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Migration to Next Generation SDH

by Jos M. Caballero

jose.caballero@trendcomms.com

Presentation extracted from the book: Migration to Next Generation SDH ISBN 84-609-4420-4 see at wwww.trendcomms.com

SDH classic

Section

Reasons to define SDH


The Antitrust law in the US followed by Bell being broken into smaller companies It was necessary to interconnect new PTTs: SONET definition B-ISDN specification to integrate any traffic: SDH and ATM standardisation Advanced management needs: computers and telecom must work together Requirement for having new infrastructures manage any type traffic: data, voice, multimedia

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bytes vs. bits


frame 1 125 s 0 1 byte n 0 frame 2 125 s

rate =

8 bits 12510-6seg.

= 64Kbit/s

Standardised since 1988 when the G707, G708, G709 CCITT recommendations appeared

SDH is byte oriented, it means that a byte is the unit for mapping and multiplexing STM-N is the name for the transport frames. They have always a period of 125s An important consequence is that in SDH 1 byte represents a 64 Kbit/s channel

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SDH is a flexible architecture


direct internet working between equipment scalability up to 10 Gbit/s direct add & drop for low speed tributaries Rich in OAM functions Support to fit any application remote and centralised management Fault tolerance: fast traffic routing in case of faults SDH is highly compatible with SONET very efficient in managing circuits fast circuit definition from a centralised point advanced facilities for quality monitoring

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Classic SDH: Circuit provisioning

services

Internet

Frame Relay

POTS

ATM

GSM

multiplexing, transport, routing, management, reliability

transport network
SDH

transmission media

cable/fibre/radio

SDH provides efficient, reliable and flexible transport for circuits

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Classic SDH Network elements

STM-N
STM-N STM-N

REG

SDH MUX
STM-N

STM-M

M >N

Regenerators

Multiplexers

STM-N
West STM-M East STM-M

STM-N

STM-N

STM-N

STM-N, PDH

Add & Drop Multiplexer (ADM)

Digital Cross-Connect (DXC)

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Transport design
National Backbone

STM-16 Primary Network STM-4

Access Network STM-1 or PDH

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Nothing compares with SDH resilience


protection ring service ring
ADM

high priority MUX low priority 1:1 MUX

ADM

ADM

MUX

1:N

MUX

ADM

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ADM

ADM

MUX

1+1

MUX ADM
ADM

service & protection rings

ADM

The SDH multiplexing map

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The STM-1 frame


HP POH
11

VC4 J1 B3 C2 G1 F2 H4 F3 K3 N1
10 ptr ptr TU pointers

RSOH AU4 ptr

LP POH
Lower Order Path Overhead V5

V5 J2 N2
V5 125 s 250 s 270 270 375 s 500 s STS-1
MUX

K4

STS-1 STS-1
3:1

STM-1

MSOH
9 1 9 10

VCn

VCn

STM-1

STM-1 = AUG + RSOH + MSOH RSOH and MSOH sections allow the traffic management The VC4 is floating inside the STM-1: VC4 is asynchronous STM1 is synchronous The AU pointer always points to the position where the VC4 starts and follows possible fluctuations

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OAM: Detected events at the end of a RS


LOW ORDER PATH HIGH ORDER PATH MULTIPLEXER SECTION REGENERATOR SECTION REGENERATOR SECTION

2M
STM-1

STM-N

2M
STM-1

H O- PT E

LO- PT E

34M 140M

34M 140M

L O-P TE

H O-P TE

MUX

REG

MUX

H O-P TE

L O-P TE

L OS L OF MS-RDI
(K2=xxxxx110)

MS-AIS
(A1, A2 OK; the rest all 1s)

AU-AIS
(All 1s)

TU-AIS
(All 1s)

PDH AIS
(All 1s)

HO-RDI
(G1=xxxx1xxx)

LO-RDI
(V5=xxxxxxx1)

B1 w it h errors

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Next Generation SDH

NG SDH = classic SDH + [GFP+VCAT+LCAS] Section

Streaming forces

FRL Triple VoIP Play xDSL ISDN

Mobile

VoD Gaming 3G

VPLS MPLS VPN

VoD ISDN

Circuit

Tele phone

VoIP

Internet

TV

New services and applications based on internet, mobile, multimedia, DVB, SAN, Ethernet or VPN, are demanding long hault transport. State of the art:
1. 2. 3.

Ethernet, are in an early stage of development for efficient optical transport Most have their transport infrastructure entirely based on SDH/SONET. There is a lot of experience in managing SDH/SONET.

No other technology than SDH/SONET has this maturity grade at the optical physical layer.

