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Soans, Sheehan - 336126 1: Clarification of the principle and first dimensioning a) The following image 2 shows the principle

sketch of a flywheel with associated bearing unit, which has to be designed. Explain the sketch. Deal here with the functionality and the constructive characteristics, which are defined in the schematic diagram. Be brief!


Flywheels store kinetic energy (energy of motion) by mechanically confining motion of a mass to a circular trajectory. The functional elements of the flywheel are the mass storing the energy, the mechanism supporting the rotating assembly, and the means through which energy is deposited in the flywheel or retrieved from it.i Energy can be stored in rings, disks, or discrete weights, with spokes or hubs connecting the storage elements to shafts, and bearings supporting the assembly and allowing it to rotate. Energy may be transferred into or out of the wheel mechanically, hydraulically, aerodynamically, or electrically. The Flywheel is connected to the shaft using fasteners, bolts. The power is transmitted to another shaft with Universal transmission (universal joint). The bearing used on the power transmission side is Axial Bearing and on the other side is Radial bearing. This is Engineering Design Summer term - Delivery 2

Soans, Sheehan - 336126 because there is no force that the bearing has to undergo on the power transmission side i.e. radial and axial forces act on the bearing. The Bearing is placed in a housing which is closed with the help of fasteners/ bolts. The 2 bearing housings are fixed to the ground using fasteners.

b) When the energy is taken from the flywheel a torque up to 100 Nm occurs. During the loading a maximum torque of 70 Nm is possible. How big is the minimum diameter of the drive shaft, if the drive shaft is made of 42CrMo4.Explain your considerations in a maximum of two sentences? Given = 50 N/mm2 Taking torque as Mt=100Nm, = 50 N/mm2, Diameter of Shaft=

= 3.14

= 21.67 22mm = 3.14 = 19.24 20mm

Taking torque as Mt=Nm, = 50 N/mm2, Diameter of Shaft=

Therefore minimum shaft diameter should be 22mm and more. Because when the diameter is below 22 mm it wont be able to take the maximum load of 100 Nm.

c) The shaft-to-hub connection of the flywheel has to be dimensioned. After a preliminary design of the driving shaft has been made, the diameter of the connection has been determined to 50 m. The diameter of the free shaft end has been defined to 30x58 according to DIN 748. Calculate the needed supporting length of the fit-in-key connection according to DIN 6885 form A and choose a standard length of the norm. As material for the hub cast iron (EN-GJL-250) shall be used. It is to be assumed that twosided light shocks appear. The required safety is 1,2. Is a key connection adequate for that shaft end? 58mm


30 mm

Engineering Design Summer term - Delivery 2

Soans, Sheehan - 336126

Minimum carrying length of the key is given by:  S safety margin Mt conveyed torque h key height ltr carrying length t groove depth i number of keys p allowed pressure   

From Decker Machinenelemente for hub cast iron (EN-GJL-250) p = 90 Selecting Key size for shaft diameter 30mm b=10, h=8, t1=5mm from the table (slide 13shaft hub design-Ed exercise)    

=29.62mm Now again checking the length of the key in the table and next possible value is 32mm. Therefore minimum length of the key should be 32mm.

d) Which supporting length is needed, if the same shaft-to-hub connection of task c) is realized with a spline shaft according to DIN ISO 14 (light series with inner centering)? Give the standard term of the appropriate spline shaft. From Slide 31-shaft hub design Ed exercise, taking the formula for minimum length.

