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This leaflet gives general information on the terminologies, the construction, operation and maintenance of both fixed-pitch and variable-pitch propellers. They may either be installed on piston and gas turbine engine. 1.2. It is not intended to substitute any manual provided by the manufacturer or any service bulletins. The respective manuals should be read and referred accordingly. 1.3. The early design range from flat boards of two bladed to multi-bladed propeller. From thicker airfoil to thinner airfoil section with greater strength and from wood to composite material 1.4. Propeller Safety:

2. PURPOSE 2.1. It is to accelerate air rearward to airfoil shape that either to pull or push aircraft forward. Simply means to convert engine horsepower to propeller thrust.

3. TERMINOLOGIES 3.1. Hub the central portion of propeller blade 3.2. Blade-Shank The portion of blade nearest to the hub 3.3. Blade tip The portion of propeller blade furthest from hub 3.4. Hub assembly Bored out in the central portion of propeller blade that permit propeller to be mounted on engine crankshaft or reduction gear. 3.5. Leading edge the most front edge of an airfoil section 3.6. Trailing edge the most rear edge of airfoil section. 3.7. Chord line is an imaginary line drawn from leading edge to trailing edge. 3.8. Blade back curved or cambered side of propeller blade. 3.9. Blade face - the flat side of the blade 3.10. Blade angel acute angle formed between chord line and plane of rotation 3.11. Clamping ring that secures the removable blade to hub assembly

3.12. Blade root has flange butt or shoulder which mates with grooves in hub assembly. 3.13. Blade cuff - is a thin sheet of either metal, plastic or composite material of airfoil shape that is fitted to the blade shanks in order to increase air flow to cool the engine. 3.14. Blade station - is a specific reference position on propeller blade that is measured from center hub to the tip 3.15. Angle of attack is angle between directions of relative wind and chord line. 3.16. Relative wind is a wind direction that is perpendicular to propeller plane of rotation. 3.17. Pitch distribution is the distribution of pitch which gradually decreases from hub to tip. 3.18. Propeller pitch: 3.18a. Geometric pitch is a theoretical distance the propeller moves forward in one revolution. 3.18b. Effective pitch is an actual distance the propeller moves forward in one revolution. 3.18c. Slip is the difference between geometric and effective pitch.

4. PROPELLER THEORY 4.1. When propeller rotates low pressure created in front of the blade and high pressure occurs behind the blade thus thrust is produced. 4.2. Amount of thrust produced depends on:4.2a. Angle of attack: 4.2a(i). when the angle of attack is the same as blade angle there is no Thrust (aircraft stationary) 4.2a(ii). The lesser the angle of attack compare to blade angle the greater will be the thrust (the faster the aircraft moves forward) in flight. 4.3a(iii). When forward velocity remains constant, the higher the

propeller rotational speed the higher would be the angle of attack 4.3a(iv). When engine speed remains constant, the higher the forward speed the lesser would be the angle of attack. 4.2b. Airfoil shape the thicker the blade the greater the thrust. 4.2c. Blade speed the higher the propeller speed rotates the higher will be the angle of attack. 4.3. Most effective angle of attack is between 2 to 4 degrees. 4.4. Angle of attack more than 15 degrees will be ineffective because of propeller stall 4.5. Fix pitch propeller angle of attack is between 2 to 4 degrees. 4.6. Blade is thicker at hub and thinner towards the tip in order to produce constant thrust Along the propeller blades entire length.

5. FORCES ACTING ON PROPELLER 5.1. Centrifugal force force that pulls blade out of hub. The amount of stress can be greater than 7500 times weight of blade (it is a greatest force). 5.2. Thrust bending force force that tends to bend propeller blade forward at tip, it opposes the centrifugal force. 5.3. Torque bending force force that tends to bend blade in opposite direction. 5.4. Aerodynamic twisting force force that tends to increase blade angle. 5.5. Centrifugal twisting force force that attempts to decrease blade angle. 5.6. Blade vibration is a final force on spinning propeller as a result of aerodynamic and mechanical force. 5.7. Aerodynamic force force that tend to bend blade at tip which produce buffeting and Vibration. 5.8. Mechanical force force due to power pulses in piston engine. 5.9. Vibrational stress is the stress due to vibration and the most critical location is about 6 inches from the tip. 5.10. Critical range is the operational range at which could result severe propeller vibration.

6. POWER ABSORPTION 6.1. It is the ability of the propeller to absorbs power of the engine (engine torque = propeller torque. 6.2. The ability of the propeller to absorb power depends on the following factors: 6.2a. Blade angle increasing the blade would increase power absorption but this will increase angle of attack too large and eventually cause inefficient propeller operation. This method is not use 6.2b. Propeller diameter increasing the diameter will increase the power absorption, however the tip speed will easily reach the speed of sound eventually will cause inefficient propeller operation and this would limit the practical diameter. Tip speed is also the source of propeller noise. 6.2c. Blade camber increasing the blade camber will increase the power absorption, however the thicker the blade the less efficient of propeller operation at high speed. 6.2d. Propeller solidity : Chord X No. of blades Solidity = circumference

6.2d(i). Increasing the propeller solidity will increase the power absorption, however by increasing the blade chord will increase the centrifugal twisting force, centrifugal force that exerts strain on the pitch changing mechanism 6.2d(ii). Increasing the no. of blades will increase the power absorption, however it is limited to five, should more blades be required, the counter rotating propeller may be used.

6.3. Counter-Rotating and Co-Axial Propellers 6.3a. When two propellers are mounted in tandem, rotated in opposite direction and driven by one engine known as COUNTER ROTATING

PROPELLER . 6.3b. If two propellers are independent and driven by its known engine is known as CO-AXIAL PROPELLER (eg. Gannet aircraft) 6.3c. Torque and gyroscopic effects are cancelled by the opposite directions of rotation and the rotary motion of slip stream is removed.

7. PROPELLER CLASSIFICATION 7.1. Classified by: 7.1(i). Tractor the propeller mounted in front of engine 7.1(ii). Pusher - the propeller mounted at the rear of engine

8. TYPES OF PROPELLER 8.1. Fixed-pitch propeller have only one fixed blade angle 8.1a. Simplest type propeller 8.1b. Design for particular aircraft: 8.b(i). Climb propeller best for take-off and climb (low blade angle)

8.b(ii). Cruise propeller for high-speed cruise, high altitude (high blade angle).

8.2. Ground Adjustable Propeller (blade angle can be changed on ground by mechanic while engine stop (use on a/c on 1940s). 8.2a. the hub is split, consists of two aluminum or steel hub machined to form matched Pair. 8.2b. the interior hub is machined for shank of blades be held between two halves. 8.2c. blade is machined with shoulder that fit into grooves of hub halves to prevent the centrifugal force pulls the blade out. 8.2d. for wood blades, shoulder are cast or machined and fastened to blade. 8.2e. for metal blade, bolts and nuts used to secure the blade to hub halves

8.2f. for wooden or metal propeller, used bolts or clamp rings to hold the halves together.

