,
c
=
c
ck
cd
f
f
=
A
s
and A
c
are respectively the crosssectional areas of the steel profile and the
concrete;
f
y
and f
ck
are characteristic steel and concrete strength in accordance with EBCS 31995
and EBCS 21995, respectively;
2 M
and
c
are partial safety factors for steel and concrete respectively;
10 . 1
2
=
M
50 . 1 =
c
The increase of concrete resistance from 0.85f
ck
to f
ck
for concretefilled hollow sections as compared
with reinforced concrete and concrete encased columns is due to the effect of confinement (section
2.4).
For a concretefilled circular hollow section, a further increase in concrete compressive resistance is
caused by hoop stress in the steel section. This happens only if the hollow steel profile is sufficiently
rigid to prevent most of the lateral expansion of the concrete under axial compression. This enhanced
concrete strength may be used in design when the relative slenderness (section 3.1.2) of the
composite column does not exceed 0.5 and the greatest bending moment M
max.Sd
(calculated using
firstorder theory) does not exceed 0.1N
Sd
d, where d is the external diameter of the column and N
Sd
is
the applied design compressive force. The plastic compression resistance of a concretefilled circular
section can then be calculated as:
14
(
+ + =
yd c cd c yd s s Rd pl
f
d
t
f A f A N 1
.
(3.2)
in which t represents the wall thickness of the steel tube. The coefficients
s
and
c
are defined as
follows for 0 < e < d/10, where e=M
max.Sd
/N
Sd
is the effective eccentricity of the axial compressive
force:

\

+ =
d
e
s so s
10 ) 1 (
0
(3.3)
) 10 1 (
0
d
e
c c
=
(3.4)
When e > d/10 it is necessary to use
s
= 1.0 and
c
= 0. In equations (3.3) and (3.4) above the
terms
so
and
c0
are the values of
s
and
c
for zero eccentricity e. They are expressed as functions
of the relative slenderness as follows:
) 2 3 ( 25 . 0
0
+ =
s
< 1 (3.5)
2
0
17 5 . 18 9 . 4 + =
c
> 0 (3.6)
The presence of a bending moment M
Sd
has the effect of reducing the average compressive stress in
the column at failure thus, reducing the favorable effect of hoop compression on its resistance. The
limits imposed on the values of
s
and
c
, and on
s0
and
c0
, represent the effects of eccentricity and
slenderness respectively on the loadcarrying capacity.
Relative slenderness
The elastic critical load N
cr
of a composite column is calculated using the usual Euler buckling
equation
2
2
) (
l
EI
N
e
cr
=
(3.7)
in which (EI)
e
is the bending stiffness of the composite section about the buckling axis considered,
and l is the buckling length of the column. If the column forms part of a rigid frame this buckling
length can conservatively be taken equal to the system length.
15
For shortterm loading the effective elastic bending stiffness (El)
e
of the composite section is given
by:
c cd s s e
I E I E EI 8 . 0 ) ( + = (3.8)
in which :
I
s
and I
c
are the respective second moments of areas, for the bending plane considered, of the steel
section and the uncracked concrete section;
E
s
is the elastic modulus of steel;
E
cd
= E
cm
/
c
;
E
cm
is the secant modulus of concrete;
c
=1.35 is the safety factor for stiffness;
For longterm loading the bending stiffness of the concrete is determined by replacing the elastic
modulus E
cd
with a lower value E
c
which allows for the effect of creep and is calculated as follows:
] 5 . 0 1 [
,
sd
sd G
cd c
N
N
E E = (3.9)
where N
G.Sd
is the permanent part of the axial design loading N
Sd
.
Long term loading modification of the concrete modulus is only necessary if:
the relative slenderness , for the plane of bending considered, is greater than 0.8/(1),
where
Rd pl
yd s
N
f A
.
= is the relative contribution of the steel section to the overall axial plastic
resistance. It should be noted that the calculation of requires knowledge of an initial value
of the elastic modulus E
c
of concrete. For checks against the limits given above it is
permissible to calculate without considering the influence of longterm loads.
the relative eccentricity e/d (d being the depth of the section in the plane of bending
considered) is less than 2.
16
This limiting value applies in the case of braced nonsway frames. It is replaced by 0.5/(1) in the
case of sway frames or unbraced frames. The relative slenderness of a composite column in the
plane of bending considered is given by:
cr
Rk pl
N
N
.
= (3.10)
in which N
pl.Rk
is the value of the plastic resistance N
pl.Rd
calculated using material partial safety
factors
Ma
and
c
set equal to 1.0 (or, using the characteristic material strengths).
Buckling resistance
A composite column has sufficient resistance to buckling if, for each of the planes of buckling, the
design axial loading N
Sd
satisfies the inequality:
Rd pl Sd
N N
.
(3.11)
in which the value of , the strength reduction factor in the plane of buckling considered, is a function
of the relative slenderness and the appropriate buckling curve. The buckling curves which apply to
composite Concrete filled columns is curve a which is given in [EBCS 31995].
It is also possible to calculate the value of the strength reduction factor using:
1
] [
1
2 / 1
2
2
+
=
(3.12) in
which
] ) 2 . 0 ( 1 [ 5 . 0
2
+ + = (3.13)
where =0.21 is a generalized imperfection parameter which allows for the unfavorable effects of
initial outofstraightness and residual stresses.
Resistance to Compression and Bending
Crosssection resistance under uniaxial moment and axial compression
17
It is necessary to satisfy the resistance requirements in each of the principal planes, taking account of
the slenderness, the bending moment diagram and the bending resistance in the plane under
consideration. The crosssectional resistance of a composite column under axial compression and
uniaxial bending is given by an MN (moment axial force) interaction curve as shown in Figure 3.1.
0
N
pl,Rd
M
pl,Rd
M
max,Rd
N
pm,Rd
0,5 N
pm,Rd
M
N
A
E
C
D
B
Fig. 3.1 MN interaction curve for uniaxial bending
The above interaction curve can be determined point by point, by considering different plastic neutral
axis positions in the principal plane under consideration. The concurrent values of moment and axial
resistance are then found from the stress blocks. Fig. 3.2 illustrates this process for four particular
positions of the plastic neutral axis corresponding respectively to the points A, B, C, D marked on
Fig. 3.1.
Point A : Axial compression resistance alone:
Rd pl A
N N
.
= 0 =
A
M
Point B : Uniaxial bending resistance alone:
0 =
B
N
Rd pl B
M M
.
=
Point C : Uniaxial bending resistance identical to that at point B, but with nonzero resultant
axial compressive force:
Rd pm C
N N
.
=
where: N
pm,Rd
= Compressive resistance of the concrete section
=A
c
f
cd
18
Rd . pl C
M M =
Note: f
cd
may be factored by ]
ck
f
y
f
d
t
[
c
+ 1 for a circular concretefilled hollow section.
Point D : Maximum moment resistance
f
2
1
2
1
cd . c Rd pm
A N N
D
= =
cd pc yd pa D
f W f W M
2
1
+ =
in which W
ps
and W
pc
are the plastic moduli respectively of the steel section and the concrete.
Point D corresponds to the maximum moment resistance M
max,Rd
that can be achieved by the
section. This is greater than M
pl.Rd
because the compressive axial force inhibits tensile cracking of
the concrete, thus enhancing its flexural resistance.
Point E : Situated midway between A and C.
The enhancement of the resistance at point E is little more than that given by direct linear
interpolation between A and C, and determination of this point can therefore be omitted.
It is usual to substitute the linearised version AECDB (or the simpler ACDB) shown in Figure 3.1 for
the more exact interaction curve, after doing the calculation to determine these points.
19
Npl,Rd
Mpl,Rd
Mpl,Rd
Npm,Rd
Mmax,Rd
Npm,Rd/2
Fig. 3.2 Development of stress blocks at different points on the interaction curve
20
The influence of shear force
It is permissible to assume for simplicity that the design transverse shear force V
Sd
is completely
resisted by the steel section. Alternatively it is possible to distribute it between the steel section and
the concrete; in this case the shear force carried by the concrete is determined by the method given in
EBCS 21995.
The interaction between the bending moment and shear force in the steel section can be taken into
account by reducing the limiting bending stresses in the zones which are affected by significant shear
force. This reduction of yield strength in the sheared zones can be represented, for ease of
calculation, by a reduction in the thickness of the element(s) of the steel section which carries the
shear force. This influence need only be taken into consideration if the shear force carried by the
steel section, V
s.Sd
, is greater than 50% of its plastic shear resistance:
3 /
, , yd v Rd s pl
f A V = (3.15)
where A
v
is the sheared area of the steel section as given in [EBCS 31995]. The reduction factor
which may need to be applied to this area is:
(
(


\

=
2
. ,
.
1
2
1
Rd s pl
Sd s
w
V
V
(3.16)
Therefore, the effective area of part of the section assumed resisting the shear is given by:
v w
A .
When the reduced area
v w
A is used, the method described in Section 3.2.1 for determination of the
resistance interaction curve for the crosssection can be applied freely.
Slender member resistance under axial compression and uniaxial bending
The principle of the EBCS 41995 calculation method for member resistance under axial load and
uniaxial moment is demonstrated schematically in Fig. 3.3, which is a normalized version of the
interaction diagram of crosssectional resistance in Fig. 3.1. For a design axial compression N
Sd
the plastic section resistance M
Rd
, which is a proportion
d
of the fully plastic resistance M
pl.Rd
, is
indicated by the interaction curve.