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Next Generation SDH: Packet Friendly


FRL

Mobile
3G

VoD 3play

VPLS MPLS
VPN

xDSL

ISDN
Circuit

Services

Tele phone

VoIP

Internet
TV SAN

IP
DVB

PDH

MPLS

VLAN

ATM

10/100/1000 Ethernet HDLC/PPP/LAPS


GFP-F GFP-T

Transport Network

Fibre Channel ESCON FICON

Contiguous Concatenation
SDH/Sonet NG

Virtual Concatenation LCAS

Transmission Media

WDM - Dark Fibre - Coax - Wireless - OTN

SDH/SONET has also evolved to more efficiently adapt statistical multiplexing traffic based on data packets.
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Legacy and Next Generation SDH

The Next Generation of SDH/SONET is offering:


data-packet interfaces TDM interfaces new functionalities

The objective is:


to support efficiently any type of traffic (including of data packets) get the best of Legacy SDH including: - resiliency, - reliability, - scalability, - centralised management - rerouting

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Key NG SDH/SONET
NG SDH/SONET Contiguous Concatenation GFP-F GFP-T Virtual Concatenation LCAS

GFP (Generic Framing Protocol)


is robust and standardized encapsulation procedure for the transport of packetised data on SDH/SONET. In principal, GFP performs bit rate adaptation managing features such as priorities, discard eligibility, transport channels selection, and submultiplexing.

VCAT (Virtual Concatenation)


is a mechanism which assigns granular bandwidth sizes rather than the exponential provision of the Contiguous Concatenation. Therefore VCAT is more flexible and efficient.

LCAS (Link Capacity Adjustment Scheme)


LCAS can modify dynamically the allocated VCAT bandwidth by adding/removing members of a pipe in use. LCAS is being used also to implement diversity for traffic resilience.
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Next Gen. SDH Network elements


PDH Ethernet VPN DVB SAN SDH SDH (classic ADM + packet interfaces)

Client interfaces SDH

Legacy NE: Reg, Mux, ADM, DXC

Multiservice Provisioning Platform (MSPP)

PDH Ethernet VPN DVB SAN DWDM SDH (MSPP + DWDM)

DWDM SDH (DXC-like)

DWDM SDH

Multiservice Transport Platform (MSTP)

Multiservice Switching Platform (MSSP)

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Multiservice Provisioning Platform (MSPP)


PDH Ethernet VPN DVB SAN SDH (classic ADM + packet interfaces)

A Multiservice Provisioning Platform (MSPP) is basically the result of the evolution of legacy ADM and TDM interfaces and optical interfaces, to a type of access node that includes a set of:

legacy TDM interfaces data interfaces, such as Ethernet, GigE, Fiber Channel, or DVB NG SDH/SONET functionalities such as GFP, VCAT and LCAS optical interfaces from STM-0/STS-1 to STM-64/OC-192
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Multiservice Transport Platform (MSTP)


PDH Ethernet VPN DVB SAN DWDM SDH (MSPP + DWDM)

A Multiservice Transport Platform (MSTP) bassically is a MSPP with DWDM functions to drop selected wavelengths at a site that will provide higher aggregated capacity to multiplex and to transport client signals. MSTP allows to integrate SDH/SONET, TDM and data services, with efficient WDM transport and wavelength switching. Typically, MSTPs are installed in the metro core network.

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Multiservice Switching Platform

DWDM SDH (DXC-like)

DWDM SDH

A Multiservice Switching Platform (MSSP) is the NG equivalent for cross-connect, performing efficient traffic grooming and switching at STM-N/OC-M levels but also at VC level. MSSPs should support more than just data service mapping, namely true data services multiplexing and switching. MSSP is still emerging as a NG Network element, while MSPP and MSTP are quite mature.

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Generic Framing Protocol (GFP)


Ethernet
Packets Port 1 Port 2
. . .

MSPP

SDH/Sonet

MSPP

Ethernet

Source
STM-n/OC-m

Sink
Port 1 Port 2
. . .

Port n Rx queues Encapsulating Mapping Multiplexing T r a n s m i s s i o n GFP mapper GFP demapper Tx Queues

Port n

De-encapsulating Demapping Demultiplexing

1.

GFP, defined in ITU-T G.7041, provides data rate adaption and frame delineation There are two mapping service for data protocols: GFP-T (Transparent) is a layer 1 encapsulation in constant sized frames. Optimised for traffic based on 8B/10B codification such as 1000BASE-T, Fibre Channel, and ESCON. GFP-F (Framed) is a layer 2 encapsulation in variable sized frames. Optimised for data packet protocols such as DVD, PPP and Ethernet.

