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University of Alberta Northern Ecology, BIOLOGY 366 Section B1 Winter 2012 Instructor: Dr.

Andrew Derocher, Professor Office: Z1110 Biological Sciences 11th Floor of the Zoology Wing E-mail: derocher@ualberta.ca Instructor web page: http://www.biology.ualberta.ca/faculty/andrew_derocher/ Course web page: e-class Office Hours: By appointment: please e-mail to schedule Lecture Room & Time: CCIS L1160 Monday Wednesday Friday 1:00 1:50 pm Teaching Assistants for Marking: Alysa McCall amccall@ualberta.ca Scott Williamson snw@ualberta.ca Course Description: Examines the ecology of boreal, arctic, and alpine ecosystems including postglacial history, climate, geology, nutrient cycling and energy flow in forests, wetlands, lakes and marine systems, animal and plant adaptations to cold and current human impacts. The course has a substantial written component to the grade evaluation (59% of the total). The course provides an overview of northern ecosystems and integrates the physical and biological components of northern ecosystems. Climate change is a recurrent theme. Course Prerequisites: BIOL 208 Grade Evaluation: NOTE: There is no final exam for this course. All written assignments must be completed for a grade to be assigned. Reading reports 4 @ 3% 12% Exam 1 20% Exam 2 21% In class essay 5% Term Paper 42% broken down as follows: Project title and overview: 4% Annotated bibliography: 13% Term paper: 25% Total: 100% Grade assignment will follow the suggested distribution for a third year course modified as required to locate differences in performance between grades.

Important Dates:

Term paper title and overview Exam 1 Annotated bibliography Term paper Exam 2 In class essay

February 10, 2012 February 15, 2012 February 29, 2012 March 21, 2012 April 4, 2012 April 13, 2012 Notes

Lecture Schedule* Date # Lecture Title Jan 9 1 Introduction to Northern Ecology Jan 11 2 Physical environment of the north Jan 13 3 Physical environment of the north Jan 16 4 Wetlands, peatlands and tundra I Jan 18 5 Wetlands, peatlands and tundra II Jan 20 6 Wetlands, peatlands and tundra III Jan 23 7 Boreal forests I Jan 25 8 Boreal forests II Jan 27 9 Boreal forests III Jan 30 10 Arctic marine ecosystems I Feb 1 11 Arctic marine ecosystems II Feb 3 12 Arctic marine ecosystems III Feb 6 13 Arctic marine ecosystems IV Feb 8 14 Energy flow in northern ecosystems I Feb 10 15 Energy flow in northern ecosystems II Feb 13 16 Food webs in a changing climate Feb 15 17 Exam 1 Feb 17 18 Food webs in a changing climate Feb 20-24 - No classes Reading Week Feb 27 19 Post-glacial landscapes Feb 29 20 Freshwater ecosystems Mar 2 21 Ecology of northern plants I Mar 5 22 Ecology of northern plants II Mar 7 23 Catch up lecture Mar 9 24 Animal adaptations to the cold I Mar 12 25 Animal adaptations to the cold II Mar 14 26 Northern invertebrates I Mar 16 27 Northern invertebrates II Mar 19 28 Ecology of northern birds I Mar 21 29 Ecology of northern birds II Mar 23 30 Ecology of Arctic peregrine falcons Mar 26 31 Ecology of northern mammals I Mar 28 32 Ecology of northern mammals II Mar 30 33 Polar bear ecology and management Apr 2 34 Pollution in the north Apr 4 35 Exam 2 Apr 11 36 The changing North Apr 13 37 In class essay

Reading Report #1 due

Reading Report #2 due

Reading Report #3 due Term paper title & overview due

Dr. Alwynne Beaudoin Annotated Bibliography due

Reading Report #4 due

Term paper due Dr. Alastair Franke

Lecture topics may vary as the course progresses.