21
1.0
d
= N
Sd
/N
pl.Rd
d
= M
Rd
/M
pl,Rd
1.0
N/N
pl.Rd
M / M
pl.Rd
Resistance locus of the crosssection
0
Limiting value
M
Sd
/M
pl.Rd
< 0.9
d
Fig. 3.3 Resistance to axial compression and uniaxial bending
The design moment M
Sd
is the maximum moment occurring within the length of the column,
including any enhancement caused by the column imperfections and amplification of the total first
order moments due to the secondorder PD effect.
Under the design axial force N
Sd
, a composite column has sufficient resistance if
Rd pl d Sd
M M
,
9 . 0 (3.17)
The 10% reduction in resistance indicated by the introduction of the factor 0.9 compensates for the
underlying simplifications in the calculation method. For example, the interaction curve has been
established without considering any limits on the deformations of concrete. Consequently, the
bending moments, including the secondorder effects, are calculated using the effective bending
stiffness (EI)
e
determined on the basis of the complete concrete crosssectional area.
It is evident from Figure 3.3 that values of
d
taken from the interaction diagram may be in excess of
1.0 in the region around point D, where a certain level of axial compression increases the moment
capacity of the section. In practice, values of
d
above 1.0 should not be used unless the moment M
Sd
is directly caused by the axial force N
Sd
, acting at a fixed eccentricity on a statically determinate
column. This is because of the fact that the moment may be coupled with an axial force that is lower
than the assumed one.
22
Member resistance under axial compression and biaxial bending
When a composite column is subjected to axial compression together with biaxial bending, it is first
necessary to check its resistance under compression and uniaxial bending individually in each of the
planes of bending. This is not however sufficient, and it is necessary also to check its biaxial bending
behavior. In doing so it is only necessary to take account of imperfections in the plane in which
failure is likely to take place. For the other plane of bending the effect of imperfections is neglected.
This can be represented by the two simultaneous conditions:
Rd y pl y Sd y
M M
. . .
9 . 0 (3.18)
Rd z pl z Sd z
M M
. . .
9 . 0 (3.19)
If there is any doubt about the plane of failure the designer is recommended to consider the effect of
imperfections in both planes.
To take account of the peak stresses caused by moments between the limits given by the inequalities
(3.18) and (3.19), acting about two orthogonal axes, a linear interaction formula must also be satisfied
between the two design moments. The design moments are calculated including both imperfections
and the amplification due to secondorder PD effects.
0 . 1
, ,
,
, ,
,
+
Rd z pl z
Sd z
Rd y pl y
Sd y
M
M
M
M
(3.20)
These three conditions of equations 3.18, 3.19 & 3.20 together define the ultimate strength locus in
terms of the orthogonal design moments at the design axial compression value N
Sd
as shown in
Fig. 3.4(c).
23
(a)
(c)
1.0
d
1.0
NRd/Npl.Rd
My,Rd /Mpl.y.Rd
0
(b)
1.0
d
1.0
NRd/Npl.Rd
Mz,Rd/Mpl.z.Rd
0
0
y
0.9z
0.9y
Mz.Rd/Mpl.z.Rd
My.Rd/Mpl.y.Rd
z
NSd/Npl.Rd
0.9y
NSd/Npl.Rd
0.9z
(a) Section resistance interaction
diagram  (yy)
(b) Section resistance interaction
diagram (zz)
(c) Biaxial bending resistance
locus of the column section
under axial compression NSd.
Fig. 3.4 Member resistance under compression and biaxial bending
Shortcomings of EBCS 41995 Design Procedure
One of the reasons for the limited applicability of CFTs is attributed to the tiresome calculations in
design.
Designing CFT crosssection under axial compression and uniaxial moment using the Code [EBCS 4
1995] has the following problems.
 Drawing charts is necessary which is time consuming and difficult
 Design procedure is trial and error by which one need to draw an interaction curve for each
trial section.
 The result is approximate since the curves are constructed from only four or five points.
 It is not easy to calculate the plastic moment capacity as it needs computation of
corresponding neutral axis position.
 The computation of section capacity for section like hexagon and octagon is more difficult.
 The equation for circular section given in the code is approximate.
24
For the design of biaxially loaded CFT the method used in the Code is approximate. This inaccuracy
will make the design more conservative and uneconomical. The problem will be even more amplified
as CTF columns are more expensive in comparison to reinforced concrete sections.
Solutions to the above problems are provided in the next chapter.
CHART DEVELOPMENT
Calculation Method and Scope
25
The cross sections considered in this thesis are those that fulfill the criteria for simplified method
of analysis given in the Code [EBCS 41995]. The criteria are:
The column crosssection must be prismatic and symmetric about both axes over its whole height,
with its ratio of overall orthogonal crosssectional dimensions in the range between 0.2 and 5.
Particularly, the sections considered are square, rectangular, circular, hexagonal and octagonal.
The relative contribution of the steel section to the design resistance of the composite section,
given by
Rd pl yd s
N f A
.
/ = , must be between 0.2 and 0.9 or w given by
cd c yd s
f A f A w / = must be
between 0.25 and 9.
The relative slenderness of the composite column must be less than 2.0;
In addition, the slenderness of the elements of the steel section must satisfy the following
conditions.
for circular hollow sections of diameter d and wall thickness t,
2
90 / t d ;
for rectangular hollow sections of wall depth h and thickness t, 52 / t h ;
y
f / 235 = , where f
y
is the yield strength of the steel section in Mpa.
Selected Representative Sections & Materials
From the allowable steel ratios w those below 4 have been selected for drawing chart as this range
utilize a smaller area of steel which the writer assumes will be more economical sections than those
sections with higher steel ratio. The rectangular sections considered are those with heighttowidth
ratio of 0.5 and 2.
Circular crosssections considered are those with slenderness ratio greater than 0.5 or those for
which increase in strength due to confinement is not considered.
Biaxial design chart is prepared for columns with square crosssection. The axial load ratios selected
are 0 and 1 where the axial load ratio is given by:
26
cd c
sd
f A
N
= (4.1)
However, the method outlined and equations written may be extended to the other cross
sections and material types.
The structural steel grades that can be used are recommended by the Code [EBCS 41995]. From the
steel grades, Fe360 with thickness of the steel section less than or equal to 40mm has been selected.
The Code allows use of concrete grade up to C60. From these, concrete grade of C30 has been used
in this research.
Interaction Chart for Axial Compression and Uniaxial Bending
Fundamental equations
Interaction charts are drawn using the stress blocks that show the plastic section capacity of composite
crosssections. The fundamental equations used are given below with respect to typical composite
crosssection shown in Fig. 4.1.
Region
Fig. 4.1 Composite crosssection regions used for computing section capacity
Steel Ratio;
cd c
yd s
f A
f A
w = (4.1)
Moment Capacity;
2
) ( ) (
cd
pcn pc yd pan pa u
f
W W f W W M + = (4.2)
Axial Capacity;
yd snet cd cc u
f A f A N + = (4.3)
27
Where: A
s
and A
c
are area of the total steel and concrete sections, respectively;
W
pa
and W
pc
are plastic section moduli of the total steel and concrete sections, respectively;
W
pan
and W
pcn
are plastic section moduli for the steel and concrete sections parts with in
region 2, respectively;
A
snet
= A
sc
 A
st
A
sc
and A
cc
are area of part of the steel and concrete sections in compression, respectively
and,
A
st
is area of part of the steel section in tension.
Rectangular (Square) section
Fig. 4.2 Rectangular crosssection
Determining value of x=b/t for a particular steel ratio w
cd c
yd s
f A
f A
w =
=>
cd c yd s
f wA f A =
but, ' ' h b A
c
= where t b b 2 ' = and t h h 2 ' =
c s
A bh A =
Let y b h = /
Substituting the above in the equation for w and dividing both equations by t
2
cd yd
f xy x w f xy x y x ) 2 )( 2 ( )] 2 )( 2 ( [
2
=
28
Simplifying the above equation and solving for x
y wf
f y wf wf y wf f y wf f
x
cd
yd cd cd cd yd cd yd
) ( 4 )} 1 )( {( ) 1 )( (
2
+ + + + + +
=
For square section where 1 = y
cd
yd cd cd cd yd cd yd
wf
f wf wf wf f wf f
x
) ( 4 )} ( 2 { ) ( 2
2
+ + + +
=
Moment and axial load capacity for different neutral axis positions
Moment and axial load capacity can be computed from assumed neutral axis positions. Each position
of the neutral axis represents one point in the interaction curve for section capacity. Sufficient points
are developed to get a smooth curve that represents the capacity of a given crosssection. Four
different cases of neutral axis position are selected.
Case i
The whole cross section under compression.
a) Moment capacity
Since the whole part is in compression the moment capacity is zero.
b) Axial load capacity
rd pl u
N N
,
=
yd s cd c rd pl
f A f A N + =
,
' ' h b Ac = &
c s
A bh A =
=>
cd c
yd s cd c
f A
f A f A +
=
Dividing equation by t
2
and simplifying
cd
yd cd
f xy x
f xy x y x f xy x
v
) 2 )( 2 (
)} 2 )( 2 ( { ) 2 )( 2 (
2
+
=
Case ii
Some part of the flange of the steel section on tension while other parts of the crosssection in
compression.
