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DEVELOPMENTALSUPERVISION Developmental supervision is the process of facilitating and monitoring individual and team efforts to achieveorganizational goals through

h nurturing individuals andteams. TraditionalApproachto Supervision Responsibility rises with hierarchy. Organizational goals primary concern Concept of teams not very profound Planning I nstructing Directing Monitoring. R adicalApproach to DevelopmentalSupervision Responsibility equally well spread Focus on task accomplishment and employee growthintegrated together

I ndividuals treated as integral p a r t s o f t e a m s facilitating their growth B ou nd ar y ma na ge m e nt : I nspire, Nurture, Facilitate,Help remove blocks.

SUPERVISORY STYLES AUTHORITARIAN Q u a n t i t y o f w o r k A g g r e s s i v e l e a d e r L es s i n i t i a ti ve , o ri gi na l i ty and affinityin group R e s e n t m e n t TASK-ORIENTED E m p h a s i s o n e n d s C on ce rn fo r d ea dl i n e s N e g a t i v e v i b e s CRITICAL I nt ol er a nt & un fo rg i v i ng F e a r incentive P s y c h o l o g i c a l d i s t a n c i n g DEVELOPMEN TAL M u t u a l l y T r u s t i n g G u i d i n g & i n s p i r i n g E n co ur a ge s t ea m s pi ri t Rewards & r e p r i m a n d s appropriatelyDEMOCRATIC Q uali ty of w ork Affiliationwith l e a d e r More initiative, originalityand affinityin group C o n t e n t m e n t EMPLOYEE-ORIENTED Emphasis on means C o n c e r n f o r performance P o s i t i v e v i b e s BENEVOLENT P ro te ct i v e & r es c u i n g A f f i n i t y i n c e n t i v e C re at es de pe n d en cy INSTITUTIONAL

O r g . - c e n t e r e d & e m p - oriented Disciplined,committed I n f l u e n c i n g & n u r t u r i n g I ns ti tu ti on b ui l d i n g

SOURCES OF POWER AND EMPLOYEES EMPOWERMENT REFLECTED POWER P r o x i m i t y t o the source of power COERCIVE POWER B y w a y o f punishment or any other fear E MO TI ON A L P O W E R P o w e r o f affinity or relationship REWARD POWER I t r e i n f o r c e s behavior CHARISMATIC POWER A b i l i t y t o arouse emotions EXPERT POWER Indirect influencethrough expertise REFERRENT POWER I d o l i s i n g o r role modelling INHERENT POWER Innate feelingsand values that are self empowering

Human Resource Development HRD is a continuous process to facilitate as u s t a i n e d d e v e l o p m e n t o f e m p l o y e e s competencies, dynamism, motivation a n d effectiveness in a systematic and planned way. HRD aims at development of employees throughT & D e x e r c i s e s , performance appraisal, j o b enrichment programs etc. H R D facilitates building of an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l climate which encourages transparency, risk t a k i n g , r o l e c l a r i t y , e m p l o y e e focus on self-development within broad o r g a n i z a t i o n a l framework. HRD thus helps employees translate their potentiale n e r g y i n t o k i n e t i c e n e r g y s o that employeesb e n e f i t t h r o u g h self-development a n d organizations benefits thru team-spirit, inter-teamc o l l a b o r a t i o n a n d i m p r o v e d o r g a n i z a t i o n a l climate.

HRD Trends & Practices Three distinct approaches to HRD Man-centred approach a d o p t s development of employees to beits primary objective. Its importantcharacteristics are - building a coterie- visibility of leader - autonomy of leadership- welfare activities-difficult to implement in hi-tech set-ups- m a y n e e d some moderation int o d a y s f a s t p a c e d c o r p o r a t e world.

HRD Trends & Practices Reciprocal approach presents areasonable blend of humanisticand business interests. H e r e t h e emphasis remains on developingroles, role relationships, a p p r a i s a l systems, training programs and jobenrichment modules. Its importantfeatures are - g r o w t h o f individual desired int o t a l t e r m s a l o n g - w i t h t h e development of the organization.initiative for self-growth is a n important prerequisite.- s u s t a i n a b l e linkages betweeno r g a n i z a t i o n a l a n d i n d i v i d u a l development are made.

HRD Trends & Practices Selective approach this is not HRDi n s t r i c t t e r m s o f t h e w o r d . T h i s approach consists of identifyingpromising persons and carefullyg r o o m i n g them for leadershipp o s i t i o n s . I t s i m p o r t a n t characteristics are i t d o e s n o t i d e n t i f y i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e b e t w e e n individual growth and work roles.- it remains restricted to senior andmiddle level managers.- entire gamut of work roles and jobassignments are structured aroundthe managers identified for further grooming and development.often the entire exercise g o e s waste from organizations point ofview.

HRD Future directions Future perspective of HRD shouldf o c u s a r o u n d f o l l o w i n g a r e a s o f concern - H R D h a s t o m o v e a h e a d o f traditional personnel management.- operative linkages between HRDand OD need to be clarified.special focus on routine t a s k operators to be given.- H R D i m p l e m e n t a t i o n i n a geographically dispersed orgn.designing appropriate H R D interventions.- HRD is not an isolated exercise.- H R D sh ou l d ai m a t c ol l a bo r at i v e societal development.

