new
>
old
old
=
new
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Stop
D = D
L = L +
Start
Read the input parameters
Design of Stator Core, Rotor
Core, Main winding and
Diecast rotor
P
rated
=
P
calc
Design of Auxiliary winding
and Capacitance value using
Trikeys Balanced Approach
A B
A B
XXXII NATIONAL SYSTEMS CONFERENCE, NSC 2008, December 1719, 2008
839
III.STEADY STATE MODEL OF SCRIM
A. Mathematical Model of SCRIM
The steady state model of single phase capacitor run
induction motor is developed on the basis of balanced two
phase machine model as shown in figure 2. The machine
consists of balanced twophase windings on both stator and
rotor and a uniform air gap.
The stator windings are designated D and Q, and the rotor
windings and . The axis of the phase winding and
that of the D winding are at an angle which increases as
the rotor revolves in a counterclockwise direction. is
thus a function of time and dt d , which will again be
written
.
is the angular velocity of the rotor relative to the
stator.
Fig. 2: Balanced TwoPhase Machine with Uniform Airgap
The following differential equation describing the operation
of twophase induction motor with all the variables referred
to stator and is given below:
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
+
+
+
+
=
qr
i
dr
i
a
i
m
i
D
r
X
r
R s
r
X D
m
X
s
a s
m
X
s
r
X D
r
X
r
R s
m
X
s
a D
m
X
D
m
X
s
a D
a
X
a
R
D
m
X D
s
X
s
R
a
v
m
v
1 1
1 1
0 0
0 0
0
0
The above equation can be simplified and rewritten in state
space matrix form as:
 
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
=
(
(
(
(
(
(
1
2
1
2
1
0
0
0
1
2
1
2
1
c
V
r
V
r
V
s
V
s
V
A
a
v
m
v
c
V
r
V
r
V
s
V
s
V
D
Where
;
1 dr
i
m
X
m
i
s
X
s
V + =
;
2 qr
i
m
X
s
a
a
i
a
X
s
V + =
;
1 m
i
m
X
dr
i
r
X
r
V + =
;
2 a
i
m
X
s
a
qr
i
r
X
r
V + =
; /
1 c
X
c
v
c
V =
  A is a 5x 5 matrix and is given by:
( )
( )
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
0
2
0
2
0
0
2
1
2
0
0 1
1
0
1
2
0
2
0
0 0
1
0
1
K
m
X
s
a K
r
X
K
a
X
r
R s K
m
X
r
R
s
a
s K
s
X
r
R K
m
X
r
R
c
X K
m
X
a
R
s
a K
r
X
a
R
K
m
X
s
R K
r
X
s
R
where, K
1
and K
2
are the constant expressed as follows,

.

\

=
2
1
1
m
X
r
X
s
X
K
and
( )
2 2 2
1
m s r a
X a X X
K
=
The expressions for the 2phase (main, auxiliary, rotor direct
and quadrature) currents in terms of the new vectors are
given by:
2
).
2
(
1
).
1 1
(
2
).
2 2
(
1
).
1 1
(
K
s
V
m
X
s
a
r
V
a
X
qr
i
K
s
V
m
X
r
V
s
X
dr
i
K
r
V
m
X
s
a
s
V
r
X
a
i
K
r
V
r
X
s
V
r
X
m
i
=
=
=
=
The expression for the capacitor voltage
c
v is given by:
c
X
c
V
c
v
1
=
The expression for the electromagnetic torque is
given by:
) (
dr
i
a
i
s
a
qr
i
m
i
m
X
e
T =
This developed mathematical model is simulated in
MATLAB/SIMULINK platform. Figure 3 shows the layout
of developed model simulation in MATLAB/ SIMULINK
platform.
Fig. 3: Layout of Developed Model of Single Phase Capacitor Run
Induction Motor in MATLAB/ SIMULINK Platform
IV.DESIGNED OPTIMAL PARAMETERS OF RATED
SPCRIM
Different parameters of optimal capacitor run induction
motor is found by the developed algorithm using P&O
Technique. Table 1. shows the important parameters of the
motor which is designed optimally using P&O Technique.