29
Fig. 4.3 Neutral axis position
2 2
h
h t
h
i
a) Moment Capacity
2
) ( ) (
cd
pcn pc yd pan pa u
f
W W f W W M + =
but in this case only the steel contributes for the moment
yd pan pa u
f W W M ) ( =
4
2
bh
W
pa
=
4
) 2 (
2
u h b
W
pan
=
where
i
h
h
u =
2
' ' '
} ) 2 ( {( 25 . 0
'
2 2
h f h b
f u h b bh
h f A
Mu
cd
yd
cd c
= = =>
Diving both the numerator and denominator by t
3
fcd xy x
f t u xy x y x
yd
2
2 2 3
) 2 )( 2 (
} ) / 2 ( { 25 . 0
=
b) Axial load capacity
yd rd pl u
buf N N 2
,
=
yd s cd c rd pl
f A f A N + =
,
30
' ' h b Ac = & ' ' h b bh A
s
=
=>
cd c
yd
cd c
yd s cd c
f A
buf
f A
f A f A 2
+
=
Dividing equation by t
2
cd
yd
cd
yd cd
f xy x
f t u x
f xy x
f xy x y x f xy x
v
) 2 )( 2 (
) / ( 2
) 2 )( 2 (
)} 2 )( 2 ( { ) 2 )( 2 (
2
+
=
c) Values of h
i
/t used
Values of h
i
/t used are 0.5xy1, 0.5xy2/3 and 0.5xy1/3
Case iii
More than half the area under compression
Fig. 4.4 Neutral axis position t
h
h
i
2
0
a) Moment capacity
2
) ( ) (
cd
pcn pc yd pan pa u
f
W W f W W M + =
4
' '
4
2 2
h b bh
W
pa
=
2
2
2
' ,
4
' '
, ) ' (
i pcn pc i pan
h b W
h b
W h b b W = = =
cd
cd i yd i
cd c
u
f h b
f h b h b f h b b
h b bh
h f A
M
2
2 2 2
2 2
' '
2 / ) ' ' ' 25 . 0 ( } ) ' ( )
4
' '
4
{(
'
+
= = =>
Diving both the numerator and denominator by t
3
31
cd
cd yd
f xy x
f t hi x xy x f t hi xy x y x
2
2 2 2 2 2 3
) 2 )( 2 (
2 / } ) / )( 2 ( ) 2 )( 2 ( 25 . 0 { } ) / ( 2 ) 2 )( 2 ( { 25 . 0
+
= b)
Axial load capacity
cd
yd i cd i
cd c
u
yd i cd i u
f h b
tf h f h h b
f A
N
v
tf h f h h b N
' '
4 ) 2 / ' ( '
4 ) 2 / ' ( '
+ +
= = =>
+ + =
Diving both the numerator and denominator by t
2
cd
yd i cd i
f xy x
f t h f t h xy x
v
) 2 )( 2 (
) / ( 4 ) / 2 2 / )( 2 (
+ +
=
c) Values of h
i
/t used
Values of h
i
/t used are 0, 0.1xy, 0.2xy, 0.3xy and 0.4xy
Case iv
Less than half the area under compression
Fig. 4.5 Neutral axis position t
h
h
i
2
0
a) Moment capacity
Moment capacity for this case is equal to that given in case iii
b) Axial load capacity
cd
yd i cd i
cd c
u
yd i cd i u
f h b
tf h f h h b
f A
N
v
tf h f h h b N
' '
4 ) 2 / ' ( '
4 ) 2 / ' ( '
= = =>
=
32
Diving both the numerator and denominator by t
2
cd
yd i cd i
f xy x
f t h f t h xy x
v
) 2 )( 2 (
) / ( 4 ) / 1 2 / )( 2 (
=
c) Values of h
i
/t used
Values of h
i
/t used are 0.1xy, 0.2xy, 0.3xy and 0.4xy
Circular section
Fig. 4.6 Circular crosssection
Determining value of x=d/t for a particular steel ratio
cd c
yd s
f A
f A
w =
=>
cd c yd s
f wA f A =
but,
4
'
2
d
A
c
= where t d d 2 ' =
c s
A
d
A =
4
2
Substituting the above in the equation for w and dividing both equations by
2
4
t
cd yd
f x w f x x
2 2 2
) 2 ( ] ) 2 ( [ =
Simplifying the above equation and solving for x
cd
yd cd cd cd yd cd yd
wf
f wf wf wf f wf f
x
) ( 4 )} ( 2 { ) ( 2
2
+ + + +
=
This is same as the corresponding equation for square section
33
Moment and axial load capacity for different neutral axis positions
Case i
The whole cross section under compression.
a) Moment capacity
Since the whole part is in compression the moment capacity is zero.
b) Axial load capacity
rd pl u
N N
,
=
yd s cd c rd pl
f A f A N + =
,
4
'
2
d
Ac
= &
c s
A
d
A =
4
2
=>
cd c
yd s cd c
f A
f A f A +
=
Dividing equation by t
2
and simplifying
cd
yd cd
f x
f x x f x
v
2
2 2 2
) 2 (
} ) 2 ( { ) 2 (
+
=
Case ii
More than half the area under compression
c
c'
Fig. 4.7 Neutral axis position for t
d
h
i
2
0
Area and Section Modulus for a Segment
34
Segment
c
Fig. 4. 8 Segment of a Circle
From Fig. 4. 8
)
2
( cos
1
d
h
c
i
=
Area of segment: c h d c A
i seg
tan ) 2 / (
2 2
=
Section modulus of the segment: ) tan sin
8
(
3
2
3
3
c h c
d
W
i seg
=
Thus, applying these equations for concrete filled tubes (Fig. 4.7)
Section modulus of concrete part of the segment: ) ' tan ' sin
8
'
(
3
2
3
3
c h c
d
W
i segc
=
where )
'
2
( cos '
1
d
h
c
i
=
And, section modulus of steel part of the segment is given by
segc i sega
W c h c
d
W = ) tan sin
8
(
3
2
3
3
a) Moment capacity
cd segc yd sega u
f W f W M + = 2
cd
cd i yd i
cd c
u
f
d
f c h c
d
f h c c c d c d
d
f A
M
8
'
) ' tan ' sin
8
'
(
3
2
} ) ' tan (tan
3
2
) ' sin ' sin (
12
1
{ 2
2
'
3
3
3
3 3 3
+
= = =>
Diving both the numerator and denominator by t
3
35
cd
cd i yd i
f
x
f c t h c
x
f t h c c c x c x
8
) 2 (
) ' tan ) / ( ' sin
8
) 2 (
(
3
2
} ) / )( ' tan (tan
3
2
) ' sin ) 2 ( sin (
12
1
{ 2
3
3
3
3 3 3
+
= =>
where
}
) / ( 2
{ cos
1
x
t h
c
i
=
}
) 2 (
) / ( 2
{ cos '
1
=
x
t h
c
i
b) Axial load capacity
cd c
u
i i snet
i cc
yd snet cd cc u
f A
N
v
c h d c c h d c d d A
c h d c d A
f A f A N
= =>
=
=
+ =
}] ' tan ) 2 / ' ( ' { } tan ) 2 / ( [{ 2 ) ' ( 25 . 0
} ' tan ) 2 / ' ( ' { ) 2 / ' (
2 2 2 2 2 2
2 2 2
Substituting the above equations into the equation for v and dividing both the numerator and
denominator by t
2
cd
i i
cd
cd i
f x
c h x c c t h x c x x
f x
f c t h x c x
v
2
2 2 2 2 2
2
2 2 2
) 2 / ) 2 ((
}] ' tan ) 2 / ( ) 2 / ) 2 (( ' { } tan ) / ( ) 2 / ( [{ 2 ) ) 2 ( ( 25 .
) 2 / ) 2 ((
} ' tan ) / ( ) 2 / ) 2 (( ' { ) 2 / ) 2 ((
= =>
c) Values of h
i
/t used
Values of h
i
/t used are 0, 0.1x, 0.2x, 0.3x and 0.4x
Case iii
Less than half the area under compression
Fig. 4.9 Neutral axis position with t
d
h
i
2
0
36
a) Moment capacity
The moment capacity is the same as that given in case ii
b) Axial load capacity
cd
i i
cd
cd i
cd c
u
i i snet
i cc
yd snet cd cc u
f x
c h x c c t h x c x x
f x
f c t h x c
f A
N
v
c h d c c h d c d d A
c h d c A
f A f A N
2
2 2 2 2 2
2
2 2
2 2 2 2 2 2
2 2
) 2 / ) 2 ((
}] ' tan ) 2 / ( ) 2 / ) 2 (( ' { } tan ) / ( ) 2 / ( [{ 2 ) ) 2 ( ( 25 . 0
) 2 / ) 2 ((
} ' tan ) / ( ) 2 / ) 2 (( ' {
}] ' tan ) 2 / ' ( ' { } tan ) 2 / ( [{ 2 ) ' ( 25 . 0 [
} ' tan ) 2 / ' ( ' {
= = =>
=
=
+ =
c) Values of h
i
/t used
Values of h
i
/t used are 0, 0.1x, 0.2x, 0.3x and 0.4x
Hexagonal section
Fig. 4.10 Hexagonal CFT crosssection
Determining value of x=s/t for a particular steel ratio w
cd c
yd s
f A
f A
w =
=>
cd c yd s
f wA f A =
but,
2
' 598 . 2 s A
c
= where t s s 155 . 1 ' =
37
c s
A s A =
2
598 . 2
Substituting the above equations in to the equation for w and dividing the numerator and denominator
by
2
598 . 2 t
cd yd
f x w f x x
2 2 2
) 155 . 1 ( ] ) 155 . 1 ( [ =
Simplifying the above equation and solving for x
cd
yd cd cd cd yd cd yd
wf
f wf wf wf f wf f
x
2
) ( 333 . 5 )} ( 31 . 2 { ) ( 31 . 2
2
+ + + +
=
Moment and axial load capacity for different neutral axis positions
1. Bending about Yaxis
Area and Section Modulus
For hexagonal section shown in Fig.4. 11:
 area of the whole section is
2
598 . 2 s A = ,
 the area of the polygon ABCDEF is ) 155 . 1 2 )( 732 . 1 ( 464 . 3
2
i i
h s h s s A =
A
B
C
D
E
F
Fig. 4.11 Hexagon of side length s
 section modulus of the whole section is
3
s W = , and
 section modulus of the polygon ABCDEF is ) 667 . 577 . 0 )( 155 . 1 2 )( 732 . 1 ( 2
3
i i i
h s h s h s s W + =
Case i
The whole crosssection is under compression.