Engineering Design Summer term - Delivery 2

Soans, Sheehan - 336126

 htr=(D-d)=32-28 Choosing a profile according to DIN ISO 14 for the respective shaft diameter: For diameter 32mm: B=7, d=28, N=8, Dm- avg diameter of profile=30mm, taking the max load Mt=100 N/mm2 and k=0.75 Taking the same required safety of 1.2

 = 3.7 mm Minimum length of key should be 3.7 mm

2: Bearing loads and bearing durability a) For the design and the calculation of the bearings in the flywheel unit according to the principle sketch in image 2 the bearing loads have to be calculated first. The significant load is the unbalance force, which result from the deviation of the central point of the flywheel and the centre of gravity. From physics is known, that the absolute value of unbalance force can be calculated by mass, eccentricity and angular velocity:

Determine the bearing loads for a flywheel of 250 kg with an eccentricity (e ) of 1 mm and a rotational speed of 2500 rpm. First for a case where the flywheel is seated centrically between the bearings and second for a case where it is at a arbitrary location in axial direction (also between the bearings!). Which ring of the non-locating bearing has to be secured axially, if a standard ball bearing is used and why? Case i) Assuming Length of shaft is 650mm and flywheel is centrally located

Engineering Design Summer term - Delivery 2

Soans, Sheehan - 336126

Calculating unbalanced forces: F unbalance= 0.01 2509.81 (2 250060)2



168091.7 N


Calculating forces at point A and B: Fa=Fb= 168091.7/2 (since equally distributed) =84045.8N 84045.8N 84045.8N

Calculating torque at A and B: Ta=Tb= Fadistance=84045.8 325=27.3 106 Nmm

Calculating minimum shaft diameter for the above calculated torque: Assuming =50N/mm2 .Taken from 1st problem.

d= =

=140.64mm 141mm Now, for diameter 141mm taking suitable ball bearing in the bearing catalogue (FAGschaffler group)

Engineering Design Summer term - Delivery 2

Soans, Sheehan - 336126 Since there is no bearing for diameter 141mm, next possible bearing is with diameter 150mm (internal diameter) Bearing to be selected is 6030, d=150mm, D=225mm, B=35mm Co=122KN Cr=125Kn

Case ii) Assuming flywheel is at a distance of 450mm from point A

a=450mm b=200 mm

Point X


Taking moments about the point X. Faa=Fbb Fa450=[168091.7-Fa]200 450Fa =33618340-200Fa 650Fa=33618340 Fa=51720N Substituting in the first equation, Fb=116371N REASON? b) A calculation of bearing loads for a different flywheel unit has shown a radial load of 4 kN for the non-locating bearing of a locating -non-locating-arrangement. The locating bearing carries a radial load of 3 kN and additionally an axial load of 1,6 kN. Calculate the expected life-span in revolutions for a failure probability of 10% as well as the life in hours, if the flywheel is operated with 1800 rpm. As bearings standard deep groove ball bearings 6010 of FAG are planned (data of bearings from the FAG-catalogue or www.fag.de; bearing clearance class CN). How many operating hours can be allowed with this bearing (locating and non-locating bearing respectively)? Engineering Design Summer term - Delivery 2

Soans, Sheehan - 336126 From catalogue for Bearing 6010: D=80, d=50, B=16, Cr=20.8 Co=15.6 Given Data: Non locating bearing, Fr NL=4KN Locating bearing, Fr L=3KN, Fa L=1.6KN For Non locating bearing: L10h=[C/P]p [106 / n] = [20800/4000]3 * [106 /1800*60] =1301.92 hours For Locaing bearing: To calculate load rating, P= X.FrY.Fa ------- 1 From catalogue fo.fAL / Co = 15.6 1.6 / 15.6 = 1.6 For the value 1.6, X=0.56, Y=1.4 Substituting in equation 1: P= 0.56 3+1.41.6=3.92KN

Life span with 10% failure is given by L10h=[C/P]p [106 / n] = [20.8/3.92]3 [106/1800*60] =1382.4 hours c) Which load coefficient would be necessary, if 30000 operating hours are required? Use your calculated P of task b). Which of the following bearings is suitable as locating bearing instead of the FAG 6010 under constant loads for 30000 operating hours? Give reasons for your decisions! Which of the suitable bearings would you chose and why? L10h=[C/P]p [106 / n] 30000= [C/4000] [106/ 1800*60] C=59.18 KN Load coefficient more than 59.18 KNwould be required. Engineering Design Summer term - Delivery 2

