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As the virtual centre of excellence in mobile and personal communications (Mobile VCE) moves into its second core research programme it has been decided to set up a fourth generation (4G) visions group aimed at harmonising the research work across the work areas and amongst the numerous researchers working on the programme. This paper outlines the initial work of the group and provides a start to what will become an evolving vision of 4G. A short history of previous

access to information. Cellular subscribers pay extra on top of their basic bills for such features as instant messaging, stock quotes, and even Internet access right on their phones. But that is far from the limit of features; manufacturers entice customers to buy new phones with photo and even video capability. Mobility is one of the most invigorating features, having an enormous future. Mobility in 4G networks requires new level of mobility support as compared to traditional mobility. This review aims to identify and explore the different issues and challenges related to mobility management in 4G networks. impact on how communication is evolving into the

generations of mobile communications systems and a discussion of the limitations of third generation (3G) systems are followed by a vision of 4G for 2010 based on five elements: fully converged services, ubiquitous mobile access, diverse user devices, developed autonomous in more networks This detail from and software dependency. vision is a

The history and evolution of mobile service from the 1G (first generation) to fourth generation are discussed in this section. Analog cell phones Voice only 1980s to 1990s NMT (Nordic Mobile Telephone) AMPS (Advanced Mobile Phone System) Problem with analog:

technology viewpoint into the key areas of networks and services, software systems and wireless access.

Consumers demand more from their technology. Whether it be a television, cellular phone, or refrigerator, the latest technology purchase must have new features. With the advent of the Internet, the most-wanted feature is better, faster

Not encrypted Prone to distortions The 2G (second generation) systems designed in the 1980s were still used mainly for voice applications but were based on digital technology, including digital signal processing techniques. kb/s kb/s During 1991 Digital networks SMS Mainly circuit-switched Multiplexing: TDMA and CDMA Standards: GSM, iDEN 1999 2.5G GPRS Data rate up to 128 EDGE Data rate up to 384

Video-conferencing Music downloading? Transfer of data: Emails Documents CDMA2000, UMTS, W-CDMA Problem: Different places, different air Cost of deploying


Application of 3G Internet, e-mail, fax, e-commerce, UmtsUniversal Mobile

music, video clips, and videoconferencing Telecommunication System





What is 4G?
Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic. Arthur C. Clarke Fourth generation (4G) wireless was originally conceived by the Defence Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), the same organization that developed the wired Internet. It is not surprising, then, that DARPA chose the same distributed architecture for the wireless Internet that had proven so successful in the wired Internet. Although experts and policymakers have yet to agree on all the aspects of 4G wireless, two

worked to define the next, or 3G, mobile system, which would eliminate previous incompatibilities and become a truly global system. The 3G system would have higher quality voice channels, as well as broadband data capabilities, up to 2 Mbps. Unfortunately, the two groups could not reconcile their differences, and this decade will see the introduction of two mobile standards for 3G. In addition, China is on the verge of implementing a third 3G system. Combines with IP based services

characteristics have emerged as all but certain components of 4G: end-to-end Internet Protocol (IP), and peer-to-peer networking. An all IP network makes sense because consumers will want to use the same data applications they are used to in wired networks. Peer-to-peer networks, where every device is both a transceiver and a router/repeater for other devices in the network, eliminates this spoke-and-hub weakness of cellular architectures, because the elimination of a single node does not disable the network. The final definition of 4G will have to include something as simple as this: if a consumer can do it at home or in the office while wired to the Internet, that consumer must be able to do it wirelessly in a fully mobile environment. 4G refers to the next generation of wireless technology that promises higher data rates and expanded multimedia services. The 4G is defined as a completely new fully IP-based integrated system of systems and network of networks achieved after convergence of wired and wireless networks as well as computers, consumer electronics, and communication technology and several other convergences that will be capable to provide 100 in Mbps and 1 and Gbps, indoor respectively outdoor

at any time as per user requirements, anywhere with seamless interoperability, always on, affordable cost, one billing and fully personalized. Expected in 2010

multimedia, Global wireless

Anytime support, solution,

anywhere, Integrated WiMAX

Customized personal service

This new generation of wireless is intended to complement and replace the 3G systems, perhaps in 5 to 10 years. Accessing information anywhere, anytime, with a seamless connection to a wide range of information and services, and receiving a large volume of information, data, pictures, video, and so on, are the keys of the 4G infrastructures. The future 4G infrastructures will consist of a set of various networks using IP (Internet protocol) as a common protocol so that users are in control because they will be able to choose every application and environment.

environments, with end-to-end QoS and high security, offering any kind of services

