
(South) species combinations,
plus any or all of the
following:
Alpine Fir
Idaho White Pine
Mountain Hemlock
Ponderosa Pine
Sugar Pine
Bur Oak
Chestnut Oak
Live Oak
Overcup Oak
Post Oak
Swamp Chestnut Oak
Swamp White Oak
White Oak

Yellow Poplar

WCLIB
WWPA

4A, 4C, 4D, 4E

NELMA

4A, 4D

NSLB

AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION

Design Values
Provided in Tables

SPECIES COMBINATIONS

White Oak

Species That May Be


Included in Combination

4A

SPECIES COMBINATIONS

2.2 List of Non-North American Sawn Lumber Species


Combinations
Species or Species Combination

Species That May Be


Included in Combination

Austrian Spruce - Austria & The Czech Republic


Douglas Fir/European Larch - Austria, The
Douglas Fir
Czech Republic, & Bavaria
European Larch
Montane Pine - South Africa
Norway Spruce - Estonia & Lithuania
Norway Spruce - Finland
Norway Spruce - Germany, NE France,
& Switzerland
Norway Spruce - Romania & the Ukraine
Norway Spruce - Sweden
Scots Pine - Austria, The Czech Republic,
Romania, & the Ukraine
Scots Pine - Estonia & Lithuania
Scots Pine - Finland
Scots Pine - Germany*
Scots Pine - Sweden
Silver Fir (Abies alba) - Germany, NE France,
& Switzerland
Southern Pine - Misiones Argentina
Southern Pine - Misiones Argentina, Free of
Heart Center and Medium Grade Density
* Does not include states of Baden-Wurttemburg and Saarland.

AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL

Grading
Rules Agency
WCLIB
WCLIB

DesignValues
Provided in Tables
4F
4F

WCLIB
WCLIB
WCLIB
WCLIB

4F
4F
4F
4F

WCLIB
WCLIB
WCLIB

4F
4F
4F

WCLIB
WCLIB
WCLIB
WCLIB
WCLIB

4F
4F
4F
4F
4F

SPIB
SPIB

4F
4F

DESIGN VALUES FOR WOOD CONSTRUCTION NDS SUPPLEMENT

2.3 List of Structural Glued Laminated Timber Species


Combinations
Symbol

Species That May Be


Included in Group

Design Values
Provided in Tables

Alaska Cedar
Douglas Fir-Larch
Hem-Fir

AC
DF
HF

5A, 5B
5A, 5B
5A, 5B

Softwood Species

SW

Alaska Cedar
Douglas Fir, Western Larch
California Red Fir
Grand Fir
Noble Fir
Pacific Silver Fir
Western Hemlock
White Fir
Alpine Fir
Balsam Fir
Black Spruce
Douglas Fir
Douglas Fir South
Engelmann Spruce
Idaho White Pine
Jack Pine
Lodgepole Pine
Mountain Hemlock
Ponderosa Pine
Red Spruce
Sugar Pine
Western Larch
Western Red Cedar
White Spruce
Loblolly Pine
Longleaf Pine
Shortleaf Pine
Slash Pine

Southern Pine

SP

AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION

5A, 5B

2
SPECIES COMBINATIONS

Species or Species Group

5A, 5B

10

SPECIES COMBINATIONS

2.3 List of Structural Glued Laminated Timber Species


Combinations (Cont.)
Species or Species Group

Symbol

Group A Hardwoods

Group B Hardwoods

Group C Hardwoods

Group D Hardwoods

Species That May Be


Included in Group
Ash, White
Beech, American
Birch, Sweet
Birch, Yellow
Hickory, Bitternut
Hickory, Mockernut
Hickory, Nutmeg
Hickory, Pecan
Hickory, Pignut
Hickory, Shagbark
Hickory, Shellbark
Hickory, Water
Oak, Northern Red
Oak, White
Elm, Rock
Maple, Black
Maple, Red
Mixed Oak:
Black
Bur
Cherrybark
Chestnut
Laurel
Live
Northern Red
Overcup
Pin
Post
Scarlet
Southern Red
Swamp Chestnut
Swamp White
Water
White
Sweetgum
Ash, Black
Elm, American
Tupulo, Water
Yellow Poplar
Aspen, Bigtooth
Aspen, Quaking
Cottonwood, Eastern
Mixed Maple:
Black
Red
Silver
Sugar
AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL

Design Values
Provided in Tables
5C, 5D

5C, 5D

5C, 5D

5C, 5D

DESIGN VALUES FOR WOOD CONSTRUCTION NDS SUPPLEMENT

SECTION
PROPERTIES

3.1

Section Properties of Sawn Lumber


and Structural Glued Laminated
Timber

s12

Table 1A

Nominal and Minimum Dressed Sizes of Sawn


Lumber .................................................................. s13

Table 1B

Section Properties of Standard Dressed (S4S)


Sawn Lumber ....................................................... s14

Table 1C

Section Properties of Western Species


Structural Glued Laminated Timber ................. s16

Table 1D

Section Properties of Southern Pine


Structural Glued Laminated Timber ................. s22

AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION

11

12

SECTION PROPERTIES

3.1 Section Properties of Sawn Lumber and Structural


Glued Laminated Timber
3.1.1 Standard Sizes of Sawn
Lumber
Details regarding the dressed sizes of various species
of lumber in the grading rules of the agencies which formulate and maintain such rules. The dressed sizes in Table
1A conform to the sizes set forth in U.S. Department of
Commerce Voluntary Product Standard PS 20-99 (American Softwood Lumber Standard). While these sizes are
generally available on a commercial basis, it is good practice to consult the local lumber dealer to determine what
sizes are on hand or can be readily secured.
Dry lumber is defined as lumber which has been seasoned to a moisture content of 19% or less. Green lumber
is defined as lumber having a moisture content in excess
of 19%.

MOMENT OF INERTIA, I, of the cross section of a


beam is the sum of the products of each of its elementary
areas multiplied by the square of their distance from the
neutral axis of the section.
SECTION MODULUS, S, is the moment of inertia
divided by the distance from the neutral axis to the extreme fiber of the section.
CROSS SECTION is a section taken through the member perpendicular to its longitudinal axis.
The following symbols and formulas apply to rectangular beam cross sections:
X-X = neutral axis for edgewise bending (load
applied to narrow face)
Y-Y = neutral axis for flatwise bending (load
applied to wide face)
b = breadth of rectangular bending member, in.

3.1.2 Properties of Standard


Dressed Sizes

d = depth of rectangular bending member, in.


A = bd = area of cross section, in.2

Certain mathematical expressions of the properties or


elements of sections are used in design calculations for
various member shapes and loading conditions. The section properties for selected standard sizes of boards, dimension lumber, and timbers are given in Table 1B. Section properties for selected standard sizes of structural
glued laminated timber are given in Table 1C and 1D.

c = distance from neutral axis to extreme fiber of


cross section, in.
Ix = bd3/12 = moment of inertia about the X-X axis,
in.4
Iy = db3/12 = moment of inertia about the Y-Y axis,
in.4
rx =

3.1.3 Definitions

I x / A = d / 12 = radius of gyration about the


X-X axis, in.

NEUTRAL AXIS, in the cross section of a beam, is


the line on which there is neither tension nor compression
stress.

ry =

I y / A = b / 12 = radius of gyration about


the Y-Y axis, in.

Sx =Ix/c = bd2/6 = section modulus about the X-X

Figure 1A Dimensions for Rectangular


Cross Section

axis, in.3
Sy = Iy/c = db2/6 = section modulus about the Y-Y
axis, in.3

The following formula shall be used to determine the


density in lb./ft.3 of wood:
density =

m.c.
G
62.4
1 +
100
1 + G(0.009)( m.c.)

where:
G = specific gravity of wood (see NDS Table 11.3.2A)

Structural Glued Laminated Timber

Sawn Lumber

m.c. = moisture content of wood, %

AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL

DESIGN VALUES FOR WOOD CONSTRUCTION NDS SUPPLEMENT

Table 1A

13

Nominal and Minimum Dressed Sizes of Sawn Lumber


Thickness (in.)

Face Widths (in.)

Minimum dressed
Item
Boards

Nominal

Dry
5/8
3/4

Green

1
1-1/4

11/16
25/32
1-1/32
1-9/32

Dimension
Lumber

2
2-1/2
3
3-1/2
4
4-1/2

1-1/2
2
2-1/2
3
3-1/2
4

1-9/16
2-1/16
2-9/16
3-1/16
3-9/16
4-1/16

Timbers

5&
thicker

1/2 off

AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION

Nominal

Dry

Green

2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
14
16

1-1/2
2-1/2
3-1/2
4-1/2
5-1/2
6-1/2
7-1/4
8-1/4
9-1/4
10-1/4
11-1/4
13-1/4
15-1/4

1-9/16
2-9/16
3-9/16
4-5/8
5-5/8
6-5/8
7-1/2
8-1/2
9-1/2
10-1/2
11-1/2
13-1/2
15-1/2

2
3
4
5
6
8
10
12
14
16

1-1/2
2-1/2
3-1/2
4-1/2
5-1/2
7-1/4
9-1/4
11-1/4
13-1/4
15-1/4

1-9/16
2-9/16
3-9/16
4-5/8
5-5/8
7-1/2
9-1/2
11-1/2
13-1/2
15-1/2

5&
wider

1/2 off

3
SECTION PROPERTIES

3/4
1
1-1/4
1-1/2

Minimum dressed

14

SECTION PROPERTIES

Table 1B

Section Properties of Standard Dressed (S4S) Sawn Lumber


Y-Y Axis

X-X Axis
Nominal
Size
bd

Standard
Dressed
Size (S4S)
bd
inches inches

Area
of
Section
A
in.2

Section
Modulus
Sxx
in.3

Moment
of
Inertia
Ixx
in.4

Section
Modulus
Syy
in.3

Moment
of
Inertia
Iyy
in.4

Approximate weight in pounds per linear foot (lb./ft.)


of piece when density of wood equals:
25 lb./ft.3

30 lb./ft.3

35 lb./ft.3

40 lb./ft.3

45 lb./ft.3

50 lb./ft.3

1
1
1
1
1
1

3
4
6
8
10
12

3/4 2-1/2
3/4 3-1/2
3/4 5-1/2
3/4 7-1/4
3/4 9-1/4
3/4 11-1/4

1.875
2.625
4.125
5.438
6.938
8.438

0.781
1.531
3.781
6.570
10.70
15.82

0.977
2.680
10.40
23.82
49.47
88.99

0.234
0.328
0.516
0.680
0.867
1.055

0.088
0.123
0.193
0.255
0.325
0.396

0.326
0.456
0.716
0.944
1.204
1.465

0.391
0.547
0.859
1.133
1.445
1.758

0.456
0.638
1.003
1.322
1.686
2.051

0.521
0.729
1.146
1.510
1.927
2.344

0.586
0.820
1.289
1.699
2.168
2.637

0.651
0.911
1.432
1.888
2.409
2.930

2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2

3
4
5
6
8
10
12
14

1-1/2 2-1/2
1-1/2 3-1/2
1-1/2 4-1/2
1-1/2 5-1/2
1-1/2 7-1/4
1-1/2 9-1/4
1-1/2 11-1/4
1-1/2 13-1/4

3.750
5.250
6.750
8.250
10.88
13.88
16.88
19.88

1.563
3.063
5.063
7.563
13.14
21.39
31.64
43.89

1.953
5.359
11.39
20.80
47.63
98.93
178.0
290.8

0.938
1.313
1.688
2.063
2.719
3.469
4.219
4.969

0.703
0.984
1.266
1.547
2.039
2.602
3.164
3.727

0.651
0.911
1.172
1.432
1.888
2.409
2.930
3.451

0.781
1.094
1.406
1.719
2.266
2.891
3.516
4.141

0.911
1.276
1.641
2.005
2.643
3.372
4.102
4.831

1.042
1.458
1.875
2.292
3.021
3.854
4.688
5.521

1.172
1.641
2.109
2.578
3.398
4.336
5.273
6.211

1.302
1.823
2.344
2.865
3.776
4.818
5.859
6.901

3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3

4
5
6
8
10
12
14
16

2-1/2 3-1/2
2-1/2 4-1/2
2-1/2 5-1/2
2-1/2 7-1/4
2-1/2 9-1/4
2-1/2 11-1/4
2-1/2 13-1/4
2-1/2 15-1/4

8.750
11.25
13.75
18.13
23.13
28.13
33.13
38.13

5.104
8.438
12.60
21.90
35.65
52.73
73.15
96.90

8.932
18.98
34.66
79.39
164.9
296.6
484.6
738.9

3.646
4.688
5.729
7.552
9.635
11.72
13.80
15.89

4.557
5.859
7.161
9.440
12.04
14.65
17.25
19.86

1.519
1.953
2.387
3.147
4.015
4.883
5.751
6.619

1.823
2.344
2.865
3.776
4.818
5.859
6.901
7.943

2.127
2.734
3.342
4.405
5.621
6.836
8.051
9.266

2.431
3.125
3.819
5.035
6.424
7.813
9.201
10.59

2.734
3.516
4.297
5.664
7.227
8.789
10.35
11.91

3.038
3.906
4.774
6.293
8.030
9.766
11.50
13.24

4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4

4
5
6
8
10
12
14
16

3-1/2 3-1/2
3-1/2 4-1/2
3-1/2 5-1/2
3-1/2 7-1/4
3-1/2 9-1/4
3-1/2 11-1/4
3-1/2 13-1/4
3-1/2 15-1/4

12.25
15.75
19.25
25.38
32.38
39.38
46.38
53.38

7.146
11.81
17.65
30.66
49.91
73.83
102.4
135.7

12.51
26.58
48.53
111.1
230.8
415.3
678.5
1034

7.146
9.188
11.23
14.80
18.89
22.97
27.05
31.14

12.51
16.08
19.65
25.90
33.05
40.20
47.34
54.49

2.127
2.734
3.342
4.405
5.621
6.836
8.051
9.266

2.552
3.281
4.010
5.286
6.745
8.203
9.661
11.12

2.977
3.828
4.679
6.168
7.869
9.570
11.27
12.97

3.403
4.375
5.347
7.049
8.993
10.94
12.88
14.83

3.828
4.922
6.016
7.930
10.12
12.30
14.49
16.68

4.253
5.469
6.684
8.811
11.24
13.67
16.10
18.53

5 5

4-1/2 4-1/2

20.25

15.19

34.17

15.19

34.17

3.516

4.219

4.922

5.625

6.328

7.031

6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6

6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24

5-1/2 5-1/2
5-1/2 7-1/2
5-1/2 9-1/2
5-1/2 11-1/2
5-1/2 13-1/2
5-1/2 15-1/2
5-1/2 17-1/2
5-1/2 19-1/2
5-1/2 21-1/2
5-1/2 23-1/2

30.25
41.25
52.25
63.25
74.25
85.25
96.25
107.3
118.3
129.3

27.73
51.56
82.73
121.2
167.1
220.2
280.7
348.6
423.7
506.2

76.26
193.4
393.0
697.1
1128
1707
2456
3398
4555
5948

27.73
37.81
47.90
57.98
68.06
78.15
88.23
98.31
108.4
118.5

76.26
104.0
131.7
159.4
187.2
214.9
242.6
270.4
298.1
325.8

5.252
7.161
9.071
10.98
12.89
14.80
16.71
18.62
20.53
22.44

6.302
8.594
10.89
13.18
15.47
17.76
20.05
22.34
24.64
26.93

7.352
10.03
12.70
15.37
18.05
20.72
23.39
26.07
28.74
31.41

8.403
11.46
14.51
17.57
20.63
23.68
26.74
29.79
32.85
35.90

9.453
12.89
16.33
19.77
23.20
26.64
30.08
33.52
36.95
40.39

10.50
14.32
18.14
21.96
25.78
29.60
33.42
37.24
41.06
44.88

8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8

8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24

7-1/2 7-1/2
7-1/2 9-1/2
7-1/2 11-1/2
7-1/2 13-1/2
7-1/2 15-1/2
7-1/2 17-1/2
7-1/2 19-1/2
7-1/2 21-1/2
7-1/2 23-1/2

56.25
71.25
86.25
101.3
116.3
131.3
146.3
161.3
176.3

70.31
112.8
165.3
227.8
300.3
382.8
475.3
577.8
690.3

263.7
535.9
950.5
1538
2327
3350
4634
6211
8111

70.31
89.06
107.8
126.6
145.3
164.1
182.8
201.6
220.3

263.7
334.0
404.3
474.6
544.9
615.2
685.5
755.9
826.2

9.766
12.37
14.97
17.58
20.18
22.79
25.39
27.99
30.60

11.72
14.84
17.97
21.09
24.22
27.34
30.47
33.59
36.72

13.67
17.32
20.96
24.61
28.26
31.90
35.55
39.19
42.84

15.63
19.79
23.96
28.13
32.29
36.46
40.63
44.79
48.96

17.58
22.27
26.95
31.64
36.33
41.02
45.70
50.39
55.08

19.53
24.74
29.95
35.16
40.36
45.57
50.78
55.99
61.20

10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10

10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24

9-1/2 9-1/2
9-1/2 11-1/2
9-1/2 13-1/2
9-1/2 15-1/2
9-1/2 17-1/2
9-1/2 19-1/2
9-1/2 21-1/2
9-1/2 23-1/2

90.25
109.3
128.3
147.3
166.3
185.3
204.3
223.3

142.9
209.4
288.6
380.4
484.9
602.1
731.9
874.4

678.8
1204
1948
2948
4243
5870
7868
10270

142.9
173.0
203.1
233.1
263.2
293.3
323.4
353.5

678.8
821.7
964.5
1107
1250
1393
1536
1679

15.67
18.97
22.27
25.56
28.86
32.16
35.46
38.76

18.80
22.76
26.72
30.68
34.64
38.59
42.55
46.51

21.94
26.55
31.17
35.79
40.41
45.03
49.64
54.26

25.07
30.35
35.63
40.90
46.18
51.46
56.74
62.01

28.20
34.14
40.08
46.02
51.95
57.89
63.83
69.77

31.34
37.93
44.53
51.13
57.73
64.32
70.92
77.52

AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL

DESIGN VALUES FOR WOOD CONSTRUCTION NDS SUPPLEMENT

Table 1B

Section Properties of Standard Dressed (S4S) Sawn Lumber (Cont.)


Y-Y Axis

X-X Axis
Nominal
Size
bd

15

Standard
Dressed
Size (S4S)
bd
inches inches

Area
of
Section
A
in.2

Section
Modulus
Sx
in.3

Moment
of
Inertia
Ix
in.4

Section
Modulus
Sy
in.3

Moment
of
Inertia
Iy
in.4

Approximate weight in pounds per linear foot (lb./ft.)


of piece when density of wood equals:
25 lb./ft.3

30 lb./ft.3

35 lb./ft.3

40 lb./ft.3

45 lb./ft.3

50 lb./ft.3

12
14
16
18
20
22
24

11-1/2
11-1/2
11-1/2
11-1/2
11-1/2
11-1/2
11-1/2

11-1/2
13-1/2
15-1/2
17-1/2
19-1/2
21-1/2
23-1/2

132.3
155.3
178.3
201.3
224.3
247.3
270.3

253.5
349.3
460.5
587.0
728.8
886.0
1058

1458
2358
3569
5136
7106
9524
12440

253.5
297.6
341.6
385.7
429.8
473.9
518.0

1458
1711
1964
2218
2471
2725
2978

22.96
26.95
30.95
34.94
38.93
42.93
46.92

27.55
32.34
37.14
41.93
46.72
51.51
56.30

32.14
37.73
43.32
48.91
54.51
60.10
65.69

36.74
43.13
49.51
55.90
62.29
68.68
75.07

41.33
48.52
55.70
62.89
70.08
77.27
84.45

45.92
53.91
61.89
69.88
77.86
85.85
93.84

14
14
14
14
14
14

14
16
18
20
22
24

13-1/2
13-1/2
13-1/2
13-1/2
13-1/2
13-1/2

13-1/2
15-1/2
17-1/2
19-1/2
21-1/2
23-1/2

182.3
209.3
236.3
263.3
290.3
317.3

410.1
540.6
689.1
855.6
1040
1243

2768
4189
6029
8342
11180
14600

410.1
470.8
531.6
592.3
653.1
713.8

2768
3178
3588
3998
4408
4818

31.64
36.33
41.02
45.70
50.39
55.08

37.97
43.59
49.22
54.84
60.47
66.09

44.30
50.86
57.42
63.98
70.55
77.11

50.63
58.13
65.63
73.13
80.63
88.13

56.95
65.39
73.83
82.27
90.70
99.14

63.28
72.66
82.03
91.41
100.8
110.2

16
16
16
16
16

16
18
20
22
24

15-1/2
15-1/2
15-1/2
15-1/2
15-1/2

15-1/2
17-1/2
19-1/2
21-1/2
23-1/2

240.3
271.3
302.3
333.3
364.3

620.6
791.1
982.3
1194
1427

4810
6923
9578
12840
16760

620.6
700.7
780.8
860.9
941.0

4810
5431
6051
6672
7293

41.71
47.09
52.47
57.86
63.24

50.05
56.51
62.97
69.43
75.89

58.39
65.93
73.46
81.00
88.53

66.74
75.35
83.96
92.57
101.2

75.08
84.77
94.45
104.1
113.8

83.42
94.18
104.9
115.7
126.5

18
18
18
18

18
20
22
24

17-1/2
17-1/2
17-1/2
17-1/2

17-1/2
19-1/2
21-1/2
23-1/2

306.3
341.3
376.3
411.3

893.2
1109
1348
1611

7816
10810
14490
18930

893.2
995.3
1097
1199

7816
8709
9602
10500

53.17
59.24
65.32
71.40

63.80
71.09
78.39
85.68

74.44
82.94
91.45
99.96

85.07
94.79
104.5
114.2

95.70
106.6
117.6
128.5

106.3
118.5
130.6
142.8

20 20
20 22
20 24

19-1/2 19-1/2
19-1/2 21-1/2
19-1/2 23-1/2

380.3
419.3
458.3

1236
1502
1795

12050
16150
21090

1236
1363
1489

12050
13280
14520

66.02
72.79
79.56

79.22
87.34
95.47

92.42
101.9
111.4

105.6
116.5
127.3

118.8
131.0
143.2

132.0
145.6
159.1

22 22
22 24

21-1/2 21-1/2
21-1/2 23-1/2

462.3
505.3

1656
1979

17810
23250

1656
1810

17810
19460

80.25
87.72

96.30
105.3

112.4
122.8

128.4
140.3

144.5
157.9

160.5
175.4

24 24

23-1/2 23-1/2

552.3

2163

25420

2163

25420

95.88

115.1

134.2

153.4

172.6

191.8

AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION

3
SECTION PROPERTIES

12
12
12
12
12
12
12

16

SECTION PROPERTIES

Table 1C

Section Properties of Western Species Structural Glued Laminated


Timber

Depth
d (in.)

Area
A (in.2)

Ix (in. )

6
7-1/2
9
10-1/2
12
13-1/2
15
16-1/2
18
19-1/2
21

15.00
18.75
22.50
26.25
30.00
33.75
37.50
41.25
45.00
48.75
52.50

45.00
87.89
151.9
241.2
360.0
512.6
703.1
935.9
1215
1545
1929

6
7-1/2
9
10-1/2
12
13-1/2
15
16-1/2
18
19-1/2
21
22-1/2
24

18.75
23.44
28.13
32.81
37.50
42.19
46.88
51.56
56.25
60.94
65.63
70.31
75.00

56.25
109.9
189.8
301.5
450.0
640.7
878.9
1170
1519
1931
2412
2966
3600

6
7-1/2
9
10-1/2
12
13-1/2
15
16-1/2
18
19-1/2
21
22-1/2
24

21.00
26.25
31.50
36.75
42.00
47.25
52.50
57.75
63.00
68.25
73.50
78.75
84.00

63.00
123.0
212.6
337.6
504.0
717.6
984.4
1310
1701
2163
2701
3322
4032

X-X Axis
Sx (in.3)
2-1/2 in. Width
15.00
23.44
33.75
45.94
60.00
75.94
93.75
113.4
135.0
158.4
183.8
3-1/8 in. Width
18.75
29.30
42.19
57.42
75.00
94.92
117.2
141.8
168.8
198.0
229.7
263.7
300.0
3-1/2 in. Width
21.00
32.81
47.25
64.31
84.00
106.3
131.3
158.8
189.0
221.8
257.3
295.3
336.0

AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL

rx (in.)
1.732
2.165
2.598
3.031
3.464
3.897
4.330
4.763
5.196
5.629
6.062
1.732
2.165
2.598
3.031
3.464
3.897
4.330
4.763
5.196
5.629
6.062
6.495
6.928
1.732
2.165
2.598
3.031
3.464
3.897
4.330
4.763
5.196
5.629
6.062
6.495
6.928

Y-Y Axis
Iy (in. )
Sy (in.3)
(ry = 0.722 in.)
7.813
6.250
9.766
7.813
11.72
9.375
13.67
10.94
15.63
12.50
17.58
14.06
19.53
15.63
21.48
17.19
23.44
18.75
25.39
20.31
27.34
21.88
(ry = 0.902 in.)
15.26
9.766
19.07
12.21
22.89
14.65
26.70
17.09
30.52
19.53
34.33
21.97
38.15
24.41
41.96
26.86
45.78
29.30
49.59
31.74
53.41
34.18
57.22
36.62
61.04
39.06
(ry = 1.010 in.)
21.44
12.25
26.80
15.31
32.16
18.38
37.52
21.44
42.88
24.50
48.23
27.56
53.59
30.63
58.95
33.69
64.31
36.75
69.67
39.81
75.03
42.88
80.39
45.94
85.75
49.00
4

DESIGN VALUES FOR WOOD CONSTRUCTION NDS SUPPLEMENT

Table 1C

17

Section Properties of Western Species Structural Glued Laminated


Timber (Cont.)

Area
A (in.2)

Ix (in. )

6
7-1/2
9
10-1/2
12
13-1/2
15
16-1/2
18
19-1/2
21
22-1/2
24
25-1/2
27
28-1/2
30
31-1/2
33
34-1/2
36

30.75
38.44
46.13
53.81
61.50
69.19
76.88
84.56
92.25
99.94
107.6
115.3
123.0
130.7
138.4
146.1
153.8
161.4
169.1
176.8
184.5

92.25
180.2
311.3
494.4
738.0
1051
1441
1919
2491
3167
3955
4865
5904
7082
8406
9887
11530
13350
15350
17540
19930

6
7-1/2
9
10-1/2
12
13-1/2
15
16-1/2
18
19-1/2
21
22-1/2
24
25-1/2
27
28-1/2
30
31-1/2
33
34-1/2
36

33.00
41.25
49.50
57.75
66.00
74.25
82.50
90.75
99.00
107.3
115.5
123.8
132.0
140.3
148.5
156.8
165.0
173.3
181.5
189.8
198.0

99.00
193.4
334.1
530.6
792.0
1128
1547
2059
2673
3398
4245
5221
6336
7600
9021
10610
12380
14330
16470
18820
21380

X-X Axis
Sx (in.3)
5-1/8 in. Width
30.75
48.05
69.19
94.17
123.0
155.7
192.2
232.5
276.8
324.8
376.7
432.4
492.0
555.4
622.7
693.8
768.8
847.5
930.2
1017
1107
5-1/2 in. Width
33.00
51.56
74.25
101.1
132.0
167.1
206.3
249.6
297.0
348.6
404.3
464.1
528.0
596.1
668.3
744.6
825.0
909.6
998.3
1091
1188

rx (in.)
1.732
2.165
2.598
3.031
3.464
3.897
4.330
4.763
5.196
5.629
6.062
6.495
6.928
7.361
7.794
8.227
8.660
9.093
9.526
9.959
10.39
1.732
2.165
2.598
3.031
3.464
3.897
4.330
4.763
5.196
5.629
6.062
6.495
6.928
7.361
7.794
8.227
8.660
9.093
9.526
9.959
10.39

AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION

Y-Y Axis
Iy (in. )
Sy (in.3)
(ry = 1.479 in.)
67.31
26.27
84.13
32.83
101.0
39.40
117.8
45.96
134.6
52.53
151.4
59.10
168.3
65.66
185.1
72.23
201.9
78.80
218.7
85.36
235.6
91.93
252.4
98.50
269.2
105.1
286.0
111.6
302.9
118.2
319.7
124.8
336.5
131.3
353.4
137.9
370.2
144.5
387.0
151.0
403.8
157.6
(ry = 1.588 in.)
83.19
30.25
104.0
37.81
124.8
45.38
145.6
52.94
166.4
60.50
187.2
68.06
208.0
75.63
228.8
83.19
249.6
90.75
270.4
98.31
291.2
105.9
312.0
113.4
332.8
121.0
353.5
128.6
374.3
136.1
395.1
143.7
415.9
151.3
436.7
158.8
457.5
166.4
478.3
173.9
499.1
181.5
4

3
SECTION PROPERTIES

Depth
d (in.)