8.3. Controllable pitch Two Position Propeller 8.3a. High pitch setting for cruise flight to gain speed and low pitch setting for take-off. 8.3b. Primary components are propeller hub, blades and piston assembly. 8.3c. The hub consists of arms where blades are attached. 8.3d. Counterweight bracket is installed at base of each propeller blades. 8.3e. Blade angle is changed by combination of hydraulic and centrifugal forces. 8.3f. Hydraulic force is to decrease blade angle by means of 3-way valve mounted on engine which is selected from cockpit (propeller control lever). 8.3g. When propeller lever moves forward the 3-way valve direct engine oil to the hub and moves piston to decrease blade angle. 8.3h. When propeller lever moves aft the 3-way valve drain the oil from hub back to engine sum and centrifugal force acting on counterweight increase blade angle. 8.3i. Blade stop rotating when they contact high pitch stop. 8.3j. Pitch stop can be adjusted by adjusting pitch stop adjusting nut. 8.3k. Before engine shut down propeller should be placed in high pitch position to protect corrosion, accumulation of dirt and prevent oil from congealed in cold weather.

8.4. Constant speed/variable pitch propeller refer as automatic propeller, blade angle is automatically varied to maintain selected rpm which is controlled by governor. .

8.5. Reversible pitch propeller the propeller blade angle can be rotated to negative

pitch to produce reverse thrust. It is also categorized under constant speed propeller 8.5a. Advantages: 8.5a (i). Short landing roll 8.5a(ii). Reduce brake wear 8.5a(iii). Improve ground maneuvering 8.5a(iv). Aid in aerodynamic braking. 8.5a(v). Better control speed and back the aircraft up.

8.5b. Disadvantages: 8.5b(i). Stir up FOD in front of aircraft will be ingested into engine. 8.5b(ii). Stir up FOD damages propeller blade 8.5b(iii). Difficulties in rear viewing 8.5b(iv). Rapid reversing, when brakes are applied resulting in nose to rise up off ground and tail to strike the ground.

8.6. Featherable Pitch Propeller (is the ability of the propeller blade to rotate till the Leading edge of the blade is straightforward into wind when engine fails in flight to reduce drag and prevent wind milling) 8.6a. The blade said to be feathered when the blade chord line is approximately along the line of flight, that is the angle is approximately 90 deg. 8.6b. The pressure of the air on the face and back is equal and therefore the blade stop rotating.

11. CONSTANT SPEED PROPELLER. 11.1. Operating principles: 11.1a Propeller rely on hydraulic and centrifugal force to change blade angle 11.1b In Non-counterweight Propeller usually use Governor Oil pressure to increase blade angle and centrifugal twisting force to decrease blade angle 11.1c - For Counterweight propeller use Governor Oil pressure to decrease blade angel and centrifugal force acting counterweight to increase blade angle or to feather 11.2. Propeller Governor is a device to regulate high oil pressure to propeller hub and does three things. 11.2a Boost engine oil pressure before enters propeller hub 11.2b Controls amount of oil flow to propeller hub 11.2c Sense engine rotational speed. 11.3. Propeller governor is either mounted in front of engine near propeller shaft or on engine Accessory case consists of: 11.3a. Boost pump (gear type): 11.3a (i) boost oil pressure 180 300 psi. 11.3a (ii) is a constant speed displacement pump 11.3a (iii) incorporated with relief valve to prevent damage to seals and other components. 11.3b. Pilot valve: 11.3b (i) is a valve that route oil into and out of propeller hub 11.3b (ii) it covers the oil passage when reach the constant or selected speed 11.3b (iii) located inside the drive shaft extends into flyweight assembly. 11.3b (iv) it is actuated by flyweight. 11.3c. Flyweight assembly: 11.3c (i) it senses engine speed consist of flyweight, speeder spring and flyweight head. 11.3c (ii) when flyweight tilt in or out that will move pilot valve up or down to allow oil in or out of the propeller hub. 11.3c (iii) speeder spring is to adjust the amount of oil pressure acting on flyweight and valve. 11.4. Propeller control push fully forward will: (Non-counterweight) 11.4a. Speeder spring compressed 11.4b. Flyweight tilt inward 11.4c. Pilot valve move down 11.4d. Oil is drained out of hub 11.4e. Centrifugal Twisting Force moves blade to low pitch 11.4f. Maximum engine power is obtained. 11.4g. When speeder spring pressure and force acting on flyweight is balanced the governor is ON-SPEED CONDITION. 11.5. Propeller control pull aft ward: (Non-counterweight) 11.5a. Speeder spring pressure is released 11.5b. Flyweight tilt outward 11.5c. Pilot valve moves up 11.5d. Governor Oil pressure directed to propeller hub 11.5e. Cause blade angle to increase. 11.5f. RPM decreases. 11.5g. When speeder spring pressure and force acting on flyweight is balanced the

governor is ON SPEED CONDITION. 11.6. Any change in airspeed or load on propeller will result in blade angle change. The governor will be in one of the following condition. 11.6a. Flyweight tilt inward UNDERSPEED CONDITION 11.6b. Flyweight tilt outward OVERSPEED CONDITION 11.6c. When centrifugal force acting on flyweight is equal to speeder spring pressure (balance) ONSPEED CONDITION. 11.7. Governor is incorporated with an adjustable stop screw to prevent overspeeding. 11.8. Some governor incorporated with a balance spring above speeder spring to produce cruise RPM should propeller control cable break. 12. SINGLE ACTING PROPELLER 10.1. The cylinder is bolted to front hub. 10.2. The cylinder contains piston and piston rod to alter the blade angle. 10.3. Governor oil pressure is directed only to one side of the piston either to the front or rear of Piston this will either to increase or decrease blade angle. 10.4. When oil in the hub is drained back to engine, the centrifugal force acting on counterweight will increase the blade angle. 10.5. When propeller lever moves forward, the governor oil pressure is directed to the hub moves the piston to decrease the blade angle. 13. MCCAULEY CONSTANT SPEED PROPELLER (typical single acting propeller) 13.1. Mostly used on light and medium size a/c 13.2. Two types: 13.2a. Threaded series use retention nut to hold blade into hub 13.2b. Thread less series use split retainer ring to hold each blade in hub 13.3. Both series are non-feathering and non-counterweight. 13.4. Governor oil pressure directed to rear side (inboard) of piston to increase blade angle 13.5. When oil is drained out of hub, the centrifugal twisting force and internal spring pressure to decrease blade angle. 13.6. Materials: 13.6a. Blades, hub and piston are made from an aluminum alloy 13.6b. Cylinder, blade actuating pin, piston rod and spring are made from chrome or cadmium plated steel. 13.6c. Actuating link made from phenolic material, this to prevent metal particles from Wearing off the blade actuating link and trapped inside propeller hub. 13.7. To prevent leakage into center of propeller hub and propeller blade `O` ring is installed between: 13.7a. piston and cylinder 13.7b. piston and piston rod. 13.7c. piston rod and hub. 13.8. The governor: 13.8a. Produces oil pressure approximately 290 psi. 13.8b. Use control arm instead of pulley to adjust speeder spring. 13.8c. End of control arm has holes to permit either rigid control shaft or flexible control cable or combination of rigid and flexible control to connect to arm. 13.9. For safety purposes: 13.9a. Governor Control lever is spring loaded to low blade angle (high rpm) setting should control cable breaks. 13.9b. High rpm stop is fitted to prevent overspeeding. 13.9c. Both high and low rpm stop are adjustable by set screws on governor head.