TABLE.1
S.n Symbol Parameter Value
1 D Stator Outer diameter 3.5
2 D
1
Stator inner diameter 1.8
840
3 L
1
Stator Core Length 0.8
4 g Air Gap Length 10mm
5 S
1
No; of Stator Slots 24
6 D
2
Rotor Outer diameter 1.79
7 S
2
No; Rotor Slots 18
8 C
1
No; Main wind conductors 6718
9 d
1
Wire cage of C
1
(SWG) 32
10 C
r
No; Rotor Bars 18
11 a Turns Ratio 1.12
12 C
2
No; Auxiliary wind. Condu. 7524
13 d
2
Aux. Winding cage (SWG) 36
14 X
c
Capacitive Reactance 1498
V.FABRICATION OF DESIGNED MOTOR
A. Selection Of Motor Stamping
In practice, optimally designed motor is difficult to
fabricate. Because it require more dying and manufacturing
cost, when single number is concern. So, the different
standard stampings available in the market are collected.
Different design parameters like outer diameter, inner
diameter, number of slots, width of slots, etc., are measured
for the collected stampings. Performances of the collected
stamping are analyzed using the dedicated software by
tacking the above measured values as reference and
obtained performances are compared. In the comparison, the
performance of AL3 stamping is suitable for our design. The
fabrication work is carried out for single phase, 75 W, 220
V, 50 Hz, 4 pole capacitor run induction motor using the
selected standard AL3 stamping. Figure 4 shows the AL3
stamping.
(a) (b)
Fig. 4: AL3 stamping (a) Stator (b) Rotor
B. Fabrication of Aluminum diecast rotor
Stator and rotor core are fabricated with a core length of
0.8cm by silicon steel (hot rol) using AL3 stamping.
Aluminum diecast rotor is made by diecasting melted
aluminum conductor over the fabricated rotor core. After
fabricating a diecast rotor, a suitable rotor shaft should be
designed in AUTO CAD software. Figure 5.a shows rotor
shaft drawing for a fabricated aluminum diecast rotor.
According to the drawing rotor shaft is manufactured and
(a) (b)
Fig. 5: Aluminum DieCast Rotor (a) Shaft Drawing (b)Fabricated
Aluminum DieCast Rotor
then integrated with aluminum diecast rotor and fine
finishing process is carried out. Balance test is conducted
over the rotor to reduce the vibration during normal
operation. Suitable bearings are selected and connected at
two ends of the rotor. Figure 5.b shows the fabricated
aluminum diecast rotor.
B. Main And Auxiliary Winding
According to the design 32 SWG, silicon cotton enamel
copper wire with 8 coils and are distributed by two coils per
pole as one inner coil and an outer coil. Outer and inner
coils wound with 338 turns and are inserted with a coil span
of 16 and 25. For the auxiliary winding, 36 SWG, silicon
cotton enamel copper wire is selected. Auxiliary winding
has 4 coils; each has 940 turns and is inserted in stator slot
with a coil span of 16. Figure 6.a shows the designed main
and auxiliary winding and Figure 6.b shows the fabricated
main and auxiliary winding.
(a) (b)
Fig. 6: Main And Auxiliary Windings (a) Designed Motor
(b)Fabricated Motor
V. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF THE
FABRICATED MOTOR
The fabricated motor is tested in the laboratory by applying
220V, 50Hz, single phase AC supply as shown in figure 7.
The performance of fabricated motor is computed and
results are compared with simulated results of the designed
motor. Table 2 shows the comparison of different
parameters of both simulation and experimental results.
841
Fig. 7: Experimental setup of the fabricated motor
Different waveforms such as motor terminal voltage, input
current, main winding current, auxiliary winding current and
capacitor voltage are observed using digital C.R.O. and the
observed wave forms are reproduced in figure 8. Figure 8
also shows the different output waveform comparison
between simulated and experimental results. It can be seen
that the both the waveforms are resemble each other.
Observed waveforms and the tabulated results prove that,
the fabricated motor is working with enhanced efficiency.
