Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 14

DISTRIBUTOR IGNITION SYSTEM 2-2

GENERALINFORMATION2-2
DIAGNOSISANDTESTING 2-2
SECONDARYSPARKTEST2-2
CYLINDERDROPTEST 2-2
ADJUSTMENTS 2-3
IGNITIONCOIL 2-3
TESTING 2-3
REMOVAL&INSTALLATION 2-3
POWERTRANSISTOR
(Ignition Module) 2-4
REMOVAL&INSTALLATION 2-4
DISTRIBUTOR 2-4
REMOVAL&INSTALLATION 2-4
INSTALLATION 2-4
CRANKSHAFTANDCAMSHAFTPOSITION
SENSORS 2-5
DISTRIBUTORLESS IGNITION
SYSTEM 2-5
GENERALINFORMATION2-5
DIAGNOSISANDTESTING 2-5
ADJUSTMENTS 2-5
IGNITIONCOIL(s) 2-5
TESTING 2-5
REMOVAL&INSTALLATION 2-6
POWERTRANSISTOR
(IGNITIONMODULE) 2-7
REMOVAL&INSTALLATION 2-7
CRANKSHAFTANDCAMSHAFTPOSITION
SENSORS 2-7
FIRING ORDERS 2-7
CHARGING SYSTEM 2-8
GENERALINFORMATION2-8
ALTERNATORPRECAUTIONS2-8
ALTERNATOR
TESTING 2-8 2-8 I
REMOVAL&INSTALLATION 2-9
REGULATOR 2-10
REMOVAL&INSTALLATION 2-10
STARTING SYSTEM 2-10
GENERALINFORMATION2-10
STARTER 2-10
TESTING 2-10
REMOVAL&INSTALLATION 2-11
SENDING UNITS 2-11
ENGINECOOLANTTEMPERATURE
SENDINGUNIT 2-11
TESTING 2-11
REMOVAL&INSTALLATION 2-11
OIL PRESSURESENDINGUNIT 2-12
TESTING2-12
REMOVAL&INSTALLATION 2-12
.~ P.X I_ - “, .- I .-., IS ” .~.I .r

2-2 ENGINE
ELECTRICAL

nn

ity andtrouble:shootingelectrical circuits,


please refer to Section6 of this manual. I

Theignitionsystemonthe1.5L,1993-961.8L,
2.OLSOHC,1994-982.4LSOHC,3.OLSOHC,and
3.5Lenginesusesa pointless typedistributor,whose
advance mechanism is controlledbytheEngineCon-
trolUnit(ECU).Onthe1.5L,1.8L,2.4Land3.5Len-
gines,thedistributorhousesa builtin ignitioncoil
andignitionpowertransistor. The2.8LSOHCand
3.OLSOHCenginesutilizea separate coilandtran- 9105zp11

sisterassemblv. Fig. 1 This spark tester looks iust like a Fiu. 2 This spark tester has an adjustable
WhentheignitionswitchisturnedON,battery spark plug, attach the clip to ground and air-gap for measuring spark strength and
voltageisappliedtotheignitioncoilprimarywinding. crank the engine to checkfor spark testing different voltage ignition systems
Astheshaftof thedistributorrotates,signalsare
transmittedfromtheoowertrain controlmoduletothe .
ignitionpowertrarrsistor.Thesesignalsactivate
the
powertransistorto causeignitioncoilprimarywind-
ingcurrentflowfromtheignitioncoilnegative termi-
nalthroughthepowertransistor to groundrepeatedly.
Thisinterruptioninduces highvoltageintheignition
coilsecondarv windinas, whichis divertedthrouah
thedistributor,
sparkplugcableandsparkplug6
ground,thuscausingignitionin eachcylinder.

I l;h.4-
SECONDARYSPARKTEST !'$,L".~
>,%
Fig. 4 This spark tester is the easiest to use
If See Figures 1 thru 6 91rJszp12 iust alace it on a plug wire and the spark
Thebestwayto performthisprocedure isto usea Fig. 3 Attach the clip to ground and crank voltage is detectedand the bulb on the tof
sparktester(available
-. atmostautomotive partsstores). the engine to checkfor spark I I will flash with each pulse
I nreetypesotsparktestersarecommonly available.
TheNeonBulbtypeisconnected tothesparkplug
wireandflasheswitheachignitionpulse.TheAirGap
typemustbeadjusted totheindividualsparkpluggap
specified fortheengine. Thelasttypeofsparkplug
testerlookslikea sparkplugwitha grounding clipon
theside,butthereis nosideelectrode forthesparkto
jumpto.Thelasttwotypesof testersallowstheuserto
notonlydetectthepresence ofspark,butalsothein-
tensity(orange/yellow isweak,blueisstrong).
1. Disconnect a sparkplugwireatthesparkplug
end.
2. Connect theplugwireto thesparktesterand
groundthetesterto anappropriate locationonthe
engine.
3. Cranktheengineandcheckforsparkatthe
tester.
4. If sparkexistsatthetester,theignitionsystem
is functioning properly.
5. If sparkdoesnotexistatthesparkplugwire,
performdiagnosis of theignitionsystemusingindi-
vidualcomponent diagnosis procedures, 1. Placethetransaxlein P,engage theemer- and althoughit cannotkill you, it will shock
gencybrake,andstarttheengineandletit idle. you and it doeshurt.
CYLINDERDROPTEST 2. Usinga sparkplugwireremoving tool,prefer-
ablythepliertype,carefullyremovethebootfrom 3. Theenginewill sputter,runworse,andpossi-
p See Figures 7, 8, and 9 oneof thecylinders. blynearlystall.If thishappensreinstalltheplugwire
Thecylinderdroptestis performed whenanen- i ’ andmoveto thenextcylinder.If theenginerunsno
ginemisfireis evident.Thistesthelpsdetermine differently,
orthedifference is minimal,
shuttheen-
whichcylinderis notcontributingtheproperpower. gineoffandinspectthesparkplugwire,sparkplug,
Makesure your body is free from touching andif necessary, performcomponent diagnosticsas
Theeasiestwayto performthistestisto removethe any part of the car which is metal. Thesec-
plugwiresoneata timefromthecylinderswiththe coveredinthissection.Perform thetestonall cylin-
ondaryvoltage in the ignition systemis high dersto verifythewhichcylindersaresuspect.
enginerunning.
ENGINEELECTRICAL
2-3