Based on the developing trends of mobile communication, 4G will have broader bandwidth, higher data rate, and smoother and quicker handoff and will focus on ensuring seamless service across a multitude of wireless systems and networks. The key concept is integrating the 4G capabilities with all of the existing mobile technologies through advanced technologies. Application adaptability and being highly dynamic are the main features of 4G services of interest to users. These features mean services can be delivered and be available to the personal preference of different users and support the users' traffic, air interfaces, radio environment, and quality of service. Connection with the network applications can be transferred into various forms and levels correctly and efficiently. The dominant methods of access to this pool of information will be the mobile telephone, PDA, and laptop to seamlessly services, and access the voice broadcast communication, high-speed information entertainment services. Figure 1 illustrates elements and techniques to support the adaptability of the 4G domain. The fourth generation will encompass all systems from various networks, public to private; operatordriven broadband networks to personal areas; and ad hoc networks. The 4G systems will interoperate with 2G and 3G systems, as well as with digital In (broadband) broadcasting systems.

addition, 4G systems will be fully IP-based wireless Internet. This all-encompassing integrated

perspective shows the broad range of systems that the fourth generation intends to integrate, from satellite broadband to high altitude platform to cellular 3G and 3G systems to WLL (wireless local loop) and FWA (fixed wireless access) to WLAN (wireless local area network) and PAN (personal area network), all with IP as the integrating mechanism. With 4G, a range of new services and models will be available. These services and models need to be further examined for their interface with the design of 4G systems. Figures 2 and 3 demonstrate the key elements and the seamless connectivity of the networks.

Voice over IP is the current standard for voice communication over data networks. Several standards already exist for VoIP, the primary one being International Multimedia

Voice over IP
difference, but the communication will occur primarily over a packet-based system, yielding all of the benefits of packets, outside of the short connections between either end of the communication and their CO. Of course, in order to keep curious users from listening in by sniffing, all data, including voice, should be encrypted while in transit.

Telecommunications Consortium standard H.323. VoIP is already in use in many offices to replace PBX-based systems and by several companies that offer cheap long distance phone calls over the Internet, such as Net2Phone and Go2Call. VoIP allows for flexibility the same way that data packets do; as far as the network is concerned, VoIP packets are the same as any other packet. They can travel over any equipment that supports packet-based communication and they receive all of the error correction and other benefits that packets receive. There are many interconnects between the data Internet and the phone network, so not only can VoIP customers communicate with each other, they can also communicate with users of the old telephone system. One other thing that VoIP allows is slow transition from direct, connection based communication to VoIP communication. Backbones can be replaced, allowing oldstyle telephone users to connect to their central office (CO) the same way. However, the CO will then connect to an IPv6 Internet backbone, which will then connect to the destination CO. To the end user, there will not seem to be any


Before the voice worked over computer networks, conventional voice also had its own problems. These problems were: 1. Steal of identity: Someone can make a call and he can be identified with a false identity. 2. Illegal listening: An intruder can interfere your conversations. 3. Imprecise costs: This is caused by bad intentioned parts that charge you more money than the real cost. 4. Not requested calls: Is a way of telephone spam. What changed with voice over IP: Something obvious is that when voice came into computers world, it took all the security problems of this area. The most common attacks are: 1. Denial of Service: With this attack, someone can make the server temporarily

unavailable by generating a lot of false requirements and collapsing the server. 2. Attacks that only produce damage to the system: Attacker get into the system and destroy or modify something inside.. 3. Steal: The main purpose of this attack is to steal information or money. It can be done getting or modifying private information. Coming back to VoIP, we can see that things have not changed at all. 1. Steal of identity: The most important point is how we can know who is the person making the call. To do this, the most used protocol is the Session Initiation Protocol(SIP). This protocol can work in three different ways:- With an User Agent (UA). In this case exists an user in the FQDN (Fully Qualified Domain Name), that usually is the telephone number and a password that is used when asking for connection. A disadvantage is that this process is done using clear text, so the user can be supplanted easily.- Another way is to register using an username, a password, and a telephone number. This system is safer, especially when some information is sent using MD5, but anyway it continues being vulnerable, because it uses security technologies that can be easily broken.The most insecure system is when sending information without a previous register. Also there had been attempts to use different techniques, such as Access Lists, but it continued being insecure.