14. HAMILTON STANDARD CONSTANT SPEED PROPELLER (typical single acting propeller) 14.1. Counterweight and centrifugal force to increase blade angle. 14.2. Governor oil pressure to decrease blade angle. 14.3. Governor divided into three parts: 14.3a. Head contains flyweight assembly 14.3b. Body house pilot valve 14.3c. Base house booster pump 15. HARTZELL CONSTANT SPEED PROPELLER: 15.1. Widely used in modern airplane and share market with McCauley. 15.2. Two types: 15.2a. Steel hub propeller 15.2b. Compact propeller 15.3. Steel hub propeller: 15.3a. The pitch change mechanism is exposed 15.3b. May or may not be counterweight 15.3c. If counterweight governor oil pressure to decrease blade angle and centrifugal force acting on counterweight to increase blade angle. 15.3d.The hub contains steel spider with two or three arms 15.3e. Arms provide attachment for blades with bearing assembly to allow blade rotates to change blade angle. 15.3f. Two pieces steel clamps use to secure blades on spider arm. 15.3g. Steel cylinder is threaded on to the front of spider. 15.3h. Aluminum piston is placed over cylinder. 15.3i. Piston moves in and out to alter blade angle through actuating link. 15.4. Compact propeller: 15.4a. The pitch change mechanism is enclosed in the hub. 15.4b. Thu hub is forged aluminum alloy in two halves. 15.4c. The shank of each blade is held between two halves. 15.4d. Bolts and nuts used to secure the two halves together. 15.4e. It either use Woodward governor or modified Hamilton Standard governor. 15.4f. Always refer Hartzell. maintenance manual to determine governor oil pressure. 16. HARTZELL COMPACT FEATHERING PROPELLER 16.1. Governor oil pressure and centrifugal twisting force to decrease blade angle High pressure nitrogen and internal spring, counterweight to increase blade angle and to feather. 16.2. Nitrogen charge stored in propeller cylinder head work in conjunction with spring. 16.3. Some model of Hartzell propeller uses combination of high pressure nitrogen and centrifugal forces acting on counterweight to increase blade angle or to feather. 16.4. Safety features are: 16.4a. Should governor drops to zero propeller will automatically feather. 16.4b. Automatic High Pitch Stop is fitted to prevent blades from feathering when engine shut down on ground. 16.4c. As long as propeller rotates above 800 rpm the Automatic High Pitch Stop (AHPS) is disengaged so that propeller pitch may be increased to feather position. 16.4d. If propeller rotates below 800 rpm the blades clamp plate will engage with pitch stop and prevent blades from feathering. 16.5. To feather the prop:

16.5a. Propeller control lever place in feather position 16.5b. Oil is drained back from hub to engine. 16.5c. Nitrogen charge and spring pressure or centrifugal force acting on counterweight rotate blade to feather position. 16.5d. Typical Hartzel propeller takes between 3 to 10 seconds to feather. 16.6. To unfeather: 16.6a. Propeller control lever place to normal flight range. 16.6b. Restart the engine. 16.6c. As soon as the engine begins to turn, governor will start to unfeather the blades. 16.6d. Once unfeather, the blades will start windmilling. 16.6e. Some propeller system may incorporate with an accumulator in the governor to speed up the unfeathering process. 16.6f. Accumulator consists of: 16.6f (i). Spherical container separated in two chambers by diaphragm 16.6f (ii). One side is charged with nitrogen and the other side is filled with oil. 16.6f (iii). During normal operation oil chamber is filled with pressurized oil from the governor. 16.6f (iv). When propeller control lever placed to feather position the accumulator valve closes and trap the oil in the accumulator. 16.6f (v). When the propeller control lever move out of feather position the accumulator valve opens and allow the pressurized oil flow to hub and push the piston to unfeather the blade. DOUBLE ACTING PROPELLER: 16.7. Normally fitted to large engines 16.8. The hub is supporting the blades 16.9. The cylinder housing the operating piston 16.10. Both sides of piston are oil pressure actuated (governor and engine oil pressure) 16.11. In another type the piston of mechanism, piston is connected by means of pins and roller to a cam track and bevel gear meshing with bevel gear segment at base of each blade. 17. HAMILTON STANDARD HYDROMATIC PROPELLER (typical of Double Acting Propellerr). 17.1. Commonly found on medium and large radial engine transport aircraft but not much of used today. 17.2. Consists of 3 major assemblies: 18.2a. Hub/Barrel assembly 18.2b. Dome assembly 18.2c. Distributor valve. 18.3 Hub Assembly consists of: 18.3a. Two halves-hub 18.3b. Spider 18.3c. Propeller blades 18.3d. Each propeller blade has sector gear mesh with pitch change gear in Dome Assembly. 18.3e. Spider and blades are assembled between the two halves-hub.

18.4. Dome Assembly houses pitch change mechanism and consists of: 18.3a. Piston. 18.3b. Rotating Cam 18.3c. Fixed Cam 18.3d. Dome assembly secured into propeller hub by dome retaining nut. 18.3e. When piston move, cam roller will rotate the rotating cam within fixed cam. 18.3f. The bevel gear that attached to the rear of rotating cam meshes with blade sector gear cause the blade angle changed. 18.5. Distributor Valve: 18.4a. Acts as an extension to the engine crankshaft 18.4b. Install in the center of Dome Assembly 18.4c. Purpose is to direct auxiliary oil to outboard side of piston and moves the piston rearward and unfeather the propeller. 19. OPERATING PRINCIPLES 19.1. It differs from other constant speed propeller (no springs or counterweight to change blade angle) 19.2. Instead it utilizes engine oil pressure (between 60 90 psi) to decrease blade angle on one side and governor oil pressure (from 200 300 psi) to increase the blade angle on the opposite side. 19.3. During engine over speed or when the prop control lever moves aft that cause the flyweight tilts outward and pilot valve moves up directed the governor oil pressure to inboard of piston, and engine oil pressure in the outboard of piston flows back through distributor valve into inlet of governor, then cause the blade angle to increase. 19.4. During underspeed or prop lever moves forward cause the flyweight to be tilted inward, pilot valve moves down cause the governor oil pressure ported back to engine and engine oil pressure is directed to outboard of piston and the centrifugal twisting force cause rotate blade to decrease blade angle. 19.5. As blade angle increase or decrease due to overspeed or underspeed condition respectively will move the pilot valve up or down until reach the selected speed. 19.6. Feathering: 19.6a. Auxiliary oil pressure is used to feather the blades. 19.6b. Consists of: 19.6b (i). Oil reservoir 19.6b (ii). Electric pump 19.6b (iii). Shut out switch 19.6b (iv).Feathering button 19.6c. Operation: 19.6c (i). Feathering button in the cockpit is depressed once. 19.6c (ii). Holding coil holds the button in depressed position until blades feathered. 19.6c (iii). Solenoid relay energizes the feathering motor 19.6c (iv). Feathering motor pumps oil from reservoir and boost the pressure to 600 psi. 19.6c (v). Auxiliary oil pressure shift High Pressure Transfer Valve and isolate the governor system. 19.6c (vi). The Auxiliary oil pressure flows through oil passage to inboard side of piston. 19.6c (v). Push the piston forward cause the rotating cam to turn blade until feather Poisiton.