18

SECTION PROPERTIES

Table 1C

Section Properties of Western Species Structural Glued Laminated


Timber (Cont.)

Depth
d (in.)

Area
A (in.2)

Ix (in. )

7-1/2
9
10-1/2
12
13-1/2
15
16-1/2
18
19-1/2
21
22-1/2
24
25-1/2
27
28-1/2
30
31-1/2
33
34-1/2
36
37-1/2
39
40-1/2
42
43-1/2
45
46-1/2
48
49-1/2
51
52-1/2
54
55-1/2
57
58-1/2
60

50.63
60.75
70.88
81.00
91.13
101.3
111.4
121.5
131.6
141.8
151.9
162.0
172.1
182.3
192.4
202.5
212.6
222.8
232.9
243.0
253.1
263.3
273.4
283.5
293.6
303.8
313.9
324.0
334.1
344.3
354.4
364.5
374.6
384.8
394.9
405.0

237.3
410.1
651.2
972.0
1384
1898
2527
3281
4171
5209
6407
7776
9327
11070
13020
15190
17580
20210
23100
26240
29660
33370
37370
41670
46300
51260
56560
62210
68220
74620
81400
88570
96160
104200
112600
121500

X-X Axis
Sx (in.3)
6-3/4 in. Width
63.28
91.13
124.0
162.0
205.0
253.1
306.3
364.5
427.8
496.1
569.5
648.0
731.5
820.1
913.8
1013
1116
1225
1339
1458
1582
1711
1845
1985
2129
2278
2433
2592
2757
2926
3101
3281
3465
3655
3850
4050

AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL

rx (in.)
2.165
2.598
3.031
3.464
3.897
4.330
4.763
5.196
5.629
6.062
6.495
6.928
7.361
7.794
8.227
8.660
9.093
9.526
9.959
10.39
10.83
11.26
11.69
12.12
12.56
12.99
13.42
13.86
14.29
14.72
15.16
15.59
16.02
16.45
16.89
17.32

Y-Y Axis
Iy (in. )
Sy (in.3)
(ry = 1.949 in.)
192.2
56.95
230.7
68.34
269.1
79.73
307.5
91.13
346.0
102.5
384.4
113.9
422.9
125.3
461.3
136.7
499.8
148.1
538.2
159.5
576.7
170.9
615.1
182.3
653.5
193.6
692.0
205.0
730.4
216.4
768.9
227.8
807.3
239.2
845.8
250.6
884.2
262.0
922.6
273.4
961.1
284.8
999.5
296.2
1038
307.5
1076
318.9
1115
330.3
1153
341.7
1192
353.1
1230
364.5
1269
375.9
1307
387.3
1346
398.7
1384
410.1
1422
421.5
1461
432.8
1499
444.2
1538
455.6
4

DESIGN VALUES FOR WOOD CONSTRUCTION NDS SUPPLEMENT

Table 1C

19

Section Properties of Western Species Structural Glued Laminated


Timber (Cont.)

Area
A (in.2)

Ix (in. )

9
10-1/2
12
13-1/2
15
16-1/2
18
19-1/2
21
22-1/2
24
25-1/2
27
28-1/2
30
31-1/2
33
34-1/2
36
37-1/2
39
40-1/2
42
43-1/2
45
46-1/2
48
49-1/2
51
52-1/2
54
55-1/2
57
58-1/2
60

78.75
91.88
105.0
118.1
131.3
144.4
157.5
170.6
183.8
196.9
210.0
223.1
236.3
249.4
262.5
275.6
288.8
301.9
315.0
328.1
341.3
354.4
367.5
380.6
393.8
406.9
420.0
433.1
446.3
459.4
472.5
485.6
498.8
511.9
525.0

531.6
844.1
1260
1794
2461
3276
4253
5407
6753
8306
10080
12090
14350
16880
19690
22790
26200
29940
34020
38450
43250
48440
54020
60020
66450
73310
80640
88440
96720
105500
114800
124700
135000
146000
157500

X-X Axis
Sx (in.3)
8-3/4 in. Width
118.1
160.8
210.0
265.8
328.1
397.0
472.5
554.5
643.1
738.3
840.0
948.3
1063
1185
1313
1447
1588
1736
1890
2051
2218
2392
2573
2760
2953
3153
3360
3573
3793
4020
4253
4492
4738
4991
5250

rx (in.)
2.598
3.031
3.464
3.897
4.330
4.763
5.196
5.629
6.062
6.495
6.928
7.361
7.794
8.227
8.660
9.093
9.526
9.959
10.39
10.83
11.26
11.69
12.12
12.56
12.99
13.42
13.86
14.29
14.72
15.16
15.59
16.02
16.45
16.89
17.32

AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION

Y-Y Axis
Iy (in. )
Sy (in.3)
(ry = 2.526 in.)
502.4
114.8
586.2
134.0
669.9
153.1
753.7
172.3
837.4
191.4
921.1
210.5
1005
229.7
1089
248.8
1172
268.0
1256
287.1
1340
306.3
1424
325.4
1507
344.5
1591
363.7
1675
382.8
1759
402.0
1842
421.1
1926
440.2
2010
459.4
2094
478.5
2177
497.7
2261
516.8
2345
535.9
2428
555.1
2512
574.2
2596
593.4
2680
612.5
2763
631.6
2847
650.8
2931
669.9
3015
689.1
3098
708.2
3182
727.3
3266
746.5
3350
765.6
4

3
SECTION PROPERTIES

Depth
d (in.)

20

SECTION PROPERTIES

Table 1C

Section Properties of Western Species Structural Glued Laminated


Timber (Cont.)

Depth
d (in.)

Area
A (in.2)

Ix (in. )

12
13-1/2
15
16-1/2
18
19-1/2
21
22-1/2
24
25-1/2
27
28-1/2
30
31-1/2
33
34-1/2
36
37-1/2
39
40-1/2
42
43-1/2
45
46-1/2
48
49-1/2
51
52-1/2
54
55-1/2
57
58-1/2
60

129.0
145.1
161.3
177.4
193.5
209.6
225.8
241.9
258.0
274.1
290.3
306.4
322.5
338.6
354.8
370.9
387.0
403.1
419.3
435.4
451.5
467.6
483.8
499.9
516.0
532.1
548.3
564.4
580.5
596.6
612.8
628.9
645.0

1548
2204
3023
4024
5225
6642
8296
10200
12380
14850
17630
20740
24190
28000
32190
36790
41800
47240
53140
59510
66370
73740
81630
90070
99070
108700
118800
129600
141100
153100
165900
179300
193500

X-X Axis
Sx (in.3)
10-3/4 in. Width
258.0
326.5
403.1
487.8
580.5
681.3
790.1
907.0
1032
1165
1306
1455
1613
1778
1951
2133
2322
2520
2725
2939
3161
3390
3628
3874
4128
4390
4660
4938
5225
5519
5821
6132
6450

AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL

rx (in.)
3.464
3.897
4.330
4.763
5.196
5.629
6.062
6.495
6.928
7.361
7.794
8.227
8.660
9.093
9.526
9.959
10.39
10.83
11.26
11.69
12.12
12.56
12.99
13.42
13.86
14.29
14.72
15.16
15.59
16.02
16.45
16.89
17.32

Y-Y Axis
Iy (in. )
Sy (in.3)
(ry = 3.103 in.)
1242
231.1
1398
260.0
1553
288.9
1708
317.8
1863
346.7
2019
375.6
2174
404.5
2329
433.4
2485
462.3
2640
491.1
2795
520.0
2950
548.9
3106
577.8
3261
606.7
3416
635.6
3572
664.5
3727
693.4
3882
722.3
4037
751.2
4193
780.0
4348
808.9
4503
837.8
4659
866.7
4814
895.6
4969
924.5
5124
953.4
5280
982.3
5435
1011
5590
1040
5746
1069
5901
1098
6056
1127
6211
1156
4

DESIGN VALUES FOR WOOD CONSTRUCTION NDS SUPPLEMENT

Table 1C

21

Section Properties of Western Species Structural Glued Laminated


Timber (Cont.)

Area
A (in.2)

Ix (in. )

13-1/2
15
16-1/2
18
19-1/2
21
22-1/2
24
25-1/2
27
28-1/2
30
31-1/2
33
34-1/2
36
37-1/2
39
40-1/2
42
43-1/2
45
46-1/2
48
49-1/2
51
52-1/2
54
55-1/2
57
58-1/2
60

165.4
183.8
202.1
220.5
238.9
257.3
275.6
294.0
312.4
330.8
349.1
367.5
385.9
404.3
422.6
441.0
459.4
477.8
496.1
514.5
532.9
551.3
569.6
588.0
606.4
624.8
643.1
661.5
679.9
698.3
716.6
735.0

2512
3445
4586
5954
7569
9454
11630
14110
16930
20090
23630
27560
31910
36690
41920
47630
53830
60550
67810
75630
84030
93020
102600
112900
123800
135400
147700
160700
174500
189100
204400
220500

X-X Axis
Sx (in.3)
12-1/4 in. Width
372.1
459.4
555.8
661.5
776.3
900.4
1034
1176
1328
1488
1658
1838
2026
2223
2430
2646
2871
3105
3349
3602
3863
4134
4415
4704
5003
5310
5627
5954
6289
6633
6987
7350

rx (in.)
3.897
4.330
4.763
5.196
5.629
6.062
6.495
6.928
7.361
7.794
8.227
8.660
9.093
9.526
9.959
10.39
10.83
11.26
11.69
12.12
12.56
12.99
13.42
13.86
14.29
14.72
15.16
15.59
16.02
16.45
16.89
17.32

AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION

Y-Y Axis
Iy (in. )
Sy (in.3)
(ry = 3.536 in.)
2068
337.6
2298
375.2
2528
412.7
2757
450.2
2987
487.7
3217
525.2
3447
562.7
3677
600.3
3906
637.8
4136
675.3
4366
712.8
4596
750.3
4825
787.8
5055
825.3
5285
862.9
5515
900.4
5745
937.9
5974
975.4
6204
1013
6434
1050
6664
1088
6893
1125
7123
1163
7353
1201
7583
1238
7813
1276
8042
1313
8272
1351
8502
1388
8732
1426
8962
1463
9191
1501
4

3
SECTION PROPERTIES

Depth
d (in.)

22

SECTION PROPERTIES

Table 1D

Depth
d (in.)

Section Properties of Southern Pine Structural Glued Laminated


Timber

Area
A (in.2)

Ix (in.4)

5-1/2
6-7/8
8-1/4
9-5/8
11
12-3/8
13-3/4
15-1/8
16-1/2
17-7/8
19-1/4
20-5/8
22
23-3/8

13.75
17.19
20.63
24.06
27.50
30.94
34.38
37.81
41.25
44.69
48.13
51.56
55.00
58.44

34.66
67.70
117.0
185.8
277.3
394.8
541.6
720.9
935.9
1190
1486
1828
2218
2661

5-1/2
6-7/8
8-1/4
9-5/8
11
12-3/8
13-3/4
15-1/8
16-1/2
17-7/8
19-1/4
20-5/8
22
23-3/8

16.50
20.63
24.75
28.88
33.00
37.13
41.25
45.38
49.50
53.63
57.75
61.88
66.00
70.13

41.59
81.24
140.4
222.9
332.8
473.8
649.9
865.0
1123
1428
1783
2193
2662
3193

5-1/2
6-7/8
8-1/4
9-5/8
11
12-3/8
13-3/4
15-1/8
16-1/2
17-7/8
19-1/4
20-5/8
22
23-3/8

17.19
21.48
25.78
30.08
34.38
38.67
42.97
47.27
51.56
55.86
60.16
64.45
68.75
73.05

43.33
84.62
146.2
232.2
346.6
493.5
677.0
901.1
1170
1487
1858
2285
2773
3326

X-X Axis
Sx (in.3)
2-1/2 in. Width
12.60
19.69
28.36
38.60
50.42
63.81
78.78
95.32
113.4
133.1
154.4
177.2
201.7
227.7
3 in. Width
15.13
23.63
34.03
46.32
60.50
76.57
94.53
114.4
136.1
159.8
185.3
212.7
242.0
273.2
3-1/8 in. Width
15.76
24.62
35.45
48.25
63.02
79.76
98.47
119.1
141.8
166.4
193.0
221.6
252.1
284.6
AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL

rx (in.)
1.588
1.985
2.382
2.778
3.175
3.572
3.969
4.366
4.763
5.160
5.557
5.954
6.351
6.748
1.588
1.985
2.382
2.778
3.175
3.572
3.969
4.366
4.763
5.160
5.557
5.954
6.351
6.748
1.588
1.985
2.382
2.778
3.175
3.572
3.969
4.366
4.763
5.160
5.557
5.954
6.351
6.748

Y-Y Axis
Iy (in.4)
Sy (in.3)
(ry = 0.722 in.)
7.161
5.729
8.952
7.161
10.74
8.594
12.53
10.03
14.32
11.46
16.11
12.89
17.90
14.32
19.69
15.76
21.48
17.19
23.27
18.62
25.07
20.05
26.86
21.48
28.65
22.92
30.44
24.35
(ry = 0.866 in.)
12.38
8.250
15.47
10.31
18.56
12.38
21.66
14.44
24.75
16.50
27.84
18.56
30.94
20.63
34.03
22.69
37.13
24.75
40.22
26.81
43.31
28.88
46.41
30.94
49.50
33.00
52.59
35.06
(ry = 0.902 in.)
13.99
8.952
17.48
11.19
20.98
13.43
24.48
15.67
27.97
17.90
31.47
20.14
34.97
22.38
38.46
24.62
41.96
26.86
45.46
29.09
48.96
31.33
52.45
33.57
55.95
35.81
59.45
38.05

DESIGN VALUES FOR WOOD CONSTRUCTION NDS SUPPLEMENT

Table 1D

Depth
d (in.)

23

Section Properties of Southern Pine Structural Glued Laminated


Timber (Cont.)

Ix (in. )

5-1/2
6-7/8
8-1/4
9-5/8
11
12-3/8
13-3/4
15-1/8
16-1/2
17-7/8
19-1/4
20-5/8
22
23-3/8

19.25
24.06
28.88
33.69
38.50
43.31
48.13
52.94
57.75
62.56
67.38
72.19
77.00
81.81

48.53
94.78
163.8
260.1
388.2
552.7
758.2
1009
1310
1666
2081
2559
3106
3725

6-7/8
8-1/4
9-5/8
11
12-3/8
13-3/4
15-1/8
16-1/2
17-7/8
19-1/4
20-5/8
22
23-3/8
24-3/4
26-1/8
27-1/2
28-7/8
30-1/4
31-5/8
33
34-3/8
35-3/4

34.38
41.25
48.13
55.00
61.88
68.75
75.63
82.50
89.38
96.25
103.1
110.0
116.9
123.8
130.6
137.5
144.4
151.3
158.1
165.0
171.9
178.8

135.4
234.0
371.5
554.6
789.6
1083
1442
1872
2380
2972
3656
4437
5322
6317
7429
8665
10030
11530
13180
14970
16920
19040

X-X Axis
Sx (in.3)
3-1/2 in. Width
17.65
27.57
39.70
54.04
70.58
89.33
110.3
133.4
158.8
186.4
216.2
248.1
282.3
318.7
5 in. Width
39.39
56.72
77.20
100.8
127.6
157.6
190.6
226.9
266.3
308.8
354.5
403.3
455.3
510.5
568.8
630.2
694.8
762.6
833.5
907.5
984.7
1065

rx (in.)
1.588
1.985
2.382
2.778
3.175
3.572
3.969
4.366
4.763
5.160
5.557
5.954
6.351
6.748
1.985
2.382
2.778
3.175
3.572
3.969
4.366
4.763
5.160
5.557
5.954
6.351
6.748
7.145
7.542
7.939
8.335
8.732
9.129
9.526
9.923
10.32

AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION

Y-Y Axis
Iy (in. )
Sy (in.3)
(ry = 1.010 in.)
19.65
11.23
24.56
14.04
29.48
16.84
34.39
19.65
39.30
22.46
44.21
25.27
49.13
28.07
54.04
30.88
58.95
33.69
63.87
36.49
68.78
39.30
73.69
42.11
78.60
44.92
83.52
47.72
(ry = 1.443 in.)
71.61
28.65
85.94
34.38
100.3
40.10
114.6
45.83
128.9
51.56
143.2
57.29
157.6
63.02
171.9
68.75
186.2
74.48
200.5
80.21
214.8
85.94
229.2
91.67
243.5
97.40
257.8
103.1
272.1
108.9
286.5
114.6
300.8
120.3
315.1
126.0
329.4
131.8
343.8
137.5
358.1
143.2
372.4
149.0
4

3
SECTION PROPERTIES

Area
A (in.2)

24

SECTION PROPERTIES

Table 1D

Section Properties of Southern Pine Structural Glued Laminated


Timber (Cont.)

Depth
d (in.)

Area
A (in.2)

Ix (in.4)

6-7/8
8-1/4
9-5/8
11
12-3/8
13-3/4
15-1/8
16-1/2
17-7/8
19-1/4
20-5/8
22
23-3/8
24-3/4
26-1/8
27-1/2
28-7/8
30-1/4
31-5/8
33
34-3/8
35-3/4

35.23
42.28
49.33
56.38
63.42
70.47
77.52
84.56
91.61
98.66
105.7
112.8
119.8
126.8
133.9
140.9
148.0
155.0
162.1
169.1
176.2
183.2

138.8
239.8
380.8
568.4
809.4
1110
1478
1919
2439
3047
3747
4548
5455
6475
7615
8882
10280
11820
13510
15350
17350
19510

6-7/8
8-1/4
9-5/8
11
12-3/8
13-3/4
15-1/8
16-1/2
17-7/8
19-1/4
20-5/8
22
23-3/8
24-3/4
26-1/8
27-1/2
28-7/8
30-1/4
31-5/8
33
34-3/8
35-3/4

37.81
45.38
52.94
60.50
68.06
75.63
83.19
90.75
98.31
105.9
113.4
121.0
128.6
136.1
143.7
151.3
158.8
166.4
173.9
181.5
189.1
196.6

148.9
257.4
408.7
610.0
868.6
1191
1586
2059
2618
3269
4021
4880
5854
6949
8172
9532
11030
12690
14500
16470
18620
20940

X-X Axis
Sx (in.3)
5-1/8 in. Width
40.37
58.14
79.13
103.4
130.8
161.5
195.4
232.5
272.9
316.5
363.4
413.4
466.7
523.2
583.0
646
712.2
781.6
854.3
930.2
1009
1092
5-1/2 in. Width
43.33
62.39
84.92
110.9
140.4
173.3
209.7
249.6
292.9
339.7
389.9
443.7
500.9
561.5
625.6
693.2
764.3
838.8
916.8
998.3
1083
1172
AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL

rx (in.)
1.985
2.382
2.778
3.175
3.572
3.969
4.366
4.763
5.160
5.557
5.954
6.351
6.748
7.145
7.542
7.939
8.335
8.732
9.129
9.526
9.923
10.32
1.985
2.382
2.778
3.175
3.572
3.969
4.366
4.763
5.160
5.557
5.954
6.351
6.748
7.145
7.542
7.939
8.335
8.732
9.129
9.526
9.923
10.32

Y-Y Axis
Iy (in.4)
Sy (in.3)
(ry = 1.479 in.)
77.12
30.10
92.55
36.12
108.0
42.13
123.4
48.15
138.8
54.17
154.2
60.19
169.7
66.21
185.1
72.23
200.5
78.25
215.9
84.27
231.4
90.29
246.8
96.31
262.2
102.3
277.6
108.3
293.1
114.4
308.5
120.4
323.9
126.4
339.3
132.4
354.8
138.4
370.2
144.5
385.6
150.5
401.0
156.5
(ry = 1.588 in.)
95.32
34.66
114.4
41.59
133.4
48.53
152.5
55.46
171.6
62.39
190.6
69.32
209.7
76.26
228.8
83.19
247.8
90.12
266.9
97.05
286.0
104.0
305.0
110.9
324.1
117.8
343.1
124.8
362.2
131.7
381.3
138.6
400.3
145.6
419.4
152.5
438.5
159.4
457.5
166.4
476.6
173.3
495.7
180.2

DESIGN VALUES FOR WOOD CONSTRUCTION NDS SUPPLEMENT

Table 1D

25

Section Properties of Southern Pine Structural Glued Laminated


Timber (Cont.)

Area
A (in.2)

Ix (in. )

6-7/8
8-1/4
9-5/8
11
12-3/8
13-3/4
15-1/8
16-1/2
17-7/8
19-1/4
20-5/8
22
23-3/8
24-3/4
26-1/8
27-1/2
28-7/8
30-1/4
31-5/8
33
34-3/8
35-3/4
37-1/8
38-1/2
39-7/8
41-1/4
42-5/8
44
45-3/8
46-3/4
48-1/8
49-1/2
50-7/8
52-1/4
53-5/8
55
56-3/8
57-3/4
59-1/8
60-1/2

46.41
55.69
64.97
74.25
83.53
92.81
102.1
111.4
120.7
129.9
139.2
148.5
157.8
167.1
176.3
185.6
194.9
204.2
213.5
222.8
232.0
241.3
250.6
259.9
269.2
278.4
287.7
297.0
306.3
315.6
324.8
334.1
343.4
352.7
362.0
371.3
380.5
389.8
399.1
408.4

182.8
315.9
501.6
748.7
1066
1462
1946
2527
3213
4012
4935
5990
7184
8528
10030
11700
13540
15570
17790
20210
22850
25700
28780
32100
35660
39480
43560
47920
52550
57470
62700
68220
74070
80240
86740
93590
100800
108300
116300
124600

X-X Axis
Sx (in.3)
6-3/4 in. Width
53.17
76.57
104.2
136.1
172.3
212.7
257.4
306.3
359.5
416.9
478.6
544.5
614.7
689.1
767.8
850.8
938.0
1029
1125
1225
1329
1438
1551
1668
1789
1914
2044
2178
2316
2459
2606
2757
2912
3071
3235
3403
3575
3752
3933
4118

rx (in.)
1.985
2.382
2.778
3.175
3.572
3.969
4.366
4.763
5.160
5.557
5.954
6.351
6.748
7.145
7.542
7.939
8.335
8.732
9.129
9.526
9.923
10.32
10.72
11.11
11.51
11.91
12.30
12.70
13.10
13.50
13.89
14.29
14.69
15.08
15.48
15.88
16.27
16.67
17.07
17.46

AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION

Y-Y Axis
Iy (in. )
Sy (in.3)
(ry = 1.949 in.)
176.2
52.21
211.4
62.65
246.7
73.09
281.9
83.53
317.2
93.97
352.4
104.4
387.6
114.9
422.9
125.3
458.1
135.7
493.4
146.2
528.6
156.6
563.8
167.1
599.1
177.5
634.3
187.9
669.6
198.4
704.8
208.8
740.0
219.3
775.3
229.7
810.5
240.2
845.8
250.6
881.0
261.0
916.2
271.5
951.5
281.9
986.7
292.4
1022
302.8
1057
313.2
1092
323.7
1128
334.1
1163
344.6
1198
355.0
1233
365.4
1269
375.9
1304
386.3
1339
396.8
1374
407.2
1410
417.7
1445
428.1
1480
438.5
1515
449.0
1551
459.4
4

3
SECTION PROPERTIES

Depth
d (in.)

26

SECTION PROPERTIES

Table 1D

Section Properties of Southern Pine Structural Glued Laminated


Timber (Cont.)

Depth
d (in.)

Area
A (in.2)

Ix (in. )

9-5/8
11
12-3/8
13-3/4
15-1/8
16-1/2
17-7/8
19-1/4
20-5/8
22
23-3/8
24-3/4
26-1/8
27-1/2
28-7/8
30-1/4
31-5/8
33
34-3/8
35-3/4
37-1/8
38-1/2
39-7/8
41-1/4
42-5/8
44
45-3/8
46-3/4
48-1/8
49-1/2
50-7/8
52-1/4
53-5/8
55
56-3/8
57-3/4
59-1/8
60-1/2

81.81
93.50
105.2
116.9
128.6
140.3
151.9
163.6
175.3
187.0
198.7
210.4
222.1
233.8
245.4
257.1
268.8
280.5
292.2
303.9
315.6
327.3
338.9
350.6
362.3
374.0
385.7
397.4
409.1
420.8
432.4
444.1
455.8
467.5
479.2
490.9
502.6
514.3

631.6
942.8
1342
1841
2451
3182
4046
5053
6215
7542
9047
10740
12630
14730
17050
19610
22400
25460
28770
32360
36240
40420
44910
49720
54860
60340
66170
72370
78950
85910
93270
101000
109200
117800
126900
136400
146400
156900

X-X Axis
Sx (in.3)
8-1/2 in. Width
131.2
171.4
216.9
267.8
324.1
385.7
452.6
525.0
602.6
685.7
774.1
867.8
966.9
1071
1181
1296
1417
1543
1674
1811
1953
2100
2253
2411
2574
2743
2917
3096
3281
3471
3667
3868
4074
4285
4502
4725
4952
5185

AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL

rx (in.)
2.778
3.175
3.572
3.969
4.366
4.763
5.160
5.557
5.954
6.351
6.748
7.145
7.542
7.939
8.335
8.732
9.129
9.526
9.923
10.32
10.72
11.11
11.51
11.91
12.30
12.70
13.10
13.50
13.89
14.29
14.69
15.08
15.48
15.88
16.27
16.67
17.07
17.46

Y-Y Axis
Iy (in. )
Sy (in.3)
(ry = 2.454 in.)
492.6
115.9
562.9
132.5
633.3
149.0
703.7
165.6
774.1
182.1
844.4
198.7
914.8
215.2
985.2
231.8
1056
248.4
1126
264.9
1196
281.5
1267
298.0
1337
314.6
1407
331.1
1478
347.7
1548
364.3
1618
380.8
1689
397.4
1759
413.9
1830
430.5
1900
447.0
1970
463.6
2041
480.2
2111
496.7
2181
513.3
2252
529.8
2322
546.4
2393
562.9
2463
579.5
2533
596.1
2604
612.6
2674
629.2
2744
645.7
2815
662.3
2885
678.8
2955
695.4
3026
712.0
3096
728.5
4

DESIGN VALUES FOR WOOD CONSTRUCTION NDS SUPPLEMENT

Table 1D

27

Section Properties of Southern Pine Structural Glued Laminated


Timber (Cont.)

Area
A (in.2)

Ix (in. )

11
12-3/8
13-3/4
15-1/8
16-1/2
17-7/8
19-1/4
20-5/8
22
23-3/8
24-3/4
26-1/8
27-1/2
28-7/8
30-1/4
31-5/8
33
34-3/8
35-3/4
37-1/8
38-1/2
39-7/8
41-1/4
42-5/8
44
45-3/8
46-3/4
48-1/8
49-1/2
50-7/8
52-1/4
53-5/8
55
56-3/8
57-3/4
59-1/8
60-1/2

115.5
129.9
144.4
158.8
173.3
187.7
202.1
216.6
231.0
245.4
259.9
274.3
288.8
303.2
317.6
332.1
346.5
360.9
375.4
389.8
404.3
418.7
433.1
447.6
462.0
476.4
490.9
505.3
519.8
534.2
548.6
563.1
577.5
591.9
606.4
620.8
635.3

1165
1658
2275
3028
3931
4997
6242
7677
9317
11180
13270
15600
18200
21070
24220
27680
31440
35540
39980
44770
49930
55480
61420
67760
74540
81740
89400
97530
106100
115200
124800
134900
145600
156800
168500
180900
193800

X-X Axis
Sx (in.3)
10-1/2 in. Width
211.8
268.0
330.9
400.3
476.4
559.2
648.5
744.4
847.0
956.2
1072
1194
1323
1459
1601
1750
1906
2068
2237
2412
2594
2783
2978
3180
3388
3603
3825
4053
4288
4529
4778
5032
5294
5562
5836
6118
6405

rx (in.)
3.175
3.572
3.969
4.366
4.763
5.160
5.557
5.954
6.351
6.748
7.145
7.542
7.939
8.335
8.732
9.129
9.526
9.923
10.32
10.72
11.11
11.51
11.91
12.30
12.70
13.10
13.50
13.89
14.29
14.69
15.08
15.48
15.88
16.27
16.67
17.07
17.46

AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION

Y-Y Axis
Iy (in. )
Sy (in.3)
(ry = 3.031 in.)
1061
202.1
1194
227.4
1326
252.7
1459
277.9
1592
303.2
1724
328.5
1857
353.7
1990
379.0
2122
404.3
2255
429.5
2388
454.8
2520
480.0
2653
505.3
2786
530.6
2918
555.8
3051
581.1
3183
606.4
3316
631.6
3449
656.9
3581
682.2
3714
707.4
3847
732.7
3979
758.0
4112
783.2
4245
808.5
4377
833.8
4510
859.0
4643
884.3
4775
909.6
4908
934.8
5040
960.1
5173
985.4
5306
1011
5438
1036
5571
1061
5704
1086
5836
1112
4

3
SECTION PROPERTIES

Depth
d (in.)