a) Moment capacity
38
Since the whole part is in compression the moment capacity is zero.
a) Axial load capacity
rd pl u
N N
,
=
yd s cd c rd pl
f A f A N + =
,
2
' 598 . 2 s A
c
= &
c s
A s A =
2
598 . 2
=>
cd c
yd s cd c
f A
f A f A +
=
cd
yd cd
f x
f x x f x
v
2
2 2 2
) 155 . 1 (
} ) 155 . 1 ( { ) 155 . 1 (
+
= =>
Case ii
Some part of the flange of the steel section on tension while other parts of the cross section in
compression.
Fig. 4.12 Neutral axis position with
2
3
2
3 s
h t
s
i
a) Moment capacity
2
) ( ) (
cd
pcn pc yd pan pa u
f
W W f W W M + =
but, in this case only the steel contributes for the moment
yd pan pa u
f W W M ) ( =
39
3
s W
pa
=
i i i pan
h s h s h s s W 667 . 577 . 0 )( 155 . 1 2 )( 732 . 1 ( 2
3
+ =
cd
yd i i i
cd c
u
f s
f h s h s h s s s
s f A
M
3
3 3
' 598 . 2
)}] 667 . 577 . 0 )( 155 . 1 2 )( 732 . 1 ( 2 { [
'
+
= = =>
Diving both the numerator and denominator by t
3
cd
yd i i i
f x
f t h x t h x t h x x x
3
3 3
) 155 . 1 ( 598 . 2
))}] / ( 667 . 577 . 0 ))( / ( 155 . 1 2 ))( / ( 732 . 1 ( 2 { [
+
=
b) Axial load capacity
yd i i cd u
f s h s h s s f s N ] ' 598 . 2 )} 155 . 1 2 )( 732 . 1 ( 464 . 3 [{ ' 598 . 2
2 2 2
+ =
=>
cd c
yd i i cd
f A
f s h s h s s f s ] ' 598 . 2 )} 155 . 1 2 )( 732 . 1 ( 464 . 3 [{ ' 598 . 2
2 2 2
+
=
Dividing equation by t
2
cd
yd i i cd
f x
f x t h x t h x x f x
v
2
2 2 2
) 155 . 1 ( 598 . 2
] ) 155 . 1 ( 598 . 2 ))} / ( 155 . 1 2 ))( / ( 732 . 1 ( 464 . 3 [{ ) 155 . 1 ( 598 . 2
+
=
c)
Values of h
i
/t used
Values of h
i
/t used are 1.732x1, 1.732x2/3 and 1.732x1/3
Case iii
More than half the area under compression
Fig. 4.13 Neutral axis position with t
s
h
i
2
3
0
a) Moment capacity
2
) ( ) (
cd
pcn pc yd pan pa u
f
W W f W W M + =
3 3
) 155 . 1 ( = s s W
pa
40
)} 667 . 0 ' 557 . 0 )( ' 155 . 1 ' 2 )( ' 732 . 1 {( ' 2
'
31 . 2
3
3
2
i i pcn
pc
i pan
h s s s h s s W
s W
t h W
+ =
=
=
cd
cd i i i yd i
cd c
u
f s
f h s h s h s s f t h s s
s f A
M
3
3 2 3 3
' 598 . 2
2 / )} 667 . ' 577 )(. 155 . 1 ' 2 )( ' 732 . 1 { ' { } 31 . 2 ' {
'
+ + +
=
= =>
Diving both the numerator and denominator by t
3
cd
cd
i i i
cd
yd
i
f x
f
t
h
x
t
h
x
t
h
x x
f x
f
t
h
x x
3
3
3
2 3 3
) 155 . 1 ( 598 . 2
2 / )} ( 667 . 0 ) 155 . 1 ( 577 . 0 ))( ( 155 . 1 ) 155 . 1 ( 2 ))( ( ) 155 . 1 ( 732 . 1 { ) 155 . 1 ( {
) 155 . 1 ( 598 . 2
} ) ( 31 . 2 ) 155 . 1 ( {
+ +
+
=
b) Axial load capacity
yd i cd i i u
tf h f h t s t s h s s N 62 . 4 }] 866 )}{. 155 . 1 ( ) 155 . 1 ' 2 {( 5 . 0 ' 598 . 2 [
2
+ + =
=>
cd c
yd i cd i i
f A
tf h f h t s s h s s 62 . 4 }] 866 . 0 }{ ' ) 155 . 1 ' 2 {( * 5 . 0 ' 598 . 2 [
2
+ +
=
Dividing equation by t
2
cd
yd
i
cd
i i
f x
f
t
h
f
t
h
x x
t
h
x x
v
2
2
) 155 . 1 ( 598 . 2
62 . 4 }] 1 866 . 0 )}{ 155 . 1 ( ) 155 . 1 ) 155 . 1 ( 2 {( 5 . 0 ) 155 . 1 ( 598 . 2 [
+ +
=
c) Values of h
i
/t used
Values of h
i
/t used are 0, 0.2x, 0.4x, 0.6x, 0.8x, x, 1.3x and 1.5x
Case iv
Less than half the area under compression
41
Fig. 4.14 Neutral axis position with 1
2
3
0
s
h
i
a) Moment capacity
The moment capacity is the same as that given in case iii
b) Axial load capacity
yd i cd i i u
tf h f h t s t s h s N 62 . 4 } 866 )}{. 155 . 1 ( ) 155 . 1 ' 2 {( 5 . + =
=>
cd c
yd i cd i i
f A
tf h f h t s s h s 62 . 4 } 866 }{. ' ) 155 . 1 ' 2 {( 5 . 0 +
=
Dividing equation by t
2
cd
yd
i
cd
i i
f x
f
t
h
f
t
h
x x
t
h
x
v
2
) 155 . 1 ( 598 . 2
62 . 4 } 1 866 )}{. 155 . 1 ( ) 155 . 1 ) 155 . 1 ( 2 {( 5 . 0
+
=
c) Values of h
i
/t used
Values of h
i
/t used are 0, 0.2x, 0.4x, 0.6x, 0.8x, x, 1.3x and 1.5x
2. Bending about Xaxis
Area and Section Modulus
For hexagonal section shown in Fig.4.15,
 area of the total section is
2
598 . 2 s A = ,
 area of the polygon ABC is
2
) ' ( 732 . 1
i tri
h s A = ,
 the area of the polygon DEFG is given by
i
sh A 464 . 3 = ,
42
Fig. 4.15 Hexagon of side length s
 section modulus of the total section is
3
01 . 1 s W = ,
 section modulus of the polygon ABC is ) ' 2 ( ) ' ( 577 . 0
2
i i tri
h s h s W = ,
 section modulus of the polygon DEFG is
2
732 . 1
i
sh W = .
Case i
The whole crosssection is under compression.
a) Moment capacity
Since the whole part is in compression the moment capacity is zero.