2.

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Frame-Mapped GFP (GFP-F)


Source
SAN, Fiber Channel

Sink
GFP-F GFP-F
SAN, Fiber Channel

. . .

. . .
Packets Rx queues mapper
4

STM-n/OC-m
1 3 CID

. . .
demapper

. . .

Submultiplexing
Encapsulation Mapping Multiplexing

Sink
Dencapsulation

Demultiplexing

Demapping

The entire client packet is dropped into a GFP frame Data Client signals such as Ethernet, PPP and DVB are queued waiting to be mapped Some codes can be removed to minimize the transmission size GFP-F supports submultiplexing onto a single channel for low-rate sources

GFP-F results in a more efficient transport, however, the encapsulation processes described above increase latency, making GFP-F inappropriate for time-sensitive protocols.
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Transparent GFP (GFP-T)


Source
GFP-T GFP-T
Ethernet, PPP, DVB

Sink
Ethernet, PPP, DVB

. . .
8B/10B

. . .
mapper

STM-n/OC-m

. . .
demapper Reassembly

. . .

Independent Streams
Encapsulation Mapping Multiplexing Demultiplexing Demapping Dencapsulation

GFP-T client signals are mapped into fixed-length GFP framesand transmitted immediately without waiting for the entire client data packet to be received. GFP-T encapsulates any protocol as long as they are based on 8B/10B line coding, which is why it is often called protocol-agnostic. ALL the client characters, without exception, are transported to the far end. GF-T is very good for isocronic protocols and SAN, such as ESCON or FICON. This is because it is not necessary to process client frames or to wait for arrival of the complete frame
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GFP mapping of client signals


Flag Address Control Type Payload Pad FCS Flag Pad

GFP
Core Header Payload Header
G FP -F
GFPF

HDSLC/PPPP
LLC/SNAP BBW SoF Header Data CRC EOF

Fiber Channel

Extension Header

Ethernet

Preamble SoF Dest Add Source Add Length LLC Data Pad FCS Extension

Payload
-F FP G

Check Sum thrown away transported

Depending on the type of GFP in question, the mapping function can drop the whole signal (in the case of GFP-T), or can throw away certain delineation fields (GFP-F).
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GFP frame formats and protocols


GFP frame
byte 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

PLI cHEC (CRC-16)


4 s te by

PTI

Core Header
s yte 4b

PFI EXI type UPI

scrambled bytes (optional)

tHEC (CRC-16) EXI

Payload Header Extention Header (optional) Payload Check Sum (optional)

8 9

0-60 bytes

eHEC (CRC-16)
n by te s

66 +1 +2

Payload

PLI: PDU Length Indicator tHEC: Type HEC protection cHEC: Core HEC protection EXI: Extension Header Identifier PTI: Payload type Identifier 000: client data Type Type 100: client management PFI: Payload FCS Indicator tHEC tHEC 1: presence of FCS 0: absence CID EXI type: Extension Header Identifier Spare 0000: Null eHEC 0001: Linear 0010: Ring tHEC: Type HEC protection UPI: User Payload Identifier (PTI=0) CID: Channel ID for submultiplex 01x: Ethernet (GFP-F) eHEC: Extension HEC protection 02x: PPP (GFP-F) Payload: Space for the framed PDU 03x: Fiber Channel (GFP-T) pFCS: Payload FCS 04x: FICON (GFP-T) 05x: ESCON (GFP-T) 06x: Gigabit Ethernet (GFP-T) 08x: MAPOS (GFP-F) 09x: DVB (GFP-T) 0Ax: RPR (GFP-F) 0Bx: Fiber Channel (GFP-F) 0Cx: Async Fiber Channel (GFP-T) Null EXI Linear EXI type

tes by 0-4

+n

pFCS (CRC-32)
+n+4

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GFP-F vs. GFP-T

Feature
Protocol transparency Efficiency Isocronic protocols Encapsulation protocol level Optimized for LCAS protection Statistical submultiplexing SAN transport Ethernet transport

GFP-F
low high no Layer 2 (Frames) Ethernet likely yes no optimum

GFP-T
high low yes Layer 1 (Physical) SAN, DVB poor no yes possible

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Concatenation
40 Gbps 10 Gbps 2.5 Gbps 622 Mbps 155 Mbps STM-256 OC-768 STM-64 OC-192 STM-16 OC-48 STM-4 OC-12 STM-1 OC-3/STS-3
x1