28

SECTION PROPERTIES

AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL

only to be used with the 2005 NDS and Wood Structural Design Data

2005 DESIGN VALUES FOR WOOD CONSTRUCTION NDS SUPPLEMENT

29

REFERENCE
DESIGN VALUES
4

Table 4A Reference Design Values for Visually Graded


Dimension Lumber (2" - 4" thick) ........................... s30
Table 4B Reference Design Values for Visually Graded
Southern Pine Dimension Lumber
(2" - 4" thick) ............................................................. s37
Table 4C Reference Design Values for Mechanically
Graded Dimension Lumber ..................................... s40
Table 4D Reference Design Values for Visually Graded
Timbers (5" x 5" and larger) ................................... s44
Table 4E Reference Design Values for Visually Graded
Decking ....................................................................... s51
Table 4F Reference Design Values for Non-North
American Visually Graded Dimension Lumber
(2" - 4" thick) ............................................................. s55
Table 5A Reference Design Values for Structural Glued
Laminated Softwood Timber (Members stressed
primarily in bending) ................................................ s59
Table 5B Reference Design Values for Structural Glued
Laminated Softwood Timber (Members stressed
primarily in axial tension or compression) ............. s64
Table 5C Reference Design Values for Structural Glued
Laminated Hardwood Timber (Members
stressed primarily in bending) ................................. s67
Table 5D Reference Design Values for Structural Glued
Laminated Hardwood Timber (Members
stressed primarily in axial tension or
compression) .............................................................. s69

AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION

2005 REFERENCE DESIGN VALUES

30

Table 4A

Adjustment Factors

only to be used with the 2005 NDS and Wood Structural Design Data

Repetitive Member Factor, Cr

Bending design values, Fb, for dimension lumber 2"


to 4" thick shall be multiplied by the repetitive member
factor, Cr = 1.15, when such members are used as joists,
truss chords, rafters, studs, planks, decking, or similar
members which are in contact or spaced not more than
24" on center, are not less than 3 in number and are joined
by floor, roof, or other load distributing elements adequate
to support the design load.

Flat Use Factor, Cfu

Bending design values adjusted by size factors are


based on edgewise use (load applied to narrow face). When
dimension lumber is used flatwise (load applied to wide
face), the bending design value, Fb, shall also be multiplied by the following flat use factors:
Flat Use Factors, Cfu

Wet Service Factor, CM

When dimension lumber is used where moisture content will exceed 19% for an extended time period, design
values shall be multiplied by the appropriate wet service
factors from the following table:

Thickness (breadth)

Width
(depth)

2" & 3"

4"

2" & 3"


4"
5"
6"
8"
10" & wider

1.0
1.1
1.1
1.15
1.15
1.2

1.0
1.05
1.05
1.05
1.1

Wet Service Factors, CM


Fb

Ft

Fv

Fc

Fc

E and Emin

NOTE

0.85*

1.0

0.97

0.67

0.8**

0.9

To facilitate the use of Table 4A, shading has been


employed to distinguish design values based on a 4"
nominal width (Construction, Standard, and Utility
grades) or a 6" nominal width (Stud grade) from design values based on a 12" nominal width (Select Structural, No.1 & Btr, No.1, No.2, and No.3 grades).

* when (Fb)(CF) 1,150 psi, CM = 1.0


** when (Fc)(CF) 750 psi, CM = 1.0

Size Factor, CF

Tabulated bending, tension, and compression parallel to grain design values for dimension lumber 2" to 4" thick shall
be multiplied by the following size factors:
Size Factors, CF
Fb

Ft

Fc

Thickness (breadth)
Grades
Select
Structural,
No.1 & Btr,
No.1, No.2,
No.3

Stud
Construction,
Standard
Utility

Width (depth)
2", 3", & 4"
5"
6"
8"
10"
12"
14" & wider
2", 3", & 4"
5" & 6"
8" & wider
2", 3", & 4"
4"
2" & 3"

2" & 3"

4"

1.5
1.5
1.5
1.4
1.4
1.4
1.3
1.3
1.3
1.2
1.3
1.2
1.1
1.2
1.1
1.0
1.1
1.0
0.9
1.0
0.9
1.1
1.1
1.1
1.0
1.0
1.0
Use No.3 Grade tabulated design values and size factors
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
0.4
AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL

1.0

1.0
0.4

1.15
1.1
1.1
1.05
1.0
1.0
0.9
1.05
1.0
1.0
1.0
0.6

2005 DESIGN VALUES FOR WOOD CONSTRUCTION NDS SUPPLEMENT

Table 4A

31

Reference Design Values for Visually Graded Dimension Lumber (2" - 4"
thick)1,2,3

USE WITH TABLE 4A ADJUSTMENT FACTORS


Design values in pounds per square inch (psi)

Species and
commercial grade

Size
classification

250

ALASKA CEDAR
Select Structural
No.1
No.2
No.3
Stud
Construction
Standard
Utility

Bending
Fb

Tension
parallel
to grain
Ft

2" & wider


2" & wider
2" - 4" wide

Shear
parallel
to grain
Fv
150

Compression
perpendicular
to grain
Fc
180

Compression
parallel
to grain
Fc

520

Modulus
of
Elasticity
E
900

Emin

Grading
Rules
Agency

1,000,000

1,150
975
800
450
625
900
500
250

625
525
425
250
350
500
275
125

165
165
165
165
165
165
165
165

525
525
525
525
525
525
525
525

1,000
900
750
425
475
950
775
500

1,400,000
1,300,000
1,200,000
1,100,000
1,100,000
1,200,000
1,100,000
1,000,000

510,000
470,000
440,000
400,000
400,000
440,000
400,000
370,000

1,300
900
825
475
650
950
525
250

825
550
475
275
375
550
300
150

185
185
185
185
185
185
185
185

440
440
440
440
440
440
440
440

1,200
1,100
1,050
600
650
1,250
1,050
700

1,700,000
1,600,000
1,500,000
1,400,000
1,400,000
1,400,000
1,300,000
1,200,000

620,000
580,000
550,000
510,000
510,000
510,000
470,000
440,000

1,400
950
875
500
675
1,000
550
275

900
600
500
300
400
575
325
150

160
160
160
160
160
160
160
160

330
330
330
330
330
330
330
330

1,200
1,100
1,050
600
675
1,250
1,050
700

1,600,000
1,500,000
1,400,000
1,300,000
1,300,000
1,300,000
1,200,000
1,100,000

580,000
550,000
510,000
470,000
470,000
470,000
440,000
400,000

1,350
900
800
475
625
925
500
250

800
525
450
250
350
500
275
125

225
225
225
225
225
225
225
225

510
510
510
510
510
510
510
510

1,200
1,050
1,000
575
625
1,250
1,050
675

1,500,000
1,400,000
1,300,000
1,200,000
1,200,000
1,300,000
1,100,000
1,100,000

550,000
510,000
470,000
440,000
440,000
470,000
400,000
400,000

875
625
600
350
475
700
375
175

500
375
350
200
275
400
225
100

120
120
120
120
120
120
120
120

265
265
265
265
265
265
265
265

725
600
450
275
300
625
475
300

1,100,000
1,100,000
1,000,000
900,000
900,000
900,000
900,000
800,000

400,000
400,000
370,000
330,000
330,000
330,000
330,000
290,000

1,200
1,000
825
475
650
925
525
250

650
550
450
250
350
500
275
125

160
160
160
160
160
160
160
160

615
615
615
615
615
615
615
615

1,200
1,050
900
525
575
1,100
925
600

1,400,000
1,400,000
1,300,000
1,200,000
1,200,000
1,200,000
1,100,000
1,000,000

510,000
510,000
470,000
440,000
440,000
440,000
400,000
370,000

WCLIB

ALASKA HEMLOCK
Select Structural
No.1
No.2
No.3
Stud
Construction
Standard
Utility

2" & wider


2" & wider
2" - 4" wide

WWPA

ALASKA SPRUCE
Select Structural
No.1
No.2
No.3
Stud
Construction
Standard
Utility

2" & wider


2" & wider
2" - 4" wide

WWPA

ALASKA YELLOW CEDAR


Select Structural
No.1
No.2
No.3
Stud
Construction
Standard
Utility

2" & wider


2" & wider
2" - 4" wide

WCLIB
WWPA

ASPEN
Select Structural
No.1
No.2
No.3
Stud
Construction
Standard
Utility

2" & wider


2" & wider
2" - 4" wide

NELMA
NSLB
WWPA

BALDCYPRESS
Select Structural
No.1
No.2
No.3
Stud
Construction
Standard
Utility

2" & wider


2" & wider
2" - 4" wide

AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION

SPIB

REFERENCE DESIGN VALUES

only to be used with the 2005 NDS and Wood Structural Design Data

(All species except Southern Pine see Table 4B) (Tabulated design values are for normal load
duration and dry service conditions. See NDS 4.3 for a comprehensive description of design value
adjustment factors.)

2005 REFERENCE DESIGN VALUES

32

Table 4A
(Cont.)

Reference Design Values for Visually Graded Dimension Lumber (2" - 4"
thick)1,2,3

only to be used with the 2005 NDS and Wood Structural Design Data

(All species except Southern Pine see Table 4B) (Tabulated design values are for normal load
duration and dry service conditions. See NDS 4.3 for a comprehensive description of design value
adjustment factors.)
USE WITH TABLE 4A ADJUSTMENT FACTORS
Design values in pounds per square inch (psi)

Species and
commercial grade

Size
classification

250

BEECH-BIRCH-HICKORY
Select Structural
No.1
No.2
No.3
Stud
Construction
Standard
Utility

Bending
Fb

Tension
parallel
to grain
Ft

2" & wider


2" & wider
2" - 4" wide

Shear
parallel
to grain
Fv
150

Compression
perpendicular
to grain
Fc
180

Compression
parallel
to grain
Fc

520

Modulus
of
Elasticity
E
900

Emin

Grading
Rules
Agency

1,000,000

1,450
1,050
1,000
575
775
1,150
650
300

850
600
600
350
450
675
375
175

195
195
195
195
195
195
195
195

715
715
715
715
715
715
715
715

1,200
950
750
425
475
1,000
775
500

1,700,000
1,600,000
1,500,000
1,300,000
1,300,000
1,400,000
1,300,000
1,200,000

620,000
580,000
550,000
470,000
470,000
510,000
470,000
440,000

875
625
625
350
475
700
400
175

525
375
350
200
275
400
225
100

125
125
125
125
125
125
125
125

320
320
320
320
320
320
320
320

775
625
475
275
300
650
500
325

1,200,000
1,200,000
1,100,000
1,000,000
1,000,000
1,000,000
900,000
900,000

440,000
440,000
400,000
370,000
370,000
370,000
330,000
330,000

1,500
1,200
1,000
900
525
700
1,000
575
275

1,000
800
675
575
325
450
650
375
175

180
180
180
180
180
180
180
180
180

625
625
625
625
625
625
625
625
625

1,700
1,550
1,500
1,350
775
850
1,650
1,400
900

1,900,000
1,800,000
1,700,000
1,600,000
1,400,000
1,400,000
1,500,000
1,400,000
1,300,000

690,000
660,000
620,000
580,000
510,000
510,000
550,000
510,000
470,000

1,350
1,150
850
475
650
950
525
250

825
750
500
300
400
575
325
150

180
180
180
180
180
180
180
180

625
625
625
625
625
625
625
625

1,900
1,800
1,400
825
900
1,800
1,450
950

1,900,000
1,800,000
1,600,000
1,400,000
1,400,000
1,500,000
1,400,000
1,300,000

690,000
660,000
580,000
510,000
510,000
550,000
510,000
470,000

1,350
925
850
500
675
975
550
250

900
600
525
300
425
600
350
150

180
180
180
180
180
180
180
180

520
520
520
520
520
520
520
520

1,600
1,450
1,350
775
850
1,650
1,400
900

1,400,000
1,300,000
1,200,000
1,100,000
1,100,000
1,200,000
1,100,000
1,000,000

510,000
470,000
440,000
400,000
400,000
440,000
400,000
370,000

1,250
775
575
350
450
675
375
175

575
350
275
150
200
300
175
75

140
140
140
140
140
140
140
140

335
335
335
335
335
335
335
335

1,200
1,000
825
475
525
1,050
850
550

1,200,000
1,100,000
1,100,000
900,000
900,000
1,000,000
900,000
800,000

440,000
400,000
400,000
330,000
330,000
370,000
330,000
290,000

NELMA

COTTONWOOD
Select Structural
No.1
No.2
No.3
Stud
Construction
Standard
Utility

2" & wider


2" & wider
2" - 4" wide

NSLB

DOUGLAS FIR-LARCH
Select Structural
No.1 & Btr
No.1
No.2
No.3
Stud
Construction
Standard
Utility

2" & wider

2" & wider


2" - 4" wide

WCLIB
WWPA

DOUGLAS FIR-LARCH (NORTH)


Select Structural
No.1 & Btr
No.1/No.2
No.3
Stud
Construction
Standard
Utility

2" & wider


2" & wider
2" - 4" wide

NLGA

DOUGLAS FIR-SOUTH
Select Structural
No.1
No.2
No.3
Stud
Construction
Standard
Utility

2" & wider


2" & wider
2" - 4" wide

WWPA

EASTERN HEMLOCK-BALSAM FIR


Select Structural
No.1
No.2
No.3
Stud
Construction
Standard
Utility

2" & wider


2" & wider
2" - 4" wide

AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL

NELMA
NSLB

2005 DESIGN VALUES FOR WOOD CONSTRUCTION NDS SUPPLEMENT

Table 4A
(Cont.)

33

Reference Design Values for Visually Graded Dimension Lumber (2" - 4"
thick)1,2,3

USE WITH TABLE 4A ADJUSTMENT FACTORS


Design values in pounds per square inch (psi)

Species and
commercial grade

Size
classification

EASTERN HEMLOCK-TAMARACK
Select Structural
No.1
No.2
No.3
Stud
Construction
Standard
Utility

2" & wider


2" & wider
2" - 4" wide

Bending
Fb

Tension
parallel
to grain
Ft

250

Shear
parallel
to grain
Fv
150

Compression
perpendicular
to grain
Fc
180

Compression
parallel
to grain
Fc

520

Modulus
of
Elasticity
E
900

Emin

Grading
Rules
Agency

1,000,000

1,250
775
575
350
450
675
375
175

575
350
275
150
200
300
175
75

170
170
170
170
170
170
170
170

555
555
555
555
555
555
555
555

1,200
1,000
825
475
525
1,050
850
550

1,200,000
1,100,000
1,100,000
900,000
900,000
1,000,000
900,000
800,000

440,000
400,000
400,000
330,000
330,000
370,000
330,000
290,000

NELMA
NSLB

1,250
775
575
350
450
675
375
175

575
350
275
150
200
300
175
75

140
140
140
140
140
140
140
140

335
335
335
335
335
335
335
335

1,200
1,000
825
475
525
1,050
850
550

1,200,000
1,100,000
1,100,000
900,000
900,000
1,000,000
900,000
800,000

440,000
400,000
400,000
330,000
330,000
370,000
330,000
290,000

NELMA
NSLB

1,250
775
575
350
450
675
375
175

575
350
275
150
200
300
175
75

135
135
135
135
135
135
135
135

350
350
350
350
350
350
350
350

1,200
1,000
825
475
525
1,050
850
550

1,200,000
1,100,000
1,100,000
900,000
900,000
1,000,000
900,000
800,000

440,000
400,000
400,000
330,000
330,000
370,000
330,000
290,000

NELMA
NSLB

1,400
1,100
975
850
500
675
975
550
250

925
725
625
525
300
400
600
325
150

150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150

405
405
405
405
405
405
405
405
405

1,500
1,350
1,350
1,300
725
800
1,550
1,300
850

1,600,000
1,500,000
1,500,000
1,300,000
1,200,000
1,200,000
1,300,000
1,200,000
1,100,000

580,000
550,000
550,000
470,000
440,000
440,000
470,000
440,000
400,000

1,300
1,200
1,000
575
775
1,150
650
300

775
725
575
325
450
650
350
175

145
145
145
145
145
145
145
145

405
405
405
405
405
405
405
405

1,700
1,550
1,450
850
925
1,750
1,500
975

1,700,000
1,700,000
1,600,000
1,400,000
1,400,000
1,500,000
1,400,000
1,300,000

620,000
620,000
580,000
510,000
510,000
550,000
510,000
470,000

1,000
725
700
400
550
800
450
225

600
425
425
250
325
475
275
125

195
195
195
195
195
195
195
195

620
620
620
620
620
620
620
620

875
700
550
325
350
725
575
375

1,300,000
1,200,000
1,100,000
1,000,000
1,000,000
1,100,000
1,000,000
900,000

470,000
440,000
400,000
370,000
370,000
400,000
370,000
330,000

EASTERN SOFTWOODS
Select Structural
No.1
No.2
No.3
Stud
Construction
Standard
Utility

2" & wider


2" & wider
2" - 4" wide

EASTERN WHITE PINE


Select Structural
No.1
No.2
No.3
Stud
Construction
Standard
Utility

2" & wider


2" & wider
2" - 4" wide

HEM-FIR
Select Structural
No.1 & Btr
No.1
No.2
No.3
Stud
Construction
Standard
Utility

2" & wider

2" & wider


2" - 4" wide

WCLIB
WWPA

HEM-FIR (NORTH)
Select Structural
No.1 & Btr
No.1/No.2
No.3
Stud
Construction
Standard
Utility

2" & wider

2" & wider


2" - 4" wide

NLGA

MIXED MAPLE
Select Structural
No.1
No.2
No.3
Stud
Construction
Standard
Utility

2" & wider


2" & wider
2" - 4" wide

AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION

NELMA

REFERENCE DESIGN VALUES

only to be used with the 2005 NDS and Wood Structural Design Data

(All species except Southern Pine see Table 4B) (Tabulated design values are for normal load
duration and dry service conditions. See NDS 4.3 for a comprehensive description of design value
adjustment factors.)

2005 REFERENCE DESIGN VALUES

34

Table 4A
(Cont.)

Reference Design Values for Visually Graded Dimension Lumber (2" - 4"
thick)1,2,3

only to be used with the 2005 NDS and Wood Structural Design Data

(All species except Southern Pine see Table 4B) (Tabulated design values are for normal load
duration and dry service conditions. See NDS 4.3 for a comprehensive description of design value
adjustment factors.)
USE WITH TABLE 4A ADJUSTMENT FACTORS
Design values in pounds per square inch (psi)

Species and
commercial grade

Size
classification

250

MIXED OAK
Select Structural
No.1
No.2
No.3
Stud
Construction
Standard
Utility

Bending
Fb

Tension
parallel
to grain
Ft

2" & wider


2" & wider
2" - 4" wide

Shear
parallel
to grain
Fv
150

Compression
perpendicular
to grain
Fc
180

Compression
parallel
to grain
Fc

520

Modulus
of
Elasticity
E
900

Emin

Grading
Rules
Agency

1,000,000

1,150
825
800
475
625
925
525
250

675
500
475
275
375
550
300
150

170
170
170
170
170
170
170
170

800
800
800
800
800
800
800
800

1,000
825
625
375
400
850
650
425

1,100,000
1,000,000
900,000
800,000
800,000
900,000
800,000
800,000

400,000
370,000
330,000
290,000
290,000
330,000
290,000
290,000

1,400
1,000
975
550
750
1,100
625
300

800
575
575
325
450
650
350
175

220
220
220
220
220
220
220
220

885
885
885
885
885
885
885
885

1,150
925
725
425
450
975
750
500

1,400,000
1,400,000
1,300,000
1,200,000
1,200,000
1,200,000
1,100,000
1,000,000

510,000
510,000
470,000
440,000
440,000
440,000
400,000
370,000

1,000
600
350
475
700
400
175

450
275
150
225
300
175
75

110
110
110
110
110
110
110

350
350
350
350
350
350
350

1,100
850
500
550
1,050
875
575

1,100,000
1,100,000
1,000,000
1,000,000
1,000,000
900,000
900,000

400,000
400,000
370,000
370,000
370,000
330,000
330,000

775
575
550
325
425
625
350
175

450
325
325
175
250
375
200
100

120
120
120
120
120
120
120
120

370
370
370
370
370
370
370
370

750
600
475
275
300
625
475
325

800,000
700,000
700,000
600,000
600,000
700,000
600,000
600,000

290,000
260,000
260,000
220,000
220,000
260,000
220,000
220,000

1,300
925
900
525
700
1,050
575
275

750
550
525
300
425
600
325
150

210
210
210
210
210
210
210
210

615
615
615
615
615
615
615
615

1,100
900
700
400
450
925
725
475

1,700,000
1,600,000
1,500,000
1,300,000
1,300,000
1,400,000
1,300,000
1,200,000

620,000
580,000
550,000
470,000
470,000
510,000
470,000
440,000

1,150
825
800
475
625
925
525
250

675
500
475
275
375
550
300
150

170
170
170
170
170
170
170
170

820
820
820
820
820
820
820
820

1,000
825
625
375
400
850
650
425

1,400,000
1,300,000
1,200,000
1,100,000
1,100,000
1,200,000
1,100,000
1,000,000

510,000
470,000
440,000
400,000
400,000
440,000
400,000
370,000

NELMA

NORTHERN RED OAK


Select Structural
No.1
No.2
No.3
Stud
Construction
Standard
Utility

2" & wider


2" & wider
2" - 4" wide

NELMA

NORTHERN SPECIES
Select Structural
No.1/No.2
No.3
Stud
Construction
Standard
Utility

2" & wider


2" & wider
2" - 4" wide

NLGA

NORTHERN WHITE CEDAR


Select Structural
No.1
No.2
No.3
Stud
Construction
Standard
Utility

2" & wider


2" & wider
2" - 4" wide

NELMA

RED MAPLE
Select Structural
No.1
No.2
No.3
Stud
Construction
Standard
Utility

2" & wider


2" & wider
2" - 4" wide

NELMA

RED OAK
Select Structural
No.1
No.2
No.3
Stud
Construction
Standard
Utility

2" & wider


2" & wider
2" - 4" wide

AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL

NELMA

2005 DESIGN VALUES FOR WOOD CONSTRUCTION NDS SUPPLEMENT

Table 4A
(Cont.)

35

Reference Design Values for Visually Graded Dimension Lumber (2" - 4"
thick)1,2,3

USE WITH TABLE 4A ADJUSTMENT FACTORS


Design values in pounds per square inch (psi)

Species and
commercial grade

Size
classification

250

REDWOOD
Clear Structural
Select Structural
Select Structural, open grain
No.1
No.1, open grain
No.2
No.2, open grain
No.3
No.3, open grain
Stud
Construction
Standard
Utility

Bending
Fb

Tension
parallel
to grain
Ft

2" & wider

2" & wider


2" - 4" wide

Shear
parallel
to grain
Fv
150

Compression
perpendicular
to grain
Fc
180

Compression
parallel
to grain
Fc

520

Modulus
of
Elasticity
E
900

Emin

Grading
Rules
Agency

1,000,000

1,750
1,350
1,100
975
775
925
725
525
425
575
825
450
225

1,000
800
625
575
450
525
425
300
250
325
475
275
125

160
160
160
160
160
160
160
160
160
160
160
160
160

650
650
425
650
425
650
425
650
425
425
425
425
425

1,850
1,500
1,100
1,200
900
950
700
550
400
450
925
725
475

1,400,000
1,400,000
1,100,000
1,300,000
1,100,000
1,200,000
1,000,000
1,100,000
900,000
900,000
900,000
900,000
800,000

510,000
510,000
400,000
470,000
400,000
440,000
370,000
400,000
330,000
330,000
330,000
330,000
290,000

RIS

1,250
875
500
675
1,000
550
275

700
450
250
350
500
275
125

135
135
135
135
135
135
135

425
425
425
425
425
425
425

1,400
1,150
650
725
1,400
1,150
750

1,500,000
1,400,000
1,200,000
1,200,000
1,300,000
1,200,000
1,100,000

550,000
510,000
440,000
440,000
470,000
440,000
400,000

NLGA

1,300
875
775
450
600
875
500
225

575
400
350
200
275
400
225
100

135
135
135
135
135
135
135
135

335
335
335
335
335
335
335
335

1,200
1,050
1,000
575
625
1,200
1,000
675

1,300,000
1,200,000
1,100,000
1,000,000
1,000,000
1,000,000
900,000
900,000

470,000
440,000
400,000
370,000
370,000
370,000
330,000
330,000

NELMA
NSLB
WCLIB
WWPA

1,000
725
700
400
550
800
450
225

600
425
425
250
325
475
275
125

155
155
155
155
155
155
155
155

425
425
425
425
425
425
425
425

1,000
825
650
375
400
850
650
425

1,100,000
1,000,000
1,000,000
900,000
900,000
900,000
800,000
800,000

400,000
370,000
370,000
330,000
330,000
330,000
290,000
290,000

WCLIB
WWPA

900
675
675
375
525
775
425
200

400
300
300
175
225
350
200
100

135
135
135
135
135
135
135
135

335
335
335
335
335
335
335
335

1,050
950
900
525
575
1,100
925
600

1,200,000
1,100,000
1,000,000
900,000
900,000
1,000,000
900,000
800,000

440,000
400,000
370,000
330,000
330,000
370,000
330,000
290,000

WCLIB
WWPA

SPRUCE-PINE-FIR
Select Structural
No.1/No.2
No.3
Stud
Construction
Standard
Utility

2" & wider


2" & wider
2" - 4" wide

SPRUCE-PINE-FIR (SOUTH)
Select Structural
No.1
No.2
No.3
Stud
Construction
Standard
Utility

2" & wider


2" & wider
2" - 4" wide

WESTERN CEDARS
Select Structural
No.1
No.2
No.3
Stud
Construction
Standard
Utility

2" & wider


2" & wider
2" - 4" wide

WESTERN WOODS
Select Structural
No.1
No.2
No.3
Stud
Construction
Standard
Utility

2" & wider


2" & wider
2" - 4" wide

AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION

4
REFERENCE DESIGN VALUES

only to be used with the 2005 NDS and Wood Structural Design Data

(All species except Southern Pine see Table 4B) (Tabulated design values are for normal load
duration and dry service conditions. See NDS 4.3 for a comprehensive description of design value
adjustment factors.)

2005 REFERENCE DESIGN VALUES

36

Table 4A
(Cont.)