The safest option is the use of AAA (Authentication, Authorization and Accounting). But it is not a native option in all the systems, and combining it with MD5 is the safest way for preventing this attacks. Only the most expensive systems have this option, the rest make a sip request to a proxy, and this proxy makes the AAA request to a radius, but the call can be intercepted before it reaches the proxy, and there is no security in it. Another protocol that we can use is H323. The most common ways to authenticate a person with this protocol are with a H323 ID, using AAA, using the IP address, using a set of numbers, or combining some of this methods. Although one of the advantages of H323 is that it doesnt send plaintext, the safest thing of this method is AAA and the use of H323 ID. Another important point is that in the implementation of H323 we can find the protocol H235, which uses algorithms such as Diffie-Hellman between to provide and confidentiality endpoints. 2. Illegal listening: Here we have to say that as voice is sent like data, all the security systems available for data, are also used when sending voice. Is very important the use of VPN, MPLS networks with QoS and this kind of technologies. The problem using these technologies is that we need more headers and we need servers

more bandwidth. Some people are working in a RTP codified protocol that will help in solving this problem. 3. Imprecise costs: In this area there is no a specific regulation, so users must trust their communication companies. We can note some differences if we use SIP or H323. Using SIP is more difficult to trust in the fare system, because in standard SIP we dont have a complete control of the traffic. It requires that all traffic should go through the server, and it supposes a big amount of work to it. In the case of H323, in the basic implementation is designed that all endpoints should send their status to the gatekeeper, so it can control in a good way the time of the calls and send it to an AAA server in order that price can be charged to a credit card or a similar service. 4. Not requested calls: SIP protocol can accept calls in the endpoints without authentication and is very easy to have access to them only knowing their IP. A thing that we can do to protect against this is to create black or white lists in our systems. Also we can use in H323 a password to have access to our gatekeeper, but it is only available in the most expensive systems.

(IPv6) to locate devices. IPv6 has a much larger address space. Its addresses take the form x:x:x:x:x:x:x:xwhere each x is the hexadecimal value that makes up one eighth of the address. An 4:3210 example (The of this is: FEDC:BA98:7654:3210:FEDC:BA98:765 Internet Engineering Taskforce Network Working Group ). Using this address format, there is room for approximately3.40 _ 1038 unique addresses. This is approximately 8.05 _ 1028 times as large as the IPv4address space and should have room for all wired and wireless devices, as well as room for all of the foreseeable expansion in several lifetimes. There are enough addresses for every phone to have a unique address. Thus, phone in the future can use VoIP over the Internet instead of continuing to use their existing network.

Ultra Wide Band Networks
Ultra Wideband technology, or UWB, is an advanced transmission technology that cans be used in the implementation of a 4G network. The secret to UWB is that it is typically detected as noise. This highly specific kind of noise does not cause interference with current radio frequency devices, but can be

The next generation addressing system uses the Internet Protocol version 6

decoded by another device that recognizes UWB andcan reassemble it back into a

signal. Since the signal is disguised as noise, it can use any part of the frequency spectrum, which means that it can use frequencies that are currently in use by other radio frequency devices (Cravotta ). An Ultra Wideband device works by emitting a series of short, low powered electrical pulses that are not directed at one particular frequency but rather are spread across the entire spectrum (Butcher ). As seen in Figure 6, Ultra Wideband uses a frequency of between 3.1to 10.6 GHz.

minimize 2003).




intended signal reception(Array Comm. Smart antennas can thereby: Optimize available power Increase base station range and coverage Reuse available spectrum Increase bandwidth Lengthen battery life of wireless devices

4G will likely become a unification of different wireless networks, including wireless LAN technologies (e.g. IEEE 802.11), public cellular networks (2.5G, 3G), and even personal area networks. Under this umbrella, 4G needs to support a wide range of mobile devices that can roam across different types of networks (Cefriel ). These devices would have to support different networks, meaning that one device would have to have the capability of working on different networks. One solution to this multinetwork functional device is a software defined radio.

Smart Antennas
Multiple smart antennas can be employed to help find, tune, and turn up signal information. Since the antennas can both listen and talk, a smart antenna can send signals back in the same direction that they came from. This means that the antenna system cannot only hear many times louder, but can also respond more loudly and directly as well (ArrayComm2003). There are two types of smart antennas: Switched Beam Antennas have fixed beams of transmission, andcan switch from one predefined beam to another when the user with the phone moves throughout the sector Adaptive Array Antennas represent the most advanced smart antenna approach to date using a variety of new signal processing algorithms to locate and track the user,

Software Defined Radio

A software defined radio is one that can be configured to any radio or frequency standard through the use of software. For example, if one was a subscriber of Sprint and moved into an area where Sprint did not have service, but Cingular did, the phone would automatically switch from

operating on a CDMA frequency to a TDMA frequency. In addition, if a new standard were to be created, the phone would be able to support that new standard with a simple software update. With current phones, this is impossible. A software defined radio in the context of 4G would be able to work on different broadband networks and would be ablest transfer to another network seamlessly while travelling outside of the users home network. A software defined radios best advantage is its great flexibility to be programmed for emerging wireless standards. It can be dynamically updated with new software without any changes in hardware and infrastructure. Roaming can be an issue with different standards, but with a software defined radio, users can just download the interface upon entering new territory, or the software could just download automatically (Wang 2001).Of course, in order to be able to download software at any location, the data must be formatted to some standard. This is the job of the packet layer, which will split the data into small packets.4G Wireless Systems

The Internet relies on packets to move files, pictures, video, and other information over the same hardware. Without a packet layer, there would need to be a separate connection on each computer for each type of information and a separate network with separate routing equipment to move that information around. Packets follow rules for how they are formatted; as long they follow these rules, they can be any size and contain any kind of information, carrying this information from any device on the network to another.