Soans, Sheehan - 336126

Bearing 6010 is of diameter,d=50mm

Adequate yes No FAG 6310 * Reason Diamter is same as 6010 and dynamis load,Cr=62KN is greater than 59.18KN Diamter is same as 6010 and dynamis load,Cr=81.5KN is greater than 59.18KN Diamter is not same as 6010 Diamter is same as 6010 and dynamis load,Cr=90KN is greater than 59.18KN Diamter is same as 6010 and dynamis load,Cr=75KN is greater than 59.18KN has a high dynamic Diamter is same as 6010 and load rating dynamis load,Cr=108KN is greater so can than 59.18KN withstand more forces Diamter is not same as 6010 Best Choice

FAG 6410 FAG 6311 FAG 4310-B-TVH

* * *

FAG 7310-B-JP

FAG 20310 TVP

FAG NK 50/35-TV

3: Inner forces, stresses and stress analysis a) Determine the inner forces and moments of the following mechanical equivalent system (Image 3) of a flywheel unit. The determination of the bearing loads has already been completed in this task. Plot the devolution of the inner force variables along the length of the structure. Explain in which operating modes of a flywheel a torque has to be considered.

Engineering Design Summer term - Delivery 2

Soans, Sheehan - 336126

Case a)
Mt = 300 Nm

N1 (x) 80mm M1 (x) Q1 (x)

fx = 0 fy = 0 Mz = 0

N1 (x) = 0 Q1 (x) = 0 Mz = 300

Case b)
M2 (x)=300

Mt=300 AH A

Q2 (x)

N2 (x)

Av Engineering Design Summer term - Delivery 2

Soans, Sheehan - 336126

Taking fx = 0 AH+N2 (x) = 0 AH= -N2 (x) N2 (x) = 800N Taking fy = 0 Av+ Q2 (x)=0 Av=-Q2(x) Q2 (x) = -1000N Taking Mz = 0 at point A M2 (x)=Mt + 1000* 0.080=380 Nm

Case c)

Fu Mt Ah

M3 (x)

Q3 (x)

Fg Av

N3 (x)

Taking fx = 0 AH+N3 (x) =Fg 800+ N3 (x) = 800 N3 (x) = 0 Taking fy = 0 Av+ Q3 (x)=Fu Engineering Design Summer term - Delivery 2

Soans, Sheehan - 336126 1000+Q3(x)=6000 Taking Mz at point C = 0 -300-Av (0.6) = 6000 (0.1)+M3 (x) M3 (x) = 1500 Nm Fu Ah Mt Av Bv Fg

300 Nm 380Nm





Engineering Design Summer term - Delivery 2

Soans, Sheehan - 336126 b) The preliminary design of a driving shaft is given in Image 4. The calculated inner force variables are plotted below. These have to be considered as static. Chose a critical location, where the strength has to be checked, and give reasons for your choice. Calculate the stress components of tension, bending and torsion at this place. Shear load at the center is calculated: Shear load is given by = 4000 4/ (70)2= 1.03 N/mm2 

Torsional load is given by

= 16. Mt /

d3 = 16. 820.103/ .703

= 12.15 N/mm2 Bending forces = 32.Mb/ d3= 32.1500.103/ .703 = 44.54 N/mm2

c) An axis made of S235JR with circular cross-section is loaded statically with bending, torsion and tension. By the determination of the reactions, the inner forces and the stresses, the stress components at the critical location are known: Demonstrate that the cross section is not secure against plastic deformation (S<1,5). How big is the static safety margin, if the axis is made of 42CrMo4?

=(300+80)2+(3262) eq= 382.7 Calculating factor of safety= ReS235JR /

eq = 235/ 382.7 = 0.64

0.64 Given 42CrMo4, yield strength is 750N/mm2 S= ReS235JR / eq= 750/ 382.7= 1.94

Engineering Design Summer term - Delivery 2

Soans, Sheehan - 336126


Engineering Design Summer term - Delivery 2