Reference Design Values for Visually Graded Dimension Lumber (2" - 4"
thick)1,2,3

only to be used with the 2005 NDS and Wood Structural Design Data

(All species except Southern Pine see Table 4B) (Tabulated design values are for normal load
duration and dry service conditions. See NDS 4.3 for a comprehensive description of design value
adjustment factors.)
USE WITH TABLE 4A ADJUSTMENT FACTORS
Design values in pounds per square inch (psi)

Species and
commercial grade

Size
classification

250

WHITE OAK
Select Structural
No.1
No.2
No.3
Stud
Construction
Standard
Utility

Bending
Fb

Tension
parallel
to grain
Ft

2" & wider


2" & wider
2" - 4" wide

Shear
parallel
to grain
Fv
150

Compression
perpendicular
to grain
Fc
180

Compression
parallel
to grain
Fc

520

Modulus
of
Elasticity
E
900

Emin

Grading
Rules
Agency

1,000,000

1,200
875
850
475
650
950
525
250

700
500
500
275
375
550
325
150

220
220
220
220
220
220
220
220

800
800
800
800
800
800
800
800

1,100
900
700
400
450
925
725
475

1,100,000
1,000,000
900,000
800,000
800,000
900,000
800,000
800,000

400,000
370,000
330,000
290,000
290,000
330,000
290,000
290,000

1,000
725
700
400
550
800
450
200

575
425
400
225
325
475
250
125

145
145
145
145
145
145
145
145

420
420
420
420
420
420
420
420

900
725
575
325
350
750
575
375

1,500,000
1,400,000
1,300,000
1,200,000
1,200,000
1,300,000
1,100,000
1,100,000

550,000
510,000
470,000
440,000
440,000
470,000
400,000
400,000

NELMA

YELLOW POPLAR
Select Structural
No.1
No.2
No.3
Stud
Construction
Standard
Utility

2" & wider


2" & wider
2" - 4" wide

NSLB

1. LUMBER DIMENSIONS. Tabulated design values are applicable to lumber that will be used under dry conditions such as in most covered structures. For 2" to
4" thick lumber the DRY dressed sizes shall be used (see Table 1A) regardless of the moisture content at the time of manufacture or use. In calculating design
values, the natural gain in strength and stiffness that occurs as lumber dries has been taken into consideration as well as the reduction in size that occurs when
unseasoned lumber shrinks. The gain in load carrying capacity due to increased strength and stiffness resulting from drying more than offsets the design effect of
size reductions due to shrinkage.
2. STRESS-RATED BOARDS. Stress-rated boards of nominal 1", 1-" and 1-" thickness, 2" and wider, of most species, are permitted to use the design values
shown for Select Structural, No.1 & Btr, No.1, No.2, No.3, Stud, Construction, Standard, Utility, and Clear Structural grades as shown in the 2" to 4" thick
categories herein, when graded in accordance with the stress-rated board provisions in the applicable grading rules. Information on stress-rated board grades
applicable to the various species is available from the respective grading rules agencies. Information on additional design values may also be available from the
respective grading rules agencies.
3. When individual species or species groups are combined, the design values to be used for the combination shall be the lowest design values for each individual
species or species group for each design property.

AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL

2005 DESIGN VALUES FOR WOOD CONSTRUCTION NDS SUPPLEMENT

37

Table 4B Adjustment Factors

Appropriate size adjustment factors have already been


incorporated in the tabulated design values for most thicknesses of Southern Pine and Mixed Southern Pine dimension lumber. For dimension lumber 4" thick, 8" and wider
(all grades except Dense Structural 86, Dense Structural
72, and Dense Structural 65), tabulated bending design
values, Fb, shall be permitted to be multiplied by the size
factor, CF = 1.1. For dimension lumber wider than 12"
(all grades except Dense Structural 86, Dense Structural
72, and Dense Structural 65), tabulated bending, tension
and compression parallel to grain design values for 12"
wide lumber shall be multiplied by the size factor, CF =
0.9. When the depth, d, of Dense Structural 86, Dense
Structural 72, or Dense Structural 65 dimension lumber
exceeds 12", the tabulated bending design value,
Fb, shall be multiplied by the following size factor:

Flat Use Factor, Cfu

Bending design values adjusted by size factors are


based on edgewise use (load applied to narrow face). When
dimension lumber is used flatwise (load applied to wide
face), the bending design value, Fb, shall also be multiplied by the following flat use factors:
Flat Use Factors, Cfu
Thickness (breadth)

Width
(depth)

2" & 3"

4"

1.0
1.1
1.1
1.15
1.15
1.2

1.0
1.05
1.05
1.05
1.1

2" & 3"


4"
5"
6"
8"
10" & wider

Wet Service Factor, CM


CF = (12/d)

1/9

Repetitive Member Factor, Cr

Bending design values, Fb, for dimension lumber 2"


to 4" thick shall be multiplied by the repetitive member
factor, Cr = 1.15, when such members are used as joists,
truss chords, rafters, studs, planks, decking, or similar
members which are in contact or spaced not more than
24" on center, are not less than 3 in number and are joined
by floor, roof, or other load distributing elements adequate
to support the design load.

When dimension lumber is used where moisture content will exceed 19% for an extended time period, design
values shall be multiplied by the appropriate wet service
factors from the following table (for surfaced dry Dense
Structural 86, Dense Structural 72, and Dense Structural
65 use tabulated surfaced green design values for wet service conditions without further adjustment):
Wet Service Factors, CM
Fb
0.85*

Ft
1.0

Fv
0.97

* when (Fb)(CF) 1,150 psi, CM = 1.0


** when (Fc) 750 psi, CM = 1.0

AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION

Fc
0.67

Fc E and Emin
0.8**
0.9

4
REFERENCE DESIGN VALUES

only to be used with the 2005 NDS and Wood Structural Design Data

Size Factor, CF

2005 REFERENCE DESIGN VALUES

38

Table 4B

Reference Design Values for Visually Graded Southern Pine Dimension


Lumber (2" - 4" thick)1,2,3,4,5

only to be used with the 2005 NDS and Wood Structural Design Data

(Tabulated design values are for normal load duration and dry service conditions, unless specified
otherwise. See NDS 4.3 for a comprehensive description of design value adjustment factors.)
USE WITH TABLE 4B ADJUSTMENT FACTORS
Design values in pounds per square inch (psi)

Species and
commercial grade

Size
classification

250

SOUTHERN PINE
Dense Select Structural
Select Structural
Non-Dense Select Structural
No.1 Dense
No.1
No.1 Non-Dense
No.2 Dense
No.2
No.2 Non-Dense
No.3 and Stud
Construction
Standard
Utility
Dense Select Structural
Select Structural
Non-Dense Select Structural
No.1 Dense
No.1
No.1 Non-Dense
No.2 Dense
No.2
No.2 Non-Dense
No.3 and Stud
Dense Select Structural
Select Structural
Non-Dense Select Structural
No.1 Dense
No.1
No.1 Non-Dense
No.2 Dense
No.2
No.2 Non-Dense
No.3 and Stud
Dense Select Structural
Select Structural
Non-Dense Select Structural
No.1 Dense
No.1
No.1 Non-Dense
No.2 Dense
No.2
No.2 Non-Dense
No.3 and Stud
Dense Select Structural
Select Structural
Non-Dense Select Structural
No.1 Dense
No.1
No.1 Non-Dense
No.2 Dense
No.2
No.2 Non-Dense
No.3 and Stud

Bending
Fb

Tension
parallel
to grain
Ft

2" - 4" wide

4" wide

5" - 6" wide

8" wide

10" wide

12" wide

Shear
parallel
to grain
Fv
150

Compression
perpendicular
to grain
Fc
180

Compression
parallel
to grain
Fc

520

Modulus
of
Elasticity
E
900

Emin
1,000,000

3,050
2,850
2,650
2,000
1,850
1,700
1,700
1,500
1,350
850

1,650
1,600
1,350
1,100
1,050
900
875
825
775
475

175
175
175
175
175
175
175
175
175
175

660
565
480
660
565
480
660
565
480
565

2,250
2,100
1,950
2,000
1,850
1,700
1,850
1,650
1,600
975

1,900,000
1,800,000
1,700,000
1,800,000
1,700,000
1,600,000
1,700,000
1,600,000
1,400,000
1,400,000

690,000
660,000
620,000
660,000
620,000
580,000
620,000
580,000
510,000
510,000

1,100
625
300

625
350
175

175
175
175

565
565
565

1,800
1,500
975

1,500,000
1,300,000
1,300,000

550,000
470,000
470,000

2,700
2,550
2,350
1,750
1,650
1,500
1,450
1,250
1,150
750

1,500
1,400
1,200
950
900
800
775
725
675
425

175
175
175
175
175
175
175
175
175
175

660
565
480
660
565
480
660
565
480
565

2,150
2,000
1,850
1,900
1,750
1,600
1,750
1,600
1,500
925

1,900,000
1,800,000
1,700,000
1,800,000
1,700,000
1,600,000
1,700,000
1,600,000
1,400,000
1,400,000

690,000
660,000
620,000
660,000
620,000
580,000
620,000
580,000
510,000
510,000

2,450
2,300
2,100
1,650
1,500
1,350
1,400
1,200
1,100
700

1,350
1,300
1,100
875
825
725
675
650
600
400

175
175
175
175
175
175
175
175
175
175

660
565
480
660
565
480
660
565
480
565

2,050
1,900
1,750
1,800
1,650
1,550
1,700
1,550
1,450
875

1,900,000
1,800,000
1,700,000
1,800,000
1,700,000
1,600,000
1,700,000
1,600,000
1,400,000
1,400,000

690,000
660,000
620,000
660,000
620,000
580,000
620,000
580,000
510,000
510,000

2,150
2,050
1,850
1,450
1,300
1,200
1,200
1,050
950
600

1,200
1,100
950
775
725
650
625
575
550
325

175
175
175
175
175
175
175
175
175
175

660
565
480
660
565
480
660
565
480
565

2,000
1,850
1,750
1,750
1,600
1,500
1,650
1,500
1,400
850

1,900,000
1,800,000
1,700,000
1,800,000
1,700,000
1,600,000
1,700,000
1,600,000
1,400,000
1,400,000

690,000
660,000
620,000
660,000
620,000
580,000
620,000
580,000
510,000
510,000

2,050
1,900
1,750
1,350
1,250
1,150
1,150
975
900
575

1,100
1,050
900
725
675
600
575
550
525
325

175
175
175
175
175
175
175
175
175
175

660
565
480
660
565
480
660
565
480
565

1,950
1,800
1,700
1,700
1,600
1,500
1,600
1,450
1,350
825

1,900,000
1,800,000
1,700,000
1,800,000
1,700,000
1,600,000
1,700,000
1,600,000
1,400,000
1,400,000

690,000
660,000
620,000
660,000
620,000
580,000
620,000
580,000
510,000
510,000

AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL

Grading
Rules
Agency

SPIB

2005 DESIGN VALUES FOR WOOD CONSTRUCTION NDS SUPPLEMENT

Table 4B
(Cont.)

39

Reference Design Values for Visually Graded Southern Pine Dimension


Lumber (2" - 4" thick)1,2,3,4,5

USE WITH TABLE 4B ADJUSTMENT FACTORS


Design values in pounds per square inch (psi)

Species and
commercial grade

Size
classification

Bending
Fb

SOUTHERN PINE
Dense Structural 86
Dense Structural 72
Dense Structural 65

Tension
parallel
to grain
Ft

Compression
perpendicular
to grain
Fc

Compression
parallel
to grain
Fc

Modulus
of
Elasticity
E

Emin

Grading
Rules
Agency

(Surfaced Dry - Used in dry service conditions - 19% or less moisture content)
2" & wider

2,600
2,200
2,000

1,750
1,450
1,300

660,000
660,000
660,000

SPIB

2,100
1,750
1,600

1,400
1,200
1,050

165
165
165

440
440
440

1,300
1,100
1,000

1,600,000
1,600,000
1,600,000

580,000
580,000
580,000

SPIB

2,050
1,450
1,300
750

1,200
875
775
450

175
175
175
175

565
565
565
565

1,800
1,650
1,650
950

1,600,000
1,500,000
1,400,000
1,200,000

580,000
550,000
510,000
440,000

1,000
550
275

600
325
150

175
175
175

565
565
565

1,700
1,450
950

1,300,000
1,200,000
1,100,000

470,000
440,000
400,000

1,850
1,300
1,150
675

1,100
750
675
400

175
175
175
175

565
565
565
565

1,700
1,550
1,550
875

1,600,000
1,500,000
1,400,000
1,200,000

580,000
550,000
510,000
440,000

1,750
1,200
1,050
625

1,000
700
625
375

175
175
175
175

565
565
565
565

1,600
1,450
1,450
850

1,600,000
1,500,000
1,400,000
1,200,000

580,000
550,000
510,000
440,000

1,500
1,050
925
525

875
600
550
325

175
175
175
175

565
565
565
565

1,600
1,450
1,450
825

1,600,000
1,500,000
1,400,000
1,200,000

580,000
550,000
510,000
440,000

1,400
975
875
500

825
575
525
300

175
175
175
175

565
565
565
565

1,550
1,400
1,400
800

1,600,000
1,500,000
1,400,000
1,200,000

580,000
550,000
510,000
440,000

SOUTHERN PINE
Dense Structural 86
Dense Structural 72
Dense Structural 65

Shear
parallel
to grain
Fv

175
175
175

660
660
660

2,000
1,650
1,500

1,800,000
1,800,000
1,800,000

(Surfaced Green - Used in any service condition)


2-1/2" & wider
2-1/2"-4" thick

MIXED SOUTHERN PINE


Select Structural
No.1
No.2
No.3 and Stud
Construction
Standard
Utility
Select Structural
No.1
No.2
No.3 and Stud
Select Structural
No.1
No.2
No.3 and Stud
Select Structural
No.1
No.2
No.3 and Stud
Select Structural
No.1
No.2
No.3 and Stud

2" - 4" wide

4" wide

5" - 6" wide

8" wide

10" wide

12" wide

SPIB

1. LUMBER DIMENSIONS. Tabulated design values are applicable to lumber that will be used under dry conditions such as in most covered structures. For 2" to
4" thick lumber the DRY dressed sizes shall be used (see Table 1A) regardless of the moisture content at the time of manufacture or use. In calculating design values,
the natural gain in strength and stiffness that occurs as lumber dries has been taken into consideration as well as the reduction in size that occurs when unseasoned
lumber shrinks. The gain in load carrying capacity due to increased strength and stiffness resulting from drying more than offsets the design effect of size reductions
due to shrinkage.
2. STRESS-RATED BOARDS. Information for various grades of Southern Pine stress-rated boards of nominal 1", 1-", and 1-" thickness, 2" and wider is
available from the Southern Pine Inspection Bureau (SPIB) in the Standard Grading Rules for Southern Pine Lumber.
3. SPRUCE PINE. To obtain recommended design values for Spruce Pine graded to SPIB rules, multiply the appropriate design values for Mixed Southern Pine by
the corresponding conversion factor shown below and round to the nearest 100,000 psi for E; to the nearest 10,000 psi for Emin; to the next lower multiple of 5 psi
for Fv and Fc; to the next lower multiple of 50 psi for Fb, Ft, and Fc if 1,000 psi or greater, 25 psi otherwise.

CONVERSION FACTORS FOR DETERMINING DESIGN VALUES FOR SPRUCE PINE


Tension
Shear
Compression
Compression
Modulus
parallel
parallel
perpendicular
parallel
of
Bending
to grain
to grain
to grain
to grain
Elasticity
Fb
Ft
Fv
Fc
Fc
E and Emin

Conversion
Factor
0.78
0.78
0.98
0.73
0.78
0.82
4. SIZE FACTOR. For sizes wider than 12", use size factors for Fb, Ft, and Fc specified for the 12" width. Use 100% of the Fv, Fc, E, and Emin specified for the 12"
width.
5. When individual species or species groups are combined, the design values to be used for the combination shall be the lowest design values for each individual
species or species group for each design property.

AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION

4
REFERENCE DESIGN VALUES

only to be used with the 2005 NDS and Wood Structural Design Data

(Tabulated design values are for normal load duration and dry service conditions, unless specified
otherwise. See NDS 4.3 for a comprehensive description of design value adjustment factors.)

2005 REFERENCE DESIGN VALUES

40

Table 4C Adjustment Factors

only to be used with the 2005 NDS and Wood Structural Design Data

Flat Use Factor, Cfu

Bending design values adjusted by size factors are


based on edgewise use (load applied to narrow face).
When dimension lumber is used flatwise (load applied
to wide face), the bending design value, Fb, shall also be
multiplied by the following flat use factors:
Flat Use Factors, Cfu
Width
(depth)

Thickness (breadth)

2" & 3"


4"
5"
6"
8"
10" & wider

1.0
1.1
1.1
1.15
1.15
1.2

2"

Repetitive Member Factor, Cr

Bending design values, Fb, for dimension lumber 2"


to 4" thick shall be multiplied by the repetitive member
factor, Cr = 1.15, when such members are used as joists,
truss chords, rafters, studs, planks, decking, or similar
members which are in contact or spaced not more than
24" on center, are not less than 3 in number and are joined
by floor, roof, or other load distributing elements adequate
to support the design load.

Wet Service Factor, CM

When dimension lumber is used where moisture content will exceed 19% for an extended time period, design
values shall be multiplied by the appropriate wet service
factors from the following table:
Wet Service Factors, CM
Fb
0.85*

Ft
1.0

Fv
0.97

* when Fb 1,150 psi, CM = 1.0


** when Fc 750 psi, CM = 1.0

AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL

Fc
0.67

Fc
0.8**

E and Emin
0.9

2005 DESIGN VALUES FOR WOOD CONSTRUCTION NDS SUPPLEMENT

Table 4C

41

Reference Design Values for Mechanically Graded Dimension Lumber1,2,3


(Tabulated design values are for normal load duration and dry service conditions, unless specified
otherwise. See NDS 4.3 for a comprehensive description of design value adjustment factors.)

Design values in pounds per square inch (psi)

Species and
commercial grade

Size
classification

Bending
Fb

Tension
parallel
to grain
Ft

900
1,200
1,250
1,350
1,400
1,450
1,450
1,500
1,600
1,650
1,650
1,650
1,650
1,650
1,700
1,750
1,800
1,800
1,800
1,950
1,950
2,000
2,100
2,250
2,250
2,250
2,250
2,250
2,400
2,400
2,500
2,500
2,550
2,700
2,700
2,850
3,000

350
600
800
750
800
800
875
900
950
1,020
1,020
1,075
1,175
1,020
1,175
1,125
1,300
1,175
1,200
1,375
1,375
1,300
1,575
1,750
1,750
1,750
1,600
1,750
1,925
1,925
1,750
1,925
2,050
1,800
2,150
2,300
2,400

Compression
parallel
to grain
Fc

Modulus
of
Elasticity
E

Emin

Grading Rules Agency

MACHINE STRESS RATED (MSR)


LUMBER
900f-1.0E
1200f-1.2E
1250f-1.4E
1350f-1.3E
1400f-1.2E
1450f-1.3E
1450f-1.5E
1500f-1.4E
1600f-1.4E
1650f-1.3E
1650f-1.5E
1650f-1.6E-1075ft
1650f-1.6E
1650f-1.8E
1700f-1.6E
1750f-2.0E
1800f-1.5E
1800f-1.6E
1800f-1.8E
1950f-1.5E
1950f-1.7E
2000f-1.6E
2100f-1.8E
2250f-1.7E
2250f-1.8E
2250f-1.9E
2250f-2.0E-1600ft
2250f-2.0E
2400f-1.8E
2400f-2.0E
2500f-2.2E
2500f-2.2E-1925ft
2550f-2.1E
2700f-2.0E
2700f-2.2E
2850f-2.3E
3000f-2.4E

2" and less


in thickness
2" and wider

1,050
1,400
1,475
1,600
1,600
1,625
1,625
1,650
1,675
1,700
1,700
1,700
1,700
1,750
1,725
1,725
1,750
1,750
1,750
1,800
1,800
1,825
1,875
1,925
1,925
1,925
1,925
1,925
1,975
1,975
2,000
2,000
2,025
2,100
2,100
2,150
2,200

1,000,000
1,200,000
1,400,000
1,300,000
1,200,000
1,300,000
1,500,000
1,400,000
1,400,000
1,300,000
1,500,000
1,600,000
1,600,000
1,800,000
1,600,000
2,000,000
1,500,000
1,600,000
1,800,000
1,500,000
1,700,000
1,600,000
1,800,000
1,700,000
1,800,000
1,900,000
2,000,000
2,000,000
1,800,000
2,000,000
2,200,000
2,200,000
2,100,000
2,000,000
2,200,000
2,300,000
2,400,000

510,000
610,000
710,000
660,000
610,000
660,000
760,000
710,000
710,000
660,000
760,000
810,000
810,000
910,000
810,000
1,020,000
760,000
810,000
910,000
760,000
860,000
810,000
910,000
860,000
910,000
970,000
1,020,000
1,020,000
910,000
1,020,000
1,120,000
1,120,000
1,070,000
1,020,000
1,120,000
1,170,000
1,220,000

AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION

WCLIB, WWPA, NELMA, NSLB


NLGA, WCLIB, WWPA, NELMA, NSLB
WCLIB, WWPA
NLGA, WCLIB, WWPA, NELMA, NSLB
NLGA, WWPA
NLGA, WCLIB, WWPA, NELMA, NSLB
WCLIB, WWPA
NLGA, WCLIB, WWPA, NELMA, NSLB
NLGA, WWPA
NLGA, WWPA
NLGA, SPIB, WCLIB, WWPA, NELMA, NSLB
WCLIB, WWPA
WCLIB, WWPA
WCLIB, WWPA
WCLIB, WWPA
WCLIB, WWPA
NLGA, WWPA
NLGA, SPIB, WCLIB, WWPA, NELMA, NSLB
WCLIB, WWPA
SPIB, WWPA
NLGA, SPIB, WCLIB, WWPA, NELMA, NSLB
NLGA, WWPA
NLGA, SPIB, WCLIB, WWPA, NELMA, NSLB
NLGA, WWPA
NLGA, WCLIB, WWPA
NLGA, SPIB, WCLIB, WWPA, NELMA, NSLB
WCLIB, WWPA
WCLIB, WWPA
NLGA, WWPA
NLGA, SPIB, WCLIB, WWPA, NELMA, NSLB
WCLIB, WWPA
WCLIB, WWPA
NLGA, SPIB, WCLIB, WWPA, NELMA, NSLB
WCLIB, WWPA
NLGA, SPIB, WCLIB, WWPA, NELMA, NSLB
NLGA, SPIB, WCLIB, WWPA, NELMA, NSLB
NLGA, SPIB

4
REFERENCE DESIGN VALUES

only to be used with the 2005 NDS and Wood Structural Design Data

USE WITH TABLE 4C ADJUSTMENT FACTORS

2005 REFERENCE DESIGN VALUES

42

Table 4C
(Cont.)

Reference Design Values for Mechanically Graded Dimension Lumber1,2,3


(Tabulated design values are for normal load duration and dry service conditions, unless specified
otherwise. See NDS 4.3 for a comprehensive description of design value adjustment factors.)

only to be used with the 2005 NDS and Wood Structural Design Data

USE WITH TABLE 4C ADJUSTMENT FACTORS


Design values in pounds per square inch (psi)

Species and
commercial grade

Size
classification

Bending
Fb

Tension
parallel
to grain
Ft

900
1,100
1,200
1,300
1,400
1,400
1,550
1,600
1,600
1,800
1,800
1,800
1,950
2,000
2,000
2,000
2,300
2,350
2,400
2,700
2,750
2,800
3,000
2,200
1,550
2,050
2,850

500
600
650
700
800
800
850
850
950
1,000
1,100
1,300
1,300
1,200
1,300
1,600
1,400
1,500
1,900
1,800
2,000
1,800
2,000
1,600
850
1,050
1,600

Compression
parallel
to grain
Fc

Modulus
of
Elasticity
E

Grading Rules Agency

Emin

MACHINE EVALUATED LUMBER


(MEL)
M-5
M-6
M-7
M-8
M-9
M-10
M-11
M-12
M-13
M-14
M-15
M-16
M-17[4]
M-18
M-19
M-20[4]
M-21
M-22
M-23
M-24
M-25
M-26
M-27[4]
M-28
M-29
M-30
M-31

2" and less


in thickness
2" and wider

1,050
1,300
1,400
1,500
1,600
1,600
1,675
1,675
1,675
1,750
1,750
1,750
2,050
1,825
1,825
2,100
1,950
1,950
1,975
2,100
2,100
2,150
2,400
1,900
1,650
1,850
2,150

1,100,000
1,000,000
1,100,000
1,300,000
1,400,000
1,200,000
1,500,000
1,600,000
1,400,000
1,700,000
1,500,000
1,500,000
1,700,000
1,800,000
1,600,000
1,900,000
1,900,000
1,700,000
1,800,000
1,900,000
2,200,000
2,000,000
2,100,000
1,700,000
1,700,000
1,700,000
1,900,000

AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL

510,000
470,000
510,000
610,000
650,000
560,000
700,000
750,000
650,000
790,000
700,000
700,000
790,000
840,000
750,000
890,000
890,000
790,000
840,000
890,000
1,030,000
930,000
980,000
790,000
790,000
790,000
890,000

SPIB
SPIB
SPIB
SPIB
SPIB
NLGA, SPIB
NLGA, SPIB
NLGA, SPIB
NLGA, SPIB
NLGA, SPIB
NLGA, SPIB
SPIB
SPIB
NLGA, SPIB
NLGA, SPIB
SPIB
NLGA, SPIB
NLGA, SPIB
NLGA, SPIB
NLGA, SPIB
NLGA, SPIB
NLGA, SPIB
SPIB
SPIB
SPIB
SPIB
SPIB

2005 DESIGN VALUES FOR WOOD CONSTRUCTION NDS SUPPLEMENT

43

1. LUMBER DIMENSIONS. Tabulated design values are applicable to lumber that will be used under dry conditions such as in most covered structures. For 2" to
4" thick lumber the DRY dressed sizes shall be used (see Table 1A) regardless of the moisture content at the time of manufacture or use. In calculating design
values, the natural gain in strength and stiffness that occurs as lumber dries has been taken into consideration as well as the reduction in size that occurs when
unseasoned lumber shrinks. The gain in load carrying capacity due to increased strength and stiffness resulting from drying more than offsets the design effect of
size reductions due to shrinkage.
2. SPECIFIC GRAVITY, G, SHEAR PARALLEL TO GRAIN, FV, AND COMPRESSION PERPENDICULAR TO GRAIN, Fc. Values for specific gravity,
G, shear parallel to grain, Fv, and compression perpendicular to grain, Fc, are provided below for MSR and MEL lumber. For species or species groups not shown
below, the G, Fv, and Fc values for visually graded lumber may be used. Higher G values may be claimed when (a) specifically assigned by the rules writing agency
or (b) when qualified by test, quality controlled for G and provided for on the grade stamp. When a different G value is provided on the grade stamp, higher Fv and
Fc design values may be calculated in accordance with the grading rule requirements.
Design Values
Species

Douglas Fir-Larch

Douglas Fir-Larch (N)


Douglas Fir-South

Modulus of
Elasticity
E (x106), psi

Specific
Gravity
G

Shear Parallel
to Grain
Fv, psi

Compression
Perpendicular
to Grain
Fc, psi

4
Grading Rules Agency

1.0 and higher

0.50

180

625

WCLIB, WWPA

2.0
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4

0.51
0.52
0.53
0.54
0.55

180
180
180
185
185

670
690
715
735
760

WCLIB, WWPA

1.2 to 1.9
2.0 to 2.2

0.49
0.53

180
180

625
715

2.3 and higher

0.57

190

715

NLGA

1.0 and higher

0.46

180

520

WWPA

NLGA

Englemann Spruce-

1.0 and higher

0.38

135

335

WWPA

Lodgepole Pine

1.5 and higher

0.46

160

555

WWPA

1.0 and higher

0.43

150

405

WCLIB, WWPA

1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9
2.0
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4

0.44
0.45
0.46
0.47
0.48
0.49
0.50
0.51
0.52

155
160
160
165
170
170
175
190
190

510
535
555
580
600
625
645
670
690

Hem-Fir (N)

1.0 and higher

0.46

145

405

Southern Pine

1.0 and higher

0.55

175

565

SPIB

1.8 and higher

0.57

190

805

SPIB

1.2 and higher

0.42

135

425

NLGA

Hem-Fir

Spruce-Pine-Fir

Spruce-Pine-Fir (South)

WCLIB, WWPA

NLGA

1.8 to 1.9

0.46

160

525

NLGA

2.0 and higher

0.50

170

615

NLGA

1.0 and higher

0.36

135

335

NELMA, NSLB, WCLIB, WWPA

1.2 to 1.9

0.42

150

465

NELMA, NSLB

1.2 to 1.7
1.8 to 1.9

0.42
0.46

150
160

465
555

WWPA

2.0 and higher

0.50

175

645

NELMA, NSLB, WWPA

Western Cedars

1.0 and higher

0.36

155

425

WCLIB, WWPA

Western Woods

1.0 and higher

0.36

135

335

WCLIB, WWPA

3. MODULUS OF ELASTICITY, E, AND TENSION PARALLEL TO GRAIN, Ft. For any given bending design value, Fb, the modulus of elasticity, E, and
tension parallel to grain, Ft, design value may vary depending upon species, timber source, or other variables. The E and Ft values included in the Fb-E grade
designations in Table 4C are those usually associated with each Fb level. Grade stamps may show higher or lower values if machine rating indicates the
assignment is appropriate. Where the E or Ft values shown on a grade stamp differ from Table 4C values associated with the Fb on the grade stamp, the values
on the stamp shall be used in design, and the Fc value associated with the Fb value in Table 4C shall be used.
4. COMPRESSION PARALLEL TO GRAIN, Fc. This grade requires Fc qualification and quality control.

AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION

REFERENCE DESIGN VALUES

only to be used with the 2005 NDS and Wood Structural Design Data

Table 4C Footnotes

2005 REFERENCE DESIGN VALUES

44

Table 4D Adjustment Factors

only to be used with the 2005 NDS and Wood Structural Design Data

Size Factor, CF

When the depth, d, of a beam, stringer, post, or timber


exceeds 12", the tabulated bending design value, Fb, shall
be multiplied by the following size factor:
CF = (12/d)1/9

When beams and stringers are subjected to loads applied to the wide face, tabulated design values shall be
multiplied by the following size factors:
Size Factors, CF

Grade
Select Structural
No.1
No.2

Fb E and Emin Other Properties


0.86
1.00
1.00
0.74
0.90
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00

Wet Service Factor, CM

When timbers are used where moisture content will


exceed 19% for an extended time period, design values
shall be multiplied by the appropriate wet service factors
from the following table (for Southern Pine and Mixed
Southern Pine use tabulated design values without further
adjustment):
Wet Service Factors, CM
Fb

Ft

Fv

Fc

Fc

1.00

1.00

1.00

0.67

0.91

AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL

E and Emin
1.00

2005 DESIGN VALUES FOR WOOD CONSTRUCTION NDS SUPPLEMENT

Table 4D

45

Reference Design Values for Visually Graded Timbers (5" x 5" and larger)1,3
(Tabulated design values are for normal load duration and dry service conditions, unless specified
otherwise. See NDS 4.3 for a comprehensive description of design value adjustment factors.)

Design values in pounds per square inch (psi)

Species and
commercial grade

Size
classification

ALASKA CEDAR

Bending
Fb

Tension
parallel
to grain
Ft

250

Shear
parallel
to grain
Fv
150

Compression
perpendicular
to grain
Fc
180

Compression
parallel
to grain
Fc

520

Modulus
of
Elasticity
E
900

Emin

Grading
Rules
Agency

1,000,000

Select Structural
No.1
No.2

Beams and
Stringers

1,400
1,150
750

675
475
300

155
155
155

525
525
525

925
775
500

1,200,000
1,200,000
1,000,000

440,000
440,000
370,000

Select Structural
No.1
No.2

Posts and
Timbers

1,300
1,050
625

700
575
350

155
155
155

525
525
525

975
850
600

1,200,000
1,200,000
1,000,000

440,000
440,000
370,000

5"x5" and
Larger

1,150
1,000
625

750
675
425

200
200
175

615
615
615

1,050
925
600

1,300,000
1,300,000
1,000,000

470,000
470,000
370,000

Select Structural
No.1
No.2

Beams and
Stringers

1,350
1,100
725

900
750
350

125
125
125

305
305
305

950
800
500

1,400,000
1,400,000
1,100,000

510,000
510,000
400,000

Select Structural
No.1
No.2

Posts and
Timbers

1,250
1,000
575

825
675
375

125
125
125

305
305
305

1,000
875
400

1,400,000
1,400,000
1,100,000

510,000
510,000
400,000

Select Structural
No.1
No.2

Beams and
Stringers

1,650
1,400
900

975
700
450

180
180
180

715
715
715

975
825
525

1,500,000
1,500,000
1,200,000

550,000
550,000
440,000

Select Structural
No.1
No.2

Posts and
Timbers

1,550
1,250
725

1,050
850
475

180
180
180

715
715
715

1,050
900
425

1,500,000
1,500,000
1,200,000

550,000
550,000
440,000

Select Structural
No.1
No.2

Beams and
Stringers

1,150
950
625

675
475
325

115
115
115

455
455
455

775
650
425

1,500,000
1,500,000
1,200,000

550,000
550,000
440,000

Select Structural
No.1
No .2

Posts and
Timbers

1,100
875
525

725
575
350

115
115
115

455
455
455

825
725
500

1,500,000
1,500,000
1,200,000

550,000
550,000
440,000

1,900
1,600
1,550
1,350
875

1,100
950
775
675
425

170
170
170
170
170

730
625
730
625
625

1,300
1,100
1,100
925
600

1,700,000
1,600,000
1,700,000
1,600,000
1,300,000

620,000
580,000
620,000
580,000
470,000

1,750
1,500
1,400
1,200
750

1,150
1,000
950
825
475

170
170
170
170
170

730
625
730
625
625

1,350
1,150
1,200
1,000
700

1,700,000
1,600,000
1,700,000
1,600,000
1,300,000

620,000
580,000
620,000
580,000
470,000

1,900
1,600
1,550
1,350
1,000
875

1,100
950
775
675
500
425

170
170
170
170
170
170

730
625
730
625
730
625

1,300
1,100
1,100
925
700
600

1,700,000
1,600,000
1,700,000
1,600,000
1,400,000
1,300,000

620,000
580,000
620,000
580,000
510,000
470,000

1,750
1,500
1,400
1,200
850
750

1,150
1,000
950
825
550
475

170
170
170
170
170
170

730
625
730
625
730
625

1,350
1,150
1,200
1,000
825
700

1,700,000
1,600,000
1,700,000
1,600,000
1,400,000
1,300,000

620,000
580,000
620,000
580,000
510,000
470,000

4
WCLIB

BALDCYPRESS
Select Structural
No.1
No.2

SPIB

BALSAM FIR

NELMA
NSLB

BEECH-BIRCH-HICKORY

NELMA

COAST SITKA SPRUCE

NLGA

DOUGLAS FIR-LARCH
Dense Select Structural
Select Structural
Dense No.1
No.1
No.2
Dense Select Structural
Select Structural
Dense No.1
No.1
No.2
Dense Select Structural
Select Structural
Dense No.1
No.1
No.2 Dense
No.2
Dense Select Structural
Select Structural
Dense No.1
No.1
No.2 Dense
No.2

Beams and
Stringers

Posts and
Timbers

Beams and
Stringers

Posts and
Timbers

AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION

WCLIB

WWPA

REFERENCE DESIGN VALUES

only to be used with the 2005 NDS and Wood Structural Design Data

USE WITH TABLE 4D ADJUSTMENT FACTORS

2005 REFERENCE DESIGN VALUES

46

Table 4D
(Cont.)

Reference Design Values for Visually Graded Timbers (5" x 5" and larger)1,3
(Tabulated design values are for normal load duration and dry service conditions, unless specified
otherwise. See NDS 4.3 for a comprehensive description of design value adjustment factors.)

only to be used with the 2005 NDS and Wood Structural Design Data

USE WITH TABLE 4D ADJUSTMENT FACTORS


Design values in pounds per square inch (psi)

Species and
commercial grade

Size
classification

DOUGLAS FIR-LARCH (NORTH)

Bending
Fb

Tension
parallel
to grain
Ft

250

Shear
parallel
to grain
Fv
150

Compression
perpendicular
to grain
Fc
180

Compression
parallel
to grain
Fc

520

Modulus
of
Elasticity
E
900

Emin

Grading
Rules
Agency

1,000,000

Select Structural
No.1
No.2

Beams and
Stringers

1,600
1,300
875

950
675
425

170
170
170

625
625
625

1,100
925
600

1,600,000
1,600,000
1,300,000

580,000
580,000
470,000

Select Structural
No.1
No.2

Posts and
Timbers

1,500
1,200
725

1,000
825
475

170
170
170

625
625
625

1,150
1,000
700

1,600,000
1,600,000
1,300,000

580,000
580,000
470,000

Select Structural
No.1
No.2

Beams and
Stringers

1,550
1,300
825

900
625
425

165
165
165

520
520
520

1,000
850
550

1,200,000
1,200,000
1,000,000

440,000
440,000
370,000

Select Structural
No.1
No.2

Posts and
Timbers

1,450
1,150
675

950
775
450

165
165
165

520
520
520

1,050
925
650

1,200,000
1,200,000
1,000,000

440,000
440,000
370,000

Select Structural
No.1
No.2

Beams and
Stringers

1,350
1,150
750

925
775
375

155
155
155

550
550
550

950
800
550

1,200,000
1,200,000
900,000

440,000
440,000
330,000

Select Structural
No.1
No.2

Posts and
Timbers

1,250
1,050
600

850
700
400

155
155
155

550
500
550

1,000
875
400

1,200,000
1,200,000
900,000

440,000
440,000
330,000

NLGA

DOUGLAS FIR-SOUTH

WWPA

EASTERN HEMLOCK

NELMA
NSLB

EASTERN HEMLOCK-TAMARACK
Select Structural
No.1
No.2

Beams and
Stringers

1,400
1,150
750

925
775
375

155
155
155

555
555
555

950
800
500

1,200,000
1,200,000
900,000

440,000
440,000
330,000

Select Structural
No.1
No.2

Posts and
Timbers

1,300
1,050
600

875
700
400

155
155
155

555
555
555

1,000
875
400

1,200,000
1,200,000
900,000

440,000
440,000
330,000

NELMA
NSLB

EASTERN HEMLOCK-TAMARACK (N)


Select Structural
No.1
No.2

Beams and
Stringers

1,450
1,200
775

850
600
400

165
165
165

555
555
555

950
800
500

1,300,000
1,300,000
1,100,000

470,000
470,000
400,000

Select Structural
No.1
No.2

Posts and
Timbers

1,350
1,100
650

900
725
425

165
165
165

555
555
555

1,000
875
600

1,300,000
1,300,000
1,100,000

470,000
470,000
400,000

Select Structural
No.1
No.2

Beams and
Stringers

1,050
900
575

725
600
275

135
135
135

390
390
390

750
625
375

1,400,000
1,400,000
1,000,000

510,000
510,000
370,000

Select Structural
No.1
No.2

Posts and
Timbers

1,000
800
450

675
550
300

135
135
135

390
390
390

775
675
300

1,400,000
1,400,000
1,000,000

510,000
510,000
370,000

Select Structural
No.1
No.2

Beams and
Stringers

1,050
875
575

700
600
275

125
125
125

350
350
350

675
575
400

1,100,000
1,100,000
900,000

400,000
400,000
330,000

Select Structural
No.1
No.2

Posts and
Timbers

975
800
450

650
525
300

125
125
125

350
350
350

725
625
325

1,100,000
1,100,000
900,000

400,000
400,000
330,000

NLGA

EASTERN SPRUCE

NELMA
NSLB

EASTERN WHITE PINE

AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL

NELMA
NSLB

2005 DESIGN VALUES FOR WOOD CONSTRUCTION NDS SUPPLEMENT

Table 4D
(Cont.)

47

Reference Design Values for Visually Graded Timbers (5" x 5" and larger)1,3
(Tabulated design values are for normal load duration and dry service conditions, unless specified
otherwise. See NDS 4.3 for a comprehensive description of design value adjustment factors.)

Design values in pounds per square inch (psi)

Species and
commercial grade

Size
classification

HEM-FIR

Bending
Fb

Tension
parallel
to grain
Ft

250

Shear
parallel
to grain
Fv
150

Compression
perpendicular
to grain
Fc
180

Compression
parallel
to grain
Fc

520

Modulus
of
Elasticity
E
900

Emin

Grading
Rules
Agency

1,000,000

Select Structural
No.1
No.2

Beams and
Stringers

1,300
1,050
675

750
525
350

140
140
140

405
405
405

925
750
500

1,300,000
1,300,000
1,100,000

470,000
470,000
400,000

Select Structural
No.1
No.2

Posts and
Timbers

1,200
975
575

800
650
375

140
140
140

405
405
405

975
850
575

1,300,000
1,300,000
1,100,000

470,000
470,000
400,000

Select Structural
No.1
No.2

Beams and
Stringers

1,250
1,000
675

725
500
325

135
135
135

405
405
405

900
750
475

1,300,000
1,300,000
1,100,000

470,000
470,000
400,000

Select Structural
No.1
No.2

Posts and
Timbers

1,150
925
550

775
625
375

135
135
135

405
405
405

950
850
575

1,300,000
1,300,000
1,100,000

470,000
470,000
400,000

Select Structural
No.1
No.2

Beams and
Stringers

1,150
975
625

700
500
325

180
180
180

620
620
620

725
600
375

1,100,000
1,100,000
900,000

400,000
400,000
330,000

Select Structural
No.1
No.2

Posts and
Timbers

1,100
875
500

725
600
350

180
180
180

620
620
620

750
650
300

1,100,000
1,100,000
900,000

400,000
400,000
330,000

Select Structural
No.1
No.2

Beams and
Stringers

1,350
1,150
725

800
550
375

155
155
155

800
800
800

825
700
450

1,000,000
1,000,000
800,000

370,000
370,000
290,000

Select Structural
No.1
No.2

Posts and
Timbers

1,250
1,000
575

850
675
400

155
155
155

800
800
800

875
775
350

1,000,000
1,000,000
800,000

370,000
370,000
290,000

5"x5" and
Larger

1,500
1,350
850

1,000
900
550

165
165
165

375
375
375

900
800
525

1,300,000
1,300,000
1,000,000

470,000
470,000
370,000

Select Structural
No.1
No.2

Beams and
Stringers

1,350
1,100
725

775
550
375

170
170
170

570
570
570

875
725
475

1,100,000
1,100,000
900,000

400,000
400,000
330,000

Select Structural
No.1
No.2

Posts and
Timbers

1,250
1,000
625

825
675
400

170
170
170

570
570
570

925
800
550

1,100,000
1,100,000
900,000

400,000
400,000
330,000

Select Structural
No.1
No.2

Beams and
Stringers

1,250
1,050
675

850
700
350

135
135
135

435
435
435

850
725
450

1,300,000
1,300,000
1,000,000

470,000
470,000
370,000

Select Structural
No.1
No.2

Posts and
Timbers

1,150
950
550

800
650
375

135
135
135

435
435
435

900
800
375

1,300,000
1,300,000
1,000,000

470,000
470,000
370,000

Select Structural
No.1
No.2

Beams and
Stringers

1,600
1,350
875

950
675
425

205
205
205

885
885
885

950
800
500

1,300,000
1,300,000
1,000,000

470,000
470,000
370,000

Select Structural
No.1
No.2

Posts and
Timbers

1,500
1,200
700

1,000
800
475

205
205
205

885
885
885

1,000
875
400

1,300,000
1,300,000
1,000,000

470,000
470,000
370,000

4
WCLIB
WWPA

HEM-FIR (NORTH)

NLGA

MIXED MAPLE

NELMA

MIXED OAK

MIXED SOUTHERN PINE 2


Select Structural
No.1
No.2

NELMA

(Wet Service Conditions)


SPIB

MOUNTAIN HEMLOCK

WCLIB
WWPA

NORTHERN PINE

NELMA
NSLB

NORTHERN RED OAK

AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION

NELMA

REFERENCE DESIGN VALUES

only to be used with the 2005 NDS and Wood Structural Design Data

USE WITH TABLE 4D ADJUSTMENT FACTORS

2005 REFERENCE DESIGN VALUES

48

Table 4D
(Cont.)

Reference Design Values for Visually Graded Timbers (5" x 5" and larger)1,3
(Tabulated design values are for normal load duration and dry service conditions, unless specified
otherwise. See NDS 4.3 for a comprehensive description of design value adjustment factors.)

only to be used with the 2005 NDS and Wood Structural Design Data

USE WITH TABLE 4D ADJUSTMENT FACTORS


Design values in pounds per square inch (psi)

Species and
commercial grade

Size
classification

Bending
Fb

Tension
parallel
to grain
Ft

Shear
parallel
to grain
Fv

Compression
perpendicular
to grain
Fc

Compression
parallel
to grain
Fc

Modulus
of
Elasticity
E

Emin

Grading
Rules
Agency

NORTHERN WHITE CEDAR


Select Structural
No.1
No.2

Beams and
Stringers

900
750
500

600
500
250

115
115
115

370
370
370

600
500
325

700,000
700,000
600,000

260,000
260,000
220,000

Select Structural
No.1
No.2

Posts and
Timbers

850
675
400

575
450
250

115
115
115

370
370
370

650
550
250

700,000
700,000
600,000

260,000
260,000
220,000

Select Structural
No.1
No.2

Beams and
Stringers

1,100
925
600

725
500
300

130
130
130

535
535
535

750
625
400

1,100,000
1,100,000
900,000

400,000
400,000
330,000

Select Structural
No.1
No.2

Posts and
Timbers

1,000
825
475

675
550
325

130
130
130

535
535
535

800
700
325

1,100,000
1,100,000
900,000

400,000
400,000
330,000

Select Structural
No.1
No.2

Beams and
Stringers

1,500
1,250
800

875
625
400

195
195
195

615
615
615

900
750
475

1,500,000
1,500,000
1,200,000

550,000
550,000
440,000

Select Structural
No.1
No.2

Posts and
Timbers

1,400
1,150
650

925
750
425

195
195
195

615
615
615

950
825
375

1,500,000
1,500,000
1,200,000

550,000
550,000
440,000

Select Structural
No.1
No.2

Beams and
Stringers

1,350
1,150
725

800
550
375

155
155
155

820
820
820

825
700
450

1,200,000
1,200,000
1,000,000

440,000
440,000
370,000

Select Structural
No.1
No.2

Posts and
Timbers

1,250
1,000
575

850
675
400

155
155
155

820
820
820

875
775
350

1,200,000
1,200,000
1,000,000

440,000
440,000
370,000

Select Structural
No.1
No.2

Beams and
Stringers

1,050
875
575

625
450
300

130
130
130

440
440
440

725
600
375

1,100,000
1,100,000
900,000

400,000
400,000
330,000

Select Structural
No.1
No.2

Posts and
Timbers

1,000
800
475

675
550
325

130
130
130

440
440
440

775
675
475

1,100,000
1,100,000
900,000

400,000
400,000
330,000

5" x 5" and


Larger

1,850
1,400
1,100
1,200
950
1,000
750

1,250
950
750
800
650
525
400

145
145
145
145
145
145
145

650
650
420
650
420
650
420

1,650
1,200
900
1,050
800
900
650

1,300,000
1,300,000
1,000,000
1,300,000
1,000,000
1,100,000
900,000

470,000
470,000
370,000
470,000
370,000
400,000
330,000

NELMA

PONDEROSA PINE

NLGA

RED MAPLE

NELMA

RED OAK

NELMA

RED PINE

NLGA

REDWOOD
Clear Structural
Select Structural
Select Structural OG
No.1
No.1 OG
No.2
No.2 OG

RIS

SITKA SPRUCE
Select Structural
No.1
No.2

Beams and
Stringers

1,200
1,000
650

675
500
325

140
140
140

435
435
435

825
675
450

1,300,000
1,300,000
1,000,000

470,000
470,000
370,000

Select Structural
No.1
No.2

Posts and
Timbers

1,150
925
550

750
600
350

140
140
140

435
435
435

875
750
525

1,300,000
1,300,000
1,000,000

470,000
470,000
370,000

Select Structural
No.1
No.2

Beams and
Stringers

1,200
1,000
650

675
500
325

140
140
140

435
435
435

825
675
450

1,300,000
1,300,000
1,100,000

470,000
470,000
400,000

Select Structural
No.1
No.2

Posts and
Timbers

1,150
925
550

750
600
350

140
140
140

435
435
435

875
750
525

1,300,000
1,300,000
1,100,000

470,000
470,000
400,000

AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL

WCLIB

WWPA

2005 DESIGN VALUES FOR WOOD CONSTRUCTION NDS SUPPLEMENT

Table 4D
(Cont.)

49

Reference Design Values for Visually Graded Timbers (5" x 5" and larger)1,3
(Tabulated design values are for normal load duration and dry service conditions, unless specified
otherwise. See NDS 4.3 for a comprehensive description of design value adjustment factors.)

Design values in pounds per square inch (psi)

Species and
commercial grade

Size
classification

SOUTHERN PINE
Dense Select Structural
Select Structural
No.1 Dense
No.1
No.2 Dense
No.2
Dense Select Structural 86
Dense Select Structural 72
Dense Select Structural 65

Bending
Fb

Tension
parallel
to grain
Ft

250
5" x 5" and
Larger

Shear
parallel
to grain
Fv
150

Compression
perpendicular
to grain
Fc

Compression
parallel
to grain
Fc

180(Wet Service
520Conditions)
900

Modulus
of
Elasticity
E

Emin

Grading
Rules
Agency

1,000,000

1,750
1,500
1,550
1,350
975
850
2,100
1,750
1,600

1,200
1,000
1,050
900
650
550
1,400
1,200
1,050

165
165
165
165
165
165
165
165
165

440
375
440
375
440
375
440
440
440

1,100
950
975
825
625
525
1,300
1,100
1,000

1,600,000
1,500,000
1,600,000
1,500,000
1,300,000
1,200,000
1,600,000
1,600,000
1,600,000

580,000
550,000
580,000
550,000
470,000
440,000
580,000
580,000
580,000

4
SPIB

SPRUCE-PINE-FIR
Select Structural
No.1
No.2

Beams and
Stringers

1,100
900
600

650
450
300

125
125
125

425
425
425

775
625
425

1,300,000
1,300,000
1,000,000

470,000
470,000
370,000

Select Structural
No.1
No.2

Posts and
Timbers

1,050
850
500

700
550
325

125
125
125

425
425
425

800
700
500

1,300,000
1,300,000
1,000,000

470,000
470,000
370,000

Select Structural
No.1
No.2

Beams and
Stringers

1,050
900
575

625
450
300

125
125
125

335
335
335

675
550
375

1,200,000
1,200,000
1,000,000

440,000
440,000
370,000

Select Structural
No.1
No.2

Posts and
Timbers

1,000
800
475

675
550
325

125
125
125

335
335
335

700
625
425

1,200,000
1,200,000
1,000,000

440,000
440,000
370,000

Select Structural
No.1
No.2

Beams and
Stringers

1,150
975
625

675
475
325

140
140
140

425
425
425

875
725
475

1,000,000
1,000,000
800,000

370,000
370,000
290,000

Select Structural
No.1
No.2

Posts and
Timbers

1,100
875
550

725
600
350

140
140
140

425
425
425

925
800
550

1,000,000
1,000,000
800,000

370,000
370,000
290,000

NLGA

SPRUCE-PINE-FIR (SOUTH)
NELMA
NSLB
WWPA
WCLIB

WESTERN CEDARS

WCLIB
WWPA

WESTERN CEDARS (NORTH)


Select Structural
No.1
No.2

Beams and
Stringers

1,150
925
625

675
475
300

130
130
130

425
425
425

850
700
450

1,000,000
1,000,000
800,000

370,000
370,000
290,000

Select Structural
No.1
No.2

Posts and
Timbers

1,050
875
500

700
575
350

130
130
130

425
425
425

900
800
550

1,000,000
1,000,000
800,000

370,000
370,000
290,000

Select Structural
No.1
No.2

Beams and
Stringers

1,400
1,150
750

825
575
375

170
170
170

410
410
410

1,000
850
550

1,400,000
1,400,000
1,100,000

510,000
510,000
400,000

Select Structural
No.1
No.2

Posts and
Timbers

1,300
1,050
650

875
700
425

170
170
170

410
410
410

1,100
950
650

1,400,000
1,400,000
1,100,000

510,000
510,000
400,000

NLGA

WESTERN HEMLOCK

WCLIB
WWPA

WESTERN HEMLOCK (NORTH)


Select Structural
No.1
No.2

Beams and
Stringers

1,400
1,150
750

825
575
375

135
135
135

410
410
410

1,000
850
550

1,400,000
1,400,000
1,100,000

510,000
510,000
400,000

Select Structural
No.1
No.2

Posts and
Timbers

1,300
1,050
650

875
700
425

135
135
135

410
410
410

1,100
950
650

1,400,000
1,400,000
1,100,000

510,000
510,000
400,000

AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION

NLGA

REFERENCE DESIGN VALUES

only to be used with the 2005 NDS and Wood Structural Design Data

USE WITH TABLE 4D ADJUSTMENT FACTORS

2005 REFERENCE DESIGN VALUES

50

Table 4D
(Cont.)

Reference Design Values for Visually Graded Timbers (5" x 5" and larger)1,3
(Tabulated design values are for normal load duration and dry service conditions, unless specified
otherwise. See NDS 4.3 for a comprehensive description of design value adjustment factors.)

only to be used with the 2005 NDS and Wood Structural Design Data

USE WITH TABLE 4D ADJUSTMENT FACTORS


Design values in pounds per square inch (psi)

Species and
commercial grade

Size
classification

Bending
Fb

Tension
parallel
to grain
Ft

Shear
parallel
to grain
Fv

Compression
perpendicular
to grain
Fc

Compression
parallel
to grain
Fc

Modulus
of
Elasticity
E

Emin

Grading
Rules
Agency

WESTERN WHITE PINE


Select Structural
No.1
No.2

Beams and
Stringers

1,050
850
550

600
425
275

120
120
120

375
375
375

775
625
400

1,300,000
1,300,000
1,000,000

470,000
470,000
370,000

Select Structural
No.1
No.2

Posts and
Timbers

975
775
450

650
525
300

120
120
120

375
375
375

800
700
500

1,300,000
1,300,000
1,000,000

470,000
470,000
370,000

Select Structural
No.1
No.2

Beams and
Stringers

1,050
900
575

625
450
300

125
125
125

345
345
345

750
625
425

1,100,000
1,100,000
900,000

400,000
400,000
330,000

Select Structural
No.1
No.2

Posts and
Timbers

1,000
800
475

675
525
325

125
125
125

345
345
345

800
700
475

1,100,000
1,100,000
900,000

400,000
400,000
330,000

Select Structural
No.1
No.2

Beams and
Stringers

1,400
1,200
750

825
575
375

205
205
205

800
800
800

900
775
475

1,000,000
1,000,000
800,000

370,000
370,000
290,000

Select Structural
No.1
No.2

Posts and
Timbers

1,300
1,050
600

875
700
400

205
205
205

800
800
800

950
825
400

1,000,000
1,000,000
800,000

370,000
370,000
290,000

NLGA

WESTERN WOODS

WCLIB
WWPA

WHITE OAK

NELMA

Footnotes to Table 4D
1. LUMBER DIMENSIONS. Tabulated design values are applicable to lumber that will be used under dry conditions such as in most covered structures. For 5" and
thicker lumber, the GREEN dressed sizes shall be permitted to be used (see Table 1A) because design values have been adjusted to compensate for any loss in size
by shrinkage which may occur.
2. SPRUCE PINE. To obtain recommended design values for Spruce Pine graded to Southern Pine Inspection Bureau (SPIB) rules, multiply the appropriate design
values for Mixed Southern Pine by the corresponding conversion factor shown below and round to the nearest 100,000 psi for E; to the nearest 10,000 psi for Emin;
to the next lower multiple of 5 psi for Fv and Fc; to the next lower multiple of 50 psi for Fb, Ft, and Fc if 1,000 psi or greater, 25 psi otherwise.

CONVERSION FACTORS FOR DETERMINING DESIGN VALUES FOR SPRUCE PINE

Conversion
Factor

Bending
Fb

Tension
parallel
to grain
Ft

Shear
parallel
to grain
Fv

Compression
perpendicular
to grain
Fc

Compression
parallel
to grain
Fc

Modulus
of
Elasticity
E and Emin

0.78

0.78

0.98

0.73

0.78

0.82

3. When individual species or species groups are combined, the design values to be used for the combination shall be the lowest design values for each individual
species or species group for each design property.

AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL

2005 DESIGN VALUES FOR WOOD CONSTRUCTION NDS SUPPLEMENT

51

Table 4E Adjustment Factors

Bending design values for all species of decking except Redwood are based on 4" thick decking. When 2"
thick or 3" thick decking is used, the bending design values, Fb, for all species except Redwood shall be multiplied by the following size factors:
CF

2"
3"

1.10
1.04

Tabulated bending design values, Fb, for decking have


already been adjusted for flatwise usage (load applied to
wide face).

Wet Service Factor, CM

When decking is used where moisture content will


exceed 19% for an extended time period, design values
shall be multiplied by the appropriate wet service factors
from the following table (for surfaced dry Southern Pine
decking use tabulated surfaced green design values for wet
service conditions without further adjustment):

Size Factors, CF
Thickness

Flat Use Factor, Cfu

Repetitive Member Factor, Cr


Tabulated bending design values for repetitive member uses, (Fb)(Cr), for decking have already been multiplied by the repetitive member factor, Cr.

