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Diﬃcult Integral

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March 2, 2010

1

Introduction

First, calculate below.

π

2

π

2

1

1 + (cos x) x dx

(1)

Can you ﬁnd the answer? Maybe it’s diﬃcult. Let’s make Maxima calculate it 1 . Type

integrate(1/(1+(cos(x))^x),x,-%pi/2,%pi/2)

and Shift+Enter

he

couldn’t tell the answer. Then, let’s use numerical integration.

romberg(1/(1+(cos(x))^x),x,-%pi/2,%pi/2)

and push Shift+Enter to get 1.570796326794897. Most likely it’s a half of π. But why a half of πI drew a graph of the function above. With any tool, you too draw a graph. Maybe you’ll ﬁnd this function point symmetrical. The point is (0, 0.5). Now, let’s prove its symmetricity. Subtract 0.5 from the function to get

So

h(x)

h(x)

:=

=

=

=

=

=

1

1

1 + (cos x) x 2

1 (cos x)

x

2

+ 2(cos x) x .

1 (cos (x)) x

+ 2(cos (x)) x 1 (cos x) x

2

2 + 2(cos x) x

(cos x) x 1

2(cos x) x + 2 h(x).

(2)

(3)

h(x) is an odd function. So, the function we want to integrate is point symmetrical.

1 http://wxmaxima.sourceforge.net/;I used wxMaxima 0.8.4.

1

Using h(x), we can get the answer to the ﬁrst question.

π

2

π

2

1

1 + (cos x) x dx

=

=

=

=

π

2

π

2

π

2

π

2

[ h(x) + 2 ] dx

1

h(x)dx +

1

2

π

2

π

2

0 + 2 · 2 · π

2

1

π

2

dx

(4)

See, we get the same answer as Maxima’s opinion. Why could we calculate the integral that looks very diﬃcult? Maybe you’ve noticed. Yes, we used the properties of odd and even functions below.

a [f (x) + g(x)] dx = 2 a f (x)dx (f (x) : even function, g(x) : odd function)

a

0

(5)

In this paper, a is a positive constant. This property is obvious. But I couldn’t be satisﬁed. It was so surprising that the ﬁrst integration could be calculated. I wanted to get a productive formula which can produce many integrals diﬃcult to calculate at a glance. Why ‘looks diﬃcult’? I thought (cos x) x makes us feel so. So I made a general integral formula containing a function to the power of a function.

a

a

f 1 (x)

(x) g(x) dx = a

0

1 ± f 2

f 1 (x)dx

(6)

where f 1 (x) and f 2 (x) are even functions, g(x) is an odd function. The function we use should be well-diﬁned at all points in [a, a]. On the left side, we see f 2 (x) and g(x), but on the right side, we can’t ﬁnd them. You can let any function into f 1 (x), f 2 (x) and g(x) under just one restriction, odd or even. I think this formula mysterious at ﬁrst. I’ll prove it in next section.

2 Proof of formula(6)

Remember f 1 (x) and f 2 (x) are even functions, g(x) is an odd function. I’ll divide the interval and use integration by substitution. Consider double signs in same order.

a

a

f 1 (x)

1 ± f 2

(x) g(x) dx

=

=

=

=

=

a

a

0

a

a

0

f 1 (x)

(x) g(x) dx + a

0

1 ± f 2

f 1 (x)

1 ± f 2

(x) g(x) dx

f 1 (t)

g(t) (dt) + a

0

1

± f 2 (t)

f 1 (x)

1 ± f 2

(x) g(x) dx

a

0

a

0

f 1 (t)

g(t) dt + a

0

f 1 (x)

± f 2 (t)

1 ± f 2

(x) g(x) dx

f 1 (x)

1

f 1 (t) [ ±f 2 (t) g(t) ]

dt + a 1 ± f 2

0

±f 2 (t) g(t) + 1

(x) g(x) dx

a f 1 (x)dx

0

f 1 (x)

(x) g(x) dx = a

0

1 ± f 2

 (7) f 1 (x)dx (8)

2

Think in your mind a sheet of paper which has a picure of no sense on, but you fold it in two to

ﬁnd a image of something with the two pictures on the both sides. (It’s harder to explain in a foreign

language what is diﬃcult even in my mother tongue

of paper?) Now that the formula is proved, so you can let any functions. Try x as g(x) to make integral

get what I’m trying to mean using a sheet

You

looks diﬃcult to calculate. See, it’s very diﬃcult to integrate a function to the power of x, even if the simplest case, x x . Be careful you can’t get the answer in a number if you don’t substitute for f 1 (x)

 a function which you know primitive of (or can be integrated in the interval). 3 Examples

In this section, I show some examples. What I proved is the case the function is well-deﬁned, but some of examples below are improper integral. You have to consider whether there is the limit or not.

a

a

e x dx = a x 2 dx = a 3

x

1

±

0

2

3

(9)

Choosing e as f 2 (x) and x as g(x), f 2 (x) g(x) is just an exponential function. Where the sign of denominator is , it is 0 at x = 0. However, the function to be integrated gets to 0 where x 0 because x 2 is stronger than the denominator. Notice that the function is not point symmetrical due to the numerator x 2 .