AUG-256 STS-768
x4

x1

AU4-256c STS-768c AU4-64c STS-192c AU4-16c STS-48c AU4-4c STS-12c AU-4 STS-3c

VC4-256c STS-768c SPE VC4-64c STS-192c SPE VC4-16c STS-48c SPE VC4-4c STS-12c SPE VC-4 STS-3c SPE

C-4-256c C-4-64c C-4-16c C-4-4c C-4

x1 x4 x1 x4 x1 x4 x1

AUG-64 STS-192 AUG-16 STS-48 AUG-4 STS-12 AUG-1 STS-3

x1

x1

x1

x1

Concatenation is the process of summing the bandwidth of X containers of the same type into a larger container. There are two concatenation methods:

Contiguous concatenation, which creates big containers that cannot split into smaller pieces during transmission. For this, each NE must have a concatenation functionality. Virtual concatenation, which transports the individual VCs and aggregates them at the end point of the transmission path. For this, concatenation functionality is only needed at the path termination equipment.
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Contiguous and Virtual Concatenation


Contiguous concatenation VC4-4c
J1 B3 C2 G1 F2 H4 F3 K3 N1

Bandwidth requirement

Virtual concatenation VC4-3v or STS-9v


J1 J1B3 J1B3 C2 B3 G1 C2 G1 C2 F2 G1 H4 F2 F2H4 F3 K3 H4F3 N1 F3K3 K3 N1 N1

1 2 II

One VCG

3 VC members

One Path

622 Mbps

SDH

III

3x 155 Mbps

Several paths (3 in SDH, or 9 in SONET)

J1 B3 C2 G1 F2 H4 F3 K3 N1

Bandwidth delivery (430 Mbps)

IV

J1 J1B3 J1B3 C2 B3 G1 C2 G1 C2 F2 G1 H4 F2 F2H4 F3 K3 H4F3 N1 F3K3 K3 N1 N1

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Contiguous Concatenation (VCAT)


STM / STS pointers
AU-3 ptr
1 3

H1 H2 H3 AU-4 ptr
1 3

(STM-0/STS-1)

Virtual Container
9

VC type

Number Contiguous of VCs Concatenation


VC-4-Xc / STS-3Xc SPE
1

H1 Y
1

Y H2 1
12

1 H3 H3 H3 (STM-1/OC-3)
24 36

AU-4-4c ptr H1 Y ....... Y H2 1 ....... 1 H3 H3 ....... H3 (STM-4/OC-12) AU-4-16c ptr


1 48 96

260X 261X

H1 Y ....... Y H2 1 ....... 1 H3 H3 ....... H3 (STM-16/OC-48) AU-4-Xc ptr 3X 6X 1 9X ....... Y H2 1 ....... 1 H3 H3 ....... H3 (STM-n/OC-m) H1 Y
Y: 1001SS11

144

J1 B3 C2 G1 F2 H4 F3 K3 N1 R

C-4-Xc or SPE

1: All 1s byte

Justification unit = 3 X bytes

Fixed columns size = X-1

Contiguous concatenation: Pointers and containers. A VC-4-Xc (X = 1, 4, 16, 64, 256) structure, where X represents the level. The increment/decrement unit (justification) is 3 X, as it depends on the level: AU-4=3 bytes, AU-4-256c=768 bytes.
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Virtual Concatenation (VCAT)

Virtual Container

VC type

Number Virtual of VCs Concatenation

Packet-oriented, statistically multiplexed technologies, such as IP or Ethernet, do not match well the bandwidth granularity provided by contiguous concatenation.

VCAT is an inverse multiplexing technique that allows granular increments of bandwidth in single VC-n units. At the source node VCAT creates a continuous payload equivalent to X times the VC-n The set of X containers is known as a Virtual Container Group (VCG), and each individual VC is a member of the VCG. Lower-Order Virtual Concatenation (LO-VCAT) uses X times VC11, VC12, or VC2 containers (VC11/12/2-Xv, X = 1... 64). Higher-Order Virtual Concatenation (HO-VCAT) uses X times VC3 or VC4 containers (VC3/ 4-Xv, X = 1... 256), providing a payload capacity of X times 48 384 or 149 760 kbit/s.
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Virtual Concatenation Operation


MSSP Source t0+125s t0 VC3-4v VC3-4v
MFI=k+1 MFI=k
5 55 VC3
3 VC#3
Rate Adaption, Mapping, Segmentation

SDH/SONET
SEQ=0

MSSP Sink node


Delay adjust Reassembly

25% A

VC3 #0

B
3 VC#1

MFI=i SQ=0..3
5 55 VC3

t1-125s t1 VC3-4v VC3-4v


MFI=i-1

3 VC#0

25% X G Y
VC #2 3
3 VC#1

MFI=i

SQ=0..3 Contiguous Payloads VC Group

50%
VC3 #2 VC3 #3

F
VC Group Contiguous Payloads

VC3 with SEQ=2 and SEQ=3

MFI: Multiframe Indicator, VCG: Virtual Container group, SEQ: Sequence Number Virtual concatenation is required only at edge nodes Sink node must compensate for the different delays

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Virtual Concatenation Graphically


Contiguous payload 1 1 484 1 1 484 1 484

t
VC3-4v

VC3-4v
9 9

......
9

VC3-4v

X -Segments 1
J1 B3 C2 G1 F2 H4 F3 K3 N1

X -Segments 87

X -Segments

EOS SEQ=3 MFI=1 .