91c6zp16

Fig. 9. . . notethe idle speedand idle char-


acteristics of the engine. The cylinder(s)
with the least drag is the non-contributing
cyltnder(s) - 1
2. Measure theresistance
of thesecondary igni- 2. Measure theresistanceof thesecondary
igni-
tioncoilasfollows: tioncoilasfollows:
Therearenoadjustments to thedistributorignition a. Insertoneof thetestleadsintothesec- a. Insertoneof thetestleadsintothesec-
systemotherthantheignitiontimingadjustment. Re- ondaryignitioncoil terminalontopof thedis- ondaryignitioncoil terminalon topof thedis-
ferto section1 for ignitiontimingadjustment. tributorcap. tributorcap.
b. Touchthesecondtestleadto terminal1 or b. Touchthesecondtestleadto terminal1 or
terminal2 of thedistributorconnector. terminal2 of thedistributorconnector.
c. Measure theresistance andcomnare to the c. Measure theresistance andcomoareto the
desiredspecifications of: desiredspecifications of:
TESTING l 21329kilo-ohmsonthe1.5L,1.8L,and l 20-29kilo-ohmsonthe2.OLSOHCen-
2.4Lengines gine
1.5L, 1.8L, 2.41, and 3.51 Englnes l 9-13 kilo-ohmson the3.5Lengine l 10.29-13.92 kilo-ohmsonthe3.01SOHC
d. If themeasured valueis withinstandard al- engine
u See Figures10, 11, and 12 lowance, therearenobrokenwiresor shortcir- d. If themeasured valueis withinstandard
cuits. allowance, thereareno brokenwiresor short
*The ignition cog is an integral part of the e. If theactualreadingdiffersfromthede circuits.
distributor. siredspecification, replacetheignitioncoi!l. e. If theactualreadingdiffersfromthe
desiredspecification, replacetheignition
1. Measure theresistanceof theprimaryignition 2.OLSOHCand 3.OLSOHCEngines coi!l.
coilasfollows:
a. Unplugtheelectricalconnector at thedis- # See Figure 13 \ \
tributor.Usinganohmmeter, measure theresis- 1. Measure theresistance
of theprimaryignition REMOVAL&INSTALLATION
tancebetween thetwoterminalsof thedistributor, coilasfollows:
NOTTHEWIREHARNESS, exceptfor the3.5L a. Unplugtheelectricalconnector at thecoil.
engine,in whichyoutestacrossterminals1 and Usinganohmmeter, measure theresistance be- 1.5L, 1.8L, 2.4L, and 3.5L Engines
2 of thedistributor. tweenthetwoterminalsof thecoil,NOTTHE *The ignition coil is an tntegral part of the
b. Measure theresistance andcompare to the WIREHARNESS. distributor.
desiredspecifications of: b. Measure theresistance andcompare to the
l 0.9-1.2ohmsonthe1.5L,1.8L,and2.4L desiredspecificationsof:
engines \ l 0.9-1.2ohmsonthe2.OLSOHCengine 2.OLSOHCand 3.OLSDHCEngines
l 0.5-0.7ohmsonthe35L engine l 0.72-0.88ohmsonthe3.OLSOHCengine u See Figure 14
c. If theactualreadingdiffersfromthedesired c. If theactualreadingdiffersfromthede-
specification, replacetheignitioncoil. siredspecification,replacetheignitioncoil. 1. Disconnectthenegativebatterycable.
d. If themeasured valueis withinstandard al- d. If themeasured valueis withinstandard al- 2. Remove thecoilwirefromtheignitioncoilby
lowance, therearenobrokenwiresor shortcir- lowance, therearenobrokenwiresor shortcir- grippingthebootandnotthecable.
cuits. cuits. 3. Detachtheelectricalconnectors
forthecoil.

High voltage terminal


-r
I Q3 ‘I u,
/ - Blm/
Fig. IO Distributor connectorpins and loca-
tiou-l.LL and 1.8L engines
I

lion-2.4L SOHCengtne
L tflgn
tension
terminal
,3=%@ @
Fig. 11 Distributor connectorpins and loca- Fig. 12 Dlstrfbufor connectorplus and loca-
tio&.5L engine
2-4 ENGINEELECTRICAL
2. Installthedistributorin theenginesotherotor
is alignedwiththematchmark onthehousingandthe
housingis alignedwiththematchmark ontheengine.

4. Attachthedistributorharness connectors.
Beforeremoving thedistributor,positionNo.1 5. Installthedistributorcap.
‘cylinderatTopDeadCenter(TDC)onthecompres- 6. Connect thenegativebatterycable.
sionstrokeandalignthetimingmarks. 7. Adjusttheignitiontimingandtightenthehold-
1. Disconnectthenegative batterycable. downnutto 6 ft. Ibs.(11Nm).
2. Remove theignitionwirecover,if equipped.
3. Detachthedistributorharness connector. Timing Dlsturbed
4. Remove thedistributor
capwithall ignitionwires
stillconnected.
Remove thecoilwire,if necessary. 1. Installa newdistributorhousingO-ringand
5. Matchmark therotorto thedistributorhousing lubricate
withcleanoil.
andthedistributor housingtotheengine. 2. PositiontheenginesotheNo.1 pistonis at
6. Remove thehold-down nut. TopDeadCenter(TDC)of itscompression stroke
4.‘ Remove theretainingscrewsandcoilfromen- 7. Carefullyremove thedistributorfromtheengine. andthemarkonthevibrationdamperis alignedwith
gine. 0 onthetimingindicator.
5. Installation
is thereverseof theremovalproce- INSTALLATION 3. Alignthedistributorhousingandgearmating
dure. marks.Installthedistributorintheenginesotheslot
6 See Figures19 and 2g or grooveof thedistributor’s
installation
flangealigns
withthedistributorinstallation
studintheengine
Timing Not Disturbed block.Besurethedistributorisfullyseated.Inspect
alignmentof thedistributorrotormakingsurethero-
1, Installa newdistributorhousingO-ringand tnr ic dinnnd with thn qn,c$nn of the Nn innitinn

REMOVALS&
INSTALLATION lubricate
withcleanoil.

ISL, 1AIL, 2.4L, and 3.5L Engines


Thepowertransistor(ignitionmodule)is aninte-
gralpartof thedistributor.
2.gL SDHCand 3.OLSOHCEngines
# See Figure 14
1x Disconnect
thenegative
batterycable.

