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CHAPTER 7

LIGHT, COLOUR AND SIGHT

1. THE FORMATION OF IMAGES BY PLANE MIRRORS AND LENSES The characteristics of an image formed on a plane mirror are 1. virtual 2. inverted laterally 3. upright 4. the same size as the object 5. image distance and object distance from the plane mirror are the same The characteristics of an image formed by a convex lens are 1. virtual or real 2. upright or inverted 3. diminished or enlarge The characteristics of an image formed by a concave lens are 1. virtual 2. upright 3. diminished Object distance is the distance between the object and the optical central. Image distance is the distance between the image and the optical central. Optical central is the point at the centre of a lens. Principal axis is the straight line which passes through the optical central at a right angle to the axis of the lens. Focal point is the point on the principal axis where light rays that are parallel to the principal axis will converge after passing through a lens.

2. THE FORMATION OF IMAGES BY OPTICAL INSTRUMENTS 1. A periscope consists of two plane mirrors arranged facing one another at an angle of 45. The image formed by a periscope is virtual, upright and same size as the object 2. A magnifying glass is made of biconvex lens. The image formed by a magnifying glass is virtual, upright and larger than the actual size of the object. 3. A microscope consists of two convex lenses, i.e. objective lens and eyepiece. The focal length of the objective lens of the microscope is shorter than of the eyepiece. 4. A telescope consist of the convex lenses, i.e. objective lens and eyepiece. The objective lens of the telescope has a longer focal length while the eyepiece has a shorter focal length.

5. A camera consists of three main parts, which are the lens, the shutter and the film. The image formed on a photography film is real, invented and smaller than the actual size of the object. 6. In eye - The characteristics of the images formed on the retina and the pin-hole camera are real, invented and smaller than the actual size of the object.

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3.

LIGHT DISPERSION Light dispersion is a process in which white light is split into its colour constituents called a spectrum when it passes through a prism. A spectrum consists of seven colours in this order: red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo and violet. Light dispersion occurs because each colour constituents travels at a different speed through the prism. Rainbow is formed when sunlight passes through raindrops. The sunlight is refracted and dispersed into its colour constituents.

4.

LIGHT SCATTERING Light scattering occurs when white light is directed incident to particles like gas molecules, water vapour and dust, and the light rays are obstructed and reflected. The light rays will scatter in all directions. Lights with shorter wavelengths are refracted more. Blue light is refracted more than red light. Examples of light scattering which occurs in natural phenomena are blue sky at noon and red sun during sunset.

5.

THE ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF COLOURED LIGHT Primary colours are colours which cannot be obtained from mixing others colours. The primary colours of light are red, blue and green. Secondary colours are colours produced from adding two primary colours. The secondary colours produced from lights are yellow, mangenta ang cyan. The absorption of coloured light by a coloured filter is called subtraction of coloured lights. A primary-coloured object only reflects light of the same colour. A secondary-coloured object reflects light of the same colours as well as the primary colours that form the colour.

Magenta Blue Cyan Green Red White Yellow

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6. THE APPEARANCE OF COLOURED OBJECTS A white object appears white in white light because it reflects all colours while a black object appears black because all colours are absorbed by it. The absorption of light by a coloured object is based on the principle of subtraction of coloured lights. The rod cell in the retina is sensitive to light of low intensity. This cell is not sensitive to colours. The cone cell can detect colour as it is sensitive to high intensity light.

7.

THE EFFECTS OF MIXING PIGMENTS Pigments are materials that absorb certain coloured lights and reflect coloured lights that are not absorbed by the pigments. The primary colours of pigments are red, blue and yellow. Mixing pigments is based on the principle of subtraction of coloured lights. Violet Blue Green Yellow Red Black Orange

8.

THE IMPORTANCE OF COLOUR IN DAILY LIFE The uses of colour in daily life are printing, electrical writing, traffic lights, symbols and signals. The importance of colour to animals is to protect themselves from danger, to attract attention of the females species and to warn other animal to keep away. The importance of colour to plants include to attract animals for pollination purposes and to warn animals and humans of its toxicity.

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PAPER 1

1. Which of the following causes the formation of image in a plane mirror ? A. B. C. D. Addition of light Refraction of light Reflection of light Scattering of light

2. What are the characteristics of image formed by the plane mirror? A. B. C. D. Real, inverted and same size Virtual, inverted and smaller size Real, laterally inverted and bigger size Virtual, laterally inverted and same size

3. The diagram shows an object which is placed in front of a plane mirror.

Object

Plane mirror

Which image appears in the plane mirror ? A. .