Wet Service Factors, CM


Fb

Fc

E and Emin

0.85*

0.67

0.9

* when (Fb)(CF) 1,150 psi, CM = 1.0

AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION

4
REFERENCE DESIGN VALUES

only to be used with the 2005 NDS and Wood Structural Design Data

Size Factor, CF

2005 REFERENCE DESIGN VALUES

52

Table 4E

Reference Design Values for Visually Graded Decking1,2


(Tabulated design values are for normal load duration and dry service conditions, unless specified
otherwise. See NDS 4.3 for a comprehensive description of design value adjustment factors.)

only to be used with the 2005 NDS and Wood Structural Design Data

USE WITH TABLE 4E ADJUSTMENT FACTORS


Design values in pounds per square inch (psi)
Bending
Species and
commercial grade

Size
classification

Single
Member
Fb

Repetitive
Member
(Fb)(Cr)

Compression
perpendicular
to grain
Fc

Modulus
of
Elasticity
E

Emin

Grading
Rules
Agency

BALSAM FIR
Select
Commercial

2" - 4" thick


4" - 12" wide

1,650
1,400

1,500,000
1,300,000

550,000
470,000

NELMA

2" - 4" thick


4" & wider

1,250
1,050

1,450
1,200

455
455

1,700,000
1,500,000

620,000
550,000

NLGA

2" - 4" thick


4" & wider

1,250
1,050

1,450
1,200

370
370

1,500,000
1,400,000

550,000
510,000

NLGA

Select Dex
Commercial Dex

2" - 4" thick


6" - 8" wide

1,750
1,450

2,000
1,650

625
625

1,800,000
1,700,000

660,000
620,000

WCLIB

Selected
Commercial

2" - 4" thick


4" & wider

1,750
1,450

2,000
1,650

625
625

1,800,000
1,700,000

660,000
620,000

WWPA

2" - 4" thick


4" & wider

1,750
1,450

2,000
1,650

625
625

1,800,000
1,700,000

660,000
620,000

NLGA

2" - 4" thick


4" & wider

1,650
1,400

1,900
1,600

520
520

1,400,000
1,300,000

510,000
470,000

WWPA

1,700
1,450

1,300,000
1,100,000

470,000
400,000

NELMA

2" - 4" thick


4" & wider

1,500
1,250

1,700
1,450

555
555

1,300,000
1,100,000

470,000
400,000

NLGA

2" - 4" thick


4" - 12" wide

1,300
1,100

1,500,000
1,400,000

550,000
510,000

NELMA

2" - 4" thick


4" - 12"wide

1,300
1,100

1,200,000
1,100,000

440,000
400,000

NELMA

2" - 4" thick


4" & wider

900
775

1,050
875

350
350

1,200,000
1,100,000

440,000
400,000

NLGA

Select Dex
Commercial Dex

2" - 4" thick


6" - 8" wide

1,400
1,150

1,600
1,350

405
405

1,500,000
1,400,000

550,000
510,000

WCLIB

Selected
Commercial

2" - 4" thick


4" & wider

1,400
1,150

1,600
1,350

405
405

1,500,000
1,400,000

550,000
510,000

WWPA

2" - 4" thick


4" & wider

1,350
1,100

1,500
1,300

405
405

1,500,000
1,400,000

550,000
510,000

NLGA

2" - 4" thick


4" - 12" wide

1,550
1,300

1,400,000
1,300,000

510,000
470,000

NELMA

2" - 4" thick


4" & wider

900
775

1,050
875

350
350

1,100,000
1,000,000

400,000
370,000

NLGA

COAST SITKA SPRUCE


Select
Commercial

COAST SPECIES
Select
Commercial

DOUGLAS FIR-LARCH

DOUGLAS FIR-LARCH (NORTH)


Select
Commercial

DOUGLAS FIR-SOUTH
Selected
Commercial

EASTERN HEMLOCK-TAMARACK
Select
Commercial

2" - 4" thick


4" - 12" wide

EASTERN HEMLOCK-TAMARACK (NORTH)


Select
Commercial

EASTERN SPRUCE
Select
Commercial

EASTERN WHITE PINE


Select
Commercial

EASTERN WHITE PINE (NORTH)


Select
Commercial

HEM-FIR

HEM-FIR (NORTH)
Select
Commercial

NORTHERN PINE
Select
Commercial

NORTHERN SPECIES
Select
Commercial

AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL

2005 DESIGN VALUES FOR WOOD CONSTRUCTION NDS SUPPLEMENT

Table 4E
(Cont.)

53

Reference Design Values for Visually Graded Decking1,2


(Tabulated design values are for normal load duration and dry service conditions, unless specified
otherwise. See NDS 4.3 for a comprehensive description of design value adjustment factors.)

Design values in pounds per square inch (psi)


Bending
Species and
commercial grade

Size
classification

Single
Member
Fb

Repetitive
Member
(Fb)(Cr)

Compression
perpendicular
to grain
Fc

Modulus
of
Elasticity
E

Grading
Rules
Agency

Emin

NORTHERN WHITE CEDAR


Select
Commercial

2" - 4" thick


4" - 12" wide

1,100
950

800,000
700,000

290,000
260,000

NELMA

2" - 4" thick


4" & wider

1,200
1,000

1,450
1,250

535
535

1,300,000
1,100,000

470,000
400,000

NLGA

2" - 4" thick


4" & wider

1,150
975

1,350
1,100

440
440

1,300,000
1,200,000

470,000
440,000

NLGA

2" thick

1,850
1,450
1,200

2,150
1,700
1,350

1,400,000
1,100,000
1,000,000

510,000
400,000
370,000

PONDEROSA PINE
Select
Commercial

RED PINE
Select
Commercial

REDWOOD
Select, Close grain
Select
Commercial

6" & wider

Deck Heart
and

2" thick
4" wide

400

450

420

900,000

330,000

Deck Common

2" thick
6" wide

700

800

420

900,000

330,000

1,300
1,100

1,500
1,250

435
435

1,500,000
1,300,000

550,000
470,000

RIS

SITKA SPRUCE
Select Dex
Commercial Dex

2" - 4" thick


6" - 8" wide

SOUTHERN PINE
Dense Standard
Dense Select
Select
Dense Commercial
Commercial

WCLIB

(Surfaced dry Used in dry service conditions 19% or less moisture content)
2,000
1,650
1,400
1,650
1,400

2,300
1,900
1,650
1,900
1,650

1,600
1,350
1,150
1,350
1,150

1,800
1,500
1,300
1,500
1,300

440
440
375
440
375

1,600,000
1,400,000
1,400,000
1,400,000
1,400,000

580,000
510,000
510,000
510,000
510,000

2" - 4" thick


4" & wider

1,200
1,000

1,400
1,150

425
425

1,500,000
1,300,000

550,000
470,000

NLGA

2" - 4" thick


4" & wider

1,150
950

1,350
1,100

335
335

1,400,000
1,200,000

510,000
440,000

NELMA
WWPA

Select Dex
Commercial Dex

2" - 4" thick


6" - 8" wide

1,250
1,050

1,450
1,200

425
425

1,100,000
1,000,000

400,000
370,000

WCLIB

Selected
Commercial

2" - 4" thick


4" & wider

1,250
1,050

1,450
1,200

425
425

1,100,000
1,000,000

400,000
370,000

WWPA

2" - 4" thick


4" & wider

1,200
1,050

1,400
1,200

425
425

1,100,000
1,000,000

400,000
370,000

NLGA

2" - 4" thick


6" & wider

1,500
1,300

1,750
1,450

410
410

1,600,000
1,400,000

580,000
510,000

WCLIB

2" - 4" thick


2" & wider

SOUTHERN PINE
Dense Standard
Dense Select
Select
Dense Commercial
Commercial

660
660
565
660
565

1,800,000
1,600,000
1,600,000
1,600,000
1,600,000

660,000
580,000
580,000
580,000
580,000

SPIB

(Surfaced Green Used in any service condition)


2-1/2" - 4" thick
2" & wider

SPIB

SPRUCE-PINE-FIR
Select
Commercial

SPRUCE-PINE-FIR (SOUTH)
Selected
Commercial

WESTERN CEDARS

WESTERN CEDARS (NORTH)


Select
Commercial

WESTERN HEMLOCK
Select Dex
Commercial Dex

AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION

REFERENCE DESIGN VALUES

only to be used with the 2005 NDS and Wood Structural Design Data

USE WITH TABLE 4E ADJUSTMENT FACTORS

2005 REFERENCE DESIGN VALUES

54

Table 4E
(Cont.)

Reference Design Values for Visually Graded Decking1,2


(Tabulated design values are for normal load duration and dry service conditions, unless specified
otherwise. See NDS 4.3 for a comprehensive description of design value adjustment factors.)

only to be used with the 2005 NDS and Wood Structural Design Data

USE WITH TABLE 4E ADJUSTMENT FACTORS


Design values in pounds per square inch (psi)
Bending
Species and
commercial grade

Size
classification

Single
Member
Fb

Repetitive
Member
(Fb)(Cr)

Compression
perpendicular
to grain
Fc

Modulus
of
Elasticity
E

Emin

Grading
Rules
Agency

WESTERN HEMLOCK (NORTH)


Select
Commercial

2" - 4" thick


4" & wider

1,500
1,300

1,750
1,450

410
410

1,600,000
1,400,000

580,000
510,000

NLGA

2" - 4" thick


4" & wider

1,100
925

1,300
1,050

375
375

1,400,000
1,300,000

510,000
470,000

NLGA

2" - 4" thick


4" & wider

1,150
950

1,300
1,100

335
335

1,200,000
1,100,000

440,000
400,000

WWPA

WESTERN WHITE PINE


Select
Commercial

WESTERN WOODS
Selected
Commercial

1. LUMBER DIMENSIONS. Tabulated design values are applicable to lumber that will be used under dry conditions such as in most covered structures. For 2" to
4" thick lumber the DRY dressed sizes shall be used (see Table 1A) regardless of the moisture content at the time of manufacture or use. In calculating design
values, the natural gain in strength and stiffness that occurs as lumber dries has been taken into consideration as well as the reduction in size that occurs when
unseasoned lumber shrinks. The gain in load carrying capacity due to increased strength and stiffness resulting from drying more than offsets the design effect of
size reductions due to shrinkage.
2. When individual species or species groups are combined, the design values to be used for the combination shall be the lowest design values for each individual
species or species group for each design property.

AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL

2005 DESIGN VALUES FOR WOOD CONSTRUCTION NDS SUPPLEMENT

55

Table 4F Adjustment Factors

Bending design values, Fb, for dimension lumber 2"


to 4" thick shall be multiplied by the repetitive member
factor, Cr = 1.15, when such members are used as joists,
truss chords, rafters, studs, planks, decking, or similar
members which are in contact or spaced not more than
24" on center, are not less than 3 in number, and are joined
by floor, roof, or other load distributing elements adequate
to support the design load.

Flat Use Factor, Cfu

Bending design values adjusted by size factors are


based on edgewise use (load applied to narrow face). When
dimension lumber is used flatwise (load applied to wide
face), the bending design value, Fb, shall also be multiplied by the following flat use factors:
Flat Use Factors, Cfu

Wet Service Factor, CM

When dimension lumber is used where moisture content will exceed 19% for an extended time period, design
values shall be multiplied by the appropriate wet service
factors from the following table:

Thickness (breadth)

Width
(depth)

2" & 3"

4"

2" & 3"


4"
5"
6"
8"
10" & wider

1.0
1.1
1.1
1.15
1.15
1.2

1.0
1.05
1.05
1.05
1.1

Wet Service Factors, CM


Fb

Ft

Fv

Fc

Fc

E and Emin

0.85*

1.0

0.97

0.67

0.8**

0.9

NOTE

* when (Fb)(CF) 1,150 psi, CM = 1.0


** when (Fc)(CF) 750 psi, CM = 1.0

To facilitate the use of Table 4F, shading has been employed to distinguish design values based on a 4" nominal width (Construction, Standard, and Utility grades)
or a 6" nominal width (Stud grade) from design values based on a 12" nominal width (Select Structural,
No.1 & Btr, No.1, No.2, and No.3 grades).

Size Factor, CF

Tabulated bending, tension, and compression parallel to grain design values for dimension lumber 2" to 4" thick shall
be multiplied by the following size factors:
Size Factors, CF
Fb

Ft

Fc

Thickness (breadth)
Grades
Select
Structural,
No.1 & Btr,
No.1, No.2,
No.3

Stud
Construction,
Standard
Utility

Width (depth)
2", 3", & 4"
5"
6"
8"
10"
12"
14" & wider
2", 3", & 4"
5" & 6"
8" & wider
2", 3", & 4"
4"
2" & 3"

2" & 3"

4"

1.5
1.5
1.5
1.4
1.4
1.4
1.3
1.3
1.3
1.2
1.3
1.2
1.1
1.2
1.1
1.0
1.1
1.0
0.9
1.0
0.9
1.1
1.1
1.1
1.0
1.0
1.0
Use No.3 Grade tabulated design values and size factors
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
0.4

1.0

AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION

1.0
0.4

1.15
1.1
1.1
1.05
1.0
1.0
0.9
1.05
1.0
1.0
1.0
0.6

4
REFERENCE DESIGN VALUES

only to be used with the 2005 NDS and Wood Structural Design Data

Repetitive Member Factor, Cr

2005 REFERENCE DESIGN VALUES

56

Table 4F

Reference Design Values for Non-North American Visually Graded


Dimension Lumber (2" - 4" thick)1,3,4
(Tabulated design values are for normal load duration and dry service conditions. See NDS 4.3 for a
comprehensive description of design value adjustment factors.)

only to be used with the 2005 NDS and Wood Structural Design Data

USE WITH TABLE 4F ADJUSTMENT FACTORS


Design values in pounds per square inch (psi)

Species and
commercial grade

Size
classification

Tension
parallel
to grain
Ft

Shear
parallel
to grain
Fv

1,500
1,000
925
525
725
1,050
575
275

675
450
400
225
325
475
250
125

175
175
175
175
175
175
175
175

260
260
260
260
260
260
260
260

1,250
1,100
1,050
625
675
1,300
1,100
725

1,700,000
1,600,000
1,500,000
1,300,000
1,300,000
1,400,000
1,300,000
1,200,000

620,000
580,000
550,000
470,000
470,000
510,000
470,000
440,000

1,900
1,400
1,350
775
800
1,000
575
275

850
625
600
350
350
450
250
125

195
195
195
195
195
195
195
195

440
440
440
440
440
440
440
440

1,400
1,250
1,250
700
700
1,250
1,100
700

1,800,000
1,700,000
1,600,000
1,400,000
1,400,000
1,500,000
1,300,000
1,300,000

660,000
620,000
580,000
510,000
510,000
550,000
470,000
470,000

975
650
600
350
475
675
375
175

425
300
275
150
200
300
175
75

135
135
135
135
135
135
135
135

325
325
325
325
325
325
325
325

1,100
950
850
475
525
1,050
875
575

1,300,000
1,100,000
1,000,000
900,000
900,000
900,000
800,000
800,000

470,000
400,000
370,000
330,000
330,000
330,000
290,000
290,000

1,200
800
700
400
550
800
450
200

550
375
300
175
250
350
200
100

150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150

430
430
430
430
430
430
430
430

1,200
1,050
925
525
575
1,150
950
625

1,500,000
1,400,000
1,200,000
1,100,000
1,100,000
1,100,000
1,000,000
1,000,000

550,000
510,000
440,000
400,000
400,000
400,000
370,000
370,000

1,350
825
625
375
575
725
400
200

600
375
275
175
250
325
175
75

125
125
125
125
125
125
125
125

220
220
220
220
220
220
220
220

1,200
1,000
875
500
600
1,100
900
600

1,500,000
1,400,000
1,200,000
1,100,000
1,100,000
1,100,000
1,000,000
1,000,000

550,000
510,000
440,000
400,000
400,000
400,000
370,000
370,000

1,200
825
725
425
575
825
475
225

550
375
325
200
250
375
200
100

170
170
170
170
170
170
170
170

355
355
355
355
355
355
355
355

1,200
1,050
950
550
600
1,200
975
650

1,600,000
1,400,000
1,200,000
1,100,000
1,100,000
1,100,000
1,000,000
900,000

580,000
510,000
440,000
400,000
400,000
400,000
370,000
330,000

Bending
Fb

Compression
perpendicular
to grain
Fc

Compression
parallel
to grain
Fc

Modulus
of
Elasticity
E

Emin

Grading
Rules
Agency

AUSTRIAN SPRUCE - Austria &


The Czech Republic
Select Structural
No.1
No.2
No.3
Stud
Construction
Standard
Utility

2" & wider


2" & wider
2" - 4" wide

WCLIB

DOUGLAS FIR/EUROPEAN LARCH Austria, The Czech Republic, & Bavaria2


Select Structural
No.1
No.2
No.3
Stud
Construction
Standard
Utility

2" & wider


2" & wider
2" - 4" wide

WCLIB

MONTANE PINE - South Africa


Select Structural
No.1
No.2
No.3
Stud
Construction
Standard
Utility

2" & wider


2" & wider
2" - 4" wide

WCLIB

NORWAY SPRUCE - Estonia &


Lithuania
Select Structural
No.1
No.2
No.3
Stud
Construction
Standard
Utility

2" & wider


2" & wider
2" - 4" wide

WCLIB

NORWAY SPRUCE - Finland


Select Structural
No.1
No.2
No.3
Stud
Construction
Standard
Utility

2" & wider


2" & wider
2" - 4" wide

WCLIB

NORWAY SPRUCE - Germany,


NE France, & Switzerland
Select Structural
No.1
No.2
No.3
Stud
Construction
Standard
Utility

2" & wider


2" & wider
2" - 4" wide

AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL

WCLIB

2005 DESIGN VALUES FOR WOOD CONSTRUCTION NDS SUPPLEMENT

Table 4F
(Cont.)

57

Reference Design Values for Non-North American Visually Graded


Dimension Lumber (2" - 4" thick)1,3,4
(Tabulated design values are for normal load duration and dry service conditions. See NDS 4.3 for a
comprehensive description of design value adjustment factors.)

Design values in pounds per square inch (psi)

Species and
commercial grade

Size
classification

Bending
Fb

Tension
parallel
to grain
Ft

Shear
parallel
to grain
Fv

Compression
perpendicular
to grain
Fc

Compression
parallel
to grain
Fc

Modulus
of
Elasticity
E

Emin

Grading
Rules
Agency

NORWAY SPRUCE - Romania & the


Ukraine
Select Structural
No.1
No.2
No.3
Stud
Construction
Standard
Utility

2" & wider


2" & wider
2" - 4" wide

1,250
850
725
425
575
850
475
225

575
375
325
200
250
375
200
100

100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100

275
275
275
275
275
275
275
275

1,200
1,050
950
550
600
1,200
1,000
650

1,500,000
1,400,000
1,200,000
1,100,000
1,100,000
1,100,000
1,000,000
1,000,000

550,000
510,000
440,000
400,000
400,000
400,000
370,000
370,000

1,250
825
675
400
550
775
425
200

550
375
300
175
250
350
200
100

170
170
170
170
170
170
170
170

285
285
285
285
285
285
285
285

1,200
1,050
925
525
575
1,150
950
625

1,600,000
1,400,000
1,200,000
1,100,000
1,100,000
1,200,000
1,100,000
1,000,000

580,000
510,000
440,000
400,000
400,000
440,000
400,000
370,000

1,300
900
775
450
600
875
500
225

600
400
350
200
275
400
225
100

135
135
135
135
135
135
135
135

270
270
270
270
270
270
270
270

1,200
1,050
1,000
575
625
1,200
1,000
675

1,700,000
1,600,000
1,400,000
1,300,000
1,300,000
1,300,000
1,200,000
1,100,000

620,000
580,000
510,000
470,000
470,000
470,000
440,000
400,000

1,100
750
650
375
525
750
425
200

500
350
300
175
225
325
200
100

130
130
130
130
130
130
130
130

430
430
430
430
430
430
430
430

1,150
1,000
900
525
575
1,100
925
600

1,500,000
1,300,000
1,100,000
1,000,000
1,000,000
1,100,000
1,000,000
900,000

550,000
470,000
400,000
370,000
370,000
400,000
370,000
330,000

1,300
950
925
525
725
1,050
600
275

600
425
425
250
325
475
275
125

150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150

210
210
210
210
210
210
210
210

1,200
1,100
1,100
625
675
1,300
1,100
725

1,500,000
1,400,000
1,300,000
1,200,000
1,200,000
1,200,000
1,100,000
1,000,000

550,000
510,000
470,000
440,000
440,000
440,000
400,000
370,000

1,200
800
700
400
550
800
450
225

550
375
325
175
250
375
200
100

160
160
160
160
160
160
160
160

395
395
395
395
395
395
395
395

1,200
1,050
950
550
600
1,150
975
625

1,600,000
1,400,000
1,100,000
1,000,000
1,000,000
1,100,000
1,000,000
900,000

580,000
510,000
400,000
370,000
370,000
400,000
370,000
330,000

WCLIB

NORWAY SPRUCE - Sweden


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No.2
No.3
Stud
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Standard
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2" - 4" wide

WCLIB

SCOTS PINE - Austria, The Czech


Republic, Romania, & the Ukraine
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No.2
No.3
Stud
Construction
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2" - 4" wide

WCLIB

SCOTS PINE - Estonia & Lithuania


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No.2
No.3
Stud
Construction
Standard
Utility

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2" - 4" wide

WCLIB

SCOTS PINE - Finland


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No.2
No.3
Stud
Construction
Standard
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2" - 4" wide

WCLIB

SCOTS PINE - Germany5


Select Structural
No.1
No.2
No.3
Stud
Construction
Standard
Utility

2" & wider


2" & wider
2" - 4" wide

AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION

WCLIB

REFERENCE DESIGN VALUES

only to be used with the 2005 NDS and Wood Structural Design Data

USE WITH TABLE 4F ADJUSTMENT FACTORS

2005 REFERENCE DESIGN VALUES

58

Table 4F
(Cont.)

Reference Design Values for Non-North American Visually Graded


Dimension Lumber (2" - 4" thick)1,3,4
(Tabulated design values are for normal load duration and dry service conditions. See NDS 4.3 for a
comprehensive description of design value adjustment factors.)

only to be used with the 2005 NDS and Wood Structural Design Data

USE WITH TABLE 4F ADJUSTMENT FACTORS


Design values in pounds per square inch (psi)

Species and
commercial grade

Size
classification

Tension
parallel
to grain
Ft

Shear
parallel
to grain
Fv

1,350
825
575
325
450
650
375
175

600
375
250
150
200
300
175
75

120
120
120
120
120
120
120
120

410
410
410
410
410
410
410
410

1,200
1,000
825
475
525
1,050
850
550

1,700,000
1,500,000
1,200,000
1,100,000
1,100,000
1,200,000
1,100,000
1,000,000

620,000
550,000
440,000
400,000
400,000
440,000
400,000
370,000

950
725
725
425
575
825
475
225

425
325
325
200
250
375
200
100

125
125
125
125
125
125
125
125

400
400
400
400
400
400
400
400

1,100
975
950
550
600
1,150
975
650

1,500,000
1,400,000
1,300,000
1,100,000
1,100,000
1,200,000
1,100,000
1,000,000

550,000
510,000
470,000
400,000
400,000
440,000
400,000
370,000

1,100
775
725
425
575
825
475
225

500
350
325
200
250
375
200
100

150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150

440
440
440
440
440
440
440
440

1,150
1,000
950
550
600
1,150
975
650

1,200,000
1,100,000
1,100,000
900,000
900,000
1,000,000
900,000
800,000

440,000
400,000
400,000
330,000
330,000
370,000
330,000
290,000

1,700
1,150
1,000
575
800
1,150
650
300

775
525
450
250
350
525
300
125

210
210
210
210
210
210
210
210

710
710
710
710
710
710
710
710

1,250
1,150
1,100
650
700
1,350
1,150
750

1,500,000
1,500,000
1,500,000
1,400,000
1,400,000
1,400,000
1,300,000
1,200,000

550,000
550,000
550,000
510,000
510,000
510,000
470,000
440,000

Bending
Fb

Compression
perpendicular
to grain
Fc

Compression
parallel
to grain
Fc

Modulus
of
Elasticity
E

Emin

Grading
Rules
Agency

SCOTS PINE - Sweden


Select Structural
No.1
No.2
No.3
Stud
Construction
Standard
Utility

2" & wider


2" & wider
2" - 4" wide

WCLIB

SILVER FIR (Abies alba) - Germany,


NE France, & Switzerland
Select Structural
No.1
No.2
No.3
Stud
Construction
Standard
Utility

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2" & wider
2" - 4" wide

WCLIB

SOUTHERN PINE - Misiones Argentina


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No.2
No.3
Stud
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Standard
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2" & wider
2" - 4" wide

SPIB

SOUTHERN PINE - Misiones


Argentina, Free of Heart Center and
Medium Grain Density
Select Structural
No.1
No.2
No.3
Stud
Construction
Standard
Utility

2" & wider


2" & wider
2" - 4" wide

SPIB

1. LUMBER DIMENSIONS. Tabulated design values are applicable to lumber that will be used under dry conditions such as in most covered structures. For 2" to
4" thick lumber the DRY dressed sizes shall be used (see Table 1A) regardless of the moisture content at the time of manufacture or use. In calculating design
values, the natural gain in strength and stiffness that occurs as lumber dries has been taken into consideration as well as the reduction in size that occurs when
unseasoned lumber shrinks. The gain in the load carrying capacity due to increased strength and stiffness resulting from drying more than offsets the design effect
of size reductions due to shrinkage.
2. Design values are applicable only for 2x4 dimensional lumber and shall not be multiplied by the size factor adjustment.
3. Specific Gravity, G, values for Non-North American Species are provided below in lieu of providing G values in NDS Table 11.3.2A
Species or Species Combination
Specific Gravity
Species or Species Combination
Specific Gravity
Austrian Spruce - Austria & The Czech Republic
0.43
Scots Pine - Austria, The Czech Republic, Romania, & the Ukraine
0.50
Douglas Fir/European Larch - Austria,
0.48
Scots Pine - Estonia & Lithuania
0.45
The Czech Republic, & Bavaria
Scots Pine - Finland
0.48
Montane Pine - South Africa
0.45
Scots Pine - Germany*
0.53
Norway Spruce - Estonia & Lithuania
0.43
Scots Pine - Sweden
0.47
Norway Spruce - Finland
0.42
Silver Fir (Abies alba) - Germany, NE France, & Switzerland
0.43
Norway Spruce - Germany, NE France, & Switzerland
0.42
Southern Pine - Misiones Argentina, Free of Heart Center
0.54
Norway Spruce - Romania & the Ukraine
0.38
and Medium Grain Density
Norway Spruce - Sweden
0.42
Southern Pine - Misiones Argentina
0.45
* See footnote 5.
4. When individual species or species groups are combined, the design values to be used for the combination shall be the lowest design values for each individual
species or species group for each design property.
5. Does not include states of Baden-Wurttemburg and Saarland.
AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL

2005 DESIGN VALUES FOR WOOD CONSTRUCTION NDS SUPPLEMENT

59

Table 5A Adjustment Factors

Tabulated bending design values for loading perpendicular to wide faces of laminations, Fbx, for structural
glued laminated bending members shall be multiplied by
the following volume factor:

Wet Service Factor, CM

When structural glued laminated timber is used where


moisture content will be 16% or greater, design values
shall be multiplied by the appropriate wet service factors
from the following table:

CV = (21/L)1/x (12/d)1/x (5.125/b)1/x 1.0

Wet Service Factors, CM

where:
L = length of bending member between points of

Fb

Ft

Fv

Fc

0.8

0.8

0.875

0.53

Fc E and Emin
0.73

0.833

zero moment, ft
d = depth of bending member, in.
b = width (breadth) of bending member, in. For
multiple piece width, b = width of widest piece in
the layup. Thus b 10.75".
x = 20 for Southern Pine
x = 10 for all other species

The volume factor shall not apply simultaneously with


the beam stability factor (see 5.3.6). Therefore, the lesser
of these adjustment factors shall apply.