Remove
theretainingscrewsandpowertran-

Fig. 16 Remove the bolt holding the wire


Detachthe connectorsfrom the dis- harnessand capacitor, then move the har-
ness and capacitor to the side

Fig. 18 . . . then slide the distributor from


the engine

Fig 14 Ignition system component loca-


/ tion’s-3.gL SOHCengine g3is~@ 1
ENGlNEELECTRliAL
2-5
4. Installthe hold-downnut.
5. Attachthe distributorharnessconnectors.
6. Installthe distributorcap.
7. Connectthe negativebatterycable.
8. Adjustthe ignition timing and tightenthe hold-
down nut to 8 ft. Ibs. (11 Nm).

For procedureson the positionsensors,pleasere-


fer to Section4 in this manual.
Fig. 19 Adjustingthe distributor-1.5L en-
gine shown, others similar

b. Comparereadingto the desrredprimary


coil resistanceof 0.77-0.95 ohms.
The ignition systemfoundon the 1.6L, 1997-60 3. Measurethe coil secondaryresistanceas fol-
1.8L,2.OLDOHC,1999-00 2.4L SOHC,2.4L DOHC, TESTING lows:
and 3.OLDOHCenginesis a distributorlesstype. c. Detachthe connectorfrom the ignition coil.
The advanceof this system,like the distributor type 1.6L and 19902.OLDOHCEngines d. Measurethe resistancebetweenthe high-
ignition, is controlledby the EngineControl Unit voltageterminalsfor the No. 1 and No. 4 cylin-
(ECU)or PowertrainControl Module (PCM). The 6 See Figures21 and 22 ders, and betweenthe high-voltageterminalsfor
distributorlessignition systemcontainsa crankan- the No. 2 and No. 3 cylinders.
1. Disconnectthe negativebatterycableand igni- e. Comparethe measuredresistanceto the
gle/position sensorwhich detectsthe crankangleor
tion coil harnessconnector. desiredsecondarycoil resistanceof 10.3-13.9
position to eachcylinderand convertsthis data into
2. Measurethe primarycoil resistanceas follows: kilo-ohms.
pulsesignals.Thesesignalsare sent to the
a. Measurethe resistancebetweenterminals 4. If the readingsare not within the specified
ECLVPCM,which calculatesthe enginerpm and
of the coil pack,NOTTHEWIREHARNESS, value,replacethe ignition coil.
regulatesthe fuel injection and ignition timing ac-
between4 and 2 (coils at the No. 1 and No. 4
cordingly.The systemalso containsa top deadcen-
cylinder srdes)of the ignition coil, and between 1991-!I3 2.OLDDHCEngines
ter sensorwhich detectsthe top deadcenterposition
of eachcylinder and convertsthis datainto pulse terminals4 and 1 (coils at the No. 2 and No. 3
cylinder sides). # See Figures 23 and 24
signals.Thesesignals are then sentto the

n0
ECU/PCM,which calculatesthe sequenceof fuel in-
jection and enginerpm.
Whenthe ignition switch is turned ON, battery
voltage is appliedto the ignition coil primarywind-
ing. As the crankanglesensorshaft rotates,ignition
signals are transmittedfrom the multi port injection
control unit to the powertransistor.Thesesignals
activatethe powertransistorto cause ignition coil
primarywinding currentto flow from the ignition
coil negativeterminalthroughthe powertransistor 93152go9
to ground or be interrupted,repeatedly.This action
induceshigh voltagein the secondarywinding of
Fig. 21 Measuring ignition coil primary re-
the ignition coil. Fromthe ignitroncoil, the sec- sistance-1.6L and 1990 2.OL DDHCen-
ondarywinding current producedflows throughthe gines
spark plug to ground,thus causingignition in each
cylinder. . Fig. 23 Measuringthe primary ignition coil
For No 1 and No. 4
resistance-1991-93 2.OLDOHCenoines

I I
Referto DiagnosisandTestingunderDistributor FOR NO 1 AND NO. 4 CYLINDERS
Ignition in this section, Id

Thereare no adjustmentsto the distributorlessig-


cvlmders
nition systemotherthanthe ignition timing adjust-
ment.Referto section1 for ignition timing adjust- Fig. 22 Measuring ignition coil secondary
ment.
resistance-l .6L and 1990 2.OLDOHCen- FOR NO. 2 AND NO. 3 CYUNDERS
gines 89572611
Fig. 24 Measuring ignition coil secondary
resistance-1991-93 2.OLDOHCengines
2-6 ENGINEELECTRICAL