19.6c (vi). When blades are feathered the auxiliary oil pressure will exert pressure on cut-out switch and breaks the circuit to denergise the feathering pump. 19.7. Autofeathering system: 19.7a. This system is used to automatically feather the propeller of failed engine. 19.7b. Generally used during take-off and landing. 19.7c. Consists of: 19.7c (i). Torque-sensing switches. 19.7c (ii). Arming relay 19.9c (iii). Dump valve 19.7d. Operation: 19.7d (i). When engine torque falls below certain value these switches through arming relay provides power to dump valve. 19.7d (ii). Dump valve (mounted on the propeller overspeed governor) will bypass governor oil pressure and drained the governor oil pressure 19.8. To Unfeathering: 19.8a. Feather button manually depressed until blades unfeather 19.8b. Feathering pump is then energized 19.8c. Auxiliary oil pressure flows to inboard side of piston. 19.8d. Once pressures is high enough, the distributor valve will shift and direct the oil to the outboard side of piston, the piston then moves aft to unfeather the propeller. 19.8e. Oil from inboard side of piston will be drained back to engine. 19.8f. Unfeathering is achieved when the propeller begins to windmill and this will allow the engine to be restarted. 19.8g. High Auxiliary oil pressure is relieved by relief valve when pressure reaches 750 psi at outboard of piston and rotating cam contact low blade angle.

20. TURBOPROP PROPELLER 20.1. It is a new design and technique to improve reliability and efficiency of propeller powered by turbine engine or gas producers engine 20.2. Turbine engine operates at high rotational speed compare to engine. 20.3. Turboprop engines usually operate more than 40000 rpm, since propeller turns only 2200 rpm therefore to reduce this speed Reduction Gear is incorporated. Reduction Gear ratio is 14:1 20.4. Reduction Gear: 20.4a. Purpose is to convert engine high speed low torque to low speed high torque. 20.4b. Reduction gear assembly and propeller referred as Power section 20.5. There are two types of engines to drive power section: 20.5a. Fixed Shaft is direct driven by the integral turbine. 20.5b. Free Turbine or power turbine is separated from the engine turbine therefore the power section of free turbine include: 20.5b (i). Power turbine 20.5b (ii). Reduction Gear 20.6. Main differences between reciprocating engine and turboprop engines : 20.6a. Turboprop engine takes more time to react to fuel flow and power changes. 20.6b. Turbo prop engine while on ground the engine speed is held constant but propeller pitch is varied. 20.6c. Most turboprop propellers are reversible (blades rotate to negative blade angle) thrust is directed forward. 20.7. The only difference between reversing and no-reversing is that: 20.7a. The absence of fixed low pitch stops on reversing propeller. 20.7b. Primary pitch lock mechanism prevents blades from rotating to reverse pitch. 20.7c. Secondary pitch lock as back-up should primary pitch lock fails. 20.8. Turboprop has two operating ranges: 20.8a. Alpha range operated under constant speed mode (Power lever above flight idle) 20.8b. Beta range operating on ground (Power lever below flight idle until reverse). Some aircraft has two beta ranges: 20.8b (i). Beta taxi Power lever from below flight idle to zero thrust 20.8b (ii). Beta plus Power lever from zero to negative thrust 20.9. Turbopropeller Fuel Control. 20.9a. Fuel control works in conjunction with propeller governor 20.9b. Speed above flight idle the power lever directly control fuel flow and propeller blade angle. 20.9c. Increase fuel to the engine will increase blade angle to maintain the optimum efficiency (by the governor). 20.9d. Speeds below flight idle the power lever exclusively control the blade angle, because the governor incapable of handling engine efficiency. 21. HARTZELL REVERSING PROPELLER INSTALLED ON ALLIED SIGNAL TPE -331 ENGINE. 21.1. Typical example: Mitsubishi MU-2, Fairchild Merlin and Aero Commander 21.2. General Information: 21.2a. It is a fixed-shaft turbine engine. 21.2b. Reduction Gear:

21.2b (i). The reduction gear ratio is about 14:1 21.2b (ii). It is incorporated with Negative Torque Sense (NTS) which automatically increase the blade angle when the power is rapidly decrease, to prevent engine being driven by propeller 21.2b (iii). Thrust sensitive signal (TSS) is a separate system may be incorporated to feather the propeller in the event of engine failure. 21.2b (iv). It is situated either above or below the engines Centerline. 21.2c. The shaft horsepower (shp) is between 665 and 1,100 when the engine operates at 41,700 rpm. The engine speed is calibrated in % which means it operates 100% rpm. 21.2d. The propeller is commonly a flange mounted, three bladed, steelhub, feathering, reversing type and with counterweight. 21.2e. Governor oil pressure is to decrease pitch, centrifugal force acting on counterweight to increase blade angle and to feather. 21.2f. Retractable Pitch Stop is incorporated to prevent feathering during engine shut down. 21.2g. Spacer or Beta tube acts as reverse pitch stop. Beta tube also serves as oil transfer tube between propeller control unit and propeller dome. 21.3. Operating Modes consist of: 21.3a. Flight Mode (Alpha mode) Power lever is directly controlling fuel control unit to control fuel flow and blade angle is controlled by governor through Speed Condition Lever. 21.3b. Ground operations (Beta mode) during ground operation Underspeed governor controls fuel flow, and Power lever is directly controlling the propeller pitch control unit to control blade angle. 21.3c. Two types of Engine controls: 21.3c (i). Power lever 21.3c (ii).Speed or Condition lever. 21.3c (iii). Power lever connected to both propeller pitch control and fuel control unit. 21.3d. Power lever has four position: 21.3d (i). Reverse 21.3d (ii). Ground Idle 21.3d (iv). Flight Idle 21.3d (v). Maximum 21.3e. Speed or Condition lever or RPM Lever has three position: 21.3e (i). Cut-off 21.3e (ii). Low rpm 21.3e (iii). High rpm 21.3f. Feather lever (handle). 21.3f (i). On certain installation Speed or Condition lever is connected to feather valve, which means moving condition lever to fully aft or to feather position will feather the blade. 21.3f (ii). On the other installation feather valve is operated by separate feather handle which means by moving the

feather handle to feather position will feather the blade. 21.3g. Unfeathering switch or button is to operate the unfeathring pump to unfeather the propeller. 21.4. SYSTEM OPERATION OF TPE -331 21.4a. Beta mode: 21.4a (i). Meant for ground operation which include Engine starting Taxing and Reverse thrust 21.4a (ii). All power setting range between 65% to 95% NI. 21.4a (iii). Power levers is operated in a gated quadrant (during flight this lever cannot be operated below the `flight idle` gate). 21.4b. Alpha mode: 22.1b (i). All operations from flight idle to full power of from 95% to 100% 21.4c. To start the engine: 21.4c (i). Power lever in Ground Idle 21.4c (ii). Condition lever in Low RPM 21.4c (iii). Once the engine started - Move Power lever towards reverse position will cause the propeller pitch control (PPC) to slide the follower sleeve to move forward this will open a port in oil transfer tube or Beta tube allows then high governor oil pressure enter the hub and overcome the spring pressure and centrifugal force acting on counterweight to force the propeller piston outward to decrease the blade angle. As piston moves outward, the Beta tube also moves until port in Beta tube is blocked by follower sleeve an top hanging the blade and this is known as Neutral position (oil) pressure in the hub balances both spring and centrifugal force acting on counterweight. 21.4c (iv). Power lever moves forward - it pulls the follower sleeve and unporting the Beta tube and oil is drained out of the propeller hub into reduction gear case, the spring pressure and centrifugal force acting on counter weight will force the piston inward to increase the blade angle. As piston moves inward the Beta tube also moves until reaches the Neutral position proportion to power lever position. 21.4d. Once the aircraft is ready for take-off: 21.4d (i). Condition lever move to High rpm setting 21.4d (ii). Power Lever move to Flight Idle. At this position the underspeed governor is fully opened and no longer control fuel flow and follower sleeve in PPC can no longer covers the port in Beta tube, thus the propeller governor full control over the blade angle. In this mode power lever used to control fuel flow from FCU. 21.5. FEATHERING: 21.5a. Condition lever is moved fully aft or pulled the feather handle, this cause the feather valve allows the oil in the propeller hub to return to the engine, spring tension and centrifugal force acting on counterweight rotate the blade to feather position.