b) Axial load capacity
rd pl u
N N
,
=
yd s cd c rd pl
f A f A N + =
,
2
' 598 . 2 s A
c
= &
c s
A s A =
2
598 . 2
=>
cd c
yd s cd c
f A
f A f A +
=
cd
yd cd
f x
f x x f x
v
2
2 2 2
) 155 . 1 (
} ) 155 . 1 ( { ) 155 . 1 (
+
= =>
Case ii
More than half the area under compression (Fig. 4.16)
43
Fig. 4.16 Neutral axis position with t s h
s
i
155 . 1
2
a) Moment capacity
2
) ( ) (
cd
pcn pc yd pan pa u
f
W W f W W M + =
) 2 ' ( ) ' ( 155 . 1 ) 2 ( ) ( 155 . 1 2
2 2
i i i i tri pan pa
h s h s h s h s W W W = =
) 2 ' ( ) ' ( 155 . 1 2
2
i i tri pcn pc
h s h s W W W = =
cd
cd i i yd i i i i
cd c
u
f s
f h s h s f h s h s h s h s
s f A
M
3
2 2 2
' 598 . 2
2 / )} 2 ' ( ) ' ( 155 . 1 { ) 2 ' ( ) ' ( 155 . 1 ) 2 ( ) ( 155 . 1
'
+
= = =>
Diving
both the numerator and denominator by t
3
cd
cd
i i
cd
yd
i i i i
f x
f
t
h
x
t
h
x
f x
f
t
h
x
t
h
x
t
h
x
t
h
x
3
2
3
2 2
) 155 . 1 ( 598 . 2
2 / )} 2 155 . 1 ( ) 155 . 1 ( 155 . 1 {
) 155 . 1 ( 598 . 2
) 2 155 . 1 ( ) 155 . 1 ( 155 . 1 ) 2 ( ) ( 155 . 1
=
b) Axial load capacity
cd
yd i i cd i
cd c
u
i i snet
tri s st sc snet
i tri c cc
yd snet cd cc u
f s
f h s h s s s f h s s
f A
N
v
h s h s s s A
A A A A A
h s s A A A
f A f A N
' 598 . 2
}] ) ' ( ) {( 464 . 3 ) ' ( 598 . 2 [ } ) ' ( 732 . 1 ' 598 . 2 {
} ) ' ( ) {( 464 . 3 ) ' ( 598 . 2
2
) ' ( 732 . 1 ' 598 . 2
2 2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2
2 2
+
= =
=
= =
= =
+ =
Dividing equation by t
2
44
cd
yd
i i
cd
cd
i
f x
f
t
h
x
t
h
x x x
f x
f
t
h
x x
v
2
2 2 2 2
2
2 2
) 155 . 1 ( 598 . 2
}] ) 155 . 1 ( ) {( 464 . 3 } ) 155 . 1 ( { 598 . 2 [
) 155 . 1 ( 598 . 2
} ) 155 . 1 ( 732 . 1 ) 155 . 1 ( 598 . 2 {
=
c) Values of h
i
/t used
Values of h
i
/t used are 0.5x, 0.6x, 0.8x and x1.155
Case iii
More than half the area under compression (Fig. 4.17)
Fig. 4.17 Neutral axis position with
2
'
0
s
h
i
a) Moment capacity
2
) ( ) (
cd
pcn pc yd pan pa u
f
W W f W W M + =
2
3
2 2
3 3
' 732 . 1
' 01 . 1
2 ) ' ( 732 . 1
) ' ( 01 . 1
i pcn
pc
i i pan
pa
h s W
s W
th h s s W
s s W
=
=
= =
=
cd
cd i yd i
cd c
u
f s
f h s s f th s s
s f A
M
3
2 3 2 3 3
' 598 . 2
2 / } ' 732 . 1 ' 01 . 1 { } 2 ) ' ( 01 . 1 {
'
+
= = =>
Diving both the numerator and denominator by t
3
45
cd
cd
i
yd
i
f x
f
t
h
x x f
t
h
x x
3
2 3 2 3 3
) 155 . 1 ( 598 . 2
2 / } ) )( 155 . 1 ( 732 . 1 ) 155 . 1 ( 01 . 1 { } ) ( 2 ) ) 155 . 1 ( ( 01 . 1 {
+
= b) Axial
load capacity
cd
yd i cd i
cd c
u
i snet
i i cc
yd snet cd cc u
f s
tf h f h s s
f A
N
v
t h A
h s s h s s A
f A f A N
2
2
2 2
' 598 . 2
4 } ' 732 . 1 ' 299 . 1 {
4
' 732 . 1 ' 299 . 1 ' 732 . 1 ' 598 . 2 5 . 0
+ +
= =
=
+ = + =
+ =
Dividing equation by t
2
cd
yd
i
cd
i
f x
f
t
h
f
t
h
x x
v
2
2
) 155 . 1 ( 598 . 2
4 } ) 155 . 1 ( 732 . 1 ) 155 . 1 ( 299 . 1 {
+ +
=
c) Values of h
i
/t used
Values of h
i
/t used are 0x, 0.1x, 0.3x and (x1.155)/2
Case iv
Less than half the area under compression (Fig. 4.18)
a) Moment capacity
The moment capacity is the same as that given in case iii
Fig. 4.18 Neutral axis position with
2
'
0
s
h
i
46
b) Axial load capacity
cd
yd i cd i
cd c
u
i snet
i i cc
yd snet cd cc u
f s
tf h f h s s
f A
N
v
t h A
h s s h s s A
f A f A N
2
2
2 2
' 598 . 2
4 } ' 732 . 1 ' 299 . 1 {
4
' 732 . 1 ' 299 . 1 ' 732 . 1 ' 598 . 2 5 . 0
= =
=
= =
+ =
Dividing equation by t
2
cd
yd
i
cd
i
f x
f
t
h
f
t
h
x x
v
2
2
) 155 . 1 ( 598 . 2
4 } ) 155 . 1 ( 732 . 1 ) 155 . 1 ( 299 . 1 {
=
c) Values of h
i
/t used
Values of h
i
/t used are 0, 0.1x, 0.3x and (x1.155)/2
Case v)
Less than half the area under compression (Fig. 4.19)
a) Moment capacity
The moment capacity is the same as that given in case ii
b) Axial load capacity
cd
yd i i cd i
cd c
u
i i snet
i tri cc
yd snet cd cc u
f s
f h s h s s s f h s
f A
N
v
h s h s s s A
h s A A
f A f A N
2
2 2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2
2
' 598 . 2
}] ) ' ( ) {( 464 . 3 ) ' ( 598 . 2 [ ) ' ( 732 . 1
} ) ' ( ) {( 464 . 3 ) ' ( 598 . 2
) ' ( 732 . 1
+
= =
=
= =
+ =
Dividing equation by t
2
cd
yd
i i
cd
i
f x
f
t
h
x
t
h
x x x f
t
h
x
v
2
2 2 2 2 2
) 155 . 1 ( 598 . 2
}] ) 155 . 1 ( ) {( 464 . 3 ) ) 155 . 1 ( ( 598 . 2 [ ) 155 . 1 ( 732 . 1
+
=
c) Values of h
i
/t used
Values of h
i
/t used are 0.5, 0.6x, 0.8x and x1.155
47
Fig. 4.19 Neutral axis position with '
2
s h
s
i
Octagonal section
Fig. 4.20 Octagonal CFT crosssection
Area and Section Modulus
tra
Fig. 4.21 Octagonal section
48
For Octagonal section shown in the above figure,
 area of the whole section is
2
828 . 4 s A =
 the area of the polygon is ABCD
2 2
) 2 414 . 3 ( 5 . 0 328 . 5
i
h s s A =
 the area of polygon ABEF (A
tra
) is ) 207 . 1 )( 2 414 . 4 ( 5 . 0
i i
h s h s A =
 section modulus of the whole section is
3
545 . 2 s W =
 and section modulus of polygon ABCD is
)} 667 . 0 569 . 0 ( ) 2 414 . 3 ( 25 . 616 . 1 { 2
2 3
i i
h s h s s W + =
Determining value of x=s/t for a particular steel ratio
cd c
yd s
f A
f A
w =
=>
cd c yd s
f wA f A =
but,
2
' 828 . 4 s A
c
= where t s s 828 . 0 ' =
c s
A s A =
2
828 . 4
Substituting the above equation in equation of w and dividing both equations by
2
828 . 4 t
cd yd
f x w f x x
2 2 2
) 155 . 1 ( ] ) 155 . 1 ( [ =
Simplifying the above equation and solving for x
cd
yd cd cd cd yd cd yd
wf
f wf wf wf f wf f
x
2
) ( 744 . 2 )} ( 656 . 1 { ) ( 656 . 1
2
+ + + +
=
Moment and axial load capacity for different neutral axis positions
Case i
The whole crosssection is under compression.
a) Moment capacity
As the whole part is in compression the moment capacity is zero.