Reading Material: There is no textbook for this course but readings will be assigned throughout the course and announced in lecture all assigned readings are fair material for exams Links to reading materials are available through the University Library Reading Reports (see below) will be used as part of the grading system and are based on assigned readings Lecture notes will be posted on the course website in PDF format usually but not necessarily before lecture. The lecture notes are an overview of the material covered and additional material will be covered during lectures. Guest lecturers may or may not provide lecture notes. Format of Exams: Exams will be a mix of multiple choice, fill-in-the blank and, short essay questions. There will be an in class essay. Reading Reports - Read the following paper so you have a sense of what the Reading Reports are intended to do. This paper is available on the course website under Readings Reading Report Background IF you do not read this, you will likely do poorly on reading reports. Etkina E, Ehrenfeld D. 2000. Helping ecology students to read: the use of reading reports. Bioscience 50: 602-08. Reading Reports Detailed description No matter how much we rely on the Internet and other electronic media, there is still strong need to interact with, and critically assess, conventional literature. There is evidence that comprehension of written material has fallen, and the skills necessary to engage difficult, extended arguments are lacking (Etkina and Ehrenheld 2000). We hope to assist in the correction of this by offering assignments that will compel tightly disciplined, critical reading. You will receive a number of articles for this course. Your assignment is to prepare a Reading Report based on assigned readings (see below). Each report is due as outlined in the syllabus. Each Report must contain: The title, author(s) and source of each reading (full and proper citation which MUST BE in BioScience Format - see below). Senior authors affiliation (the senior author is the FIRST author and only this author) In 2-4 sentences, summarize the main point(s) of the reading. In 2-3 sentences, describe the major strengths and weaknesses of the readings, as well as your overall opinion or evaluation of the reading. This is where most students have trouble. Strengths and weaknesses are issues of design, analyses, interpretation, bias, accuracy, context,

constraints, limitations, and other such factors. Do not comment on language, difficulty of reading, complexity, and other such matters. In 1-3 sentences, describe how this reading fits within the course context and state why you think these readings were assigned. A word count for the text (excluding title material); your report must not exceed 400 words and must NOT exceed 10 sentences as outlined above. Your name and student number, and word count. Reading reports will be marked /10. Reading reports 1 to 3 can be resubmitted after revision. The revised reading report MUST be accompanied by the original version on the date stated in class and the revised version will be marked as either 0 (little improvement), 1 (moderate improvement), or 2 (substantial improvement) and the additional marks will be added to the original (maximum allowed is 10/10). Reading Reports (note the following citations are not in BioScience format) 1. Due January 16 Anesio, A.M., and Laybourn-Parry, J. 2011. Glaciers and ice sheets as a biome. Trends in Ecology & Evolution. doi:10.1016/j.tree.2011.09.012. 2. Due January 27 Beck, P.S.A., Goetz, S.J., Mack, M.C., Alexander, H.D., Jin, Y., Randerson, J.T., and Loranty, M.M. 2011. The impacts and implications of an intensifying fire regime on Alaskan boreal forest composition and albedo. Global Change Biology 17:2853-2866. 3. Due February 6 Joly, K., Klein, D.R., Verbyla, D.L., Rupp, T.S., and Chapin, F.S. 2011. Linkages between large-scale climate patterns and the dynamics of Arctic caribou populations. Ecography 34:345-352. 4. Due March 9 Mallory, M.L., Gaston, A.J., Forbes, M.R., and Gilchrist, H.G. 2008. Influence of weather on reproductive success of northern fulmars in the Canadian high Arctic. Polar Biology 32:529-538. Term Paper - The final goal will be to write a term paper detailing a conservation issue, adaptation, or ecosystem process that pertains directly to northern ecosystems. Follow the instructions or you will lose marks. The 3 parts of the term paper are independent and you can change or modify the chosen topic between the 3 components. Obviously it is easier to keep the same topic but you do not have to. PART 1 The first assignment associated with the term-paper will include: the title of your term paper, and a 1.5 page overview (DOUBLE spaced) that clearly outlines the issue, species, or impact you have chosen with a general outline of your proposed term paper (NOTE: NO separate title page: submit 3 pages ONLY) On an additional page, a list of ten and only 10 references from the peer reviewed literature (e.g., scientific journals) you used to put your overview together. These references will be properly cited as outlined for the journal (see below). If you do not know what peer reviewed literature is ask a teaching assistant or a librarian. We will read over all proposed topics and get back to you with suggestions. You will be allowed to change your topic if you decide to do so. There is no link between the 3 parts of the term paper but the intention is to work through the process logically and culminate with the term paper. PART 2 4