B.

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4.

A student stands 3.0 m in front of a plane mirror . If the mirror is moved 1.0m away from the student , how far is the image from the student? A. B. C. D. 3.0m 4.0 m 6.0 m 8.0 m

5 . The characteristics of an image formed by a concave lens for an object placed at a distance of two focal length are A. B. C. D. Real, upright and larger size Real, inverted and same size Virtual, inverted and larger size Virtual, upright and smaller size

6.

Which of the following correctly represents the part of a light ray passing through the lens?

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7.

Which of the following ray diagram is correct? A C

8.

A driver wants to overtake the car in front of him, takes a quick look at the side mirror. Which of the following image he has seen? A. B. C. D. Real and upright Real and inverted Virtual and upright Virtual and inverted

9.

Which of the following can formed a real image? A. B. C. D. A plane mirror A convex lens A concave lens A glass prism

10.

Which of the following image cannot be seen on a screen? A. B. C. D. Real image Virtual images Inverted images Diminished image

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11.

The diagram shows the position of an object W in front of a convex len. At which of the following positions A,B,C and D is the image of object W formed. Object W A 3F 2F F O B F C 2F D 3F

12 . Which of the following optical instrument uses plane mirrors? A. B. Camera Periscope C. D. Telescope Microscope

13.

The diagram shows the word SCIENCE under a magnifying glass.

SCIENCE
Magnifying glass What is the distance between the word and the lens? A. B. C. D. Twice the focal length of the lens Equal the focal length of the lens Less than the focal length of the lens More than the focal length of the lens

14.

A student uses a convex len to check the internal components of a radio. What is the distance between the lens and the radio in order to see a larger image? A. B. C. D. Twice the focal length The same as the focal length Less than the focal length More than twice the focal length

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15

The diagram shows an image formed by a convex len.

Which of the following optical instrument uses this arrangement? A. B C. D. A glass A projector A magnifying camera A photographic enlarger

16 . Periscope can be formed by using two plane mirrors. Which of the following is the correct arrangement of the mirrors in the periscope? A C

17.

The diagram shows an experiment using light.

Red Light source Glass Prism Which of the following process occur in the glass prism? A. B. C. D. Addition of light Light scattering Dispersion of light Subtraction of light
*The bolded and italic letter is the answer

Violet

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18 .

Which of the following causes rainbow? A. B. C. D. Lights is refracted by droplets of water in the atmosphere Lights is scattered by dust particles in the atmosphere after rain Lights is reflected and scattered by dust particles in the atmosphere after rain Lights is reflected and dispersed by droplets of water in the atmosphere after rain

19 .

The diagram shows a beam of white light passing through a prism and forms a spectrum of light on the white screen.

Which of the following represent he colour of the spectrum at Q? A. Violet B. Red C. D. Yellow Blue

20 .

The diagram shows a beam of white light passes through prism R and S.

Which of the following is formed on the screen? A. Red spot B. Black spot C. White spot D Yellow spot

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21.

The diagram shows the structure of a camera

Which of the following is the function of X? A. B. C. D. Allow the light through Control the amount of light Adjust the position of the image Control the duration of light exposure

22 . Diagram shows a human eye

Which part of the camera has a similar function to part X in the human eye? A. B. Lens Aperture C. D. Diaphragm Focusing ring

23 . The figure shows a pinhole camera with three holes. Which of the following image is formed on the screen?

Screen

Hole Object
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24.

What happens to the lens of our eyes when we look at a distant object? A. B. C. D. Thinner Thicker Shorter No change.

25 .

Which of the following pair functions to control the amount of light? Eye Iris Pupil Cilliary body Retina Camera Diaphragm Shutter Focus adjuster Lens

A. B. C. D.

26 .

Which of the following shows the correct adjustment of the eye when we move from a bright room into a dark room? A. B. C. D. The lens become thinner The lens becomes thicker The pupil becomes bigger The pupil becomes smaller

27.

Why is a colour blind person not able to identify red and green objects ? A. B. C. D. Damage of iris Damage of lens Damage of retina Damage of cone cell

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28 .

