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PERFORMANCE MODELING OF EXPLOSIVELY ACTUATED DEVICES

A Thesis

Submitted to the Graduate Faculty of the Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Mechanical Engineering

in

The Department of Mechanical Engineering

by Adam Braud B.S., Louisiana State University, 2004 December 2006

Acknowledgments

I would like to first thank my family for supporting me through my schooling, including my parents Michael and Deborah Braud, and my siblings Ashley, Colin, and Evan. In addition I would like to extend my appreciation to my girlfriend Heather Metevier for her loyalty and support through these times. To Dr. Keith Gonthier for his guidance throughout my graduate schooling. Your competence and thoroughness proved valuable to my education. Last and not least, to Dr. Michele Decroix. Your kindness and dedication to the student program at Los Alamos National Laboratory made my experience there an enjoyable one.

ii

Table of Contents

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

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ii

LIST

OF

TABLES

 

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iv

LIST

OF

FIGURES

 

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v

ABSTRACT

 

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viii

CHAPTER

 

1 INTRODUCTION

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1

 

1.1 Background

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1

1.2 Problem Statement

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2

1.3 Review

 

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3

1.4 Goals of Current Study

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5

2 MATHEMATICAL MODEL

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8

 

2.1 Actuator and Expansion Chamber Model

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9

2.2 Piston-Housing Deformation Model

 

14

 

2.2.1 Formulation

 

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15

2.2.2 Solution Behavior

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24

3 INERT QUASISTATIC ANALYSIS

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30

 

3.1 Quasistatic Compression Tests

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30

3.2 Finite Element Analysis

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36

4 RESULTS

 

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46

 

4.1 Explosive Burn Rate Characterization

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46

4.2 Baseline Valve Operation

 

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48

4.3 Parametric Analysis

 

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56

 

4.3.1 with Significant Uncertainty

Parameters

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57

4.3.2 of Design

Parameters

Importance

 

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63

5 CONCLUSIONS

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74

REFERENCES

 

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77

APPENDIX: USER’S MANUAL

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79

VITA

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86

iii

List of Tables

2.1

Reaction equation for HMX

9

3.1

Work Requirements of Nitrogen Cartridge

34

3.2

Material data used in ANSYS

39

4.1

Baseline parameter values used for the valve simulations.

 

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50

A.1

Subroutines used in the code NITVALVE.

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83

iv

List of Figures

1.1

Illustration of an explosively actuated nitrogen cartridge valve:

 

(a)

prefired

and

 

(b) postfired configuration.

 

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3

1.2

Cross section of nitrogen cartridge valve in postfired configura-

 

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4

2.1

Illustration

of subsystem mass and energy interactions.

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8

2.2

Coordinate system used for establishing the geometric interfer-

 

ence force that resists

piston motion.

 

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15

2.3

Schematic illustrating the separation of the piston into skirt and bore components for computing their contributions to the total

 

resistive force.

 

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17

2.4

Schematic illustrating contained plasticity in the valve

 

22

2.5

Illustration of a general loading condition.

 

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24

2.6

Logic of choosing appropriate ordering of principal stresses.

 

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26

 

˜

2.7

Solution uniqueness of P .

 

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28

2.8

Cross-section subject to uncontained perfect plasticity .

 

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29

3.1

(a) Experimental setup for quasistatic tests.

loaded in MTS platens.

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(b) Test frame .

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31

3.2

(a)

Explosive hydrostatic pressure loading. (b) Localized exper-

 

imental loading.

 

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32

3.3

Quasistatically measured force-displacement curves for the pis- ton within a nitrogen cartridge

 

33

3.4

Experimental apparatus with push disc used in compliance

 

34

3.5

(a)

Compliance test raw

data. (b) Linear fit.

 

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35

3.6

Comparison of MTS results with simple model predictions.

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36

3.7