89572914
Fig. 26 Measuring ignition coil secondary 89572g13
resistance-1997-00 1.8L and 1994-00 Fig. 28 Measurethe primary coil resistance Fig. 27 Measure the secondary resistance
2.4L SOHCengines between the connector terminals-2.4L betweenthe towers of the coil-2.4L DOHC
DOHCenaine engine
1. Disconnect thenegative batterycableandigni-
tioncoil harness connector.
2. Measure theprimarycoil resistance asfollows: . 3. To.checkthesecondary coil resistance,
per- d. If themeasured valueis withinstandard al-
a. Measure theresistance between terminals termthetollowmg: lowance, thereareno brokenwiresor shortcir-
3 and2 (coilsat theNo.1 andNo.4 cylinder a. Taganddisconnect thesparkplugwires cuits.
sides)of theignitioncoil,andbetween terminals fromtheignitioncoil. 2. Measure theresistance of thesecondary igni-
3 and1 (coilsat theNo.2 andNo.3 cylinder b. Measure thesecondary resistance of the tioncoilasfollows:
sides). coil between thetowersof eachindividualcoil. 3. Insert
the leadof theohmmeter between coil
b. Compare readingto thedesiredprimary c. If theresistance
is notbetween 20.1-27.3 packcylinderterminals:
coil resistanceof 0.70-0.86ohms. kilo-ohms,replacetheignitioncoil. l Between coil terminalsl-4 for Co11A
3. Measure thecoilsecondary resistance asfol- l Between coil terminals2-5 for CoilB
3.OLDOHCEngine l Between coil terminals3-6 for CoilC
lows:
c. Detachtheconnector fromtheignitioncoil. 6 See Figures28 and 29 e. Measure theresistance andcompare to the
d. Measure theresistance between thehigh- desiredspecifications of 11.3-l5.3kilo-ohms.
voltageterminals for theNo.1 andNo.4 cylin- 1. Measure theresistanceof theprimaryignition f. If themeasured valueis withinstandard al-
ders,andbetween thehigh-voltage terminals for coilasfollows: lowance, therearenobrokenwiresor shortcir-
theNo.2 andNo.3 cylinders. a. Unplugtheelectricalconnector atthecoil cuits.
e. Thedesiredsecondary coil resistance is pack.Usinganohmmeter, measure theresis- g. If theactualreadingdiffersfromthede-
11.3-15.3kilo-ohms. tancebetween theterminalsof thecoil pack, siredspecification, replacetheignitioncoil pack.
4. Ifthereadings arenotwithinthespecified NOTTHEWIREHARNESS. Measure there-
value,replacetheignitioncoil. sistancebetween terminals: REMOVAL&INSTALLATION
l 2-3 for CoilA
1997-00 1.8L and 1999-00 2.4L SOHC l l-3 for Coil B 1.6L, 2.OLDOHC,and 2.4L DOHCEngines
Engines l 4-3 for CoilC
b. Measure theresistance andcompare to the # See Figure 30
+ See Figure 25 desiredspecifications of 0.67-0.81ohms.
c. If theactualreadingdiffersfromthede- 1. Disconnect thenegativebatterycable.
1. Measure theresistance
of thesecondarv
, iani-
- siredspecification, replacetheignitioncoil. 2. Tagandremove thesparkplugwiresfromthe
tioncoilasfollows: ignitioncoil bygrippingthebootandnotthecable.
a. Insertoneof thetestleadsintothesec-
ondaryignitioncoil terminalof thecoil.
b. Touchthesecondtestleadto terminal1 or
terminal2 of thecoil connector.
c. Measuretheresistance andcompareto
thedesiredspecifications of 9.4-12.8kilo-
ohms.
d. If themeasured valueis withinstandard al-
lowance, thereareno brokenwiresor shortcir-
cuits.
e. If theactualreadingdiffersfromthede- Fig. 28 Measuring ignition coil primary re-
siredspecification,replacetheignitioncoil. sistance-3.01 DOHCengine
2.4L DDHCEngines
# See Figures26 and 27
1. Disconnect thenegativebatterycable.
2. Tochecktheprimarycoil resistance, perform
thefollowing: I
a. Detachtheelectricalconnector fromthe ~::::L “1

coil pack. I
2
cemer Cwer
Scabpiwcabk
b. Usinganohmmeter, measure theresis- 3
I
5
SPaark piug
lgnlllancoll
Powertran3lrtor
tancebetween thetwoterminalsof thecoil,NOT 6
I
ThrotflsDcnv*w
Crankanglelmsm
THEWIREHARNESS. 93152g11

c. If theresistance
is notbetween 0.74-0.90 Fig. 29 Measuring ignition coil secondary Fig. 30 Ignition system component loca-
ohms,replacetheignitioncoil. resistance-3.01 DOHCenaine lions-l .6L and 2.OLDOHCengines
ENGINEELECTRICAL
2-7
3. Detachthe electricalconnectorsfor the COIL
4. Removethe retainingscrewsand coil from en-
gine.
5. Installationis the reverseof the removalproce-
dure.

1997-00 1.81 and 1994-00 2.4L Engines


) See Figure 31
1, Disconnectthe negativebatterycable.
2. Detachthe electricalconnector(s)for the
coil(s).
3. Removethe sparkplug wire(s)to the compan-
ion cylinder(s).
4 Removethe coil retainingbolts and lift the coil
from the cylinder head.
5. The installationis the reverseof the removal.
9315291
3.OL DOHC Engine 1 lgnltlo” co,,
2
3
sparlt plug case
Spark plug
Fig. 32 Ignition system component loca,
# See Figure 32 4 Imltlon fatlure semm
tions-3.01 DOHC engine
93152g1:

1, Disconnectthe negativebatterycable. Fig. 31 Ignition system component loca,


2. Removethe intakemanifoldplenum(upperin- iions-1997-00 1.8L engine shown 1. Disconnectthe negativebatterycable.
takemamfold) Referto Section3. 1999-00 2.4L engine similar 2. Removethe intakemanifoldplenum(upperin-
3. Tagand removethe sparkplug wires from the takemanifold).Referto Section3.
ignition coil by grippingthe bootand not the cable. 3 Detachthe electricalconnectorsfor the transis-
4 Detachthe electricalconnectorsfor the coil. 1. Disconnectthe negativebatterycable. tor.
5. Removethe retainingscrewsand coil from en- 2. Detachthe electricalconnectorsfor the transis- 4. Removethe retainingscrewsand removethe
gine. tor. transistorfrom engine.
6. Installationis the reverseof the removalproce- 3. Removethe retainingscrewsand removethe 5. Installationis the reverseof the removalproce-
dure. transistorfrom engine. dure.
4. Installationis the reverseof the removalproce-
dure.

1.8L and 1999-00 2.4L Engines


Thepowertransistor(ignition module)is an inte-
For procedureson the positlon sensors,pleasere-
REMOVAL
&INSTALLATION gral part of the powertraincontrol module.
fer to Section4 in this manual.
3.OL DOHC Engine
1 AL, 2.01 DOHC, and 2.4L DOHC Engines
# See Figure 32
) See Figure 30

# See Figures 33 thru 40

*To avoid confusion, remove and tag the


spark plug wires one at a time, for replace-
ment.
ujamm-p:@
If a distributor is not keyedfor installationwith
only one orientation,it could havebeenremovedpre- 79233921
viously and rewired.The resultantwiring would hold
the correctfiring order,but could changethe relative
placementof the plugtowers in relationto the en-
gine. Forthis reasonit is imperativethatyou labelall Fig. 33 1.5L (4615) and 1993-96 1.81 7923392:

wires beforedisconnectingany of them.Also, before (4693) engines :ig. 34 2.OL (4663) SOHC engine
removal,comparethe currentwiring with the accom- Firing order: l-3-4-2 ‘iring order: l-3-4-2
panyingillustrations.If the currentwiring doesnot Distributor rotation: Counterclockwise Distributor rotation: Clockwise
match,makenotesin your bookto reflecthow your
engineis wired.
.
2-8 ENGINEELECTRICAL

Front Front
of the of the
Vehicle Vehicle

Fig. 36 1997-00 1.6L (4693) and 1999-00


Fig. 35 1.61(4661) and 2.OL(4663) DDHC 2.41(4664) Engineswith distributorless ig- Fig. 37 2.4L (4664) engine with distributor
engines nition ignition
Firing order: l-3-4-2 Firing order: l-3-4-2 Firing order: l-3-4-2
Distributorlessignition system Distributorlessignition system Distributor rotation: Counterclockwise