EOS
1
J1 B3 C2 G1 F2 H4

EOS

SEQ=3 MFI=0 .

87

..

..

.. SEQ=1 J1 B3 SEQ=0 J1 C2 MFI=0 B3 G1


C2 F2 G1 H4 F2 F3 H4 K3 F3 N1 K3 N1

..

..

VC-3 VC-3

VC-3 VC-3

..

X times VC3 1 1 n270

X times VC3 2n270 3n270

..

X times VC3 4096n270

RSOH AU3 ptrs MSOH

RSOH

RSOH

RSOH

STM-n

AU3 ptrs MSOH


125 s

STM-n

AU3 ptrs MSOH

STM-n

...

AU3 ptrs MSOH

STM-n

..

..

VC-3 VC-3

.. SEQ=1 J1 B3 SEQ=0 J1 C2 MFI=1 B3 G1


C2 F2 G1 H4 F2 F3 H4 K3 F3 N1 K3 N1

VCG (VC-3-Xv)

.. SEQ=1 J1 B3 SEQ=0 J1 C2 MFI=4095 B3 G1


C2 F2 G1 H4 F2 F3 H4 K3 F3 N1 K3 N1

..

..

..

..

VC-3

VC-3

......

SEQ=3 MFI=4095 .

1
J1 B3 C2 G1 F2

87

VC-3

STM-n
t

MFI=0 SEQ=0...X

MFI=1 SEQ=0...X

MFI=2 SEQ=0...X

375 s

MFI=4095 SEQ=0...X

512 ms MFI=0

SEQ=0...X

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Virtual vs. Contiguous Concatenation


SDH
VC-4 VC-4-4c VC-4-16c VC-4-64c VC-4-256c

SONET
STS3c-SPE STS12c-SPE STS48c-SPE STS192c-SPE STS768c-SPE

X times
1 4 16 64 256

Capacity
149,760 Kbps 599,040 Kbps 2,396,160 Kbps 9,584,640 Kbps 38,338,560 Kbps

Justification
3 bytes 12 bytes 48 bytes 192 bytes 768 bytes

Transport
STM-1/OC-3 STM-4/OC-12 STM-16/OC-48 STM-64/OC-192 STM-256/OC-768

SDH
VC-11-Xv VC-12-Xv VC-2-Xv VC-3-Xv VC-4-Xv

SONET
VT.15-Xv VT2-Xv VT6-Xv STS-1-Xv STS-3c-Xv

X times
1 to 64 1 to 64 1 to 64 1 to 256 1 to 256

Capacity
1,600 Kbps 2,176 Kbps 6,784 Kbps 48,384 Kbps 149,760 Kbps

Virtual Capacity
1,600 to 102,400 Kbps 2,176 to 139,264 Kbps 6,784 to 434,176 Kbps 48,384 to 12,386 Kbps 149,760 to 38,338,560 Kbps

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Virtual vs. Contiguous Concatenation

Service
Ethernet Fast Ethernet Gigabit Ethernet Fiber Channel ATM DVB ESCON

Bit Rate
10 Mbit/s 100 Mbit/s 1000 Mbit/s 1700 Mbit/s 25 Mbit/s 270 Mbit/s 160 Mbit/s

Contiguous Concat.
VC-3 (20%) VC-4 (67%) VC-4-16c (42%) VC-4-16c (42%) VC-3 (50%) VC-4-4c (37%) VC-4-4c (26%)

Virtual Concatenation
VC-11-7v (89%) VC-3-2v (99%) VC-4-7v (95%) VC-4-12v (90%) VC-11-16c (98%) VC-3-6v (93%) VC-3-4v (83%)

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K4 multiframe (VCAT & LCAS codification)


V5
Lower Order Path Overhead 125 s 250 s 375 s J2 500 s N2

K4

K4 bit2

(1bit per .5ms)

K4 multiframe frame 1
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32

bit2
0

MFI

SQ

CTRL

0000

RS-Ack

CTRL

MST

CRC-3
16ms

k4 superframe 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 8 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32