21.6. UNFEATHERING: 21.6a. Activate unfeathering switch in the cockpit `ON` position 21.6b. Unfeathering pump will pump oil to the propeller hub, forces the propeller piston forward and blade rotate out of the feathered position into high pitch, as Blades unfeather the poropller begins to windmill and aid in air start attempt. It can also be unfeatherd on ground.

23. AUXILIARY PROPPELER SYSTEM 23.1. Purpose To improve propeller performance and enhance the aircrafts all weather Capabilities by: 24.1a. Reducing propeller noise and vibration 24.1b. Removing ice from the propeller blades. 23.2. Two types of Auxiliary System: 26.2a. Synchronization system To synchronize or equalize the engine rpm should the engine rpm becomes dissimilar. 26.2b. Propeller Ice control system To prevent or remove ice should ice occurs on the propeller. 23.3. Types of Synchronization system: 26.3a. Master Motor Synchronization 26.3b. One Engine Master Control. 26.3c. Synchrophasing. 23.4. Master Motor Synchronization: 23.4a. Used in world war 2 23.4b. Consists of: 23.4b (i). Synchronizer master unit which consists of Master Motor 23.4b (ii). Four alternators 23.4b (iii). Master tachometer 23.4b (iv). Tachometer generator 23.4b (v). Contactor unit 23.4b (vi). RPM master control lever 23.4b (vii). Switches 23.4b (viii). Wiring. 23.4c. When Synchronizer master unit is activated, the master motor will drive contactor unit that electrically connected to alternator (three phase generator). The alternator is driven by engine accessory drive. The voltage produced by generator is proportional to engine speed. 23.4d. The desired engine rpm is selected manually by adjusting the rpm control lever until the Master Tachometer indicates the desired rpm. 23.4e. Once engine is set any difference in rpm will cause corresponding contactor unit to operate the pitch change mechanism until engine speed is matched. 23.5. One Engine Master Control. 23.5a. Many twin engines aircraft used this system. 23.5b. Consists: 23.5b (i). Control Box 23.5b (ii). Master governor 23.5b (iii). Slave governor 23.5b (iv). Actuator. 23.5c. The frequency produce by generator is proportional to engine rotational

Speed. 23.5d. Control box compares rpm signal from slave governor to rpm signal from master governor. 23.5e. If the difference exists the control box will send signal to actuator to adjust the Slave Governor until the engine speed is matched. 23.5f. The comparative circuit has limited range of operation. The difference between both engines should not exceed 100 rpm. 23.6. Synchrophasing: 23.6a. It is a refinement of synchronization system. 23.6b. Pilot can control the phase angle from synchrophasing control panel in Cockpit. 23.6c. It consists of Magnetic pick-up device (pulse generator) 23.6d. Pulse generator is keyed to the propeller blades for comparison purposes. 23.6e. When the blade passes the pulse generator, an electrical signal is sent to phasing control unit which determine the relative position of the propeller. 23.6f. If difference exists the phasing control unit electrically drives the slave generator to establish the selected phase angle between propellers. 23.7. Propeller Ice Control System: 23.7a. Purpose To prevent or remove ice from propeller to improve aircraft performance during flight in cold weather. 23.7b. Types: 23.7b (i). Anti Icing (system that prevent ice formation) 23.7b (ii). De Icing (system that remove ice from propeller) 23.7c. Fluid Anti Icing System consists of: 23.7c (i). Rheostat in control unit 23.7c (ii). Fluid tank 23.7c (iii). Pump 23.7c (iv). Slinger ring 23.7c (v). Feed shoes 23.7c (vi). Anti icing fluid (either isopropyl alcohol or phosphate compound) 23.7d. Operation: 23.7d (i). `ON` anti icing switch in cockpit 23.7d (ii). Fluid from tank is pumped out through filter to stationary nozzle just behind engine nose case. 23.7d (iii). Fluid then enter Slinger Ring (U-shaped channel) behind the propeller. 23.7d (iv). The fluid is dispersed into delivery tubes to feed shoes (narrow rubber strip to 75% of propeller radius) by centrifugal force. 23.7d (v). The relative wind then carries the fluid laterally over the leading edge of each blade. 23.8. ELECTRIC DEICE 23.8a. Consists of: 23.8a (i). Power source 23.8a (ii). Power Relay 23.8a (iii). Resistance Heating Element 23.8a (iv). System Controls 23.8a (v). Timer or Cycling Unit. 23.8b. Resistance Heating Element may be mounted either internally or externally on each propeller blade

23.8c. The externally mounted heating elements is called DEICING BOOTS 23.8d. The Deicing Boots is bonded to each blade with approved bonding agent 23.8e. System Controls consist of: 23.8e (i). ON/OFF Switch 23.8e (ii). Loadmeter 23.8e (iii). Protective Device either Current Limiter or Circuit Breaker 23.8f. The Load meter monitors individual circuit current and verify proper timer operation. 23.8f. System Operation: 23.8f (if). When the Electric Deicing Switch is `ON` 23.8f (ii). Electrical Power is supplied to propeller hub through Brush Block (mounted on engine case just behind propeller) and Rings (mounted on the back of propeller hub assembly) 23.8f (iii). Flexible connectors on propeller hub transfer power from Slip Rings to each heating element. 23.8f (iv). The deicing systems are designed for intermittent application of power to heating element to remove small ice accumulation. 23.8f (v). When the base of the ice melts it becomes loose and the centrifugal force flung the ice off the blades. 23.8f (vi). Runback would occur if the heat is insufficient to evaporate all resulting water and will freeze again. 23.8f (v). To prevent run back, heating interval is properly controlled by Cycling Timer. 23.8f (vi). Cycling Timer energizes the heating element for 15 to 30 seconds with complete two minutes cycle. 23.8f (vii). Deicing Boots may be checked for proper warming sequences during pre-flight inspection by turning the system ON and feeling the boots. PRECAUTIIONS: LIMIT GROUND TESTING TO PREVENT ELEMENT OVERHEATING.