792!33g26

Fig. 36 2.4L (4664) DDHCengine with dis- Fig. 39 3.OL(6672) SDHCand 3.5L (6674)
lributorless ignition engines :ig. 40 3.OL(6672) DDHCengine
Firing order: l-3-4-2 Firing order: l-2-3-65-6 Yring order: l-2-3-4-5-6
gistributorless ignition system Distributor rotation: Counterclockwise Iistributorless ignition system

alternator,the field rotateswhile all the currentpro-


ducedpassesonly throughthe statorwinding.The
Theautomobilechargingsystemprovideselectri- brushesbearagainstcontinuousslip rings rather Severalprecautionsmust be observedwhenper-
cal powerfor operationof the vehicle’signition and thana commutator.This causesthe currentproduced forming work on alternatorequipment.
startingsystemsand all the electricalaccessories. to periodicallyreversethe directionof its flow creat- l If the batteryis removedfor any reason,make
The batteryservesas an electricalsurgeor storage ing alternatingcurrent(A/C). Diodes(electricalone- surethat it is reconnectedwith the correctpolarity.
tank,storing (in chemicalform) the energyoriginally wayswitches)block the flow of currentfrom traveling Reversingthe batteryconnectionsmay result In dam-
producedby the enginedriven alternator.Thesystem in the wrong direction.A seriesof diodesis wired to- ageto the one-wayrectifiers.
also providesa meansof regulatinggeneratoroutput getherto permitthe alternatingflow of the statorto be l Neveroperatethe alternatorwith the main cir-
to protectthe batteryfrom beingoverchargedandto convertedto a pulsating,but unidirectionalflow at cuit broken.Makesurethatthe battery,alternator,
avoid excessivevoltageto the accessories. the alternatoroutput,Thealternatorsfield is wired in and regulatorleadsare not disconnectedwhile the
ThestoragebatteryISa chemicaldeviceincorpo- serieswith the voltageregulator. engineis running.
rating parallelleadplatesin a tank containinga sul- The regulatorconsistsof severalcircuits. Eachcir- l Neverattemptto polarizean alternator.
furic acid/watersolution.Adjacentplatesare slightly cuit hasa core,or magneticcoil of wire, which oper- l Whencharginga batterythat is installedin the
dissimilar,andthe chemicalreactionof the 2 dissim- atesa switch. Eachswitch is connectedto ground vehicle,disconnectthe negativebatterycable.
ilar platesproduceselectricalenergywhenthe battery throughone or more resistors.The coil of wire re- l Whenutilizing a boosterbatteryas a starting
is connectedto a loadsuch as the startermotor.The spondsdirectlyto systemvoltage.Whenthe voltage aid, alwaysconnectit in parallel;negatrveto nega-
chemicalreactionis reversible,so that whenthe gen- reachesthe requiredlevel,the magneticfield created tive, and positiveto positrve.
erator ISproducinga voltage(electricalpressure) by the winding of wire closesthe switchand insertsa l Whenarc (electric)welding is to be performed
greaterthan that producedby the battery,electricityis resistanceinto the generatorfield circuit, thus reduc- on any part of the vehicle,disconnectthe negative
forced into the battery,and the batteryis returnedto ing the output.Thecontactsof the switch cycleopen batterycableand alternatorleads.
its fully chargedstate. and close manytimes eachsecondto preciselycon- l Neverunplugthe PCM while the engineis run-
Thevehicle’salternatoris driven mechanically,by trol voltage. ning or with the ignition in the ONposition.Severe
a belt(s)that is driven by the enginecrankshaft.In an and expensivedamagemay resultwithin the solid
stateequipment.
ENGlNEELECTRldAL
2-9
able for use by customers.An alternator 7. Onthe1.6Lengineremovethebattery,wind-
benchtest is the mostdefinitive way to de- shieldwasherreservoirandbatterytray.
termine the conditionof your alternator. 8. Onthe1.6Lengine,removetheattaching
TESTING boltsatthetopof theradiatorandlift uptheradiator.
REMOVAL&INSTALLATION Donotdisconnect theradiatorhoses.
VoltageTest 9. Detachthealternatorwiringconnectors.
10. Remove thealternatormounting boltsandre-
1. Makesuretheengineis OFF,andturnthe 1.51,1.61, 1.6L, 2.OLand2.4L Engines movethealternator.
headlightsonfor 15-20seconds to removeanysur- , See Figures4, thru 48 Toinstall:
facechargefromthebattery. 11. Positionthealternator
onthelowermountina
2. Usinga DVOMsettovoltsDC,probeacross 1. Disconnect
thenegativebatterycable. fixtureandinstallthelowermounting boltandnut. U
thebatteryterminals. 2. Removetheleftsidecoverpanelunderthe Tightennutjustenoughto allowfor movement ofthe
3. Measure thebatteryvoltage. vehicle. alternator.
4. Writedownthevoltagereadingandproceedto 3. OnturbocharaedGalantmodels,remove the 12. Onthe1.6Lengine,lowertheradiatorandre-
thenexttest. air intakehose. - installtheupperattaching bolts.
4. Removethedrivebelts. 13. Onthe1.6Lengine,installthebattery,wind-
No-load Test 5. Removethewaterpumppulleys. shieldwasherreservoirandbatterytray.
1. Connect
a tachometer
totheengine. 6. Removethealternator
upperbracket/brace.