HRD Visions for tomorrow From HRD to HD thru e m p o w e r m e n t , equal opportunities environment, enhancedp e r s o n a l productivity & enriched w o r k climate. Value based management F r o m k n o w l e d g e w o r k e r t o w i s d o m worker Academia I ndustry interface economicdevelopment Academia Government interface socialdevelopment A c a de mi a S oc i e t y i nt er fa ce sp i r i t ua l development

MOTIVATIONAL ASPECTS OFHRD MOTIVATION in simple words implies the drive or impulse in an individual that moves him towardsaction. I n order to feel motivated to perform, therefore, it isi m p o r t a n t f o r a n i n d i v i d u a l t o f e e l t h e u r g e t o acquire or achieve something. This urge is bound to make him restless until heachieves his target. This restlessness results in activity. The successful accomplishment of activity bringsrelief. A satisfied urge no longer motivates. HRD MANAGERS ROLE

i s t o pl ay a c at al yt i c r o l e b y identifying the needs of the i n d i v i d u a l employees. H e has to further identify as to which needs havebeen accomplished and which ones are still ablet o p ro vi de a k i c k to th e i nd i v i d ua l e mp l o ye e i n question.

Maslows Needs Theory P hysiological needs ( hunger, safety;affiliation) P sychological Needs ( affiliation; self-esteem, self-actualization) Herzbergs Motivation-Maintenance Model M aintenance (or H y g i e n e ) f a c t o r s These, if withdrawn cause dissatisfaction;e.g. Co. policy, Supervision, I nterpersonal r e l a t i o n s , S a f e t y a n d f r i n g e b e n e f i t s , working conditions. M otivational (or Satisfying) f a c t o r s These, if provided, motivate

employees for improved performance; e.g. Achievement,Recognition, Job content, Responsibility,Growth potentials.

HRD Model of Motivation N e e d T e n s i o n A c t i v i t y SatisfactionEffort I ndiv. Goals P erformOrgan. Goals The EffortP erformance Relationship define job;d e f i n e job incumbents qualification; p l a c e appropriate people; add performance dimension The I ndiv. P erformance-Orgn. Goal Relationship emphasize that bottom line is profitability; providea clear direction; introduce performance evaluationmechanism. The Orgn. Goal-

I ndiv. Goal Relationship Createp e r f o r m a n c e - r e w a r d l i n k ; i n t r o d u c e f l e x i b l e compensation; facilitate self-managed work teams;keep the diverse capabilities of the work group inview.

HRD Motivationalmeasures Recogniseindividual differences Appropriateplacement Energizepeople withpotentially attainable goals Reward performance onindividual merit I nstill responsibility &delegateauthority M oney as amotivator Job enrichment Facilitateautonomy P ositivereinforcement Reinforce asense of winning

MANAGERIALinstrumentsf o r m o t i v a t i o n a l aspectsof HRD Self-renewal a n d i d e n t i t y building exercise Stress audit a n d s t r e s s management P ersonal growthlaboratories Employeeed u ca ti on an d s k i u p - gradationprogrammes Learning networks Quality circles Task forces Motivationchallenges M otivating a d i v e r s e workforce gender differences

Cultural differences P a y f o r performanceprograms M otivating thruESO P s M otivating minimumwagesemployees

FUTURE OF HRD RE SOU R C E R E Q UI REMEN T S F O R D EVEL OPI NG HR DI N TO T HE C O REB USI NE SS FU NC TIO

N 1. HRD PROFESSIONALS b u i l d professionalism in HRD professional; orientthem towards the potential changes that existf o r t h e m ; e n s u r e t h e y p o s s e s s n e c e s s a r y HRD competencies. 2. HRD STRUCTURES d e s i g n a n d implement appropriate HRD structure;ensure value-addition f r o m e a c h H R D activity and subsystem; ensure availabilityo f r e q u i r e d H R D c o m p e t e n c i e s i n co ns on a nc e w i t h t he ne ed s o f t he b us i n es s needs. 3. HRD SYSTEMS to build the competenciesand commitment of individuals, teams andt he e nt i r e o rg an i z a ti o n a s a w h ol e th ro ug h the use of a variety of instruments.

FUTURE OF HRD HRD PROFESSIONALS 1 . D e v e l o p i n g professionalism o u t c om e - f oc us ; s ha re d k no w l ed g e; e s s e n t i a l competencies; e t h i c a l standardization; role clarity. 2. Orient towards potential challenges g a i n t h e o r e t i c a l k n o w l e d g e ; continuously upgrade and improviseH R t o o l s ; f o c u s o n clarity of HR f un ct io n; cr ea te value additionpossibilities in H R s e r v i c e s a n d interventions. 3. HRD competencies H R D professional knowledge; professionalskills; attitudes and values.

FUTURE OF HRD HRD STRUCTURES 1 . F O R M d e di ca te d f ul l - t i m e de pa rt m e nt ; task force; CEO-centred HRD cell; HRD asan allied function of PM department; HRDat c or po r at e l e ve l w i t h c el l s a t u ni t l ev el s etc. 2 . A P P R O P R IA TE N E S S O F C H O S E N H R D STRUCTURE The chosen HRD structures h o u l d f i t into the specific needs of t h e organization. 3. VALUE ADDITION C h o s e n H R D structure should contribute to : developmentof co m pe te nc i es r eq ui r ed to me et cu rr en t a n d projected business needs and s e l f - motivating working climate.