24. WOODEN FIXED-PITCH RPOPELLER 24.1. Inspects for: 24.1a. Breaks in the surface finish, 24.1b. Scores 24.1c. Nicks 24.1d. Cracks 24.1e. Delamination, and 24.1f. Security of leading edge sheath. 24.2. Unrepairable defects include: 24.2a. crack or deep cut across the grain 24.2b. A split blade 24.2c. Separated lamination, except for out side lamination. 24.2d. Empty screw or rivet holes 24.2e. Any appreciable warp 24.2f. Oversize crankshaft bore 24.2g. Cracks between crankshafts bore hole and bolt holes 24.2h. Cracked internal lamination 24.2i. Oversize or elongated bolt holes. 24.3 Maintenance: 24.3a. Minor defects in the surface finish may be repaired by touching up with varnish or paint as appropriate. 24.3b. Periodic maintenance (the intervals are specified in the approved Maintenance schedule), the general inspection includes: 24.3b (i). Blades and Boss inspect for damage 24.3b (ii). Bolt holes examined for ovality, rough edges, cracks radiating into the boss. 24.3b (iii). Boss faces examined for damage flanges particularly at the Circumference of the flanges. 24.3b (iv). Center bore examined for cracks and delamination of the plies. 24.3b (v). Mounting hub examined for corrosion, cracks, correct fit on the crankshaft 24.3b (vi). Condition of attachment bolts and nuts. 24.4b (vii). Mounting cones checked for corrosion, , picking-up of surfaces, by using engineers blue (Prussian blue) correct fit between hub and cone must be 80% contacts. . 24.4. Repairs: 24.4a. The limits of repairable damage are laid down in manufacturers manual. Following are the general repairs needed: 24.4b. Minor indentation and small longitudinal cracks may be repaired by plugging with mixture of glue and sawdust then sanding smooth. 24.4c. Deep cuts damage must be removed and insertion repair carried Out ensure use the identical timber. CAUTION: ENSURE MATCHING THE GRAIN DIRECTION 24.4d. Slight tip or trailing edge damage is repaired by sanding to new profile, both blades must be similarly shaped. 24.4e. When reshaping the new metal sheath ensures the following: 24.4e (i). Prevent bruising of wood 24.4e (ii). Original screw and rivet holes must be used

24.4e (iii). Manufacturers procedures carefully followed 24.4e (iv). Once repaired done propeller must be balanced. 24.5. Installation: 24.5a. Before installing propeller ensures the following: 24.5a (i). No damage on propeller shaft and threads 24.5a (ii). The fit of the hub on shaft (using engineers blue/Prussian Blue), any high spot removed with fine oil stone. 24.5a (iii). Boss and hub flanges checked for cleanliness to ensure maximum friction. 24.5b. When assembling the hub to the shaft ensures: 24.5b (i). Anti seize compound applied to the threads 24.5b (ii). Engine oil apply to the shaft 24.5b (iii). The cones are clean and dry (if they are fitted) 24.5c. Angular Position of the propeller is not important, unless engine need to be started by hand swinging, so it need to be mounted in convenient position in relation to aircraft height and engine compression 24.5d. Bolts and nuts need to tightened and torque-loaded to specific value. 24.5e. After Installation: 24.5e (i). Carried out blade tracking - should be within 1/8 to each other, newly repaired propeller may be greater clearance provided no vibration during ground run. 24.5e (ii). After ground running check the hub retaining nut for tightness and relocked. 24.5e (iii). The bolts should be checked after each of the first few flights. NOTE: SHRINKAGE WASHERS ARE SOMETIMES FITTED TO ATTACHMENT BOLTS, TO TAKE UP SHRINKAGE AFTER INSTALLATION. 25. METAL FIXED-PITCH PROPELLERS: 25.1 Inspects for: 25.1a. Sharp indentations 25.1b. Scores 25.1c. Corrosion 25.1d. Dents 25.1e. Nicks 25.1f. Cuts and other surface damage 25.2. Blades failure normally occurs through corrosion underneath blades attach with water solube adhesive. 25.3. Maintenance: 25.3a. Propellers are only removed when conditions required and necessary, 25.3b Periodic maintenance involved checking: 25.3a (i). Mounting bolts for cracks used NDT 25.3a (ii). Mounting flange bolts holes for ovality and cracks 25.3a (iii). Faces of Propeller boss for fretting, corrosion and cracks emanating from bolt holes. (FURTHER INNFORMATION CAN BE FOUND 0N CAA AIRWORTHINES NOTICES NO:55)

25.4. Repair: 25.4a. The following conditions of the propeller need to be removed and send to propeller repair station: 25.4a (i). Propeller Bent 25.4a (ii). Twisted 25.4a (iii).Transverse Crack (crack chordwise direction) 25.4a (iv). Cuts, nicks, gauges beyond limits of depth specify by manufacturer. 25.4b. Minor repairs involved: 25.4b (i). Removing metal from damage area 25.4b (ii). Metal should removed with a smooth file (riffle file) and emery Cloth. 25.4b (iii). The repair should be progressively be checked by dye penetrant process until damage has been removed and smooth shallow depression remains. 25.4c. After repairs: 25.4c (i). Propeller should be balanced 25.4c (ii). If repairs been made on one blade, it may be necessary to remove metal from the other blade. 25.4c (iii). If only small amount of metal removed during repair, balance may be restored by applying additional paint to the lighter blade. 25.4c (iv). After balancing the blade need to be protected by using primer and paint or varnish specified by manufacturer. PRECAUTION: NOT TO REMOVE BLADE CHORD OR THICKNESS BELOW MINIMUM DIMENSION SPECIFY BY MANUFACTURER 25.5. Installation: 25.5a. Fixed-pitch metal propellers normally installed on flanged shaft. 25.5b. Spacer is used to provide clearance between propeller and engine cowling 25.5c. Dowels used to locate the propellers on spacer and flanged shaft. 25.5d. Ensure dowel and spacer are not damaged before assembly. 25.5e. Spacer and propeller should be assemble together before installation on engine 25.5f. The propeller should be installed in convenient position if the engine is `HAND SWING` 25.5g. Tighten evenly the attachment bolts and properly torque loaded. 25.5h. Carry out propeller blade tracking must be within 1/16 inch of each blade 25.5i. Carry out engine ground-run to check for: 25.5i (i). Vibration 25.5i (ii). Engine speed at full throttle 25.5i (iii).Record the information in the engine log book 25.5i (iv).Recheck the attachment bolts for tightness after engine ground run. 26. VARIABLE-PITCH PROPELLERS 26.1. Inspection and repair must be carried out strictly in accordance with propeller manufacturers instruction. 26.2. Periodic Inspection carried out as specified in approved maintenance schedule

or as recommended in CAA Airworthiness Notice NO 7. 26.3. Inspect the following from damages and security: 26.3a. All visible parts of propeller 26.3b. Controls 26.3c. Pipes connections 26.3d. Wirings 26.3e. Blades: 26.3f. Minor erosion or dents may left alone until propeller is removed 26.3g. Cut or gouges should be blended out immediately and the area repainted. 26.3h. Bent, twisted or cracked or severe damage return to manufacturer or propeller repair station 26.3i. Hydraulically-operated propellers examined the traces of oil leakage on: 26.3i (i). Spinner 26.3i (ii). Hub 26.3i (iii). Blade roots 26.3j. Dry-Hub` type the oil leakage into the hub may be from centrifugal force flow through blade bearings. This will result in premature failure of bearing. 26.3k. CSU/PCU check for oil leak at mounting face may remedied by tightening the nuts or replacing the gasket, but leakage from other parts is to be changed the complete unit. 26.3l. Slip rings and contact brushes should be checked for damage and wear and to be replaced should the wear beyond the serviceable the limit. 26.3m. If vibration exists: 26.3m (i). Checked blades for cracks, dents or bending 26.3m (ii). Carried out blade tracking 26.3m (iii). Check blade angles at specified station 26.3m (iv). Adjust blade angle necessary either by removal or adding shims or by adjusting the length of operating rod from PCM to blade. IF THOSE CHECKS ARE SATISFACTORY IT IS UNLIKELY THAT THE PROPELLER IS THE CAUSE OF VIBRATION 26.4. Installation: 26.4a. The installation depends on type of propeller and should be IAW respective maintenance manual. Generally includes the following: 26.4a (i). Remove all protective covers 26.4a (ii). Clean parts that treated with protective coating 26.4a (iii). Lubricate specified parts with recommended grease or oil before installation. 26.4a (iv). Fit electrical brush gear housing to engine reduction gear Casing and use dial test indicator clamped to the shaft to ensure it is square with engine shaft. 26.4a (v). Fit the sling to the propeller 26.4a (vi).Lightly smear the front and rear cone with engineers blue, and temporarily fit the propeller to check the contact area of the cones. . 26.4a (vii).Tighten the hub retaining nut by hand, rotate the propeller at