The second assignment will consist of an annotated bibliography, with 12 properly cited references as outlined for the journal BioScience (see below) relevant to your essay topic. Provide the title of your proposed paper. References must be listed in alphabetical order and numbered from 1 to 12. Each reference will have a 5-7 sentence summary of the important findings of the paper. All of these references must be from the peer-reviewed literature: NOT from the web or grey literature. This assignment must be spaced at 1.5 spacing. Do not plagiarize from the abstract of papers or from the body of the text. Plagiarism will result in a failing grade and possible penalties as outline in the University Calendar. An example of an annotated bibliography is as follows: 1. St Louis VL, Kelly CA, Duchemin E, Rudd JWM, Rosenberg DM. 2000. Reservoir surfaces as sources of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere: a global estimate. BioScience 50: 766775. This article examines if decomposition of flooded organic matter in reservoirs results in a net flux of the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) to the atmosphere. Using published data collected on numerous reservoirs from different regions of the world, the authors estimated that fluxes of CO2 and CH4 were on average 1400 and 20 mg/m2/day from temperate reservoirs, and 3500 and 300 mg/m2/day from tropical reservoirs. The authors also estimated, using data from the World Registry of Dams and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, that the global surface area of reservoirs is 1.5 million km2, 37% of which is located in tropical regions. By combining the flux estimates with the reservoir surface area in temperate and tropical regions, the authors conclude that greenhouse gas emissions from reservoirs are equivalent to on average 7% of the global warming potential of other human emissions, clearly showing that hydroelectricity is not a carbon-free source of energy. PART 3 The final term paper will be 10 pages of double-spaced text (i.e., excluding tables, figures (IF necessary), and references). The literature cited will follow that of BioScience. Please consult a current issue of the journal, as well as the following website for Information for authors and reviewers From http://www.aibs.org/bioscience/resources/Info_for_contribs.pdf Personal communications should be cited parenthetically in the text; the citation should include the sources name and affiliation and the date of the communication: (Henry J. Smith, [university or other affiliation, city, state], personal communication, [date of communication]). Manuscripts submitted for publication but not yet accepted may not be cited. In-text citations of published references take this form: (Author date). Multiple in-text citations are ordered by year of publication, earliest first: (Author 1998, Author 1999, 2000). Use the first authors last name and et al. for in-text citation of works with more than two authors or editors. List the name of every author or editor, unless there are more than 10, in Literature Cited; for works with more than 10 authors or editors, list the name of the first and indicate the others with et al.. List all works cited in the text in Literature Cited; works not cited should not be listed. Provide the full names of all journals. The following examples are typical of references in BioScience; refer to recent issues of the journal for additional formatting guidance. Journal article: Bryant PJ, Simpson P. 1984. Intrinsic and extrinsic control of growth in developing organs. Quarterly Review of Biology 59: 387415. 5