49
b) Axial load capacity
rd pl u
N N
,
=
yd s cd c rd pl
f A f A N + =
,
2
' 828 . 4 s A
c
= and
c s
A s A =
2
828 . 4
=>
cd c
yd s cd c
f A
f A f A +
=
Substituting equations and dividing equation by t
2
and simplifying
cd
yd cd
f x
f x x f x
v
2
2 2 2
) 828 . 0 (
} ) 828 . 0 ( { ) 828 . 0 (
+
=
Case ii
More than half the area under compression (Fig. 4.22)
Fig. 4.22 Neutral axis position with t s h
s
i
207 . 1
2
a) Moment capacity
2
) ( ) (
cd
pcn pc yd pan pa u
f
W W f W W M + =
)} 667 . 0 ' 569 . 0 ( ) 2 ' 414 . 3 { 25 . ' 616 . 1 { 2
' 545 . 2
)} 667 . 0 569 . 0 ( ) 2 414 . 3 { 25 . 616 . 1 { 2
) ' ( 545 . 2
2 3
3
2 3
3 3
i i pcn
pc
pcn i i pan
pa
h s h s s W
s W
W h s h s s W
s s W
+ =
=
+ =
=
50
cd
cd i i
cd
yd i i
cd
yd i i
cd c
u
f s
f h s h s s s
f s
f h s h s
f s
f h s h s s s s s
s f A
M
3
2 3 3
3
2
3
2 3 3 3 3
' 828 . 4
2 / )} 667 . 0 ' 569 . 0 ( ) 2 ' 414 . 3 { 25 . ' 616 . 1 { 2 ' 545 . 2 {
' 828 . 4
)} 667 . 0 ' 569 . 0 ( ) 2 ' 414 . 3 { 5 . 0
' 828 . 4
)} 667 . 0 569 . 0 ( ) 2 414 . 3 { 25 . ) ' ( 616 . 1 { 2 { ) ' ( 545 . 2
'
+
+
+
+
+
=
= =>
Diving both the numerator and denominator by t
3
cd
cd i i
cd
yd
i i
cd
yd
i i
f x
f
t
h
x
t
h
x x x
f x
f
t
h
x
t
h
x
f x
f
t
h
x
t
h
x x x x x
3
2 3 3
3
2
3
2 3 3 3 3
) 828 . 0 ( 828 . 4
2
)} 667 . 0 ) 828 . 0 ( 569 . 0 ( ) 2 ) 828 . ( 414 . 3 { 25 . 0 ) 828 . 0 ( 616 . 1 { 2 ) 828 . 0 ( 545 . 2 {
) 828 . ( 828 . 4
)} 667 . 0 ) 828 . 0 ( 569 . 0 ( ) 2 ) 828 . 0 ( 414 . 3 { 5 . 0
) 828 . 0 ( 828 . 4
)} 667 . 0 569 . 0 ( ) 2 414 . 3 { 25 . ) ) 828 . 0 ( ( 616 . 1 { 2 { ) ) 828 . ( ( 545 . 2
+
+
+
+
+
=
b) Axial load capacity
} ) 2 ' 414 . 3 ( ) 2 414 . 3 {( 5 . 0 ) ' ( 328 . 5
) 207 . 1 )( 656 . 3 2 414 . 4 ( 5 . 0 ' 828 . 4
2 2 2 2
2
i i snet
st sc snet
i i tra c cc
yd snet cd cc u
h s h s s s A
A A A
h t s t h s s A A A
f A f A N
=
=
= =
+ =
cd
yd i i
cd
cd i i
cd c
u
f s
f h s h s s s
f s
f h t s t h s s
f A
N
v
2
2 2 2 2
2
2
' 828 . 4
}] ) 2 ' 414 . 3 ( ) 2 414 . 3 {( 5 . 0 ) ' ( 328 . 5 [
' 828 . 4
)} 207 . 1 )( 656 . 3 2 414 . 4 ( 5 . 0 ' 828 . 4 {
+
= =
Dividing equation by t
2
cd
yd i
i
cd
cd
i i
cd c
u
f x
f h x
t
h
x x x
f x
f
t
h
x
t
h
x x
f A
N
v
2
2 2 2 2
2
2
) 828 . ( 828 . 4
}] ) 2 ) 828 . ( 414 . 3 ( ) 2 414 . 3 {( 5 . 0 ) ) 828 . ( ( 328 . 5 [
) 828 . ( 828 . 4
)} 1 207 . 1 )( 656 . 3 2 414 . 4 ( 5 . 0 ) 828 . ( 828 . 4 {
= =
c) Values of h
i
/t used
51
Values of h
i
/t used are 0.5x, 0.6x, 0.8x, x and 1.207x1
Case iii
More than half the area under compression (Fig. 4.23)
Fig. 4.23 Neutral axis position with t s h
i
414 . 0 5 . 0 0
a) Moment capacity
2
) ( ) (
cd
pcn pc yd pan pa u
f
W W f W W M + =
cd
cd i yd i
cd c
u
i pcn
pc
i pan
pa
f s
f h t s s f t h s s
s f A
M
h t s W
s W
t h W
s s W
3
2 3 2 3 3
2
3
2
3 3
' 828 . 4
2 / } ) 2 414 . 2 ( ' 545 . 2 { } 2 ) ' ( 545 . 2 {
'
) 2 414 . 2 (
' 545 . 2
2
) ' ( 545 . 2
+
=
= =>
=
=
=
=
Diving both the numerator and denominator by t
3
cd
cd
i
yd
i
f x
f
t
h
x x f
t
h
x x
3
2 3 2 3 3
) 828 . ( 828 . 4
2 / } ) )( 2 414 . 2 ( ) 828 . ( 545 . 2 { } ) ( 2 ) ) 828 . ( ( 545 . 2 {
+
=
b) Axial load capacity
52
cd
yd i cd i
cd c
u
i snet
i cc
yd snet cd cc u
f s
tf h f t s h s
f A
N
v
t h A
t s h s A
f A f A N
2
2
2
' 828 . 4
4 )} 207 . 1 ( 2 ' 828 . 4 5 . 0 {
4
) 207 . 1 ( 2 ' 828 . 4 * 5 . 0
+ +
= =
=
+ =
+ =
Dividing equation by t
2
cd
yd
i
cd i
cd c
u
f x
f
t
h
f x h x
f A
N
v
2
2
) 828 . ( 828 . 4
4 )} 1 207 . 1 ( 2 ) 828 . ( 828 . 4 5 . 0 {
+ +
= =
c) Values of h
i
/t used
Values of h
i
/t used are 0, 0.2x, 0.4x and 0.5x0.414
Case iv
Less than half the area under compression (Fig. 4.24)
a) Moment capacity
The moment capacity is similar with that of case iii
Fig. 4.24 Neutral axis position with t s h
i
414 . 0 5 . 0 0
b) Axial load capacity
t h A
t s h s A
f A f A N
i snet
i cc
yd snet cd cc u
4
) 207 . 1 ( 2 ' 828 . 4 5 . 0
2
=
=
+ =
cd
yd i cd i
cd c
u
f s
tf h f t s h s
f A
N
v
2
2
' 828 . 4
4 )} 207 . 1 ( 2 ' 828 . 4 5 . 0 {
= =
53
Dividing equation by t
2
cd
yd
i
cd i
cd c
u
f x
f
t
h
f x h x
f A
N
v
2
2
) 828 . 0 ( 828 . 4
4 )} 1 207 . 1 ( 2 ) 828 . 0 ( 828 . 4 5 . 0 {
= =
c) Values of h
i
/t used
Values of h
i
/t used are 0, 0.2x, 0.4x and 0.5x0.414
Case v)
Less than half the area under compression (Fig. 4.25)
a) Moment capacity
Moment capacity is same as case ii
Fig. 4.25 Neutral axis position with t s h
s
i
207 . 1
2
b) Axial load capacity
54
cd
yd i i
cd
cd i i
cd c
u
i i snet
st sc snet
i i tra cc
yd snet cd cc u
f s
f h s h s s s
f s
f h t s t h s
f A
N
v
h s h s s s A
A A A
h t s t h s A A
f A f A N
2
2 2 2 2
2
2 2 2 2
' 828 . 4
}] ) 2 ' 414 . 3 ( ) 2 414 . 3 {( 5 . 0 ) ' ( 328 . 5 [
' 828 . 4
)} 207 . 1 )( 656 . 3 2 414 . 4 ( 5 . 0 {
}] ) 2 ' 414 . 3 ( ) 2 414 . 3 {( 5 . 0 ) ' ( 328 . 5 [
) 207 . 1 )( 656 . 3 2 414 . 4 ( 5 . 0
+
= =
=
=
= =
+ =
Dividing the equation by t
2
cd
yd i
i
cd
cd
i i
cd c
u
f x
f h x
t
h
x x x
f x
f
t
h
x
t
h
x
f A
N
v
2
2 2 2 2
2
) 828 . ( 828 . 4
}] ) 2 ) 828 . ( 414 . 3 ( ) 2 414 . 3 {( 5 . 0 ) ) 828 . ( ( 328 . 5 [
) 828 . ( 828 . 4
)} 1 207 . 1 )( 656 . 3 2 414 . 4 ( 5 . 0 {
= =
c) Values of h
i
/t used
Values of h
i
/t used are 0.5x, 0.6x, 0.8x, x and 1.207x1
Biaxial Capacity for Rectangular Section
Fundamental equations
Y
X
x
y
Fig. 4.26 Rectangular section and axes used for capacity computation
55
For the rectangular section under axial compression and biaxial bending the section capacity for a
given neutral axis position can be determined in a similar fashion as that for sections under uniaxial
bending.
The axial load and moment capacities are given by:
(4.4)
(4.5)
(4.6)
where:
=
u
N Axial compressive capacity
=
st
A Area of steel under tension
=
sc
A Area of steel under compression
=
cc
A Area of concrete under compression
=
xu
M Moment capacity about xaxis
= h Height of cross section
=
sxt
Q First moment of steel area under tension about Xaxis
=
sxc
Q First moment of steel area under compression about Xaxis
=
cxc
Q First moment of concrete area under compression about Xaxis
=
yu
M Moment capacity about yaxis
= b Width of cross section
=
syt
Q First moment of steel area under tension about Yaxis
=
syc
Q First moment of steel area under compression about Yaxis
=
cyc
Q First moment of concrete area under compression about Yaxis
cd cyc yd syc syt
u
yu
cd cxc yd sxc sxt
u
xu
cd cc yd sc st u
f Q f Q Q
b N
M
f Q f Q Q
h N
M
f A f A A N
= +
= +
=
) (
2
) (
2
) (
56
Other terms used to compute capacity are:
=
cx
Q First moment of concrete area about Xaxis
= t h b
h b
' '
4
' '
2
+
=
cy
Q First moment of concrete area about Yaxis
= t h b
h b
' '
4
' '
2
+
=
sx
Q First moment of steel area about Xaxis
cx
Q
bh
+ =
4
2
=
cy
Q First moment of steel area about Yaxis
cy
Q
h b
+ =
4
2
Moment and axial load capacity for different neutral axis positions
The biaxial moment and compressive capacities of a given section for a particular neutral axis
position can be computed using the above basic equations. To get a closed form solution for the axial
capacity and the corresponding moment capacities different cases of neutral axis position are
considered and terms corresponding to the equations are computed for each case.