least one revolution, then remove the propeller and if the contact area is less than 80%, high spot may be remove by light stoning or where permitted by lapping on mandrel. clean the cones and cones seating. 26.4a (viii).With hydraulically-operated propellers, fit and lock the oil tubes in the engine shaft. 26.4a (ix). Refit the propeller, lightly lubricate the splines, cone bore and threads with specified lubricant. Lubricate the . DO NOT LUBRICATE CONE FACES AS THIS WILL RESULT IN LOOSENESS OF PROPELLER WHEN OIL FILM IS LOST). 26.4a (x). Turns the blades to feathered angle, and fit the PCM 26.4a (xi). Install the brush gear, and check for correct contact between brushes and slip rings. 26.4a (xii). Fit the spinner, and turn the blades through their full pitch range to check for fouling. 26.5. Installation of Governor or CSU/PCU. 26.5a. Fit new gasket to mounting flange 26.5b. Install the CSU, ensure the driven gear meshes with the driving gear or quill shaft 26.5c. Adjust the mechanical linkage ( adjust by locking the pulley and levers in set position using rigging pin and adjust then adjust the connecting rods or cable unit) so that CSU control is on maximum speed, stop when the when there is slight clearance between pilot control lever and forward end of the gate. 26.5d. The control to PCU of turbine engine are interconnected to with high pressure fuel cock (HP fuel cock) and electrical contacts associated with propeller functions. 26.5e. The details of procedures are obtained from appropriate MM. 27. BLADE TRACKING 27.1. Purpose of tracking is to ensure all blades are rotating in the same plane of rotation 27.2. Safety precautions; 27.2a. Arcraft must be braked park and properly chocked inside the hanger (not in an open area). 27.2b . No one allow to enter the aircraft cockpit or lean against aircraft body while tracking in progress. 27.2c. Ensure all aircraft switches are off 27.2d. Place the mixture control in Idle cut-off position 27.2e. Remove each spark plug from each cylinder. 27.2f. Stay out of propeller arc except the working personnel. 27.2f. No horse play. . 27.3. Propeller Track can be achieved by means of: 27.3a. Height gauge on Surface table (Uninstalled propeller) - by placing the uninstalled propeller on the surface table, each corresponding point on each blade should have the same height as indicated by height gauge

27.3b. Tracking board (Installed propeller) The tracking board with the blank white paper taped on top of it is to be placed under the propeller arc as nearest possible to the tip but must not touching the tip. Mark each blade, and rotate until each blade tip pointing down at the paper, then scribe line on the paper, this is repeated for each blade on the propeller. Measure the difference between each line and must not exceeding the limit. 27.3c. Reference Bar Attachment (Installed Propeller) The bar is mounted on the wing strut. Mark each blade. Rotate the propeller until each blade tip corresponding to the Bar tip then check the distance between face side of blade tip and bar tip. The tracks between each should not exceed the limit permissible. 27.3d. Strobelight (Dynamic propeller tracking) Use Small retroreflective strips taped accurately and securely at tip ofeach blade, oscilitar and magnetic pick-up or photocell. The out of track is detected while engine is running by one-per rev vibration which is similar to vibration due to propeller imbalance. 28. BLADE BALANCING: 28.1. Static Balance when propellers center of gravity coincides with its axis of rotation. Consists of: 28.1a . Vertical Balance - propeller blades are aligned vertically and imbalance condition causes them to rotate to horizontal position. Any imbalance can be achieved by adding weight at the light side of the hub. 28.1b. Horizontal Balance the propeller is positioned horizontally. Any rotation from this position indicates a heavy blade. Any Imbalance can be achieved by adding or removing solder from blade tips. 28.2. Dynamic balance when the center of gravity rotates in same plane of Rotation. It is done during engine running by means of either vibration analyzer/balancer, piezoelectric accelerometer or photocell. 29. TESTING AFTER INSTALLATION 29.1. Engine must be ground run to check propeller operation IAW maintenance manual, generally it includes: 29.1a. Engine should be fully cowled 29.1b. Facing a/c into wind direction 29.1c. Prime the Pitch change cylinder by operating the feathering pump 29.1d. Observe safety precautions while running the engine. 29.1e. When engine started exercised the propeller to determine PCM is operating. 29.f. To conform satisfactory operation through out it range carry out the following: 29.1f (i). Synchronization with other propeller 29.1f (ii). The operation of associated warning and indicating systems . CAUTION: ENGINE RUNNING TIME SHOULD KEPT MINIMUM, AVOID ENGINE OVERHEATING AND AVOID RAPID ENGINE TEMPERATURE CHANGES. 29.1g. When all checks completed and satisfactory, stop engine and do thorough

check for : 29.1g (i). Security 29.1g (ii). Chafing of pipes and cables 29.1g (iii). Oil leaks. 29.1h. Should vibration exists during engine running, hub retaining nut should be retightened after engine cool down. 29.2. Additional Inspections include: 29.2a. Deicing systems 29.2b. Lightening Damage - Burn mark on the propeller blade 29.2c. Overspeeding : 29.2c (i). If t overspeeding not exceeding 115% no special check is required, only blade tracking is recommended 29.2c (ii). if overspeeding exceeds 115% and 130% for period in excess of any specified time limit, the propeller should be removed for inspection. 29.2c (iii). If overspeeding exceeds 130% the propeller should be returned to manufacturer for investigation. 29.2d. Special Instructions these instructions are in the form of service bulletine, the engineers should be acquainted with such advice and should be taken accordingly. 29.3. Aircraft Vibrations: 29.3a. Aircraft vibrations are caused by aerodynamic forces in propeller and Rotating Elements that are out of balance which means the propeller blade is improper tracking and balancing 29.3b. Classified as; 29.3b (i). Correctable - which relates to propeller track and balancing of shafting, accessories, etc. These are generally once per revolution rate of propeller. 29.3b (ii).Uncorrectable that are inherent in aircraft such as `n-per-rev` (number of blades per revolution) vibration. They are truly chracteristics of the aircraft components and changeable by changes in design by manufacturer. 30. STORAGE. 30.1. Installed Propeller on engine 30.1a. If it is out of use for three months: 30.1a (i). must be kept clean and inspect for corrosion regularly. 30.1a (ii). If possible do weekly ground run to exercise the propeller. 30.1a (iii). If it can not ground run, just feather and unfeather the propeller by feathering pump weekly. 30.1b. If it is out of use more than three months: 30.1b (i). the propeller to be flushed with inhibiting oil, and all external parts to be treated with lanolin or approved rust preventative. 30.1b (ii). The propeller operating mechanism should be covered with waxed paper. 30.1b (iii). All visible parts regularly inspect for corrosion. 30.2. Uninstalled Propeller:

30.2a. Propellers to be stored in a clean, dry, warm and free from corrosive fumes. 30.2b. Two bladed propeller to be stored in racks, to permit free circulation of air. 30.2c. More than three bladed propellers, it is to be stored vertically on stand to reduce space. 30.2d. The propellers to be kept in manufacturers packaging or wrapped in mouldable wrap and waxed paper. 30.2e. The external parts to be coated with lanolin or any approved alernatives. 30.2f. The pitch change mechanism should be inhibited with an approved oil 30.2g. The loose parts e.g oil tubes and mounting cones should be coated with lanoin and wrapped in waxed paper. . 30.2h. When variable-pitch propeller is disassembled for storage: 30.2h (i). The individual mechanical parts should immersed in inhibiting oil, then allowed to drain. 30.2h (ii). Bearings should be coated with mineral jelly. 30.2h (iii). Electrical equipments should be smeared with petroleum jelly. 30.2h (iv). All motors and slip rings should be thoroughly clean. 30.2h (v). All parts of the propeller should then be wrapped in waxed paper and packe in a suitable carton or crate. 30.2h (vi). After six months of storage the assembled propeller bearings must be exercised. 30.2h (vii). At the end of twelve months the bearings must be removed, examined for brinelling and corrosion 30.2h (viii). If found satisfactory they should be cleaned, greased and reassembled on the blade and valid for another six months. 30.2h (ix). The maximum storage period varies between propeller, but generally remain good for maximum of three years, provided items 29.2h (i) to 29.2h (iv) are done. 30.2h (x). Rubber components are normally subject to specific life and discarded in every overhaul nearest to their life expiry 30.2h (xi). Rubber components to be stored in dark and unstressed condition and retained in manufacturer`s packing until required for use. 30.2h (xii). All propellers or propeller components retained in storage must be labeled 30.2h (xiii). The propellers to be kept in manufacturers packaging or wrapped in mouldable wrap and waxed paper. 30.2h (xiv). The external parts to be coated with lanolin or any approved alernatives. 30.2h (xv). The pitch change mechanism should be inhibited with an approved oil. 30.2h (xvi). The loose parts e.g oil tubes and mounting cones should be coated with lanoin and wrapped in waxed paper. 30.2h (xvii). When variable-pitch propeller is disassembled for storage 30.2h (xviii). The individual mechanical parts should immersed in inhibiting oil, then allowed to drain. 30.2h (xix). Bearings should be coated with mineral jelly. 30.2h (xx). Electrical equipments should be smeared with petroleum jelly. 30.2h (xxi). Rubber components to be stored in dark and unstressed condition and retained in manufacturer`s packing until required for use. 30.2h (xxii). All propellers or propeller components retained in storage

must be labeled to show their part number, modification standard, original date of storage and any other details relevant. 31. ANTI ICING OR FLUID DE-ICING SYSTEM. 31.1. Installation: 31.1a. Ensure sufficient clearance between feed pipe and nozzle to slinger ring 31.1b. Ensure sufficient clearance of feed pipe between slinger ring and propeller blades. 31.1c. Ensure pipes are not damaged or distorted. 31.1d. Unused outlets of the pumps should be blanked off. 31.2. Testing: 31.2a. Ensure fluid tank is filled with the fluid 31.2b. The tank vent line must not be obstructed. 31.2c. Disconnect the delivery pipe-line at convenient point near slinger ring and place container at the discharge end of the pipe-line. 31.2d. `ON` the anti-icing switch and observe the fluid delivery rate, ammeter and correct voltage level. 31.2e. On multi-engine aircraft the test must be applied to all propellers 31.2f. The delivery rate must be within the limit specified by manufacturer. 31.2g. If the delivery rate is less than prescribed minimum or voltage exceeds the rated value to operate the pump the pipelines and vent to be checked for obstruction. 31.3. Functional Test: 31.3a. To be checked during ground run. 31.3b. Paint the propeller with commercial whitewash and let dry. 31.3c. Add dye to the fluid in the tank, to easily observe the distribution of fluid over the blades. 31.3d. Uneven distribution may be caused by; 31.3d (i). Slinger ring being fitted eccentrically, 31.3d (ii). Feed pipes incorrectly located or 31.3d (iii).Obstruction in supply pipeline. 31.4. Cleaning the system: 31.4a. Drain the tank 31.4b. Refill the tank with mixture of 95% methylated spirits and 5% distilled Water. 31.4c. Operate the system until the tank is empty at the same time rotate the propeller. 31.4d. Inhibiting the system is at the discretion of aircraft operators. 31.4e. If it is not inhibited the tank should always maintain approximately 2 gals and the system is operated at regular interval.. 31.4f. If were to inhibit the system associated with propeller utilizing overshoes must ensure that the propeller blades are covered before start inhibiting 31.5. Periodic Inspection. 31.5a. After each flight when the system has be used, the blades must be clean with methylated spirit or warm soapy water.

31.5b. Replenished the tank 31.5c. Examine overshoes for the following defects; 31.5c (i) Adhesion failures at the tip of overshoe 31.5c (ii). Check for blisters 31.5c (iii). Free from cuts especially the leading edge. 31.5c (iv). Any parts associated with the system should be free from gummy deposits. 31.5d. Filters should be dismantled and clean in methylated spirits. 31.5e. After reassemble the filter, flow test is required. 31.5f. When pump is dismantled for inspection the following servicing are Required; 31.5f (i).The valve, piston should be cleaned with methylated spirits 31.5f (ii). The gears and bearing clean in paraffin 31.5f (iii). Lubricate the gears, bearing and gear housing with specified lubricant during assembly as prescribed in relevant MM.

ASSIGNMENT 1 1. Create airfoil shape and label with the following items: a. Blade angle b. Angle of attack c. Chord line e. Plane of rotation f. Relative wind g. Blade cambered h.Blade gace 2. With aid of diagram describe the main forces acted on propeller 3. State factors affecting the thrust. 4. Explain how could the airfoil shape affects the thrust?

1. Define the following terminologies: a. Chord line b. Propeller hub c. Angle of attack d. Blade pitch e. Blade station 2. a. Name all type of propeller?.

b. Name the type of propeller that has two position capabilities?

3. a. When aircraft forward speed is increased while engine speed is constant

what would be the angle of attack? (increase or decrease) b. The area near the hub turns the fastest (True or False) c. What is fitted to the propeller blade in order to increase the airflow for engine cooling purposes? d. The angle of attack would the same as the blade angle when aircraft is operating stationary on ground (True or False) e. Which side of the blade that is called `shank`?
4. a. Name the major forces acting on propeller?

b. Name the types of propeller?

5. a. The force that tends to decrease blade angle is called

b. What is the greatest force acting on propeller? c. The propeller that mounted in front of the engine is called. d. Which type of propeller that has two position capabalitied?
6. a. What is effective pitch?

b. The different between geometric and effective pitch is called. c. The distance that measured in inches from hub to tip is called.. d. The leading edge is the most aft of airfoil section (True or False)
7. a. What is standard propeller?

b. Which type of fix-pitch propeller that only meant for take-off? c. One the layers of wooden propeller are laminated they form into.

d. The moisture collected in the wood may be removed by means of?

8. State only three advantages of aluminum propeller over wooden propeller? 9. Name the type of balancing be done on propeller? 10. What is constant speed propeller?