Book: Ling GN. 1984. In Search of the Physical Basis of Life. New York: Plenum Press. Chapter in a book: Southwood TRE. 1981. Bionomic strategies and population parameters. Pages 3052 in May RM, ed. Theoretical Ecology. Sunderland (MA): Sinauer Associates. Technical report: Lassister RR, Cooley JL. 1985. Prediction of Ecological Effects of Toxic Chemicals, Overall Strategy and Theoretical Basis for the Ecosystem Model. Washington (DC): Government Printing Office. Report no. 83-261-685. Meeting paper: Kleiman RLP, Hedin RS, Edenbom HM. 1991. Biological treatment of minewateran overview. Paper presented at the Second International Conference on Abatement of Acid Drainage; 1618 September 1991, Montreal, Canada. Online article: Palevitz BA. 2002. Designing science by politics. The Scientist 16 (11): 25. (1 April 2003; www.the-scientist.com/yr2002/may/palevitz_p25_020527.html) Paraphrasing In scientific writing and in this course, you must properly paraphrase the listerature. Here an example from a paper I co-authored (Edwards et al. 2011). The paper says: "Intrapopulation variation in the diet of grizzly bears in the Mackenzie Delta region supported our prediction that different foraging groups would be present in the population and that trophic position would be related to movement rate." This is the exact material and citing within quotes is unnecessary, cumbersome, and not the scientific norm. The norm would be to paraphrase, using the pertinent points that one needs from the source. In paraphrase I could write: Diet variation resulted in different trophic positions for individual grizzly bears in Arctic Canada (Edwards et al. 2011). there are dozens of ways to say this. Another option, Movement rates of grizzly bears in the Mackenzie Delta area of Canada varied across different individuals that fed at different trophic levels (Edwards et al. 2011). It all depends on what piece of information you wish to convey. In the arts, direct quotes are more common because you don't want to paraphrase Oscar Wilde who said such gems as "I can resist everything but temptation." - hard to paraphrase that and you wouldn't want to. Direct quotes are uncommon in science writing. Edwards, M.A., Derocher, A.E., Hobson, K.A., Branigan, M., and Nagy, J.A. 2011. Fast carnivores and slow herbivores: differential foraging strategies among grizzly bears in the Canadian Arctic. Oecologia 165: 877-889. Your 10 page term paper should consist of the following: a title: no title page your name and ID number a 5-6 sentence abstract an introduction a thoroughly referenced discussion of the issue (possibly including discussion of any controversies, development of the issue, historical perspectives) a page summary of YOUR final educated OPINION regarding the status of the issue (not a summary of the paper but YOUR opinion, thoughts, conclusions, ideas for further research etc.) 6

literature cited (formatted for BioScience, in alphabetical order) (not part of the 10 page limit) HEADINGS and SUBHEADINGS - e.g., Abstract, Introduction, Discussion (subheadings), Opinion, Literature Cited must be used tables, figures, etc. (not part of the 10 page limit) THESE must be at the end of the document, after the references and ONLY if you believe they are necessary to be truly useful, figures and tables should provide a synthesis of information that is too difficult to summarize in the text number the pages (bottom right corner) you lose marks if the pages are not numbered TIPS FOR YOUR TERM PAPER GET OFF THE WEB: Do not use webpages. You will lose marks for using Internet sources. Use ONLY peer-reviewed scientific literature and IF you must, grey literature (e.g., government reports) and only use it sparingly. If you do not know what peer-reviewed literature is, ask a teaching assistant or a librarian for assistance. USE SCIENTIFIC NAMES PROPERLY: Common name (scientific name) for all plants and animals but only the first time they are mentioned (afterwards, use the common name). GET ORGANISED: make a layout of the paper before you start. KEEP your sentences factual and to the point. Avoid adjectives and adverbs (e.g., very, extremely, vastly). STAY IN THE NORTH: you can use examples from outside to support your arguments. DO NOT TRY TO COVER TOO MUCH: Focus on one or two aspects of your issue only. NO COVER PAGE CITE THE LITERATURE EXTENSIVELY: You are not an expert in the field you are writing about so much of what you will say will have to be cited. There is no set number of required references. You should use more references than the annotated bibliography. USE THE 10 PAGES ALLOWED: 10 pages is not a lot of space to cover your topic. Use the space wisely. Less than 10 pages and you lose marks. Nothing over 10 pages is marked. Important notes regarding the term paper assignments: Assignments must be typed in Times New Roman 12 point font with 2.5 cm margins. Poorly written papers will lose marks. Seek help if you have problems writing. The University of Alberta Centre for Writers (http://www.c4w.arts.ualberta.ca/) can provide assistance. Have someone knowledgeable proof read and edit your assignments before you submit it. This assignment is about communicating your findings concisely. Read your paper aloud to yourself wording errors or difficult sentence structure will be easier to identify and correct. Missed Term Exams and Assignments: Exam and assignment dates/deadlines are as scheduled. A student who cannot write an examination or complete an assignment because of an incapacitating illness, severe domestic affliction or other compelling reasons can apply for a deferred midterm examination, deferral of the midterm weight to the second exam, or extension of time to complete an assignment. Deferral of term work to the second exam or in class essay will increase the weight of that element for that student, but does not change the syllabus weight of the exam and does not qualify a student for reexamination. All late assignments will be lowered 10% for every day it was late starting at the end of the lecture and includes weekends. For example, if your assignment was graded at 87% but was submitted 48 hours past the deadline, you will receive a grade of 67%. Late assignments must be delivered to my office Z1110 of the Zoology Wing (put the date and time of submission if I am 7