The diagram shows the natural phenomenon of the sky at noon.

Which colour of the sunlight is dispersed most? A. B. Blue White C. D. Green Yellow

29.

Which of the following statement is correct about light scattering? A. B C. D. Light splits into its component colours Light is subtracted from its component colours Light is reflected and dispersed into different coloured light Light is reflected and scattered in all directions by suspended particles

30 .

At noon the sky is blue. Which of the following cause this phenomenon? A. B. C. D. Reflection of the blue light from the sea water Reflection of the blue light from the surface of the earth Absorption of blue light by the particles in the atmosphere Scattering of the blue light by the particles in the atmosphere

31.

The diagram shows a blue light passing through a coloured filter.

Blue light

Black

Filter

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Which of the following is the colour of the flter ? A. Cyan 32. B. Magenta C. Blue D. Yellow

The diagram shows a red light and a cyan light which are projected onto a white screen.

What colour can be seen at X,Y and Z? X Red Blue Blue White Y Magenta Cyan White Black Z Blue Yellow Yellow Red

A. B. C. D.

33 .

The diagram shows an overlapping of coloured lights.

What is the colour of light in the shaded area? A. B. White Green C. D. Cyan Blue

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34 .

The diagram shows a beam of white light passing through a glass prism. A yellow and magenta filter is placed between the prism and the screen.
Yellow filter Magenta filter

White screen

Beam of white light Glass Prism

Which of the following colour do you expect to observe on the screen? A. B. 35 . Red Green C. D. Magenta Yellow

Which of the following pairs of coloured light addition could form white colour? A. B. C. D. Cyan and red green and yellow Yellow and cyan Magenta and blue

36 .

Which of the following statement is correct about black objects? A. B. C. D. The objects transfer any light The objects reflects any light The objects absorbed any light The objects scattered any light

37.

The diagram shows a beam of white light that is allowed to pass through a yellow filter, green filter and red filter.

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What is the colour of P,Q and R? P Yellow Red Green Yellow Q Green Red Red Green R Red No light No light No light

A B C D

38 .

The figure below shows the overlapping of three primary colours. Blue

Q Red Green

Which of the following colour is formed at Q? A. B. White Orange C. D. Indigo Magenta

39.

Why does a white object appear white? A. B. C. D. Absorb any light Reflects any light Transmits any light Absorb green light

40.

The diagram shows a coloured object under the coloured light.


Eye

Blue light

Red Object

Which of the following is the colour of the object appeared? A. Blue B. Red
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C. D.

White Black

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41.

The diagram shows an experiment on the subtraction of coloured light.

Red light

Green leaf The colour of the leaf will appear A. Green B. Black 42. The diagram shows a flower.

C. D.

Red Yellow

Which of the following coloured lights can make the petal appears red? A. B. 43. Blue light Green light C. D. Magenta Cyan light

When certain coloured light is shined on to magenta object, the object appears red. Which of the following is the coloured light? A. B. White Green C. D. Yellow Magenta

44 .

The diagram shows the colours of a shirt and skirt seen under different coloured light.

Red Green

Black Green

Seen under white light

Seen under light X

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What is the colour of light X ? A. B. 45 . Blue Green C. Red D. Yellow

The diagram shows a circular cardboard painted with three different pigments.

White Blue Red When the cardboard is seen under a blue light, which of the following is the correct appearance of the cardboard? A Blue Red Blue B Blue Black Blue 46. A yellow flower appears red when seen under a red light. Which of the following statements is correct about the observation? A. B. C. D. The yellow flower reflect red light. The yellow flower has absorbed the blue colour. The mixing of yellow colour and the light gives red colours. We only can see the colour of the light and can not see the colour of the flower. D Blue C Blue Black

47 .

If a white shirt is to be turned to an orange colour, which colour dyes must be used? A. B. Blue and green Red and blue C. D. Yellow and red Green and red

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48.

The diagram shows a batik-printing process Printing Block Q

Blue Cloth

Q turns green

What is the original colour of Q? A. B. 49. Red Cyan C. D. Green Yellow

Which of the following coloured inks are used in colour printing? A. B. C. D. Red, blue, green and black Blue, green, yellow, and black Cyan, magenta, red and black Magenta, yellow, cyan and black

50.