1

1

Improper integral where x → −1.

5

5

1 + (1 x 2 ) x dx = 1

x

2

0

x 2 dx =

1

3

x

2 ) (x 3 ) dx = 5

4

0

1 + (x

x 4 dx = 625

(10)

(11)

I used 1 to 5. It’s just a playing. But be careful (x 2 ) (x 3 ) = |x| (2x 3 ) ̸=x (2x 3 ) .

1

1

1 + |x| x dx = 1

1

0

dx = 1

(12)

Absolute value function is an even function. I think this formula very simple, just using x, 1. Graph of the function is point symmetrical because f 1 (x) = 1. 0 0 is not deﬁned, so it’s an improper integration.

1

1

|x| 1 + |x| x dx = 1

0

|x|dx = 1 2

(13)

The answer is a half of the answer above. It’s not point symmetrical.

3

1

1

log ( x 2 + 1 ) 1 + (x 2 + 1)

x dx = 1 log ( x 2 + 1 ) dx = π + log 2 2

0

2

(14)

The function is not point symmetrical. You can express the primitive of log ( x 2 + 1 ) using the inverse function of tangent.

π

0

sin x 1 + (sin

x) cos x dx = π

0

2

cos xdx = 1

(15)

It’s a curve ball! You shift the interval to get the same form as the formula(6) 2 .

You too try various functions.

Ensure the answer is true using graphing soft.

I recommend

GRAPES 3 because it allows us to know the answer of numerical integration very easily.

4 Expansion1

From this section, I’ll introduce three expansions. But nothing is changing essentially, just making formula look more diﬃcult. We substitute an odd function g 2 (x) g 1 (x) for g(x) of formula(6) to get

a

a

f 1 (x)f 2 (x) g 1 (x) f 2 (x) g 1 (x) ± f 2 (x)

g 2 (x) dx = a

0

f 1 (x)dx

(f 1 (x), f 2 (x) : even function, g 1 (x), g 2 (x) : odd function) .

(Example)

π

2

π

2

(cos x) sin x

(cos x) sin x + (cos x) tan x dx = π

2

0

dx = π

2

(16)

(17)

It looks very complicated, but you’ll notice it point symmetrical if you plot it. The graph is similar to the ﬁrst question.

5 Expansion2

We substitute an even function

f 3 (x) f 2 (x)

for f 2 (x) of formula(6) to get

a

a

f 1 (x)f 2 (x) g(x) f 2 (x) g(x) ± f 3 (x)

g(x) dx = a

0

f 1 (x)dx

(f 1 (x), f 2 (x), f 3 (x) : even function, g(x) : odd function) .

(Example)

π

| cos x| x + | sin x| x dx =

2

π

2

0

| cos x| x+1

π

2

| cos x|dx = 1

(18)

(19)

Why | cos x| instead of cos x? I did so to make the function well-deﬁned at any points in R. I think the graph is interesting because it looks like semicircles where 0 < x and the shape of M where x < 0 (although I don’t think it proper expression).

2 First I let some function to the formula(6) and shifted the interval, that’s how I actually made. On the questions maker side, I don’t want you to notice dividing the interval. So I want to shift the center of the interval from 0. It’s easy to shift if you choose periodic functions like sine or cosine. 3 http://www.criced.tsukuba.ac.jp/grapes/

4

6 Expansion3

We substitute an even function g 3 (x)

g 2

(x) for f 2 (x) of formula(6) to get

a

a

f 1 (x)

) g 1 (x) dx = a

0

1 ± (

g 3 (x) g 2 (x)

f 1 (x)dx

(f 1 (x) : even function, g 1 (x), g 2 (x), g 3 (x) :

odd function) .

(20)

Do not multiply numerator and denominator by g 2 (x) g 1 (x) 4 . (Example)

π

π

x sin x

) x dx = π x sin xdx = π

0

1

+ ( sin x

x

(21)

Two odd functions gives even function. This formula consists of only two funciton;x and sin x but of course we can’t calculate the primitive.

How was it? The ﬁeld of integrals is very vast and I have lots of thing to learn. Maybe I should prove formula in the case of improper integral, but I didn’t write it in order to make this paper easy to read for high school students (and because I’m poor at strict proof). I’d grad if you ﬁnd it interesting that you can calculate the integrals, with a simple tool integration by substitution, of functions which look very complicated and you can’t calculate primitive of. In the end, try a mean quiz below. (Question) Calculate the integral.

π

π

exp (sin x + cos x) cos (sin x) exp (sin x) + exp x

dx

4

g 3 (x)

g 2

(x) cannot be deﬁned at x = 0 so it’s an improper integral. I prove nothing about improper integrals.

5

(22)