not in my office). E-mailed submissions are not acceptable unless there are extenuating circumstances. Applications for deferral of term work can be made in writing to the professor with supporting documentation, within 48 h of the missed exam or assignment due date (see Calendar section 23.4[3]). Deferred term work is a priveledge and not a right; there is no guarantee that a deferral will be granted. Misrepresentation of Facts to gain a deferral is a serious breach of the Code of Student Behaviour. Student Responsibilities: ACADEMIC INTEGRITY: The University of Alberta is committed to the highest standards of academic integrity and honesty. Students are expected to be familiar with these standards regarding academic honesty and to uphold the policies of the University in this respect. Students are particularly urged to familiarize themselves with the provisions of the Code of Student Behaviour (online at www.ualberta.ca/secretariat/appeals.htm) and avoid any behaviour which could potentially result in suspicions of cheating, plagiarism, misrepresentation of facts and/or participation in an offence. Academic dishonesty is a serious offence and can result in suspension or expulsion from the University. All forms of dishonesty are unacceptable at the University. Cheating, plagiarism and misrepresentation of facts are serious offenses. Anyone who engages in these practices will receive at minimum a grade of zero for the exam or paper in question and no opportunity will be given to replace the grade or redistribute the weights. Any offense will be reported to the Senior Associate Dean of Science who will determine the disciplinary action to be taken. Typical sanctions for serious violations of the Code have included disciplinary grade reductions, disciplinary failing grades, suspension or permanent expulsion from the University. EXAMS: Your student photo I.D. is required at exams to verify your identity. Students will not be allowed to begin an examination after it has been in progress for 30 minutes. Students must remain in the exam room for at least 30 minutes from the time the exam commenced. Electronic equipment other than calculators is not to be brought to exam and hats should not be worn. CELL PHONES: Cell phones are to be turned off during lectures, labs and seminars. Cell phones are not to be brought to exams. RECORDING: Recording of lectures is permitted only with the prior written consent of the professor or if recording is part of an approved accommodation plan. Recordings are solely for the personal use of the student to enhance their understanding of the lecture material. STUDENTS WITH DISABILITIES: Students who require accommodation in this course due to a disability are advised to discuss their needs with Specialized Support & Disability Services (2-800 Students Union Building). ACADEMIC SUPPORT CENTRE: Students who require additional help in developing strategies for better time management, study skills or examination skills should contact the Academic Support Centre (2-703 Students Union Building). Policy about course outlines can be found in section 23.4(2) of the University Calendar. Disclaimer: Any errors in this Course Outline are subject to change and will be announced in class. Copyright: Dr. Andrew E. Derocher, Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Alberta (2012). 8