Flat Use Factor, Cfu

Tabulated bending design values for loading parallel


to wide faces of laminations, Fby, shall be multiplied by
the following flat use factors when the member dimension parallel to wide faces of laminations is less than 12":
Flat Use Factors, Cfu
Member dimension parallel
to wide faces of laminations

Cfu

10-3/4" or 10-1/2"
8-3/4" or 8-1/2"
6-3/4"
5-1/8" or 5"
3-1/8" or 3"
2-1/2"

1.01
1.04
1.07
1.10
1.16
1.19

AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION

REFERENCE DESIGN VALUES

only to be used with the 2005 NDS and Wood Structural Design Data

Volume Factor, CV

(7)

(7)(8)

3000

2800

2600

(1)

(2)

2400

2300

1950

1450

1450

1100

(psi)
925

Fbx-

740

740

650

650

500

425

(psi)
315

Fcx

(3)

(3)

(6)

(6)

300

300

265

265

210

210

(psi)
195

Fvx (4)

Shear
Parallel
to Grain
(Horizontal)

2.1

2.1
(9)

(9)

1.9

1.8

1.7

1.5

1.09

1.09
(9)

(9)

0.98

0.93

0.88

0.78

Ex min
(106 psi)
0.67

Ex

Modulus
of
Elasticity
for Beam
and
Column
Stability

(106 psi)
1.3

Modulus
of
Elasticity

1750

1600

1600

1450

1050

800

(psi)
800

Fby

Extreme
Fiber in
Bending

650

650

560

560

315

315

(psi)
315

Fcy

Compression
Perpendicular
to Grain

(3)

(3)

260

260

230

230

185

185

(psi)
170

Fvy (4)(5)

Shear
Parallel
to Grain
(Horizontal)

1.7

1.7

1.6

1.6

1.3

1.2

(106 psi)
1.1

Ey

Modulus
of
Elasticity

0.88

0.88

0.83

0.83

0.67

0.62

(106 psi)
0.57

Ey min

Modulus
of
Elasticity
for Beam
and
Column
Stability

1250

1250

1150

1100

775

725

(psi)
675

Ft

Tension
Parallel to
Grain

1750

1750

1600

1600

1000

925

(psi)
925

Fc

Compression
Parallel to
Grain

Axially Loaded

1.7

1.7

1.7

1.7

1.4

1.3

(106 psi)
1.2

Eaxial

Modulus
of
Elasticity

(10)

(10)

0.55

0.55

0.50

0.50

0.42

0.42

0.42

Specific Gravity
for
Fastener Design

Fasteners

AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL

Design values in this table represent design values for groups of similar structural glued laminated timber combinations. Higher design values for some properties may be
obtained by specifying a particular combination listed in Table 5A Expanded. Design values are for members with 4 or more laminations. For 2 and 3 lamination members,
see Table 5B. Some stress classes are not available in all species. Contact structural glued laminated timber manufacturer for availability.

1. For balanced layups, Fbx- shall be equal to Fbx+ for the stress class. Designer shall specify when balanced layup is required.
2. Negative bending stress, Fbx-, is permitted to be increased to 1,850 psi for Douglas Fir and to 1,950 psi for Southern Pine for specific combinations. Designer shall specify when these increased stresses are
required.
3. For structural glued laminated timber of Southern Pine, the basic shear design values, Fvx and Fvy, are permitted to be increased to 300 psi and 260 psi, respectively.
4. The design value for shear, Fvx and Fvy, shall be decreased by multiplying by a factor of 0.72 for non-prismatic members, notched members, and for all members subject to impact or cyclic loading. The reduced
design value shall be used for design of members at connections that transfer shear by mechanical fasteners (NDS 3.4.3.3). The reduced design value shall also be used for determination of design values for radial
tension (NDS 5.2.2).
5. Design values are for timbers with laminations made from a single piece of lumber across the width or multiple pieces that have been edge bonded. For timbers manufactured from multiple piece laminations
(across width) that are not edge bonded, value shall be multiplied by 0.4 for members with 5, 7, or 9 laminations or by 0.5 for all other members. This reduction shall be cumulative with the adjustment in footnote
(4).
6. Certain Southern Pine combinations may contain lumber with wane. If lumber with wane is used, the design value for shear parallel to grain, Fvx, shall be multiplied by 0.67 if wane is allowed on both sides. If
wane is limited to one side, Fvx shall be multiplied by 0.83. This reduction shall be cumulative with the adjustment in footnote (4).
7. 26F, 28F, and 30F beams are not produced by all manufacturers, therefore, availability may be limited. Contact supplier or manufacturer for details.
8. 30F combinations are restricted to a maximum 6" nominal width.
9. For 28F and 30F members with more than 15 laminations, Ex = 2.0 million psi and Ex min = 1.04 million psi.
10. For structural glued laminated timber of Southern Pine, specific gravity for fastener design is permitted to be increased to 0.55.

30F-2.1E SP

28F-2.1E SP

26F-1.9E

2400

24F-1.8E

2000

(psi)
1600

Fbx+

2400

(7)

Compression
Zone
Stressed
in Tension

Compression
Perpendicular
to Grain

Loaded Parallel to Wide


Faces of Laminations

(Positive Bending) (Negative Bending)

Tension
Zone
Stressed
in Tension

Extreme Fiber in
Bending

Bending About Y-Y Axis

Bending About X-X Axis


Loaded Perpendicular to Wide
Faces of Laminations

Use with Table 5A Adjustment Factors

(Members stressed primarily in bending) (Tabulated design values are for normal load duration and dry service conditions. See NDS
5.3 for a comprehensive description of design value adjustment factors.)

Reference Design Values for Structural Glued Laminated Softwood Timber

24F-1.7E

20F-1.5E

16F-1.3E

Stress Class

Table 5A

only to be used with the 2005 NDS and Wood Structural Design Data
60
2005 REFERENCE DESIGN VALUES

AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION

Outer/Core

Symbol

SP/SP
SP/SP
SP/SP
SP/SP
SP/SP

16F-V2
16F-V3
16F-V5
16F-E1
16F-E3

SP/SP
SP/SP
SP/SP
SP/SP
SP/SP

20F-V2
20F-V3
20F-V5
20F-E1
20F-E3

SP/SP
SP/SP

SP/SP

(5)

24F-V1

24F-V4
24F-V5

DF/HF
DF/HF
HF/HF
HF/HF

24F-V5
24F-V10
24F-E11
24F-E15

24F-1.7E

DF/DF
DF/DF
HF/HF
AC/AC
AC/AC
HF/HF
DF/DF
DF/DF
HF/HF

20F-V3
20F-V7
20F-V9
20F-V12
20F-V13
20F-E2
20F-E3
20F-E6
20F-E7

20F-1.5E

DF/DF
HF/HF
DF/DF
DF/DF
HF/HF

16F-V6
16F-E2
16F-E3
16F-E6
16F-E7

16F-1.3E

Species

Combination

2,400
2,400

2,400

2,400
2,400
2,400
2,400
2,400

2,000
2,000
2,000
2,000
2,000

2,000
2,000
2,000
2,000
2,000
2,000
2,000
2,000
2,000
2,000

1,600
1,600
1,600
1,600
1,600

1,600
1,600
1,600
1,600
1,600
1,600

1,450
2,400

1,750

1,450
1,600
2,400
2,400
1,600

1,550
1,450
2,000
1,250
2,000

1,100
1,450
2,000
2,000
1,400
2,000
1,400
1,200
2,000
2,000

1,350
1,450
1,600
1,250
1,600

925
1,600
1,050
1,200
1,600
1,600

(psi)

(psi)

Tension

Fbx-

(2)

Compression
Zone
Stressed
in

Fbx+

Tension

Tension
Zone
Stressed
in

Extreme Fiber in
Bending

740
740

740

650
650
500
500

740
650
740
650
650

650
650
500
560
560
500
560
560
500

650
740
650
650
650

560
375
560
560
375

500

425

650
740

650

650
650
500
500

650
650
740
650
650

560
650
500
560
560
500
560
560
500

650
740
650
650
650

210
300

300

210
215
215
215
215

300
300
300
300
300

210
265
265
215
265
265
215
265
265
215

300
300
300
300
300

195
265
215
215
265
215

(psi)

(psi)
315

Fvx (3)

Shear Parallel
to Grain
(Horizontal)

Fcx

560
375
560
560
375

Compression
Perpendicular
to Grain
Tension Compression
Face
Face

1.7
1.7

1.7

1.7
1.7
1.8
1.8
1.8

1.5
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.7

1.5
1.6
1.6
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.7
1.6

1.4
1.4
1.4
1.6
1.6

1.3
1.5
1.3
1.6
1.6
1.4

0.88
0.88

0.88

0.88
0.88
0.93
0.93
0.93

0.78
0.78
0.83
0.88
0.88

0.78
0.83
0.83
0.78
0.78
0.78
0.83
0.88
0.88
0.83

0.73
0.73
0.73
0.83
0.83

0.67
0.78
0.67
0.83
0.83
0.73

(10 psi)

(10 psi)

Ex min

Modulus
of
Elasticity
for Beam
and
Column
Stability

Ex

Modulus
of
Elasticity

1,050
1,750

1,450

1,050
1,200
1,450
1,550
1,200

1,450
1,750
1,450
1,750
1,900

800
1,450
1,450
1,350
1,250
1,250
1,200
1,450
1,550
1,450

1,450
1,450
1,750
1,750
1,750

800
1,450
1,200
1,450
1,550
1,450

(psi)

Fby

Extreme
Fiber in
Bending

470
650

650

315
375
375
375
375

650
650
650
650
650

315
560
560
375
470
470
375
560
560
375

650
650
650
650
650

315
560
375
560
560
375

(psi)

Fcy

185
260

260

185
190
190
190
190

260
260
260
260
260

185
230
230
190
230
230
190
230
230
190

260
260
260
260
260

170
230
190
190
230
190

(psi)

Fvy (4)

1.3
1.5

1.5

1.3
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5

1.4
1.4
1.4
1.5
1.5

1.2
1.5
1.6
1.4
1.4
1.4
1.4
1.6
1.6
1.4

1.4
1.4
1.4
1.5
1.5

1.1
1.5
1.3
1.5
1.5
1.4

(106 psi)

Ey

Compression Shear Parallel Modulus


Perpendicular
to Grain
of
to Grain
(Horizontal) Elasticity

Bending About Y-Y Axis


(Loaded Parallel to Wide Faces
of Laminations)

Bending About X-X Axis


(Loaded Perpendicular to Wide Faces
of Laminations)

Use with Table 5A Adjustment Factors

0.67
0.78

0.78

0.67
0.78
0.78
0.78
0.78

0.73
0.73
0.73
0.78
0.78

0.62
0.78
0.83
0.73
0.73
0.73
0.73
0.83
0.83
0.73

0.73
0.73
0.73
0.78
0.78

0.57
0.78
0.67
0.78
0.78
0.73

875
1,150

1,100

775
1,150
1,100
1,150
975

975
1,050
1,050
1,050
1,150

725
975
1,000
975
900
925
925
1,000
1,100
1,050

975
925
1,000
1,050
1,100

675
900
825
925
975
1,000

Ft
(psi)

Ey min
(106 psi)

E axial
(106 psi)
1.2
1.6
1.4
1.6
1.6
1.5
1.5
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.6
1.3
1.6
1.6
1.5
1.4
1.5
1.5
1.7
1.7
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.6
1.6
1.4
1.6
1.6
1.6
1.6
1.6
1.5
1.6

Fc
925
1,550
1,200
1,600
1,600
1,450
1,350
1,400
1,500
1,550
1,600
925
1,550
1,600
1,400
1,500
1,550
1,350
1,600
1,650
1,450
1,350
1,400
1,500
1,550
1,650
1,000
1,450
1,550
1,550
1,500
1,550
1,000
1,650

Modulus
of
Elasticity

(psi)

Modulus Tension Compression


of
Parallel to
Parallel to
Elasticity
Grain
Grain
for Beam
and
Column
Stability

Axially Loaded

0.55
0.55

0.55

0.5
0.5
0.43
0.43

0.55
0.55
0.55
0.55
0.55

0.5
0.5
0.43
0.46
0.46
0.43
0.5
0.5
0.43

0.55
0.55
0.55
0.55
0.55

0.5
0.43
0.5
0.5
0.43

0.42

0.42

0.43
0.55

0.55

0.43
0.43
0.43
0.43

0.55
0.55
0.55
0.55
0.55

0.5
0.5
0.43
0.46
0.46
0.43
0.5
0.5
0.43

0.55
0.55
0.55
0.55
0.55

0.5
0.43
0.5
0.5
0.43

Side Face

0.42

Top or
Bottom
Face

Specific Gravity
for
Fastener Design

Fasteners

(Members stressed primarily in bending) (Tabulated design values are for normal load duration and dry service conditions.) Table 5A
Expanded is an expanded list of structural glued laminated timber combinations from AITC 117 and APA-EWS Y117 that meet the
requirements of each stress class in the new structural glued laminated timber stress class system. Table 5A Expanded is provided to
allow easy conversion from the old combination symbols system to the new stress class system.

Expanded - Reference Design Values for Structural Glued Laminated Softwood Timber
Combinations1

REFERENCE DESIGN VALUES

Table 5A

only to be used with the 2005 NDS and Wood Structural Design Data

2005 DESIGN VALUES FOR WOOD CONSTRUCTION NDS SUPPLEMENT

61

Outer/Core

AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL

SP/SP

SP/SP

30F-E1

30F-E2

(6)(7)

SP/SP

28F-E2

30F-2.1E

SP/SP

28F-E1

(6)

SP/SP
SP/SP
SP/SP
SP/SP

26F-V1
26F-V2
26F-V3
26F-V4

28F-2.1E

DF/DF
DF/DF

26F-V1
26F-V2

(6)

SP/SP
SP/SP
SP/SP

24F-V3
24F-E1
24F-E4

26F-1.9E

DF/DF
DF/DF
DF/DF
DF/DF
DF/DF

24F-V4
24F-V8
24F-E4
24F-E13
24F-E18

3,000

3,000

3,000

2,800

2,800

2,800

2,600
2,600
2,600
2,600

2,600
2,600

2,600

2,400
2,400
2,400

3,000

2,400

2,400

2,800

2,300

2,300

1,950
2,100
2,100
2,600

1,950
2,600

1,950

1,950
1,450
2,400

1,450
1,850
2,400
1,450
2,400
2,400

(psi)

(psi)

2,400
2,400
2,400
2,400
2,400
2,400

Fbx-

Tension

Compression
Zone
Stressed
in

Fbx+

Tension

(2)

Tension
Zone
Stressed
in

Extreme Fiber in
Bending

740

740

740

740

740
740
740
740

650
650

740
740
740

650
650
650
650
650

740

740

650

740

740

740

740

740
740
740
740

650
650

740
650
740

300

300

300

300

300

300

300
300
300
300

265
265

265

300
300
300

265
265
265
265
265
265

(psi)

650

Fvx (3)

(psi)

Shear Parallel
to Grain
(Horizontal)

Fcx

650
650
650
650
650

Compression
Perpendicular
to Grain
Tension Compression
Face
Face

2.1

2.1

2.1

2.1

2.1

2.1

(8)

(8)

(8)

(8)

(8)

(8)

1.8
1.9
1.9
1.9

2.0
2.0

1.9

1.8
1.8
1.9

1.8
1.8
1.8
1.8
1.8
1.9

1.09

1.09

1.09

1.09

1.09

1.09

(8)

(8)

(8)

(8)

(8)

(8)

0.93
0.98
0.98
0.98

1.04
1.04

0.98

0.93
0.93
0.98

0.93
0.93
0.93
0.93
0.93
0.98

(10 psi)

(10 psi)

Ex min

Modulus
of
Elasticity
for Beam
and
Column
Stability

Ex

Modulus
of
Elasticity

1,750

1,750

1,750

2,000

1,600

1,600

1,900
2,200
2,100
2,100

1,750
1,750

1,600

1,750
1,750
2,200

1,450
1,450
1,450
1,450
1,750
1,550

(psi)

Fby

Extreme
Fiber in
Bending

650

650

650

650

650

650

650
740
650
650

560
560

560

650
650
650

560
560
560
560
560
560

(psi)

Fcy

260

260

260

260

260

260

260
260
260
260

230
230

230

260
260
260

230
230
230
230
230
230

(psi)

Fvy (3)(4)

1.7

1.7

1.7

1.7

1.7

1.7

1.6
1.8
1.8
1.8

1.8
1.8

1.6

1.6
1.6
1.7

1.6
1.6
1.6
1.7
1.7
1.7

(106 psi)

Ey

Compression Shear Parallel Modulus


Perpendicular
to Grain
of
to Grain
(Horizontal) Elasticity

Bending About Y-Y Axis


(Loaded Parallel to Wide Faces
of Laminations)

Bending About X-X Axis


(Loaded Perpendicular to Wide Faces
of Laminations)

Use with Table 5A Adjustment Factors

0.88

0.88

0.88

0.88

0.88

0.88

0.83
0.93
0.93
0.93

0.93
0.93

0.83

0.83
0.83
0.88

0.83
0.83
0.83
0.88
0.88
0.88

(106 psi)

Ey min

1,350

1,250

1,250

1,300

1,300

1,250

1,150
1,250
1,200
1,200

1,300
1,300

1,150

1,150
1,100
1,450

1,100
1,100
1,100
1,100
1,200
1,100

(psi)

Ft

1,750

1,750

1,750

1,850

1,850

1,750

1,600
1,650
1,600
1,600

1,850
1,850

1,600

1,650
1,600
1,850

1,600
1,650
1,650
1,700
1,700
1,700

(psi)

Fc

Modulus Tension Compression


of
Parallel to
Parallel to
Elasticity
Grain
Grain
for Beam
and
Column
Stability

1.7

1.7

1.7

1.7

1.7

1.7

1.7
1.9
1.9
1.9

1.9
1.9

1.7

1.7
1.7
1.8

1.7
1.7
1.7
1.8
1.8
1.8

(106 psi)

E axial

Modulus
of
Elasticity

Axially Loaded

0.55

0.55

0.55

0.55

0.55
0.55
0.55
0.55

0.5
0.5

0.55
0.55
0.55

0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5

0.5

0.5

0.55

0.55

0.55

0.55

0.55

0.55
0.55
0.55
0.55

0.5
0.5

0.55
0.55
0.55

0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5

Side Face

0.55

Top or
Bottom
Face

Specific Gravity
for
Fastener Design

Fasteners

(Members stressed primarily in bending) (Tabulated design values are for normal load duration and dry service conditions.) Table 5A
Expanded is an expanded list of structural glued laminated timber combinations from AITC 117 and APA-EWS Y117 that meet the
requirements of each stress class in the new structural glued laminated timber stress class system. Table 5A Expanded is provided to
allow easy conversion from the old combination symbols system to the new stress class system.

Expanded - Reference Design Values for Structural Glued Laminated Softwood Timber
Combinations1

Species

24F-1.8E

Symbol

Combination

Table 5A
(Cont.)

only to be used with the 2005 NDS and Wood Structural Design Data
62
2005 REFERENCE DESIGN VALUES

2005 DESIGN VALUES FOR WOOD CONSTRUCTION NDS SUPPLEMENT

63

1. The combinations in this table are applicable to members consisting of 4 or more laminations and are intended primarily for members stressed in bending due to
loads applied perpendicular to the wide faces of the laminations. However, design values are tabulated for loading both perpendicular and parallel to the wide faces
of the laminations. For combinations and design values applicable to members loaded primarily axially or parallel to the wide faces of the laminations, see Table
5B. For members of 2 or 3 laminations, see Table 5B.
2. The tabulated design values in this column, for bending about the X-X axis (Fbx), require the use of special tension laminations. If these special tension laminations
are omitted, value shall be multiplied by 0.75 for members greater than or equal to 15" in depth or by 0.85 for members less than 15" in depth.
3. The design value for shear, Fvx and Fvy, shall be decreased by multiplying by a factor of 0.72 for non-prismatic members, notched members, and for all members
subject to impact or cyclic loading. The reduced design value shall be used for design of members at connections (NDS 3.4.3.3) that transfer shear by mechanical
fasteners. The reduced design value shall also be used for detrmination of design values for radial tension (NDS 5.2.2).
4. Design values are for timbers with laminations made from a single piece of lumber across the width or multiple pieces that have been edge bonded. For timber
manufactured from multiple piece laminations (across width) that are not edge-bonded, value shall be multiplied by 0.4 for members with 5, 7, or 9 laminations or
by 0.5 for all other members. This reduction shall be cumulative with the adjustment in footnote (3).
5. This combination may contain lumber with wane. If lumber with wane is used, the design value for shear parallel to grain, Fvx, shall be multiplied by 0.67 if wane
is allowed on both sides. If wane is limited to one side, Fvx shall be multiplied by 0.83. This reduction shall be cumulative with the adjustment in footnote (3).
6. 26F, 28F, and 30F beams are not produced by all manufacturers, therefore, availability may be limited. Contact supplier or manufacturer for details.
7. 30F combinations are restricted to a maximum 6" nominal width.
8. For 28F and 30F members with more than 15 laminations, Ex = 2.0 million psi and Ex min = 1.04 million psi.

4
REFERENCE DESIGN VALUES

only to be used with the 2005 NDS and Wood Structural Design Data

Footnotes to Expanded Table 5A

AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION

2005 REFERENCE DESIGN VALUES

64

T able 5B Adjustment Factors


s

only to be used with the 2005 NDS and Wood Structural Design Data

Volume Factor, CV

Tabulated bending design values for loading perpendicular to wide faces of laminations, Fbx, for structural
glued laminated bending members shall be multiplied by
the following volume factor:

Flat Use Factor, Cfu

Tabulated bending design values for loading parallel


to wide faces of laminations, Fby, shall be multiplied by
the following flat use factors when the member dimension parallel to wide faces of laminations is less than 12":
Flat Use Factors, Cfu

CV = (21/L)

1/x

1/x

(12/d)

(5.125/b)

1/x

1.0

where:
L = length of bending member between points of
zero moment, ft
d = depth of bending member, in.
b = width (breadth) of bending member, in. For

Member dimension parallel


to wide faces of laminations
10-3/4" or 10-1/2"
8-3/4" or 8-1/2"
6-3/4"
5-1/8" or 5"
3-1/8" or 3"
2-1/2"

multiple piece width layups, b = width of widest


piece in the layup. Thus b 10.75".
x = 20 for Southern Pine
x = 10 for all other species

The volume factor shall not apply simultaneously with


the beam stability factor (see 5.3.6). Therefore, the lesser
of these adjustment factors shall apply.

Wet Service Factor, CM

When structural glued laminated timber is used where


moisture content will be 16% or greater, design values
shall be multiplied by the appropriate wet service factors
from the following table:
Wet Service Factors, CM
Fb

Ft

Fv

Fc

Fc

E and Emin

0.8

0.8

0.875

0.53

0.73

0.833

AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL

Cfu
1.01
1.04
1.07
1.10
1.16
1.19

AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION

Grade

Modulus
of
Elasticity
E
(106 psi)

DF
DF
DF
DF
DF
HF
HF
HF
HF
SW
AC
AC
AC
AC

L3
L2
L2D
L1CL
L1D
L3
L2
L1
L1D
L3
L3
L2
L1D
L1S

27
28
29
30
31
32
62
63
33
34
35
36
37
38
39(6)
40(6)
41(6)
42(6)
43(6)
44(6)

DF
DF
DF
DF
DF
DF
DF
DF
HF
HF
HF
HF
HF
HF
SW
SW
SW
SW
SW
SW

1.9E2
2.1E2
2.3E2
1.9E6
2.1E6
2.3E6
2.2E2
2.2E6
1.6E2
1.9E2
2.1E2
1.6E4
1.9E6
2.1E6
1.6E2
1.9E2
2.1E2
1.6E4
1.9E6
2.1E6

E-Rated Western Species

1
2
3
4
5
14
15
16
17
22(6)
69
70
71
72
1.8
2.0
2.2
1.8
2.0
2.2
2.1
2.1
1.5
1.8
2.0
1.5
1.8
2.0
1.5
1.8
2.0
1.5
1.8
2.0

1.5
1.6
1.9
1.9
2.0
1.3
1.4
1.6
1.7
1.0
1.2
1.3
1.6
1.6

Visually Graded Western Species

Identification Species
Number

0.93
1.04
1.14
0.93
1.04
1.14
1.09
1.09
0.78
0.93
1.04
0.78
0.93
1.04
0.78
0.93
1.04
0.78
0.93
1.04

0.78
0.83
0.98
0.98
1.04
0.67
0.73
0.83
0.88
0.52
0.62
0.67
0.83
0.83

Modulus
of
Elasticity
for Beam
and
Column
Stability
Emin
(106 psi)

560
650
650
560
650
650
650
650
375
500
500
375
500
500
315
315
315
315
315
315

560
560
650
590
650
375
375
375
500
315
470
470
560
560

Compression
Perpendicular
to Grain
Fc
(psi)

All Loading

900
1100
1250
1550
1800
1800
1150
1950
800
900
1100
1200
1550
1800
800
900
1100
1200
1550
1800

900
1250
1450
1400
1600
800
1050
1200
1400
525
725
975
1250
1250

2 or More
Laminations
Ft
(psi)

Tension
Parallel
to Grain

1750
2000
2250
2100
2400
2400
1850
2300
1050
1500
1550
1450
1950
2400
1200
1500
1750
1550
1950
2100

1550
1950
2300
2100
2400
1100
1350
1500
1750
850
1150
1450
1900
1900

4 or More
Laminations
Fc
(psi)

1200
1400
1550
1700
1950
2200
1500
2000
950
1200
1400
1350
1700
1950
950
1200
1400
1350
1700
1950

1200
1600
1850
1900
2100
975
1300
1450
1700
675
1100
1450
1900
1900

2 or 3
Laminations
Fc
(psi)

Compression
Parallel
to Grain

Axially Loaded

1450
1650
1900
2400
2400
2400
1800
2400
1200
1450
1650
2100
2400
2400
1200
1450
1650
2100
2400
2400

1450
1800
2100
2200
2400
1200
1500
1750
2000
800
1100
1400
1850
1850

4 or More
Laminations
Fby
(psi)

1250
1450
1650
2400
2400
2400
1550
2400
1050
1250
1450
1900
2400
2400
1050
1250
1450
1900
2400
2400

1250
1600
1850
2000
2100
1050
1350
1550
1850
700
975
1250
1650
1650

3
Laminations
Fby
(psi)

1000
1150
1350
2100
2400
2400
1250
2400
850
1000
1150
1700
2100
2400
850
1000
1150
1700
2100
2400

1000
1300
1550
1650
1800
850
1100
1300
1550
550
775
1000
1400
1400

2
Laminations
Fby
(psi)

230
230
230
230
230
230
230
230
190
190
190
190
190
190
170
170
170
170
170
170

230
230
230
230
230
190
190
190
190
170
230
230
230
230

Fvy
(psi)

Loaded Parallel to Wide


Faces of Laminations
Shear Parallel
Bending
to Grain(1)(2)(3)

Bending about Y-Y Axis

Use with Table 5B Adjustment Factors

Fvx
(psi)
265
265
265
265
265
215
215
215
215
195
265
265
265
265
265
265
265
265
265
265
265
265
215
215
215
215
215
215
195
195
195
195
195
195

2 Laminations to
15 in. Deep (5)
Fbx
(psi)
1250
1700
2000
1900
2200
1100
1450
1600
1900
725
1000
1350
1700
1900
1250
1500
1700
1800
2100
2400
1800
2200
1100
1300
1850
1400
1800
2100
1100
1250
1550
1400
1800
2100

Loaded Perpendicular to Wide


Faces of Laminations
Bending (4)
Shear Parallel
to Grain(3)

Bending About X-X Axis

(Members stressed primarily in axial tension or compression)1,2 (Tabulated design values are for normal load duration and dry
service conditions. See NDS 5.3 for a comprehensive description of design value adjustment factors.)