Case i
b s t < < , and h r t
Y
x
y
X
N.A
Fig. 4.27 Neutral axis position for b s t < < , and h r t
57
t A
r s
Q
t A
r s
Q
r s
A
cc cyc
cc cxc
cc
+ =
+ =
=
6
' '
6
' '
2
' '
2
2
cy syc
cx sxc
sc s st
cc sc
Q
r s
Q
Q
sr
Q
A A A
A
sr
A
=
=
=
=
6
6
2
2
2
syc sy syt
sxc sx sxt
Q Q Q
Q Q Q
=
=
Case ii
b s t < < and r h
Y
x
y
X
N.A
Fig. 4.28 Neutral axis position for b s t < < and r h
} 1 {
2
' ' 2
'
2
k
r s
A
cc
=
t A k k
r s
Q
t A k k
r s
Q
cc cyc
cc cxc
+ =
+ + =
} 3 1 {
6
' '
} 2 3 1 {
6
' '
3
'
2
2
'
1
2
3
'
2
2
'
2
2
cyc syc cxc sxc
sc s st cc sc
Q k k
r s
Q Q k k
sr
Q
A A A A k
sr
A
= + =
= =
} 3 1 {
6
, } 2 3 1 {
6
, ) 1 (
2
3
2
2
2
2
3
2
2
2
2
2
2
syc sy syt
sxc sx sxt
Q Q Q
Q Q Q
=
=
Where
'
' '
'
2
r
h r
k
= and
r
h r
k
=
2
58
Case iii
h r t < < , and s b
y
X
N.A
x
Y
Fig. 4.29 Neutral axis position for h r t < < , and s b
The values of the terms for this case can be obtained by interchanging vales of r and s, h and b, and
corresponding x and y subscripts of the symbols of case ii.
Case iv
r h , s b and 1
'
'
'
'
+
r
h
s
b
) 1 (
2
' ' 2
'
2
2
'
1
k k
r s
A
cc
=
cc sc
A k k
sr
A = ) 1 (
2
2
2
2
1
t A k k k
r s
Q t A k k k
r s
Q
cc cyc cc cxc
+ + = + + = ) 3 2 1 (
6
' '
, ) 2 3 1 (
6
' ' 3
'
2
2
'
2
3
'
1
2
3
'
2
2
'
2
3
'
1
2
cyc syc
cxc sxc
sc s st
Q k k k
r s
Q
Q k k k
sr
Q
A A A
+ =
+ =
=
) 3 2 1 (
6
) 2 3 1 (
6
3
2
2
2
3
1
2
3
2
2
2
3
1
2
sxc sx sxt
Q Q Q = and
syc sy syt
Q Q Q =
59
where , ,
2 1
r
h r
k
s
b s
k
=
=
'
' '
,
'
' '
'
2
'
1
r
h r
k
s
b s
k
=
=
X
x
Y
y
N.A
Fig. 4.30 Neutral axis position for r h , s b and 1
'
'
'
'
+
r
h
s
b
Case v
1 < +
r
h
s
b
In this case the whole section is under compression.
Thus, the moment in both directions is zero and the axial compressive capacity is computed using the
basic equation with
' '
' '
h b bh A A
h b A A
sc s
cc c
= =
= =
while the other terms are zero.
Biaxial chart
Biaxial chart shows the strength envelope for a given axial force
u
N by varying the neutral axis
position to get different corresponding values of moments
xu
M and
yu
M .
To draw the curve the normalized axial capacity is represented by:
60
cd c
u
f A
N
v =
and, the normalized moment capacities can be computed as
'
'
b f A
M
h f A
M
cd c
uy
y
cd c
ux
x
=
=
To get normalized biaxial chart all terms in the basic equations are made nondimensional by dividing
the terms by t as was shown for uniaxial chart.
To accurately compute the moment capacities for a given axial force ratio sufficient pairs of moment
capacities are computed for different neutral axis positions. First the neutral axis position
corresponding to the given axial force ratio is computed from the basic equation for axial load
capacity (equation 4.4). This is done assuming r/t or s/t value and substituting into the equation and
solve for the unknown s/t or r/t value, respectively. The computation is done by using solver tool from
Microsoft Excel Program. After determining the neutral axis position, the moment capacities can be
computed from the basic equations (4.5 and 4.6).
These steps give one point on the interaction diagram. The steps are repeated for different neutral axis
positions and curves are drawn for different steel ratios.
61
EXAMPLES
Example 1
Design a square column subjected to Uniaxial Bending.
Given:
Action Effect: Factored loads allowing for initial eccentricity and slenderness effect.
N
sd
= 435.20kN
M
sdx
= 174.08kNm
Materials Data: Concrete Grade; C30
Steel Grade; Fe360
Required:
Dimension of crosssection and thickness of steel
Solution:
Assume column size, column concrete size, bh = 200mm200mm
c
ck
cd
f
f
= = 16
A
c
f
cd
= 20020016 = 640,000N=640kN
36 . 1
20 . 0 640
08 . 174
'
68 . 0
640
20 . 435
=
= =
= = =
b f A
M
f A
N
v
cd c
sd
cd c
sd
Using chart for square section
15 . 3 = w
2
6 . 436 , 9
64 . 213
000 , 640 15 . 3
mm
f
f wA
A
f A
f A
w
yd
cd c
s
cd c
yd s
=
= = => =
mm t
mm h b
A A
c s
17 . 11 ) 200 34 . 222 ( 5 . 0
34 . 222 437 , 49
437 , 49 437 , 9 200
2
= =
= = =
= + = +
Thus, use t=12mm and square column of overall dimension 224mm224mm.
62
Example 2
Verify the answer of example 1 using the procedure in EBCS 41995.
Given
Overall depth (d) = 224mm
Thickness of steel section (t) = 12mm
Action Effect: Factored loads allowing for initial eccentricity and slenderness effect
N
sd
= 435.2kN
M
sdx
= 174.08kNm
Materials Data: Concrete Grade C30
Steel Grade Fe360
Required:
Check adequacy of the section for the given loading using the procedure in EBCS 41995.
Solution:
To draw the interaction curve the following section capacities are determined
 Plastic resistance to compression:
N
pl,rd
= A
c
f
cd
+ A
s
f
yd
=20020016 + (224224200200) 213.64
=2814kN
 Compressive resistance of the concrete part
N
pm,rd
= A
c
f
cd
= 2002001610
3
=640kN
 Neutral axis position for zero axial compression (h
n
).
From Fig.5.1 for zero axial force:
F
cc
= F
st
(5.1)
F
cc
= (100h
n
) 20016
63
Mpl,Rd
yc
ys2
ys1
ys2
ys1
Fig. 5.1 Stress block for zero axial compressive force
F
st
= 2122h
n
213.64
Subsisting the above equations in (5.1) and solving for h
n
h
n
= 23.78mm
 Plastic moment capacity for zero axial force, M
pl,rd
Using the value of the neutral axis depth computed above:
M
pl,rd
= F
cc
y
c
+2F
sc1
y
s1
+2F
sc2
y
s2
(5.2)
F
cc
= (100h
n
) 2001610
3
= 243kN
y
c
= 61.89mm
F
sc1
= 212 (10023.78) 213.64 =390.8kN
y
s1
= 61.89mm
F
sc2
= 22412213.64 = 574.26 kN
y
s2
= 112mm
substituting the above values into equation (5.2)
M
pl.rd
= 192.05 kNm

Maximum moment capacity, M
max,rd
Maximum moment capacity occurs when the neutral axis passes trough the centroid.
M
max,rd
=F
cc
y
c
+2F
sc1
y
s1
+2F
sc2
y
s2
(5.3)
64
Mmax,Rd
yc
ys2
ys1
ys2
Npm,Rd/2
ys1
Fig. 5.2 Stress block for maximum moment
F
cc
= 10020016 =320 kN
y
c
=50 mm
F
sc1
= 212100213.64 = 512.7 kN
y
s1
= 50 mm
F
sc2
= 22412213.64 = 574.26 kN
y
s2
= 112 mm
Substituting the above values into equation (5.3)
M
max,rd
=195.9 kNm
The four points (as discussed in section 3.2) for drawing the interaction curve can be computed as
follows:
Point A: =0; v=1
Point B: =1; v=0
Point C: =1; 23 . 0
2814
640
,
,
= = =
rd pl
rd pm
N
N
v
Point D: 02 . 1
05 . 192
9 . 195
,
max,
= = =
rd pl
rd
M
M
; 115 . 0
5 . 0
,
,
=
=
rd pl
rd pm
N
N
v
Using this points interaction curve is drawn as shown in fig.5.3.
Point corresponding to the applied load:
15 . 0
; 91 . 0
,
,
= =
= =
rd pl
sd
sd
rd pl
sd
sd
N
N
v
M
M
This point lies within the interaction curve as shown in Fig. 5.3. Thus, the section is sufficient.
65
Fig. 5.3 Normalized interaction curve
Example 3
Check for the adequacy of load capacity of a circular cross section against given loading.
Given:
Overall depth = 250mm
Thickness of steel section = 10mm
Action Effect: Factored loads allowing for initial eccentricity and slenderness effect.
N
sd
= 500kN
M
sd
= 125kNm
Interaction Chart
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
1.2
0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2
*
Rd pl
u
N
N
,
Rd pl
u
M
M
,
66
Materials Data: Concrete Grade is C30
Steel Grade is Fe360
Required:
Check whether the section is sufficient or not.