There are many advantages of packets and very few disadvantages. Packets are a proven method to transfer information. Packets are: More Secure Packets are inherently more secure for a variety of reasons: A predictable algorithm does not split packets they can be of any size and contain any amount of data. Packets can also travel across the network right after each other or separated by packets from other devices; they can all take the same route over networks or each take a different route. The data in packets can be encrypted using conventional data encryption methods. There are many ways to encrypt data, including ROT-13, PGP, and RSA;

Packet Layer
The packet layer is a layer of abstraction that separates the data being transmitted from the way that it is being transmitted.

the information in a packet can be encoded using any one of them, because a packet doesnt care what kind of data it carries. Within the same packet, no matter how the data segment is encrypted, the packet will still get from one place to the other in the same way, only requiring that the receiving device know how to decrypt the data. There is no simple way to reconstruct data from packets without being the intended recipient. Given that packets can take any route to their destination, it is usually hard to piece them together without actually being at their intended destination. There are tools to scan packets from networks; however, with the volume of packets that networks receive and the volume of packets per each communication, it would take a large amount of storage and processing power to effectively were encrypted. sniff a packet communication, especially if the packets

running off of data packets instead of voice information.

4G networks and ITS. Incorporating 4G architectures with ITS can create a numerous public safety applications. Sensors on Public Vehicles Putting (CBN) chemical-biological-nuclear sensor vehicle on every instantly warning


creates a mobile fleet that is the equivalent of an army of highly trained dogs. As these vehicles go about their daily duties of law enforcement, garbage collection, sewage and water maintenance, etc., municipalities get the added benefit of early detection of CBN agents. The sensors on the vehicles can talk to fixed devices mounted on light poles throughout the area, so positive detection can be reported in real time. And since 4G networks can include inherent geo-location without GPS, first responders will know where the vehicle is when it detects a CBN agent. Cameras in Traffic Lights Some major cities have deployed cameras on traffic lights and send those images back to a central command centre. This is generally done using fibre, which limits where the cameras can be hung, i.e., no fibre, no camera. 4G networks allow cities to deploy cameras and backhaul them wirelessly. And instead of having to

Unfortunately, to use packet, all cellular hardware will need to be upgraded or replaced. Consumers will be required to purchase new phones, and providers will need to install new equipment in towers. Essentially, the communication system will need to be rebuilt from the ground up,

backhaul every camera, cities can backhaul every third or fifth or tenth camera, using the other cameras as router/repeaters. These cameras can also serve as fixed infrastructure devices to support the mobile sensor application described above. First Responder Route Selection Using fibre to backhaul cameras means that the Intelligence collected flows one way: from the camera to the command centre. Using a 4G network, those images can also be sent from the command centre back out to the streets. Ambulances and fire trucks facing congestion can query various cameras to choose an alternate route. Police, stuck in traffic on major thoroughfares, can look ahead and make a decision as to whether it would be faster to stay on the main roads or exit to the side roads. Traffic Control During Disasters If a hurricane hits the Gulf Coast of Florida and cars start driving east, 4G networks can allow officials to access traffic control boxes to change inland traffic lanes to green. Instead of having to send officers to every box on roads being overwhelmed by civilians who are evacuating, it can all be done remotely, and dynamically. In a September 11 type environment, lights could also be forced to red to prevent civilians from driving into harms way. Where am I? Where are My Colleagues? If every emergency response vehicle in a city is equipped with a 4G

transceiver, the command centre then knows where all potential first Responders are during an emergency, as do the individual officers. While GPS would allow Management to know where the vehicles are, 4G networks allows them to see where the Individuals are even when they have had to leave their vehicles.

Consumers demand that software and hardware be user-friendly and perform well. Indeed, it seems part of our culture that customers expect the highest quality and the greatest features from what they buy. The cellular telephone industry, which now includes a myriad of wireless devices, is no exception.



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Slightly Alternatives

Higher Coordination

Spectrum Regulators Around the World

More Academic Research Standardization



A Voice-independent Business

Justification Thinking



Network Topologies
Non-disruptive Implementation