Ensurethat the transmissionis in Parkand


the emergencybrake is set. Blockinga wheel
is optional and an addedsafety measure.
2. Turnoffall electricalloads(radio,blowermo-
tor,wipers,etc.)
3. Starttheengineandincrease enginespeedto
approximately 1500rpm.
4. Measure thevoltagereadingatthebatterywith
theengineholdinga steady1500rpm.Voltage
shouldhaveraisedat least0.5volts,butnomore
than2.5volts.
5. Ifthevoltagedoesnotgoupmorethan0.5 Fig 42 Remove the nut retaining the bat-
volts,thealternator is notcharging.If thevoltage
goes / tery cable to the alternator . , . 93152p12
* upmorethan2.5volts,thealternator isover-
cnargmg.
*Usually underand overchargingis‘caused
by a defective alternator, or its related parts
(regulator), and replacementwill fix the
problem;however,faulty wiring and other
problemscan causethechargingsystemto
malfunction.Furthertesting, which is not
coveredby this book, will reveal the exact
componentfailure. Many automotiveparts
stores have alternator benchtesters avaii-
ablefor use bycustomers.An alternator
benchtest is the mostdefinitive way to de-
termine the conditionof your alternator.
6. If thevoltageiswithinspecifications,proceeU
to thenexttest. Fig. 44 Removethe nut retaining the
Load Test then remove the batte harnessto the alternator and remov
1. Withtheenginerunning,turnontheblower
motorandthehiohbeams(orotherelectricalacces- ,
soriesto placeaioadonthechargingsystem).
2. Increase andholdenginespeedto 2000rpm.
3. Measure thevoltagereadingatthebattery.
4. Thevoltageshouldincrease atleast0.5volts
fromthevoltagetest.If thevoltagedoesnotmeet
specifications,
thechargingsystemis malfunction-
ing.
*Usually underand overchargingis caused
by a defective alternator, or its related parts
(regulator), and replacementwill fix the
problem;however, faulty wiring and other
problemscan causethe chargingsystemto
malfunction.Furthertesting, which is not 93152p17
coveredby this book, will reveal the exact en removethe pivot bolt from
componentfailure. Manyautomotiveparts
stores have alternator benchtesters avaii-
.
2-10 ENGINEELECTRICAL 1
2. Disconnect andremove theair intakehose.
3. Loosenthetensioner pulleyandremovethe
alternator drivebelt.
4. OnCaliforniamodels,removetherearbank
converter assembly.
5. Remove theengineroll stopperstaybracket
assembly.
6. Onthe3.OLSDHCengine,disconneCt the
EGRtemperature sensorwireandremove theEGR
pipeassembly.
7. Onthe3.OLSOHCengine,remove theintake
plenumstaybracketassembly.
8. Detach thealternator wiringharness connec-
tors.
Fig, 47 Removethe alternator adjustingbolt 9. Remove thealternator upperandlower
. aa mounting bolts.
I^” 10. From beneath the vehicle,remove thealterna-‘
._.
To install:
11. Positionthealternator onthelowermountino
fixture.Installandtightenthemounting boltandnu<
to M-18 ft. Ibs.(20-25Nm).
12. Connect thealternator wiringharness.
13. Onthe3.OLSOHCengine,installtheintake
plenumstaybracketandtightenthemounting boltto
13ft. Ibs.(18Nm).
14. Onthe3.OLSOHCengine,installtheEGR
pipeandtightenthefittingconnections to 43ft. Ibs.
(60 Nm).
15. Onthe3.OLSOHCenoine.connecttheEGR
temperature sensorwire. -
16. Connect theengineroll stopperstayand
93152015
tightenthemountina boltto 35ft. Ibs.(45Nm)and
Fia. 49 Alternator mountinu-3.0L DOHCenoine thenutto 36-43ft.Tbs.(50-60Nm). ’
17. Installtherearconverter assembly, if re-
14. Installthealternator
upperbracket/brace and 12. Positionthealternator onthemoursting moved.
connectthealternator electricalharness. VIUVI,VL.
hmrkd lllcllUllrmr(
lnrtnll Ullytinhtnn
llylllvll thn
LltUmm
,,tvuln,,ly
dim Lvoltandnut 18. Reinstall thedrivebeltandadjusttheten-
15. Installthewaterpumppulleys. to 17ft. Ibs.(24Nm). sioneruntiltheproperbelttensionis achieved.
16. Installthedrivebeltsandadjusttotheproper 13. Reinstall thedrivebeltandadjusttheten- 19. Connect theair intakehose.
tension. pinnor fmtil the nmnor hdt toncinn ic art-:--~ -_. Connect
20. -_. __.the_.neoativa
_=-___hatterv
_-.._., rzahle
____ and_._ check
_ __
17. Onturbocharged Galantmodels,installthe - I Ull” Yvll
thecharoinasystemfor orooerooeration.
- - _

air intakehose. denserfan. -rr- --


18. Installtheleftsidecoverpanelunder theve- 15. Installtheheadlamp washerreservoirtank.
1IIVI”
hid@ YY ‘“~“““Y.
zx ran~kwl
16. Connect thenegative batterycableandcheck
19. Connect thenegative batterycableandcheck thechargingsvstem
-,-.- for properoperation.
for properoperation. REMOVAL&INSTALLATION
3.OLSOHCand J.DL n C, engines
n---I_-- \
3.OLDOHCEngine Thevoltageregulatoronmodelscoveredbythis
,i -fhs ,Itin**
lyures 50 and 51 manualis anintegralpartof thealternator.
If thereg-
b See Figure 49 ulatoris defective,
replace
thealternatorassembly.
1. Disconnect
thenegative
batterycable.
\ 1. Disconnectthenegativebatterycable.
2. Remove theheadlamp washerreservoirtank.
3. Remove thecondenserfanandupperradiator
insulator.
4. Loosenthetensionerpulleyandremove the
alternator
drivebelt.
5. Remove thealternator
upperandlower
mounting bolts.
6. Remove thealternator
supportbracket
mn~lntinn h&c
_ _ _ _ -. ._ ,_._ --TT-.. -.--..-. ..-...
thevehicle.
8. Disconnect
thealternator
wiringharness.
Q Romnm
V. llYlll”“Y
thn slternatnr
LI1”“I~Y1IIU,“I
frnm thn
II”,,, Lll”
mhirln
,“,,,“,“.