The comparison is made between fabricated motor and
existing motor in table 2. It also proves that the new
fabricated motor is better in the efficiency than existing
motor.
(a) (b)
Fig. 8: Computed Wave Forms (a) Simulated Motor (b)Fabricated
Motor
VI. CONCLUSION
In general, Single phase induction motor is working in low
efficiency because of their high copper loss, improper
design of auxiliary winding and rude capacitance value. This
paper discusses a new approach for the design optimization
of single phase capacitor run induction motor using Perturb
and Observe Technique for efficiency enhancement. The
observed wave forms and test results prove that the designed
motor is operating with improved efficiency compared to
the existing motor.
Kumaravel S was born in veerasingampettai,
Thanjavur (dist), Tamilnadu at 15.07.1981. He
completed his B.E (EEE) from Bharathidasan
University, Tiruchirappalli, Tamilnadu during May
2002 and M.tech (Power Systems) from National
Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli during June
2007. So for he is having 6 and half years of
teaching experience.
After his graduation, he worked as a lecturer at M.Kumarasamy College of
Engineering, Karur for 5 years. At present he is with School of engineering,
Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham University, Ettimadai, Coimbatore,
Tamilnadu from June 2007. He has presented technical papers two in
International Conference and four in National Conference. His area of
interest is in the field of Incorporation of power converters in renewable
energy sources. He is a life member in I.S.T.E
REFERENCES
[1] Huang, H., Fuchs, E.F., White, J.C. (1988), "Optimal placement of run
capacitor in single phase induction motor design", IEEE Transactions on
Energy Conversion, Vol. 3 No.3, pp.64752.
[2] Huang, H., Fuchs, E.F., Zak, Z. (1998b), "Optimization of single phase
induction motor design partI formulation of the optimization technique",
IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, Vol. 3 No.2, pp.34956.
[3] Subramanian, S., Bhuvaneswari, R. (2005), "Optimization of single
phase induction motor design using evolutionary programming", Journal of
Systems Science and EngineeringPARITANTRA, Vol. 12 pp.307.
[4]Crystal.G.Veinott, (1959), Theory and Design of Small Induction
Motors, McGRAWHILL Book Company, INC, Newyark, I Edition, Page
262429.
[5] R.K.Agarwal, (2000), Principles of Electrical Machine Design,
S.K.Kataria & Sons, Delhi, IV Edition, Page 366398.
[6] Stephen D. Umans, SteadyState, LumpedParameter Model for
CapacitorRun, Singlephase Induction Motors, IEEE Transactions on
Industry Applications. Vol. 32, No. 1, Januaryfebruary 1996
[7] D. P. Hohm and M. E. Ropp, Comparative Study of Maximum Power
Point Tracking Algorithms, Progress In Photovoltaics: Research And
Applications Prog. Photovolt: Res. Appl. 2003; 11:4762
[8] S.Kumaravel, Optimal Design and Fabrication of Single Phase
Capacitor Run Induction Motor, Proceedings on Resource Utilization and
Intelligence Systems, Kongu Engineering College, Tamilnadu India. Res:
2008:Volume 3, PP. 7983.
842
Table 2. Performance of Simulated, Experimented and Existing Motor
Design
parameters
Simulation Result Experimental Result Existing Motor
main
r
142.37
173.84 182.120
main
X
177.97
183.8 310.200
aux
r
201.10
194.64 436.100
aux
X
205.22
209.7 309.700
c
X
1498.20
1450.23 1458.2
2
r
65.65
100.200 100.200
2
X
122.43
250.400 292.00
m
X
1408.36
1500 1250.8
m m
I
0.198 36.03
0.114 34.33 0.137 31.43
a a
I
0.221 35.30
0.274 30.67 0.244 14.80
s
I
0.341 1.87
0.339 12.83 0.353 1.43
cos
0.9995
0.9750 0.999
in
P
75.05
72.75 77.73
out
P
55.83
50.828 43.854
s
0.06
0.07 0.120
N
1410
1395 1382
T
0.378
0.343 0.297
74.40
69.90 56.42