Which of the following is the importance of colours to human being? A. B. C. D. Helps in pollination Used in electrical wiring As a warning to other animals Enable us to hide from danger

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PAPER 2 SECTION A
1. Diagram 1 shows an experiment to measure the focal length of convex lens.
White screen Convex lens Light from distance object

Convex lens White screen Light from distance object

DIAGRAM 1 Type of convex lens Thin lens Thick lens (a) Focal length 8 6

State the hypothesis of the experiment. The thicker the lens the shorter the focal length . [ 1 Mark]

(b) (c)

Fill the table above. Name the following variable for the above experiment (i) Manipulated The thickness of convex lens . (ii) Responding Focal length . Constant Light from distance object / Object distance .

[2 Marks]

(iii)

[2 Marks]

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(d)

What is operational definition for focal length in this experiment? Focal length is the distance of a lens and screen .... [ 1 Mark]

2.

Diagram 2 shows an experiment using pin-hole camera .

Pin-hole camera

S DIAGRAM 2 The results of the experiment is shown in the table below

Size of pin-hole Small Big

Characteristics of image Sharp image Blurred

a)

State the hypothesis of the experiment. The bigger the size of the pin-hole, the blur the image formed . .

b)

[ 1 Mark] What is the observation of the experiment? The small size of pin-hole formed sharp image and the bigger size of . pin-hole, formed blur and brighter image. . [ 1 Mark]

c)

What inference could be made from the experiment? Bigger size of the pin-hole allows more light enter the camera . Bigger size of the pin-hole causes the images to overlap. . [ 1 Mark]

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d)

Name the following variable for the above experiment (i) Manipulated The pin-hole size . Responding The image characteristics / Sharp and blur images . Constant The size of the object . [3 Marks]

(iv)

(v)

e)

Predict the image formed when a convex lens is placed at S in

Diagram 3.

A sharper image will be formed . [1 Mark]

SECTION B
1. Diagram 3 shows the addition of coloured lights.

P Q S R

DIAGRAM 3

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(a)

Complete the table below. Area P Q R S Colour of light Green Cyan Magenta White

(b)

What is the name for colour Q and R? Secondary colour [ 1 Mark]

(c)

(i) What is the colour of green object located at S? Green [ 1 Mark] (ii) Give reason for your answer. The green object reflects green colour under white light. [2 Marks]

2.

Diagram 4 shows a periscope. An observer is looking at an object. Plane mirror

Object

Obstacle

Observer Plane mirror DIAGRAM 4


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(a)

Draw the light rays reaching the eye of the observer. [ 1 Mark]

(b)

What principle is applied in a periscope. Reflection of light [ 1 Mark]

(c)

Name one other material which can be used to replace the plane mirror. Prism [ 1 Mark]

(d)

State one other use of the periscope. Used in submarines [ 1 Mark]

3.

Diagram 5 shows an object P placed in front of a pinhole camera. Hole Y Screen Object Z Pinhole camera DIAGRAM 5 (a) (b) Draw a ray diagram to show how an image is formed in diagram 5. [ 1 Mark] Measure and write the size of image formed. 0.9 0.1 ..............................cm (c) [ 1 Mark]

Predict the characteristics of image if the number of hole Y is increase to three? Three images are formed ..................................................................................................................... [ 1 Mark] Name other optical device which has the same characteristics as the image produced in Diagram 5. Camera ..................................................................................................................... [ 1 Mark]

(d)

(e)

What is the size of image formed if the object is placed at Z? The image becomes bigger ..................................................................................................................... [ 1 Mark]

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4.

Diagram 6 shows a convex lens and an object.

2F O 2F F F

DIAGRAM 6 (a) (b) Complete the ray diagram above to show the image formed. Give two characteristics of the image formed. (i) ii) Image size is the same as object .............................................................................. Inverted iii) Real .............................................................................. [ 2 Marks] (c ) If the object is moved far away from the convex lens, what will happen to the image formed? The image size becomes smaller than object. ..................................................................................................................... [ 1 Mark] (d) What is the characteristics of the image if convex lens is replaced with concave lens? The image becomes smaller, virtual and upright ..................................................................................................................... [ 1 Mark] (e) Give one optical instrument that has similar arrangement as shown in Diagram 6. Photostat machine . [ 1 Mark] [ 2 Marks]

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5.

Diagram 7(a) shows two filters are placed in front of two torchlight X and Y respectively . The lights falls on the white screen and overlaps as shown in Diagram 7 (b).