MFI
SQ CTRL CRC-3

00000 00001 00010 00011 00100 00101 00110 00111 01000 01001 01010 01011 01100 01101 01110 01111 10000 10001 10010 10011 10100 10101 10110 10111 11000 11001 11010 11011 11100 11101 11110 11111
0

SQ: Sequence Indicator int he VCG [0... MFI: Multiframe Count Indicator [0...31]

...
512ms

K4 is part of the LO-PO overhead and is repeated every 500 ms 32 bits are sent in a complete multiframe which takes 16ms to repeat. (500 x 32=16 ms) The bit-2 superframe is made up of 32 multiframes and takes 512 ms to repeat.
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H4 multiframe (VCAT & LCAS codification)


multiframe J1 1 B3 frame 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 C2 MFI1 G1 5-8bits F2 H4 1-4bits F3 K3 time 0ms N1 MFI1: Multiframe indicator part 1 [0...255] multiframe
2 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 256 4096

Higer Order Path Overhead

0000 0001 CTRL 0010 0 0 0 GID 0011 0 0 0 0 0100 0 0 0 0 0101 0110 CRC8 0111 1000 MST 1001 0 0 0 RSAck 1010 0 0 0 0 1011 0 0 0 0 1100 0 0 0 0 1101 1110 SQ 1111 0000 MFI2 0001 CTRL 0010 0 0 0 GID 0011 0 0 0 0 0011 4

MFI1

2ms

512ms

MFI: Combination of MFI2-MFI1 [0...4095] MFI2: Multiframe indicator part 2 [0...255] SQ: Sequence Indicator int he VCG [0...255]

H4 is part of the HO-PO overhead H4 is repeated every 125 ms 16-byte multiframes takes 16 ms A complete multiframe of 4096 bytes takes 512 ms to repeat (125x4096=512 ms)
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SQ

1110 1111

Ethernet service provided by VCAT/LCAS


Ethernet service NG SDH Access MSSP - A Legacy SDH MSSP - B Access Ethernet frame VCAT member S T LCAS a Z b c-d Node Z X Y Payload Aggregation Ethernet CP2

Payload Segregation Traffic Adaption CP1 Traffic Control T LCAS GFP VCA a R b c-d Node R Flow Control

Ethernet

Flow Control

The link between node A and node Z transports Ethernet frames using a Virtual Concatenation Group of three members. Three separate LCAS protocols constantly monitor each peer connection: LCAS-a of node R talks with LCAS-a of node Z, LCAS-b(R) with LCAS-b(Z), ... LCAS-n (R) with LCAS-n (Z)
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Link Capacity Adjustment Scheme (LCAS)


ITU-T as G.7042, designed to manage the bandwidth allocation of a VCAT path. LCAS can add and remove members of a VCG that control a VCAT channel. LCAS cannot adapt the size of the VCAT channel according to the traffic pattern. Source to Sink messages:

Multi-Frame Indicator (MFI) keeps the multiframe sequence. Sequence Indicator (SQ) indicates members sequence to reassemble correctly the client signal that was split and sent through several paths. Control (CTRL) protocol messages which can be fixed, add, norm, eos, idle, and dnu. Group Identification (GID) is a constant value for all members of a VCG.

Sink to Source include:


Member Status (MST), which indicates to source each member status: fail or OK. Re-Sequence Acknowledge (RS-Ack) is an ack of renumbering after a new eos member.

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LCAS protocol
fixed, add, norm, eos, idle, dnu

Source So

Sk Sink
ok, fail, ack
fixed: Indicates fixed bandwidth and no LCAS support add: Member to be added to the VCG norm: Normal transmission eos: End of sequence, the member has the highest VCG seq number, Normal transmission idle: Member is part of the VCG or to be removed dnu: Do Not Use, receive side reported MST FAIL status ok: active member, no failure condition detected (MST msg) fail: failure condition detected in member (MST msg) ack: Re-Sequence Acknoledge after eos msg (RS-Ack msg)

Source to Sink
(CNTRL message)

Sink to Source
(MST & RS messages)

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Simplified LCAS Source and Sink State Machine


Source
Start MREMOVE IDLE MADD
add
ac k, fa il

dnu Start DNU MADD


MADD, MREMOVE So Sk MADD, MREMOVE

Sink
fai l

dnu, idle IDLE

e idl

ok

idle

fail

REMOVE

MREMOVE
fail
fa i l

MREMOVE ADD ok
states in transition

idle, fixed, fail


idle

NORM

FAIL

add

OK

norm, eos, ack

others

eos, norm, ok, dnu, ack

Source States
IDLE: Not provisioned member ADD: In process of being added to the VCG NORM: Active and provisioned member, good path DNU (Do Not Use): Provisioned but its path has failed REMOVE: In process of being removed of the VCG MADD: add one or more members of the VCG MREMOVE: remove one member of the VCG