To install:
10. Installthealternator
to thevehicleandcon-
nectthewiringharness. :z RtEWtiW~-~
3EGE$llaf
11 Install
.._. -.. the
.._ -alternatnr wnnnrt hrxket tn _.P
.._..._._. --rT-.. -.--..-. .- thp
I.._
vehicleandtightenthebracketmounting
boltsto
specifications.
ENGINE
ELECTRICAL
2-11
l.unVeMlil(GSflWtWJ
2.Gwwator harness con- connectk,,,
3. Engme OS, level d,pst,&
4 Generator

Fig. 51 Alternator mounting-3.51 engine

2. Connect a voltmeterbetween thepositiveter- 3. Remove theresonator retainingnutsandre-


minalof thebatteryandthestarterB+circuit. movetheair intakehoseandresonator assembly as
Thestartingsystemincludesthebattery,starter 3. Turntheignitionkeyto theSTARTposition required.
motor,solenoid,ignitionswitch,circuitprotection andnotethevoltageonthemeter. rllse care when removingthe air cleaner
andwiringconnecting thecomponents. Aninhibitor 4. If voltagereads0.5voltsor more,thereis high cover becausethe air-flow sensoris attached
switchlocatedinthepark/neutralsafetyswitchor resistance inthestartercablesorthecableground, and is a sensitive component.
Transmission Range(TR)sensoris includedin the repairasnecessary. If thevoltagereadingis okpro-
startingsystemto preventthevehiclefrombeing teedto thenextstep. 4. If equipped withActive-ECS suspension, re-
startedwiththevehiclein gear. 5. Connect avoltmeterbetween thepositiveter- movetheaircompressor asfollows:
WhentheignitionkeyisturnedtotheSTARTpo- minalof thebatteryandthestarterM circuit, a. Detachthetwoelectricalconnectors, from
sition,currentflowsandenergizesthestarterssole- 6. TurntheignitionkeytotheSTARTposition thecompressor.
noidcoil.Thesolenoidplungerandclutchshiftlever andnotethevoltageonthemeter. b. Disconnect theair lineat thecompressor.
areactivatedandtheclutchpinionengages thering 7. If voltagereads0.5voltsormore,thereis high c. Remove thethreemounting bolts,securing
gearontheflywheel.Theswitchcontacts closeand resistance inthestarter.Repairor replace
thestarter thecompressor to thechassis.
thestartercrankstheengineuntilit starts. asnecessary. 5. Raisethevehicleandsupportsafely.
Topreventdamage causedbyexcessive starterar- 6. Remove theengineundercover.
*Many automotiveparts stores have starter 7. Remove theheatshieldfrombeneath thein-
maturerotationwhentheenginestarts,thestarterin- benchtesters available for use by customers.
corporatesanover-running clutchinthepiniongear. takemanifoldonthe1.5Lengine.
A starter benchtest is the most definitive 8. If necessary,detachthespeedometer cable
way to determinethe conditionof your connector atthetransaxleend.
starter. 9. Detach thestartermotorelectricalconnac-
tions.
TESTING REMOVAL&INSTALLATION 10. Remove thestartermotormounting boltsand
remove thestarter.
# See Figures52 and 53 11. Theinstallation isthereverseof theremoval
Voltage Drop Test
1. Disconnect
thenegative batterycable. procedure. Tightenthestartermounting boltsto 22ft.
*The battery mustbe in goodconditionand 2. Detach
theair-flowsensorassembly connec- Ibs.(31Nm).
fully chargedprior to performingthis test. torandremovethebreather hose. 12. Connect thenegative batterycableandcheck
thestarterfor properoperation.
1. Disabletheignitionsystembyunplugging the
coil pack.Verifythatthevehiclewill notstart.

9315zp19

Fig. 53 Location of the two starter retaining bolts


.
2-12 ENGINEELECTRICAL

*This section describesthe operatingprina


ciples of sendingunits, warning lights and
gauges.Sensorswhich provide information i, 56, 57, and 56
to the EnafneControlUnit (ECU)or Electronic
or Power&in ControlModule(FCM/PCM)are 1. Disconnect thenegativebatterycable.
coveredin Section4 of this manual. 2. Positiona suitabledrainpanundertheradia-
Instrumentpanelscontaina numberof indicating tor.
devices(gauges andwarninglights).Thesedevices 3. Draintheenginecoolanta levelbelowthe
arecomposed of twoseparate components. Oneis coolanttemperature sendingunit.
thesendingunit,mounted ontheengineor otherre- 4. Disconnect thesendingunitwiringharness,
motepartof thevehicle,andtheotheristheactual thenremovethecoolanttemperature sendingunit
gaugeor lightintheinstrument panel. 89572$43 fromtheengine.
Severaltypesof sendingunitsexist,howevermost Fig. 54 Placethe sendingunit in water and To install:
canbecharacterized asbeingeithera pressuretype measurethe resistance 5. Coatthesendingunitthreadswitha suitable
ora resistancetype.Pressure typesendingunits threadsealant.
convertliquidpressure intoanelectricalsignalwhich 6. Installtheenginecoolanttemperature gauge
2. Disconnect thesendingunitwiringharness sendingunitintotheboreintheengineandtighten
is senttothegauge.Resistance typesendingunits andremove thecoolanttemperature sendingunit.
aremostoftenusedto measure temperature
anduse to 7-8 ft. Ibs.(10-12Nm).
3. Placethesendingunittip in a panof warmwa- 7. Attachtheelectricalharness connectorto the
variableresistanceto controlthecurrentflowbackto ter.Useathermometer to measurethewatertempera-
theindicatinqdevice.Bothtypesof sendinqunitsare sendinaunit.
tlL”,“.
KP 8. fill thecoolingsystemtotheproperlevel.
connected inseriesbya wimtothebatteryithiough 4. Measure theresistance
acrossthesendinguni
theignitionswitch).Whentheignitionis turnedON, :onnect thenegativebatterycable.
terminals whilethesendingunitis inthewater.
currentflowsfromthebatterythroughtheindicating 5. Notetheohmreadingandcompare to thefol-
deviceandonto thesendingunit. lowingspecifications:
l Watertemperature of 68°F(2O”C)-
2.21-2.69kilo-ohmsresistance 'ESTING
l Watertemperature of 158°F(7O’Ck
90.5-117.5ohmsresistance
l Watertemperature of 176°F(8O”C)- tauga Check
TESTING 264-328ohmsresistance. See Ftgure 69
If theresistance
is notapproximatelyaccurate for
Thecoolanttemperature sendinaunitis usedto thetemperature, thesendingunitmustbereplaced.
operatethetemperaturegauge.Donotconfusethis
sendingunitwiththeotherswitchesor sensorsused
to signaltheenginecontrolunitorair conditioning
regarding temperature
of thecoolant.Usually,these
otherunitsaremounted nearthecoolanttemoerature
sensorusedfor enginecontrol.
GaugeCheck
1. Detach theenginecoolantgaugesendingunit
electricalconnector.
2. Connect a suitabletestliaht(12V-3.4W)be-
tweentheharness sideconnector andthearound. I
3. Turntheignitionswitchto theONposition.
4. Checktheconditionof thetestlightandgauge
asfollows:
a. If all components areoperating properly, Fig. 55 Detach the connector from the
thetestlightshouldilluminate andthegauge coolant temperaturesending unit
needleshouldmove.
b. If thetestlightis illuminated andthe
gaugeneedledoesnotmove,replacethecoolant
temperature gauge.
c. If thetestlightis illuminated andthe
gaugeneedledoesnotmove,checkthefusefor
a brokenwire,or resistance betweenthegauge
terminals
d. If thetestlightis notilluminated andthe
gaugeis notmoving,check,thenreplacethe
wiringharness, if necessar!y.
SenderCheck
p See Figure 64
1. Draintheenginecoolantto a levelbelowthe
coolanttemperature
sendingunit
ENGINE
ELECTRlCiL2-13
b. If thetestlightflashesor lightssteadilybut 6. Checkto seethatthereis noair pressure
leak-
thegaugedoesnotmove,thegaugemustbere- agethroughthesendingunit.If thereis airpressure
placed. leakage, thediaphragm is brokenandthesending
c. If neitherthetestlightor thegaugeoper- unitwill requirereplacement.
ate,checktheoil pressure gaugecircuitandre-
place,if necessary. REMOVAL&INSTALLATION
SendingUnit Check b See Figures60 thru 65
1. Remove theelectricalharnessconnectorfrom
thesendingunitandremove thesendingunitfrom 1. Disconnect thenegative batterycable.
theoil filterhead. 2. Raiseandsupportthevehiclesafely.
2. Connect anohmmeter betweentheterminal 3. Detach theelectricalharness connector from
ing the oil pressuresendingunit andthesendingunitbodycavityandcheckfor con- thesendingunit,thenremove theunitfromtheoil fil-
ductivity.Ifthereis noconductivity, replacethesend- terhead.
ingunit. To install:
3. Next,inserta verythinwedgethroughtheoil 4. Aoolva thinbeadof sealantto thethreaded
1. Detachtheoil pressure gaugeunitelectrical portionof theoil pressuresendingunit.Donotallow
connector. holein theendof thesendingunit.Pushthewedge
sealerto contacttheendof thethreaded portionof
2. Usea suitabletestlioht(12V-3.4W) to around -in-slightly
-- d and
.. .. measureresistance.Thereshouldbe
thesendingunit.
theharnesssideconnecto~ ’ ’ - noconoucovey.
4. If thereis conductivity, evenwhenwedgeis 5. Installthesendingunitandtightento8 ft. tbs.
3. Turntheignitionto theONposition. (12Nm).Donotover-tighten thesendingunit.
4. Checktheconditionof thetestlightandgauge pushed, replacethesendingunit.
5. If thereis noconductivity whena 71psipres- 6. Attachtheelectricalharness connectorto the
asfollows: sendingunit.
a. If all componentsareoperating properly, sureis placedthroughtheoil hole,thesendingunit
is operating properly. 7. Carefullylowerthevehicle,thenconnect the
thetestlightwill flashor lightsteadilyandthe negativebatterycable.
oil pressure gaugeneedlewill move.