Solution:
Mpa
f
f
c
ck
cd
16 = =
Mpa
f
f
s
yk
yd
636 . 213
10 . 1
235
= = =
kN f A
cd c
424 . 664 10 16
4
230
3
2
=
636 . 1
115 . 424 . 664
125
'
754 . 0
424 . 664
500
=
= =
= = =
r f A
M
f A
N
v
cd c
sd
cd c
sd
From chart for circular column the required steel ratio is
While the available steel ratio is
423 . 2
1000 424 . 664
636 . 213 ) 230 250 ( 4 /
2 2
=
= =
cd c
yd s
f A
f A
w
Thus, the section is sufficient.
Example 4
Compare the similarity of values from uniaxial and biaxial curves at conditions common for both.
Given:
, 0 . 1 = v and 0 =
b
Required:
h
Solution:
2 . 2 = w
4 = w
67
a) Using uniaxial chart for square section
7 . 1 =
h
b) Using biaxial chart
7 . 1 =
h
Thus, both charts give similar values at common conditions.
Example 5
Design a column subjected to Biaxial Bending.
Given:
From analysis, including load factors and slenderness effect,
kNm M
kNm M
kN N
b sd
h sd
sd
300
400
440 , 1
,
,
=
=
=
Materials: Concrete C30
Steel Fe360
Required: Thickness of steel
Solution: Assume column concrete size, bh = 300mm300mm
694 . 0
300 300 300 16
10 300
926 . 0
300 300 300 16
10 400
0 . 1
300 300 16
1440000
6
,
,
6
,
,
=
= =
=
= =
=
= =
b A f
M
h A f
M
A f
N
v
c cd
b sd
b sd
c cd
h sd
h sd
c cd
sd
sd
From the biaxial chart
9 . 1 = w
68
2
12807
64 . 213
000 , 440 , 1 9 . 1
mm
f
f wA
A
f A
f A
w
yd
cd c
s
cd c
yd s
=
= = =>
=
mm t
h b
A A
c s
3 . 10 ) 300 6 . 320 ( 5 .
6 . 320 807 , 102
807 , 102 807 , 12 300
2
= =
= = =
= + = +
Use mm t 11 =
Example 6
Design the above example using uniaxial charts by the approximate method given in EBCS 41995.
Given:
Same as Example 5
Required:
Same as Example 5
Solution:
0 . 1
, ,
,
, ,
,
+
d h pl h
Sd h
Rd b pl b
Sd b
M
M
M
M
(5.4)
Trial 1: Let mm t 11 =
9 . 1 = => w
For an axial load ratio 1 = v using uniaxial chart
h b
= = 82 . 0
kNm h f A M M
cd c Rd h pl Rd b pl
24 . 354 300 16 300 300 82 . 0 ' 82 . 0
, , , ,
= = = =
Substituting in equation (5.4)
0 . 1
24 . 354 82 . 0
400
24 . 354 82 . 0
300
>
0 . 1 41 . 2 > => Not Ok!
Trial 2: Let, t=17
69
2 . 3
16 300 300
64 . 213 ) 300 300 334 334 (
=
= = =>
cd c
yd s
f A
f A
w
For an axial load ratio 1 = v using uniaxial chart
h b
= = 32 . 1
kNm h f A M M
cd c Rd pl Rd h pl Rd b pl
24 . 570 300 16 300 300 32 . 1
, , , , ,
= = = =
Substituting in equation (5.4)
Thus, use t=17mm
Note: Comparing the results from the above two examples, one can see there is a significant saving
can be achieved in the amount of steel provided by using the biaxial chart rather than applying the
approximate method.
0 . 1 93 . 0
24 . 570 32 . 1
400
24 . 570 32 . 1
300
< =
70
CONCLUSIONS
Concretefilled steel tubes used as structural columns have significant economic, structural and
functional advantages. However, their design has been difficult and time consuming as it needs
drawing interaction curves for each trial crosssection. That is, the design procedure that was given in
EBCS 41995 follows a trial and error procedure to determine the necessary crosssection for a given
load. To alleviate this problem, normalized charts have been produced that simplify the design
calculation. The charts can be used to directly compute the amount of steel required for a given cross
section without any trial and error. The charts produced also give more accurate values than using the
method in the Code.
According to EBCS 41995, design of crosssections subjected to axial compression and biaxial
bending is done using an approximate and conservative way by using results from uniaxial chart to
estimate biaxial capacity. In this thesis, biaxial charts were developed from stress resultants of cross
sections to accurately execute design of crosssections subjected to biaxial bending. The charts also
simplify the calculation.
In design practice, there may be architectural and functional requirement to use columns of different
shape. The design using shapes other than the common ones is usually handled in an approximate way
as the required computation efforts are more demanding. However, for economical and efficient
design, provision of design chart is necessary. Thus, charts for octagonalshape and hexagonalshape
crosssections have been developed as a starting work from many other possible crosssectional
shapes.
Summary of contribution:
In this thesis charts have been developed for computing the axial compression and uniaxial moment
capacity of square, rectangular, circular, hexagonal and octagonal sections. The charts were drawn for
normalized axial compression and bending moment capacities. The values in the chart were
normalized by dividing with terms that involve only concrete crosssection properties are shown in
section 4.3 rather than using M
pl,rd
and N
pl,rd
as given in the Code [EBCS 41995]. This makes the
design more simplified as one can directly compute the area of steel required by assuming a certain
71
concrete crosssection. However, in the code one needs to take a trial section for both the steel and the
concrete and check for capacity and then repeat for another trial section if the section is not adequate.
For rectangular sections, widthtodepth ratios of 0.5 and 2 were considered. The other polygons
considered are equalsided. The steel ratio (w) used varies between 1.5 and 4. The materials used are
steel Fe360 with plate thickness less than 40mm and concrete C30.
Columns subjected to axial compression and biaxial bending are also treated to get a more simplified
and more accurate method for design or checking capacity. Procedures necessary to develop charts for
any rectangular section with normalized values similar to those for uniaxial chart showing the section
capacity were developed. These charts substitute the approximate methods of design of biaxial
capacity given in the code. A chart is produced for axial compression ratio (v) equal to 0 and 1 for a
square section. But, the equations developed can be used for any rectangular section. The steel ratio
(w) varies between 1.5 and 4. The materials used are also similar with that for uniaxial chart.
This thesis also gives summery of important equations and procedures for determining CFT column
capacity. Other behaviors related to section capacity, confinement, bond and seismic resistance are
also covered briefly.
Future Research
Other uniaxial and biaxial charts can be developed based of the procedures given in this thesis to
cover the remaining crosssectional shapes and material types.
Concretefilled steel tubes with reinforcing bars and concrete encased composite columns can also be
studied in a similar fashion as the principles for computing section capacity are similar.
Another area for further research can be verification of the results of this thesis work by experimental
tests as this work is based on theoretical guidelines.
Structural efficiency and behavior of composite columns within frames could also be studied. This
may include ductility and strength properties within frames under static or dynamic loading. The
72
connections of CFTs with beams or other structural components and their property can also be
studied.
APPENDIX: Uniaxial and Biaxial Charts
73
Square Section
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.5
6.0
0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0
cd c
u
f A
N
v =
4 = w
5 . 1 = w
2 = w
5 . 2 = w
3 = w
5 . 3 = w
' h f A
M
cd c
u
=
Chart No. 1 Uniaxial Chart for Square Section
74
Rectangular Section
h/b=0.5
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.5
6.0
0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0
cd c
u
f A
N
v =
4 = w
5 . 1 = w
2 = w
5 . 2 = w
3 = w
5 . 3 = w
' h f A
M
cd c
u
=
Chart No. 2 Uniaxial Chart for Rectangular Section with HeighttoWidth (h/b)
Ratio of 0.5
75
Rectangular Section
h/b=2
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.5
6.0
0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0
cd c
u
f A
N
v =
4 = w
2 = w
5 . 2 = w
3 = w
5 . 3 = w
' h f A
M
cd c
u
=
5 . 1 = w
Chart No. 3 Uniaxial Chart for Rectangular Section with HeighttoWidth (h/b) Ratio of 2
76
Circular Section
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.5
6.0
0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5
cd c
u
f A
N
v =
4 = w
5 . 2 = w
3 = w
5 . 3 = w
2 / ' d f A
M
cd c
u
=
5 . 1 = w
2 = w
1 = w
Chart No. 4 Uniaxial Chart for Circular Section
77
Hexagonal Section
Bending about Yaxis
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.5
6.0
0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0
cd c
u
f A
N
v =
4 = w
5 . 1 = w
2 = w
5 . 2 = w
3 = w
5 . 3 = w
' s f A
M
cd c
u
=
Chart No. 5 Uniaxial Chart for Hexagonal Section with Bending about Yaxis
78
Hexagonal Section
Bending about Xaxis
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.5
6.0
0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0
cd c
u
f A
N
v =
4 = w
5 . 1 = w
2 = w
5 . 2 = w
3 = w
5 . 3 = w
' s f A
M
cd c
u
=
Chart No. 6 Uniaxial Chart for Hexagonal Section with Bending about Xaxis
79
Octagonal Section
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.5
6.0
0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0
cd c
u
f A
N
v =
4 = w
5 . 1 = w
2 = w
5 . 2 = w
3 = w
5 . 3 = w
1 = w
' s f A
M
cd c
u
=
Chart No. 7 Uniaxial Chart for Octagonal Section
80
Biaxial Chart
for
Square Section
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0
4 = w
5 . 1 = w
2 = w
5 . 2 = w
3 = w
5 . 3 = w
' b f A
M
cd c
b
b
=
' h f A
M
cd c
h
h
=
1 0 = = v or v
Chart No. 8 Biaxial Chart for Square Section
81
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