Sink States
IDLE: Not provisioned member OK: Provisioned and active member FAIL: Provisioned member, failed path

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VCAT Channel managed with LCAS


NMS
MREMOVE MADD

VCAT channel
fixed, add, norm, eos, idle, dnu ok, fail, ack a b
c

MREMOVE MADD

NMS

Source LCAS Node A Tx Rx

LCAS Sink
Node B Rx

VCG
h i
j

Tx

Sink LCAS NMS


MREMOVE MADD

fixed, add, norm, eos, idle, dnu ok, fail, ack Member States
IDLE ADD IDLE FAIL OK FAIL OK

LCAS

Source

NMS MADD MREMOVE


NMS: Network Management System

Source

NORM DNU REMOVE

Sink

LCAS helps network operators to efficiently control NG SDH connections established at VCAT sites. The use of LCAS is not compulsory, but improves VCAT management
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LCAS protocol: MADD and Path error


Member States
IDLE ADD IDLE FAIL OK FAIL OK

Source

NORM DNU REMOVE

Sink Sink Member States

Source Member States

d
MADD (b)

LCAS sample
MADD (b)
add (b)
ok

eos (b) norm (d)


ack

. . .
fail (b) dnu (b)

path error in (b)

eos (d)
ack ok (b) eos (b)
no error

norm (d)
ack

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LCAS protocol: MREMOVE


Member States
IDLE ADD IDLE FAIL OK FAIL OK

Source

NORM DNU REMOVE

Sink

LCAS sample
Source Member States Sink Member States

d
MREMOVE (d)
idle (d)
fail (d)

. . .
fail (b) idle (b)

MREMOVE (b)

eos (a)
ack

LCAS is a two-way handshake protocol resident in H4 and K4 and executed permanently between source and sink as many times as VCAT members.
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Sink messages are fault tolerant


So-A to Si-A Ctrl. messages Source-A VCG
1a 2a 3a 1a 2a 3a

Si-B to So-B messages

Sink-A

Rx Tx
1b 2b 3b

LCAS
1b 2b 3b

Rx Tx

Sink-B

Si-A to So-A messages So-B to Si-B Ctrl. messages

Source-B

Sink to Source messages (MST, RS-Ack) are redundant while Source to Sink are specific to each member. This means that Sink messages are repeated as many times as members in the group. It also means that the origin of sink messages is irrelevant, because all the members are sending the same information in a multiframe.
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H4 multiframe sequence
512ms 4096 bytes 256 multiframes
256

er mb me o o

us stat

k ok ok / k / / fa / fa fai fail il il l

member status (0-7 ) 0 1


2 3

4 5 6 7

- me mbe r M 32 m ST ulti sta fra tus me 64 m s s

128 127

M RS S T 0 0 A SQ 0

5) 22 e( m ifra MFI ult m


CR C8 M C GI TR FI 0 0 D L

T MS

il / fa i l ok / fa il ok / fa l o k / fa i ok

MST MST

MST

T MS
multiframe (0)

8 9

MS
mu ltifr am e( 31 ) 8

... ..

255

16
2 ms

1 MS 2 3 T

8 9 es byt 16 2 ms

0 255

2 22 24 3

22 5

31 2 3

H4

0 4095

..... 255 0 1 2 3

MST MST

tes by

192 191

3072

MFI

1024

63 64

2048
9 96 5

0 16 59 1

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LCAS applications
Normal operation
Path1 = 25%
A B A

After breakdown
Path1= 35%
B

VCAT
X
MSSP

VCAT Path2 G 25%


E F Y
MSSP

VCAT
X

VCAT Path2 G 0%
E F Y

LCAS

LCAS

Path3 = 50%

Path3 = 65%

VCAT bandwidth allocation, LCAS enables the resizing of the VCAT pipe in use when it receives an order from the NMS to increase or decrease the size. Network Resilience, In the case of a partial failure of one path, LCAS reconfigures the connection using the members still up and able to continue carrying traffic. Asymmetric Configurations, LCAS is a unidirectional protocol allowing the provision of asymmetric bandwidth between two MSSP nodes to configure asymmetric links Cross-Domain Operation, because LCAS resides only at edge nodes it is not necessary to coordinate more than one configuration centre
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Conclusions