DIAGRAM 7(a)

DIAGRAM 7(b)

(a)

What are the colours seen at A and B? A Blue B Cyan ..................................................................................................................... [ 1 Mark]

(b)

What are the primary colours formed in (a)? Blue ............................................................................................................ [ 1 Mark]

(c )

If a magenta filter is placed in front of the blue filter Y , what colour is seen at A? Blue ..................................................................................................................... [ 1 Mark]

(d)

A bunches of red roses stands under the B light. What is the colour of the (i) roses

Black ........................................................................................................... (ii) leaves

Green ............................................................................................................ [ 2 Marks]

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SECTION C

1. The spectacles of old people have shorter focal lengths than those of a student who in long-sighted. This is because the lenses in their spectacles have a different thickness. You are given the convex lens with different thickness. (a) (a) Suggest a hypothesis to investigate the above statement. [1 Mark]

Describe an experiment to test your hypothesis in (a) based on the following criteria. i) Aim of the experiment. ii) Identification of variables iii) List of apparatus and materials iv) Procedure or method v ) Tabulation of data vi) Conclusion [1 Mark] [ 2 Marks] [1 Mark] [3 Marks] [1 Mark] [1 Mark]

ANSWER (a) Hypothesis: The thicker the lens, the shorter the focal length. (b) (i) Aim: (ii) To study the focal length of a convex lens with different thickness.

Variable that is kept constant: is manipulated: responds:

Object distance Thickness of the lens Focal length

(iii)

List of apparatus and material: Metre rule, screen, convex lenses with different thickness, lens holder Procedure: Choose one distance object, put the lens in between the object and screen / The arrangement of apparatus is set up as shown in the diagram below, i.e. facing an object outside the window The screen is adjusted until a sharp image is formed on it. The focal length is measured with a meter ruler. The steps are repeated using lenses of different thickness.

(iv)

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(v)

Tabulation of data : Thickness of the lens Thin Thick

Focal length, f/cm

(vi)

Conclusion: A thick convex lens has short focal length while a thin convex lens has long focal length.

2.

(a)

What are the differences between images formed by a convex lens and a plane mirror ? [4 Marks] Diagram shows three instruments which use convex lens. Telescope Microscope

(b)

Instruments use convex lens

Magnifying glass Study the above diagram and develop a concept of optical instruments. Your answer should be based on the following aspects. Identify two common characteristics of optical instruments. Develop an initial concept of a optical instruments. Give one example of a optical instrument which uses convex lens and one which does not use convex lens. Give reason for each choice. Develop the actual concept. [6 Marks]
*The bolded and italic letter is the answer

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ANSWER a) Image formed by convex lens Real images Smaller size than object Inverted Not laterally inverted Image formed by plane mirror Virtual image Same size as the object Upright Laterally inverted

b) i) Common characteristics 1. Form virtual image 2. Image size is bigger than object size. ii) Initial concept An instrument that forms a virtual image and image size is bigger than object size is an optical instrument.

iii)

Other example- Binocular Non-example periscopes iv) Binocular because the image size is bigger than object // use convex lens Periscopes because the image formed is the same size as the object // use plane mirror v) Actual concept An optical instrument is an instrument that forms a virtual image and image size is bigger than object size.

3.

(a)

Make comparisons between focusing an image in human eye and camera.

[ 4 Marks]

(c)

A student wants to look at something behind a wall. However, he unable to do so. Based on your knowledge in science, suggest an apparatus and explain how it works to the student to solve his problem. Your answer should include the following: Identify the problem. Clarification of the problem Solving methods Explain the method using.

[ 6 Marks]

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ANSWER: a) Eye Mechanism of focusing Eye-focusing is done when thickness of the lens is regulated by the ciliarys muscle. Eye-The amount of light entering the eyes is controlled by the iris Camera Camera-focusing is done by regulating the distance between the lens and the film Camera-The amount of light entering the camera is controlled by the diaphragm

Mechanism of controlling the amount of light

b) Identify the problem : A student wants to look at something behind a wall. Clarification of the problem However, he unable to do so because the wall is high Solving methods Use periscope Explain the method using Two plane mirrors are arranged parallel to one another at an angle of 45o. Light rays from the first mirror are projected to the surface of the second mirror. The second mirror reflects the light rays to the eyes of the student

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