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2011

Heat And Mass Transfer


MENG01I03

[ASSIGNMENT]

Name: Mohamed Gamal Hafez I.D: 109631 Group: 2 Year: 3

[QUESTION 1]

Area of the wall = 5 x 8 = 40 m2 To maintain the area of the representative length with the same ratio of the representative height to the actual height: The representative length = (0.12/5) * 8 = 0.192 m The representative area =0.12 x 0.192 = 0.02304 m2

Section A B C D E F

K (W/m K) 2 8 20 15 32 2

Length (m) 0.01 0.05 0.05 0.1 0.1 0.06

Height 0.12 0.04 0.04 0.06 0.06 0.12

Width 0.192 0.192 0.192 0.192 0.192 0.192

Area 0.02304 0.00768 0.00768 0.01152 0.01152 0.02304

R (K/ W) 0.217013889 0.813802083 0.325520833 0.578703704 0.271267361 1.302083333

1/R 4.608 1.2288 3.072 1.728 3.6864 0.768

1/ Req

Req 0.217014

7.3728 5.4144

0.135634 0.184693 1.302083

The individual thermal resistance of each part = L/ KA

a) Equivalent thermal resistance:

Req. = Ra + R (eq. b,c,c) + R (eq. d,e) + Rf

1/R (eq. b,c,c) = (1/Rb) + (1/Rc) + (1/Rc) = 7.3728

1/R (eq. d,e) = (1/Rd)+ (1/Re) = 5.4144

Req. = 0.217014 + 0.135634 + 0.184693 + 1.302083 = 1.839424 K/W

The rate of heat flow in the representative section = Q =

= 108.7297 W

The rate of heat flow in the whole wall = Q x

= 108.7297 x

= 188.76 KW (Answer)

b) The temperature at the point where the sections B, D and E meet ;

Q is constant throughout the wall

Q=

= 108.7279 W

The temperature at the point where the sections B, D and E meet = 261.657 C (Answer)

c) Temperature drop across section F

Q is constant throughout the wall Q=




= 108.7279 W

Temperature drop = 108.7279 * 1.302083 = 141.573 C (Answer)

[QUESTION 2]

a) What is the heat gain per unit tube length? Q =     

 Q=

(Answer)

b) What is the heat gain per unit length if a 10 mm thick layer of calcium silicate insulation (Kins = 0.050 W/m.K) is applied to the tube 

 Q=  (Answer)

[QUESTION 3]

The software developed: o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o H: the length of the tube r1 : radius of the cylinder h: heat transfer coefficient Tb: temperature at the surface of the cylinder T : ambient air temperature N: Number of fins (the variable in the software) r2 : outer radius of the fins thickness: thickness of each fin rc : corrected radius = r2 + (t/2) Area no fin: =2 x x r1 x H x rc 2 - r1 2

Area fin = =2*PI()*((I3^2)-(B3^2)) = 2 x Area fins = number of fins X area of each fin Area unfin = 2 x x r1 x (H-Nt)

Qno fin = h Ab(Tb - T ) Qun fin = h A unfinned (Tb - T ) Q finned = h A finned (Tb - T ) Qtotal = Q finned +Q unfinned Increase in Q = Qtotal - Qno fin

a) If the fins are equally spaced, what is the increase in heat transfer due to the use of fins?

First calculate the hate transfer without any fins Qno fin = h Ab(Tb - T ) = 50 ( x 0.05 x 0.15) (500 300) = 235.6 W

Second calculate the heat transfer with the fins included (5 FINS), which is divided to Q finned and Q unfinned Q total fin = Q finned +Q unfinned Q total fin = h A unfinned (Tb - T ) + h A finned (Tb - T ) Q total fin = 715.969 Watt (from the table attached below, using excel) Increase in heat transfer after the use of fins = 715.969 235.6 = 480.34 Watt (Answer)

b) It is well known that increasing the number of fins will increase the rate of heat transfer up to certain limit. What is this limit (maximum number of fins can be attached) under the above conditions? Detailed answer is required with a copy of the software or program generated for this purpose?