Reference Design Values for Structural Glued Laminated Softwood Timber

REFERENCE DESIGN VALUES

Table 5B

only to be used with the 2005 NDS and Wood Structural Design Data

2005 DESIGN VALUES FOR WOOD CONSTRUCTION NDS SUPPLEMENT

65

Modulus
of
Elasticity
E
(106 psi)

AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL

1:12
1:10

1:12
1:10

1:10
1:8

1:10
1:8

SP
SP
SP
SP
SP
SP
SP
SP
SP
SP
SP
SP

N2M14
N2M10
N2M
N2D14
N2D10
N2D
N1M16
N1M12
N1M
N1D14
N1D12
N1D

SP
SP
SP
SP
SP

2.1E2
2.3E2
1.9E6
2.1E6
2.3E6

2.0
2.2
1.8
2.0
2.2

1.4
1.4
1.4
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.9
1.9
1.9
1.04
1.14
0.93
1.04
1.14

0.73
0.73
0.73
0.88
0.88
0.88
0.88
0.88
0.88
0.98
0.98
0.98
740
740
650
740
740

650
650
650
740
740
740
650
650
650
740
740
740

Compression
Perpendicular
to Grain
Fc
(psi)

1100
1250
1550
1800
1800

1200
1150
1000
1400
1350
1150
1350
1300
1150
1550
1550
1350

2 or More
Laminations
Ft
(psi)

Tension
Parallel
to Grain

2300
2400
1850
2300
2400

1900
1700
1500
2200
2000
1750
2100
1900
1700
2300
2200
2000

4 or More
Laminations
Fc
(psi)

1400
1550
1700
1950
2200

1150
1150
1150
1350
1350
1350
1450
1450
1450
1700
1700
1700

2 or 3
Laminations
Fc
(psi)

Compression
Parallel
to Grain

Axially Loaded

1650
1900
2400
2400
2400

1750
1750
1600
2000
2000
1850
1950
1950
1850
2300
2300
2100

4 or More
Laminations
Fby
(psi)

1450
1650
2400
2400
2400

1550
1550
1550
1800
1800
1800
1750
1750
1750
2100
2100
2100

3
Laminations
Fby
(psi)

1150
1350
2100
2400
2400

1300
1300
1300
1500
1500
1500
1500
1500
1500
1750
1750
1750

2
Laminations
Fby
(psi)

260
260
260
260
260

260
260
260
260
260
260
260
260
260
260
260
260

Fvy
(psi)

Loaded Parallel to Wide


Faces of Laminations
Bending
Shear Parallel
to Grain(1)(2)(3)

Bending about Y-Y Axis

1500
1700
1800
2100
2400

1400
1400
1350
1600
1600
1600
1800
1750
1550
2100
2100
1800

2 Laminations to
15 in. Deep (5)
Fbx
(psi)

300
300
300
300
300

300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300

Fvx
(psi)

Loaded Perpendicular to Wide


Faces of Laminations
Bending (4)
Shear Parallel
to Grain(3)

Bending About X-X Axis

1. For members with 2 or 3 laminations, the shear design value for transverse loads parallel to the wide faces of the laminations, Fvy, shall be reduced by multiplying by a factor of 0.84 or 0.95, respectively.
2. The shear design value for transverse loads applied parallel to the wide faces of the laminations, Fvy, shall be multiplied by 0.4 for members with 5, 7, or 9 laminations manufactured from multiple piece laminations
(across width) that are not edge bonded. The shear design value, Fvy, shall be multiplied by 0.5 for all other members manufactured from multiple piece laminations with unbonded edge joints. This reduction shall
be cumulative with the adjustment in footnote (1) and (3).
3. The design value for shear, Fvx and Fvy, shall be decreased by multiplying by a factor of 0.72 for non-prismatic members, notched members, and for all members subject to impact or cyclic loading. The reduced
design value shall be used for design of members at connections (NDS 3.4.3.3) that transfer shear by mechanical fasteners. The reduced design value shall also be used for determination of design values for radial
tension (NDS 5.2.2).
4. Tabulated design values are for members without special tension laminations. If special tension laminations are used, the design value for bending, Fbx, shall be permitted to be increased by multiplying by 1.18.
This factor shall not be applied cumulatively with the adjustment in footnote (5).
5. For members greater than 15" deep and without special tension laminations, the bending design value, Fbx, shall be reduced by multiplying by a factor of 0.88. This factor shall not be applied cumulatively with
the adjustment in footnote (4).
6. When Western Cedars, Western Cedars (North), Western Woods, and Redwood (open grain) are used in combinations for Softwood Species (SW), the design value for E shall be reduced by 100,000 psi and Emin
shall be reduced by 50,000 psi. When Coast Sitka Spruce, Coast Species, Western White Pine, and Eastern White Pine are used in combinations for Softwood Species (SW) tabulated design values for shear parallel
to grain, Fvx and Fvy, shall be reduced by 10 psi, before applying any other adjustments.

54
55
56
57
58

E-Rated Southern Pine

47
47
47
48
48
48
49
49
49
50
50
50

Visually Graded Southern Pine

Grade

Modulus
of
Elasticity
for Beam
and
Column
Stability
Emin
(106 psi)

All Loading

Use with Table 5B Adjustment Factors

(Members stressed primarily in axial tension or compression)1,2 (Tabulated design values are for normal load duration and dry
service conditions. See NDS 5.3 for a comprehensive description of design value adjustment factors.)

Reference Design Values for Structural Glued Laminated Softwood Timber

Identification Species
Number

Table 5B
(Cont.)

only to be used with the 2005 NDS and Wood Structural Design Data
66
2005 REFERENCE DESIGN VALUES

2005 DESIGN VALUES FOR WOOD CONSTRUCTION NDS SUPPLEMENT

67

Table 5C Adjustment Factors

Tabulated bending design values for loading perpendicular to wide faces of laminations, Fbx, for structural
glued laminated bending members shall be multiplied by
the following volume factor:

Flat Use Factor, Cfu

Tabulated bending design values for loading parallel


to wide faces of laminations, Fby, shall be multiplied by
the following flat use factors when the member dimension parallel to wide faces of laminations is less than 12":
Flat Use Factors, Cfu

CV = (21/L)

1/x

1/x

(12/d)

(5.125/b)

1/x

1.0

where:
L = length of bending member between points of
zero moment, ft
d = depth of bending member, in.
b = width (breadth) of bending member, in. For

Member dimension parallel


to wide faces of laminations
10-3/4" or 10-1/2"
8-3/4" or 8-1/2"
6-3/4"
5-1/8" or 5"
3-1/8" or 3"
2-1/2"

multiple piece width layups, b = width of widest


piece in the layup. Thus b 10.75".
x = 20 for Southern Pine
x = 10 for all other species

The volume factor shall not apply simultaneously with


the beam stability factor (see 5.3.6). Therefore, the lesser
of these adjustment factors shall apply.

Wet Service Factor, CM

When structural glued laminated timber is used where


moisture content will be 16% or greater, design values
shall be multiplied by the appropriate wet service factors
from the following table:
Wet Service Factors, CM
Fb

Ft

Fv

Fc

Fc

E and Emin

0.8

0.8

0.875

0.53

0.73

0.833

AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION

Cfu
1.01
1.04
1.07
1.10
1.16
1.19

4
REFERENCE DESIGN VALUES

only to be used with the 2005 NDS and Wood Structural Design Data

Volume Factor, CV

AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL

1,600
1,600
2,000
2,000
2,400
2,400
2,400
2,400
2,400

1,200
1,200
1,400
1,400
1,400
1,400
1,600
1,600
1,600
1,600
2,000
2,000
800
1,600
1,000
2,000
1,200
2,400
1,200
1,200
1,200

440
440
590
590
770
770
590
895
1,075

285
285
405
590
405
590
590
835
590
835
835
835

(psi)

(psi)
600
1,200
700
700
1,400
1,400
800
800
1,600
1,600
1,000
2,000

Fcx

Fbx-

125
125
155
155
180
180
155
220
235

125
125
155
180
155
180
180
200
180
200
200
200

(psi)

Fvx
6

1.4
1.4
1.6
1.6
1.8
1.8
1.8
1.8
1.8

1.2
1.2
1.3
1.3
1.3
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.4
1.6
1.7
1.7
0.73
0.73
0.83
0.83
0.93
0.93
0.93
0.93
0.93

0.62
0.62
0.67
0.67
0.67
0.67
0.73
0.78
0.73
0.83
0.88
0.88

(10 psi) (10 psi)

Ex min

1,250
1,400
1,350
1,600
1,550
1,650
1,450
1,650
1,700

1,050
1,050
1,250
1,450
1,250
1,450
1,400
1,700
1,400
1,700
1,700
1,700

(psi)

Fby

285
285
405
405
590
590
405
710
900

285
285
405
590
405
590
590
835
590
835
835
835

(psi)

Fcy

110
110
135
135
160
160
135
195
205

110
110
135
160
135
160
160
175
160
175
175
175

(psi)

Fvy(2)

Modulus Extreme Compression


Shear
of
Fiber in Perpendicular Parallel
Elasticity Bending
to Grain
to Grain
for Beam
(Horizontal)
and
Column
Stability

Ex

Shear
Modulus
Parallel
of
to Grain
Elasticity
(Horizontal)

1.2
1.2
1.3
1.3
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.6
1.5

1.0
1.1
1.1
1.1
1.1
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.4

0.62
0.62
0.67
0.67
0.78
0.78
0.78
0.83
0.78

0.52
0.57
0.57
0.57
0.57
0.57
0.62
0.67
0.62
0.67
0.73
0.73

Ey min

825
900
950
1,050
1,050
1,050
975
1,050
1,100

600
625
700
750
725
775
800
875
850
900
975
1,000

(psi)

Ft

975
1,000
1,050
1,100
1,400
1,400
1,200
1,350
1,450

800
860
950
1,200
950
1,200
1,200
1,250
1,200
1,300
1,400
1,400

(psi)

Fc

1.2
1.2
1.3
1.3
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.6
1.5

1.0
1.1
1.1
1.1
1.1
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.4

(106 psi)

E axial

Modulus
Tension Compression Modulus
of
Parallel to Parallel to
of
Elasticity
Grain
Grain
Elasticity
for Beam
and
Column
Stability

(10 psi) (10 psi)

Ey

Modulus
of
Elasticity

Axially Loaded

1. Design values in this table were excerpted from AITC 119-96 Standard Specifications for Structural Glued Laminated Timber of Hardwood Species. Design values are applicable to
members with 4 or more laminations. For 2 and 3 lamination members see Table 5D.
2. Design values are for timbers with laminations made from a single piece of lumber across the width or multiple pieces that have been edge bonded. For timbers manufactured from multiple
piece laminations (across width) that are not edge bonded, value shall be multiplied by 0.4 for members with 5, 7, or 9 laminations or by 0.5 for all other members.
3. Fastener values are for groups of hardwood species permitted in each combination. If actual species is known, values for that species are permitted to be used.

16F-E1
16F-E2
20F-E1
20F-E2
24F-E1
24F-E2
24F-E3 YP
24F-E4 RM
24F-E5 RO

E-Rated Hardwoods

12F-V1
12F-V2
14F-V1
14F-V2
14F-V3
14F-V4
16F-V1
16F-V2
16F-V3
16F-V4
20F-V1
20F-V2

Compression
Zone
Stressed
in Tension

(Positive Bending) (Negative Bending)

Tension
Zone
Stressed
in Tension

Compression
Perpendicular
to Grain

Loaded Parallel to Wide


Faces of Laminations

Loaded Perpendicular to Wide


Faces of Laminations

Extreme Fiber in
Bending

Bending About Y-Y Axis

Bending About X-X Axis

Use with Table 5C Adjustment Factors

0.39
0.39
0.45
0.45
0.53
0.53
0.45
0.53
0.63

0.39
0.39
0.45
0.53
0.45
0.53
0.53
0.63
0.53
0.63
0.63
0.63

Specific Gravity
for
Fastener Design

(3)

Fasteners

(Members stressed primarily in bending)1 (Tabulated design values are for normal load duration and dry service conditions. See NDS
5.3 for a comprehensive description of design value adjustment factors.)

Reference Design Values for Structural Glued Laminated Hardwood Timber

Combination
Fbx+
Symbol
(psi)
Visually Graded Hardwoods

Table 5C

only to be used with the 2005 NDS and Wood Structural Design Data
68
2005 REFERENCE DESIGN VALUES

2005 DESIGN VALUES FOR WOOD CONSTRUCTION NDS SUPPLEMENT

69

Table 5D Adjustment Factors

Tabulated bending design values for loading perpendicular to wide faces of laminations, Fbx, for structural
glued laminated bending members shall be multiplied by
the following volume factor:

Flat Use Factor, Cfu

Tabulated bending design values for loading parallel


to wide faces of laminations, Fby, shall be multiplied by
the following flat use factors when the member dimension parallel to wide faces of laminations is less than 12":
Flat Use Factors, Cfu

CV = (21/L)

1/x

1/x

(12/d)

(5.125/b)

1/x

1.0

where:
L = length of bending member between points of
zero moment, ft
d = depth of bending member, in.
b = width (breadth) of bending member, in. For

Member dimension parallel


to wide faces of laminations
10-3/4" or 10-1/2"
8-3/4" or 8-1/2"
6-3/4"
5-1/8" or 5"
3-1/8" or 3"
2-1/2"

multiple piece width layups, b = width of widest


piece in the layup. Thus b 10.75".
x = 20 for Southern Pine
x = 10 for all other species

The volume factor shall not apply simultaneously with


the beam stability factor (see 5.3.6). Therefore, the lesser
of these adjustment factors shall apply.

Wet Service Factor, CM

When structural glued laminated timber is used where


moisture content will be 16% or greater, design values
shall be multiplied by the appropriate wet service factors
from the following table:
Wet Service Factors, CM
Fb

Ft

Fv

Fc

Fc

E and Emin

0.8

0.8

0.875

0.53

0.73

0.833

AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION

Cfu
1.01
1.04
1.07
1.10
1.16
1.19

4
REFERENCE DESIGN VALUES

only to be used with the 2005 NDS and Wood Structural Design Data

Volume Factor, CV

Group

Elasticity
E
(106 psi)

Modulus
of

H1
H2
H3
H4
H5
H6
H7
H8
H9
H10
H11
H12
H13
H14
H15
H16

A
A
A
A
B
B
B
B
C
C
C
C
D
D
D
D

N3
N2
N1
SS
N3
N2
N1
SS
N3
N2
N1
SS
N3
N2
N1
SS

1.3
1.5
1.7
1.7
1.2
1.3
1.5
1.5
1.0
1.2
1.3
1.3
0.9
1.1
1.2
1.2

Visually Graded Hardwoods

Symbol

Grade

0.67
0.78
0.88
0.88
0.62
0.67
0.78
0.78
0.52
0.62
0.67
0.67
0.47
0.57
0.62
0.62

Stability
Emin
(106 psi)

Modulus
of
Elasticity
for Beam
and
Column

Tension
Parallel
to Grain

835
835
835
835
590
590
590
590
405
405
405
405
285
285
285
285

to Grain
Fc
(psi)
425
875
1,000
1,150
350
750
850
950
300
625
725
825
250
550
625
700

nations
Ft
(psi)
900
1,300
1,450
1,600
800
1,150
1,300
1,450
625
900
1,000
1,100
575
825
925
1,050

nations
Fc
(psi)
900
1,300
1,450
1,600
800
1,150
1,300
1,450
625
900
1,000
1,100
575
825
925
1,050

nations
Fc
(psi)

2 or 3
Lami-

Compression
Parallel
to Grain

Axially Loaded

Compression 2 or More 4 or More


Perpendicular
LamiLami-

All Loading

1,250
1,700
2,000
2,000
1,050
1,450
1,650
1,700
900
1,200
1,400
1,450
775
1,050
1,200
1,250

nations
Fby
(psi)

4 or More
Lami-

1,100
1,550
1,800
1,850
900
1,300
1,500
1,550
800
1,100
1,300
1,350
675
950
1,100
1,150

nations
Fby
(psi)

3
Lami-

Bending

875
1,300
1,550
1,600
750
1,050
1,300
1,350
625
925
1,100
1,150
550
800
950
1,000

90
90
90
90
80
80
80
80
70
70
70
70
55
55
55
55

nations laminations(3)
Fby
Fvy
(psi)
(psi)

2
Lami-

175
175
175
175
160
160
160
160
135
135
135
135
110
110
110
110

nations
Fvy
(psi)

4 or More
Laminations
for members
with
4 or More
multiple piece
Lami2
Lami-

165
165
165
165
150
150
150
150
130
130
130
130
105
105
105
105

150
150
150
150
135
135
135
135
115
115
115
115
95
95
95
95

nations nations
Fvy
Fvy
(psi)
(psi)

3
Lami-

925
1,200
1,600
1,700
750
1,000
1,350
1,400
675
875
1,150
1,200
575
750
1,000
1,050

Lams
Fbx
(psi)

2 Laminations to
15 in. Deep (4)
without
Special
Tension

1,200
1,500
1,800
2,000
1,000
1,200
1,600
1,700
900
1,100
1,400
1,500
775
925
1,150
1,300

Lams (5)
Fbx
(psi)

4 or More
Laminations
with
Special
Tension

Bending

200
200
200
200
180
180
180
180
155
155
155
155
125
125
125
125

nations
Fvx
(psi)

2 or More
Lami-

Shear Parallel
to Grain

Loaded Parallel to Wide


Faces of Laminations
Shear Parallel to Grain

Bending About X-X Axis


Loaded Perpendicular to Wide
Faces of Laminations

Bending about Y-Y Axis

Use with Table 5D Adjustment Factors

(Members stressed primarily in axial tension or compression)1,2 (Tabulated design values are for normal load duration and dry
service conditions. See NDS 5.3 for a comprehensive description of design value adjustment factors.)

Reference Design Values for Structural Glued Laminated Hardwood Timber

Combination Species

Table 5D

only to be used with the 2005 NDS and Wood Structural Design Data
70
2005 REFERENCE DESIGN VALUES

AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL

Group

Grade

A
A
A
A
A
B
B
B
B
B
C
C
C
C
C
D
D
D
D
D
D

1.5E3
1.8E3
1.8E6
2.0E3
2.0E6
1.5E3
1.8E3
1.8E6
2.0E3
2.0E6
1.5E3
1.8E3
1.8E6
2.0E3
2.0E6
1.5E3
1.5E6
1.8E3
1.8E6
2.0E3
2.0E6

1.4
1.7
1.7
1.9
1.9
1.4
1.7
1.7
1.9
1.9
1.4
1.7
1.7
1.9
1.9
1.4
1.4
1.7
1.7
1.9
1.9

0.73
0.88
0.88
0.98
0.98
0.73
0.88
0.88
0.98
0.98
0.73
0.88
0.88
0.98
0.98
0.73
0.73
0.88
0.88
0.98
0.98

Stability
Emin
(106 psi)
1,015
1,015
1,015
1,015
1,015
770
770
770
770
770
590
590
590
590
590
440
440
440
440
440
440

to Grain
Fc
(psi)
1,000
1,150
1,450
1,350
1,700
1,000
1,150
1,450
1,350
1,700
1,000
1,150
1,450
1,350
1,700
1,000
1,250
1,150
1,450
1,350
1,700

nations
Ft
(psi)
1,500
1,950
2,000
2,600
2,430
1,500
1,950
2,000
2,300
2,400
1,500
1,950
2,000
2,300
2,400
1,500
1,500
1,950
2,000
2,300
2,400

nations
Fc
(psi)
1,350
1,850
1,900
2,200
2,300
1,350
1,850
1,900
2,200
2,300
1,350
1,850
1,900
2,200
2,300
1,350
1,400
1,850
1,900
2,200
2,300

nations
Fc
(psi)

2 or 3
Lami-

Compression
Parallel
to Grain

Compression 2 or More 4 or More


Perpendicular
LamiLami-

Tension
Parallel
to Grain

Axially Loaded

1,850
2,100
2,300
2,400
2,400
1,850
2,100
2,300
2,400
2,400
1,850
2,100
2,300
2,400
2,400
1,850
2,000
2,100
2,300
2,400
2,400

nations
Fby
(psi)

4 or More
Lami-

1,750
2,000
2,200
2,300
2,400
1,750
2,000
2,200
2,300
2,400
1,750
2,000
2,200
2,300
2,400
1,750
1,900
2,000
2,200
2,300
2,400

nations
Fby
(psi)

3
Lami-

Bending

1,550
1,750
1,950
2,100
2,300
1,550
1,750
1,950
2,100
2,300
1,550
1,750
1,950
2,100
2,300
1,550
1,700
1,750
1,950
2,100
2,300

90
90
90
90
90
80
80
80
80
80
70
70
70
70
70
55
55
55
55
55
55

nations laminations(3)
Fby
Fvy
(psi)
(psi)

2
Lami-

175
175
175
175
175
160
160
160
160
160
135
135
135
135
135
110
110
110
110
110
110

nations
Fvy
(psi)

Laminations
for members
with
4 or More
multiple piece
Lami-

4 or More

nations
Fvy
(psi)
150
150
150
150
150
135
135
135
135
135
115
115
115
115
115
95
95
95
95
95
95

165
165
165
165
165
150
150
150
150
150
130
130
130
130
130
105
105
105
105
105
105

2
Lami-

nations
Fvy
(psi)

3
Lami-

Shear Parallel to Grain

Loaded Parallel to Wide


Faces of Laminations

Bending about Y-Y Axis

REFERENCE DESIGN VALUES

AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION

Bending About X-X Axis

nations
Fvx
(psi)

nations
with
Special
Tension
Lams (5)
Fbx
(psi)
1,450
1,850
2,000
2,200
2,600
1,450
1,850
2,000
2,200
2,600
1,450
1,850
2,000
2,200
2,600
1,450
1,600
1,850
2,000
2,200
2,600

15 in. Deep (4)


without
Special
Tension
Lams
Fbx
(psi)
1,200
1,450
1,650
1,700
2,100
1,200
1,450
1,650
1,700
2,100
1,200
1,450
1,650
1,700
2,100
1,200
1,250
1,450
1,650
1,700
2,100

200
200
200
200
200
180
180
180
180
180
155
155
155
155
155
125
125
125
125
125
125

2 or More
Lami-

4 or More
Lami-

Shear Parallel
to Grain

2 Laminations to

Bending

Loaded Perpendicular to Wide


Faces of Laminations

1. Design values in this table are for combinations conforming to AITC 119-96 (Standard Specifications for Structural Glued Laminated Timber of Hardwood Species), by American Institute of Timber Construction,
and manufactured in accordance with American National Standard ANSI/AITC A190.1-2002 (Structural Glued Laminated Timber).
2. The combinations in this table are intended primarily for members loaded axially or in bending with the loads acting parallel to the wide faces of the laminations (bending about Y-Y axis). Design values for bending
due to loading applied perpendicular to the wide faces of the laminations (bending about X-X axis) are also included; however, the combinations in Table 5C are preferred for this condition of loading.
3. Values apply to members manufactured using multiple piece laminations with unbonded edge joints. For members with 5, 7, or 9 laminations, value shall be multiplied by 0.8.
4. For members greater than 15" deep, values shall be reduced by multiplying by a factor of 0.88.
5. These design values require the use of special tension laminations. If these design values are used, the designer shall specify the required design value as well as the combination symbol.

H17
H18
H19
H20
H21
H22
H23
H24
H25
H26
H27
H28
H29
H30
H31
H32
H33
H34
H35
H36
H37

Elasticity
E
(106 psi)

Modulus
of

Elasticity
for Beam
and
Column

Modulus
of

All Loading

Use with Table 5D Adjustment Factors

(Members stressed primarily in axial tension or compression)1,2 (Tabulated design values are for normal load duration and dry
service conditions. See NDS 5.3 for a comprehensive description of design value adjustment factors.)

Reference Design Values for Structural Glued Laminated Hardwood Timber

E-Rated Hardwoods

Symbol

Combination Species

Table 5D
(Cont.)

only to be used with the 2005 NDS and Wood Structural Design Data

2005 DESIGN VALUES FOR WOOD CONSTRUCTION NDS SUPPLEMENT

71

AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION


American Wood Council

Engineered and Traditional Wood Products

February 2007
2007 ERRATA/ADDENDUM
to the
2005 Edition of
the National Design Specification (NDS) for Wood Construction Supplement: Design Values for Wood
Construction
(printed versions dated 04-05 2M, 09-05 2M, and 08-06 5M; web version 07-07)
Page Revision
4
In Table 2.1, revise the following:
Species or Species
Species That May Be
Combination
Included in Combination
Coast Sitka Spruce
Coast Sitka Spruce
Yellow Cedar
Yellow Cedar
32

Grading Rules Agencies


NLGA
NLGA

Design Values Provided


in Tables
4A, 4D, 4E
4A

In Table 4A, add the following design values for Coast Sitka Spruce
Design values in pounds per square inch (psi)

Species and
commercial
grade

Size
classification

Bending

Tension
parallel
to grain

Shear
parallel
to grain

Compression
perpendicular
to grain

Compression
parallel to
grain

Fb

Ft

Fv

Fc

Fc

Emin

1300

950

125

455

1200

1,700,000

620,000

925

550

125

455

1100

1,500,000

550,000

525

325

125

455

625

1,400,000

510,000

Modulus of Elasticity

Grading
Rules
Agency

Coast Sitka Spruce4


Select Structural
No. 1 / No. 2

2 & wider

No. 3
Stud

2 & wider

Construction
Standard

2-4 wide

Utility

34

725

450

125

455

675

1,400,000

510,000

1050

650

125

455

1300

1,400,000

510,000

600

350

125

455

1100

1,300,000

470,000

275

175

125

455

725

1,200,000

440,000

NLGA

In Table 4A, revise the following design values for Northern Species
Design values in pounds per square inch (psi)

Species and
commercial
grade

Size
classification

Bending

Tension
parallel
to grain

Shear
parallel
to grain

Compression
perpendicular
to grain

Compression
parallel to
grain

Fb

Ft

Fv

Fc

Fc

Emin

1,000 975

450 425

110

350

1,100

1,100,000

400,000

Modulus of Elasticity

Grading
Rules
Agency

Northern Species
Select Structural
No. 1 / No. 2

2 & wider

No. 3
Stud

2 & wider

Construction
Standard
Utility

2-4 wide

600 625

275

110

350

850

1,100,000

400,000

350

150

110

350

500

1,000,000

370,000

475

225

110

350

550

1,000,000

370,000

700

300 325

110

350

1,050

1,000,000

370,000

400

175

110

350

875

900,000

330,000

175

75

110

350

575

900,000

330,000

1111 Nineteenth Street, NW, Suite 800 - Washington, DC 20036 - 202 463-4713 - Fax: 202 463-2791 - www.awc.org

Americas Forest & Paper People - Improving Tomorrows Environment Today

NLGA

February 2007 Errata/Addendum


Page 2

Page

Revision

36

In Table 4A, add the following design values for Yellow Cedar
Design values in pounds per square inch (psi)

Bending

Tension
parallel
to grain

Shear
parallel
to grain

Compression
perpendicular
to grain

Compression
parallel to
grain

Fb

Ft

Fv

Fc

Fc

Emin

1200

725

175

540

1200

1,600,000

580,000

800

475

175

540

1000

1,400,000

510,000

475

275

175

540

575

1,200,000

440,000

625

375

175

540

650

1,200,000

440,000

Construction

925

550

175

540

1200

1,300,000

470,000

Standard

525

300

175

540

1050

1,200,000

440,000

250

150

175

540

675

1,100,000

400,000

Species and
commercial
grade

Size
classification

Modulus of Elasticity

Grading
Rules
Agency

Yellow Cedar

Select Structural
No. 1 / No. 2

2 & wider

No. 3
Stud

Utility

36

2 & wider
2-4 wide

NLGA

In Table 4A, add the following footnote:


4. SPECIFIC GRAVITY, G. Specific gravity values are provided below for visually graded dimension
lumber. Note that the value for Coast Sitka Spruce is applicable only for visually graded dimension lumber
(2 4 thick). See NDS Table 11.3.2A for the specific gravity value applicable to Coast Sitka Spruce used
as visually graded timber (5x5 and larger) and visually graded decking.
Specific Gravity, G
Species
Coast Sitka Spruce 0.43
Yellow Cedar
0.46

Grading Rules Agency


NLGA
NLGA

1111 Nineteenth Street, NW, Suite 800 - Washington, DC 20036 - 202 463-4713 - Fax: 202 463-2791 - www.awc.org

Americas Forest & Paper People - Improving Tomorrows Environment Today

American Wood Council


Engineered and Traditional Wood Products

AWC Mission Statement

To increase the use of wood by assuring the broad


regulatory acceptance of wood products, developing
design tools and guidelines for wood construction,
and influencing the development of public policies
affecting the use of wood products.

2005 EDITION

N DS
N AT I O N A L

DESIGN

S P E C I F I C AT I O N

DESIGN VALUES FOR


WOOD CONSTRUCTION

American Forest & Paper Association


American Wood Council
1111 19th Street, NW
Suite 800
Washington, DC 20036
www.awc.org
awcinfo@afandpa.org
America's Forest & Paper People
Improving Tomorrow's Environment Today

NDS 2005 Supplement Cover revised June 2007.pmd


1

American
Forest &
Paper
Association
ISBN 0-9625985-2-6
07-07

American Wood Council

0.5M

6/21/2007, 2:57 PM