93152PM

Fig. 62 . , . and the use of an oil pressure


Fig 60 Detach the connectorfrom the oil Fig 61 The body of the sending unit has a sendingunit socketgreatly aids the removal
/pressure sendingunit g3’9wi / m&e shape . . . g3152w and installation

Fig. 65 Before installing the sending unit,


it is a good idea to place Teflon@tape on
the threads
Troubleshooting Basic Starting System Problems Troubleshooting Basic Charging System Problems
Pmblem cause Sobnlon Problem cause SoluIion

Starter motor rotates engrne slowly * Battery charge low or battery . Charge or replace battery Noisy alternator * Loose mounbngs . Ttghten mountrng bolts
defecttve . Loose drive pulley . Tighten pulley
- Defective crrcurt between battery + Clean and ttghten, or replace . Worn beanngs * Replace alternator
and starter motor cables * Brush notse . Replace alternator
* Low load current * Bench-test starter motor Inspect * Internal circuits shorted (Hugh . Replace alternator
for wom brushes and weak pitched whrne)
brush springs.
Squeal when starting engtne or . Glazed or loose belt * Replace or adfust belt
* Hugh load current . Bench-test starter motor Check
engtne for fncbon, drag or coolant acceleratmg
rn cylinders. Check nng gear-to- Indicator light rematns on or . Broken belt . Install heft
prnton gear clearance. ammeter rndrcates drscharge . Broken or dksconnected wares - Repatr or connect Waring
(ejrgrne runmng) * Internal aitemator problems * Replace alternator
Starter motor wrll not rotate engrne * Battery charge low or battery * Charge or replaoe battery
. Defectrve voltage regulator . Replace vottage regulator/alternator
defecttve
* Faulty solenord . Check solenoid ground Reparr or Car Irght bulbs contmually bum out- * Alternator/regulator overchargtng . Replace voltage
replace as necessary. batter-v needs water conbnually regulatoriatternator
* Damaged drive pnron gear or * Replace damaged gear(s)
ring gear Car kghts flare on acceleratton . Battery low * Charge or replace battery
* Starter motor engagement weak . Bench-test starter motor . Internal alternator/regulator . Replace alternator/regulator
. Starter motor rotates slowly wtth . Inspect dnve yoke pull-down and problems
high load current pornt gap, check for worn end
Low voltage output (alternator lght * Loose or worn belt . Replace or adjust beit
bushtngs. check m-g gear clear-
fltckers conbnually or ammeter * Dkly or corroded connecttons . Clean or replace connecttons
ance * Replace alternator/regulator
needle wanders) * Internal alternator/regulator
. Engine setzed * Repatr engk7e
oroblems
Starter motor dnve wrll not engage . Defecbve contact pant assembly * Reparr or replace contact pornt
(solenotd known to be good) assembly
. Inadequate contact pornt assembly + Repatr connectron at ground screw
ground
- Defeckve hold-In co11 * Replace field w~ndrng assembly
Starter motor dnve wtli not - Starter motor loose on flywheel . Ttghten mounttng bolts
dtsengage houstng
. Worn drive end bustng . Replace bushtrg
* Damaged nng gear teeth . Replace ring gear or dnveplate
* Drive yoke return spnng broken or . Replace spnng
mtsstng
Starter motor dnve d&engages * Weak drive assembly thrust spnng * Replace dnve mechamsm
prematurely * Hold-tn co11defeckve . Replace field wtndtng assembly *
Low load current - Worn brushes . Replace brushes
* Weak brush springs * Replace spnngs