According to the software used through excel to generate the values for areas and heat transfers, it is found that beyond 25fins the Area unfin shows negative values which indicates that there is no physical space for the fins to be attached. Hence the Q unfinned yields negative values which implies falsely that heat transfer will take place from the ambient to the cylinder. (Answer)

c) Generate a diagram to correlate the heat transferred and number of fins:

Number of fins and Heat Transfer


3000 2500 Heat Transfer 2000 1500 1000 500 0 0 5 10 15 Number of fins 20 25 30

(Answer)

[QUESTION 4]

Th = 50 C Tc =- 5 C Tref =  = 295 K

@ 295 K: y y y = 1.585*10-5 m2/s K = 0.02533 W/m. C Pr = 0.73025

Re =

 

 

18,927.44 which is a turbulent flow

Pr = 0.73025

Nu = 0.3+

(1+(

Nu = 82.77

Nu =

= 82.77

h = 20.97 W/m2. C

tot =

(ln (0.05/0.042) / 2 (60) )+(1/2*20.97*0.050* ) = 0.153

Q = T/Rtot =(50-(-5))/0.153 = 359.477 W/m

Daily cost of heat loss = (359.477/1000)* 24* 0.05 =$ 0.4313

(Answer)

b) Adding the insulation changes the dimensions to:

D = 0.10+0.02= 0.12 m

Ksteel = 60 W/m.k

K insulation = 0.026 W/m.k

r1=0.042 m r2=0.05 m r3= 0.06 m

Re =

 

 

22,712.93 which is a turbulent flow

Pr = 0.73025

Nu = 0.3+

(1+(

Nu =

= 57.10

h=12.05 W/m2. C

tot =

(0.026) ) = 1.269

 (ln (0.05/0.042) / 2 (60) )+(1/2*20.97*0.050* ) + (ln (0.06/0.05) / 2

Q = T/Rtot =(50-(-5))/ 1.269= 43.339 W/m

Daily cost of heat loss = (43.339/1000)* 24* 0.05 =$ 0.05207

(Answer)

[QUESTION 5]

Assuming Tm for the internal flow calculations:

y y y

Tmo is assumed to be 580 C Tm = = 580C = 843 K

Air Properties @ 843 K: o o o o o o = 0.410 kg/m cp = 1108 j/kg.k = 92 x106 m2 /s k = 59 W/m.K Pr = 0.714 = 382 x 107 N.s/m2

Assuming temperature for the external flow calculations:

y y

average temperature in tube is 580 C T surface is assumed at 570 C

y y

Assuming T film at values for T Assuming Tf =

(4,5,35) at an average value for T

of 14 C

= 292 C = 565 K

Air properties @ 565 K o = 0.620 kg/m o cp = 1049 j/kg.k o = 47 x106 m2 /s o k = 44.2 W/m.K o Pr = 0.6832 o = 292 x 107 N.s/m2

For combined external and internal forced convection, the following equation is used:


= exp (

y y

T is given: 4,5 and 35 Tmi is given: 600 C

y y

m is given: 0.5 kg/s L is given: 6 m

y y

P is calculated D= 0.5

cp is extracted from table: 1108 J/Kg.K

y y

Tmo is the required answer U=

Calculate ho and hi

Procedures for internal flow calculations on excel: y Re = Re will yield a value higher than 2300

y y

The assumed value for Ts= 570 C < Tm= 580 570 C Since it is a cooling process n = 0.3

.hence it is a cooling process

y y

Calculate Nu= 0.23 Re 0.8 Pr n Calculate hi =




Procedures for external flow calculations on excel:

Re =


Nu = 0.3+

Calculate ho=

[PART A]

Procedures for calculating Tmo, Tso

Tmo = T - (T - Tmi) exp (

Tso =

U=

[PART B]
y y Change the length in Tmo Return all values of v to 5

Value s for Tmo = 543.1 C and Ts= 230.9 C

v=5 m/s and T =4 C