Section

SDH is future proof

SDH cannot be considered anymore as a legacy technology The evolution to Next Generation SDH is the future Future proof at least for the next 10 years NG SDH can deliver packet and TDM services Carriers are already migration from static, circuit-oriented SDH to multiservice packet-friendly NG SDH

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Migration to Next Generation

PDH Ethernet VPN DVB SAN

MSSP

SDH classic SDH NG

MSSP

PDH Ethernet VPN DVB SAN

GFC

Mapping in Frames Virtual Containers Transport Bandwidth management Paths, Sections SDH SDH Paths, Sections

GFC VCAT LCAS SDH

Layers

VCAT LCAS SDH

Clients

Existing SDH/Sonet Next Generation SDH

Clients

It is only necessary to migrate the edges to get a full Next Generation SDH network IT IS TODAYS BEST COMBINATION FOR DATA AND CIRCUIT TRANSPORT
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NG SDH means unification and standardisation


SDH Frame Relay Telephone

STM-NG
SDH ATM SDH node

MSSP Frame Relay

UMTS

Next Generation SDH unifies and standardises transport infrastructure for any type of client network packet or circuit oriented network such as Ethernet, PDH, Frame Relay, UMTS, SAN...

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Old and New services as well


VoIP IWU Frame Relay Host

Services
Telephony UMTS Frame Relay GSM

SAN

ATM access

Infrastructures
SDH Ethernet DWDM Superserver Wireless

NG SDH helps to provide the right SLA to Ethernet services Transport for high definition audio and video High speed data for Internet or other networks Fast bandwidth management to satisfy requirements Integration under the same architecture circuit and packet networks
2005 Trend Communications - www.trendcomms.com

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Cost effective
Next Gen SDH network
Ethernet access SDH access SDH ring 2,5 Gbit/s PDH access Data storage

Universal standard: multivendor Unifies infrastructures under a central architecture avoiding a new overlap network Reduces the number of network elements needed to provide advanced services New technologies are making NG SDH more competitive and cheaper With just a few network elements is possible to configure a network Simplifies the management because of centralised configurations

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Telecom basis in the next 10 years?

SDH will be the dominant technology in the next 10 years Pioneers Optical Edge Networks Boston (MA) June 2000 SDH is being used in wireless, we think there is a market at least for the next 10 years Eli Lotan Global Telephony March 01 Ethernet demand lights up but SDH will remain at the core network Ken Weiland Telecommunications International April 03 Ethernet and Optic networks have to match SDH resilience and management to challenge SDH at the metro and core network JM Caballero Mundo Electr. April 04 Installed base is huge to simply walk away from S. Clavena Heaving Reading Nov. 03 Ethernet, of course, but over SDH Network Planning and Operations US

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Ethernet challenge or SDH complement?

Just a few carriers and operators around the world are setting up Core Networks removing SDH and relying only on Ethernet and/or DWDM It has always been difficult to justify in economic, technical and management terms a completely new separate network. And that is still the case. Ethernet reduces leased access costs while NG SDH enhances QoS Native Ethernet services, and best effort technologies in general, do not scale well SDH resilience is critical to deliver 24/365 Ethernet services Ethernet is by nature a best effort technology, carrier-class is already under way Ethernet does not match today the OEM functions provided by SDH A pure packet network, i.e. Ethernet + MPLS, has to emulate circuits: its a risky solution!
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All-optical challenge or SDH complement?

DWDM alone does not have the diversity or management functions of NG SDH The new MSTP nodes combines reconfigurable OADM with NG SDH features Provides new interfaces (packet + circuit oriented) while offering wider managing services Automate wavelength provisioning and lower wavelength delivery costs Ability to reduce network elements in the circuit path

Conclusion: Optical layer integration is a must for NG SDH using MSPP that will provide higher flexibility and Lower Capital Expense (Capex) operational expense (Opex)

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New data services


GigE, Circuit, ATM Client

Service

FRL, SAN, DVB MSPP

Transport

ADM

MSSP

MSTP CXC Physical CPE Access Metro ROADM Core


2005 Trend Communications - www.trendcomms.com

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NG SDH is STRATEGIC

Is being adopted not only by incumbent operators and carriers but also by new ones. It is interesting to consider the adoption of RPR and/or MPLS to enhance the feature of the Ethernet + NG SDH tandem to layer 2 protection, QoS and multipoint access. Video transport and Storage over NG SDH is just starting to impact in todays networking Automatic layer 1 reconfiguration complements Layer 2 RPR reconfiguration High reliability equivalent similar in core and metro Centralised management of events, bandwidth provisioning Next Generation network (such as MSPP, MSSP) elements will be as fundamental to telecom networks in the coming decade as routers were to the Internet of the 90s

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