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Semester Exam HONORS Study Guide Chapters 1- 6

____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ 1. In addition to being an organized body of knowledge about nature, science is also a 2. Galileos success with science was due to his emphasis on 3. The language of science is 4. A person who says, thats only a theory likely doesnt know that a scientific theory is a 5. A theory is supported mainly by 6. In science, a good theory is one that 7. Ideas that cannot be tested are regarded as 8. Which of these is a scientific hypothesis? 9. Which of these is a scientific hypothesis?

____ 10. A scientific hypothesis can be disproved with ____ 11. Technology is mainly ____ 12. Science and technology are ____ 13. Who is famous for claiming that heavy things fall faster than lighter things? ____ 14. Nellie runs the length of a 100-yard football field in a time of 20 seconds. Her average running speed is ____ 15. If Joans horse trots across a 50-meter long track in 5 seconds, its average speed is a. 5 m/s. c. 15 m/s. b. 10 m/s. d. 50 m/s. ____ 16. Newtons first law of motion was influenced by ____ 17. If gravity between the Sun and Earth suddenly vanished, Earth would continue moving in ____ 18. The force called tension is actually a force that tends to ____ 19. Jason sits on his big brothers shoulders. Big brother weighs 400 N and Jason weighs 150 N. The support force supplied by the floor must be ____ 20. When a ball increases in speed by the same amount each second, its acceleration ____ 21. As a ball rolls down an inclined plane with no air drag, its speed increases and its acceleration ____ 22. Velocity and acceleration are actually ____ 23. An object will accelerate when ____ 24. An object with a mass of 1 kilogram on Earth ____ 25. When your mass increases, your weight ____ 26. For a given force, acceleration and mass are

____ 27. You are pushing a cart along a level track, giving it a certain acceleration. What change could you make to give the cart the same acceleration with only half the force? ____ 28. Consider your book at rest on a table. When you push it horizontally and it is on the verge of sliding, but still at rest, friction on the book acts in a direction that is ____ 29. A lead-filled tennis ball and a regular tennis ball are dropped from the top of a tall building at the same time and fall through the air to the ground below. Which reaches the ground first? ____ 30. A lead-filled tennis ball and a regular tennis ball are dropped from the top of a tall building at the same time and fall through the air to the ground below. The ball that experiences the greater amount of air drag is the ____ 31. A force is a push or pull that is required to change the ____ 32. A force interaction requires at least ____ 33. Whenever one object exerts a force on a second object, the second object exerts a force on the first that ____ 34. A fish is propelled in water directly by force provided by the ____ 35. The force that propels a heavy truck along a highway is provided by ____ 36. When you jump vertically upward, strictly speaking, you cause Earth to ____ 37. The Sun pulls on Mars. Relative to this pull, the pull of Mars on the Sun is ____ 38. A grasshopper has a collision with the windshield of a massive high-speed truck. The force of impact on the grasshopper is ____ 39. If Fast Freddy triples his running speed, what else triples? ____ 40. A car and a heavy truck roll down a hill and reach the bottom at the same speed. Compared with the momentum of the heavy truck, the momentum of the car is ____ 41. A 10-kg boulder and a 5-kg boulder, are dropped from rest from the top of a high cliff. When hitting the ground below, compared with the 5-kg boulder, the 10-kg boulder has ____ 42. When falling on a concrete floor as compared with falling on a wooden floor, the force that stops your momentum is ____ 43. Which of the following equations most directly illustrates the safety value of automobile airbags? ____ 44. A ball is tossed into a bale of hay and comes to a stop. If instead, it comes to a stop when hitting a sticky solid wall, the impulse needed to stop it is ____ 45. In the absence of external forces, momentum is conserved in ____ 46. While standing on a skateboard at rest, you catch a horizontally-moving ball. Compared with the initial speed of the ball, the speed of you and the ball is ____ 47. How much work is done on a 200-kg crate that is hoisted 2 m in a time of 4 s? ____ 48. How much work is done on a 100-kg crate that is hoisted 3 m in a time of 2 s? ____ 49. How much power is required to raise a 100-kg crate a vertical distance of 3 m in a time of 2 s? ____ 50. How much power is required to raise a 200-kg crate a vertical distance of 2 m in a time of 4 s?

____ 51. Mechanical energy applies to ____ 52. If a charging bull has kinetic energy, it must also have ____ 53. Which of the following can multiply force? ____ 54. When 100 J are put into a device that delivers 60 J, the efficiency of the device is ____ 55. When 100 J are put into a device that delivers 40 J, the efficiency of the device is ____ 56. When you do 1000 J of work on a car jack and the gravitational potential energy of the car is increased by 300 J, the efficiency of the jack is ____ 57. A simple machine can NOT multiply ____ 58. The energy source for dry-rock geothermal power is ____ 59. Gravity was discovered by ____ 60. The Moon remains in orbit while falling around the Earth due to its ____ 61. The force of gravity between two planets depends on ____ 62. The force of gravity between two objects depends on their ____ 63. As the distance between two planets increases, the gravitational force between them ____ 64. What Newton discovered about gravity was that it ____ 65. The gravitational constant G in Newtons law of gravity ____ 66. When no air resistance acts on a nicely tossed basketball, its acceleration in midair is ____ 67. When you toss a ball horizontally from a high cliff, the ball will fall below an imaginary horizontal straight line ahead of the ball a vertical distance ____ 68. A ball is thrown horizontally from atop a 5-meter tall platform and travels a horizontal distance of 15 meters before hitting the ground below. The initial speed of the ball must have been about ____ 69. A ball is thrown horizontally from atop a 5-meter tall platform and hits the ground downrange. Neglecting air drag, the speed of the ball when hitting the ground, compared with its thrown speed, is ____ 70. The Moon falls toward Earth in the sense that it falls ____ 71. Newton imagined a cannonball fired horizontally from atop a mountain in the absence of air drag. He hypothesized that the cannonball would be an Earth satellite if its curved path ____ 72. Energy is conserved when an Earth satellite travels in a ____ 73. Newtons law of gravity