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You are on page 1of 16

Gerald Recktenwald

Portland State University

Department of Mechanical Engineering

gerry@me.pdx.edu

These slides are a supplement to the lectures in ME 449/549 Thermal Management Measurements

and are c 2006, Gerald W. Recktenwald, all rights reserved. The material is provided to enhance

the learning of students in the course, and should only be used for educational purposes. The

material in these slides is subject to change without notice.

The PDF version of these slides may be downloaded or stored or printed only for noncommercial,

educational use. The repackaging or sale of these slides in any form, without written consent of

the author, is prohibited.

The latest version of this PDF le, along with other supplemental material for the class, can be

found at www.me.pdx.edu/~gerry/class/ME449. Note that the location (URL) for this web

site may change.

Version 0.75 April 20, 2006

page 1

Overview

1. Motivation

System curves and loss coecients

Fan curves

Control of ow for heat transfer experiments

2. Methods of ow rate measurement

3. Flow bench

Primary components and principle of operation

Fan curve measurement

Loss coecient measurement

Volumetric Flow Rate Measurement page 2

Steady Flow Energy Equation

Steady ow energy equation

"

p

g

+

V

2

2g

+z

#

1

=

"

p

g

+

V

2

2g

+z

#

2

+h

loss

h

fan

(1)

where

p is the static pressure,

is the uid density,

V is the average velocity at a cross-section,

z is the elevation relative to a datum,

h

loss

is the head loss due to friction, kinetic

energy dissipation, etc.,

h

fan

is head gain from a fan (pump)

Volumetric Flow Rate Measurement page 3

Steady Flow Energy Equation

For air-cooled systems, gravitational eects are negligible, so the energy equation can be

rewritten as

p

1

p

2

g

+

V

2

1

V

2

2

2g

= h

loss

h

fan

(2)

Volumetric Flow Rate Measurement page 4

System Curve (1)

To dene the system curve for an electronics enclosure, we need to separate the fan from

the system.

System Curve: !p

sys

= f(Q) Fan Curve: !p

fan

= f(Q)

System with fan

1

2 3

1 2 3

2

Volumetric Flow Rate Measurement page 5

System Curve (2)

System Curve: !p

sys

= f(Q) Fan Curve: !p

fan

= f(Q)

1 2 3

2

On the left, station 2

the system when the fan is not powered. On the right, station 2

is the upstream

condition for the fan during a fan test, i.e., when the fan is not connected to a system.

Volumetric Flow Rate Measurement page 6

System Curve (3)

Apply energy equation between stations 1 and 3:

p

1

= p

3

= h

loss

= h

fan

In words: The head input by the fan is matched by the overall head loss for the

system.

Apply energy equation between stations 1 and 2

p

1

p

2

g

= h

sys

(3)

This denes the head loss for the system

Volumetric Flow Rate Measurement page 7

Fan Curve (1)

Conceptual measurement apparatus:

!p

Flow rate

measurement

device

Flow rate

control

damper

Blower overcomes !p due

to flow rate measurement

and connecting duct

Typical result (a fan curve):

!p

Q

no

flow

free air

p is the pressure rise across the fan.

Q is the volumetric ow rate through the fan

Volumetric Flow Rate Measurement page 8

Fan Curve (2)

System Curve: !p

sys

= f(Q) Fan Curve: !p

fan

= f(Q)

1 2 3

2

Apply steady ow energy equation between stations 2

and 3:

p

3

p

2

= gh

fan

The pressure rise across the fan corresponds to a gain in head. The head gain is matched

by head losses elsewhere in the system.

Volumetric Flow Rate Measurement page 9

Fan Curve (3)

For vendor-specic information see (as of April 2006)

http://www.comairrotron.com/engineering_notes.asp

0.00

0.02

0.04

0.06

0.08

0.10

0.12

0.14

0.16

0.18

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

AIRFLOW (CFM)

S

T

A

T

IC

P

R

E

S

S

U

R

E

(P

s

)

H - SPEED

M - SPEED

A - SPEED

Volumetric Flow Rate Measurement page 10

Methods of Flow Rate Measurement

Measurement of fan curves and system curves requires

Control of the ow rate

Measurement of the ow rate

Measurement of p across the device under test (DUT)

Measuring the p across the DUT is relatively simple.

Methods of ow rate measurement

Velocity prole measurement

Laminar ow meters

Rotameters

Turbine ow meters

Obstruction ow meters

Volumetric Flow Rate Measurement page 11

Obstruction Flow Meters

Sharp-Edged

Orice

!p

Q

Long Radius

Nozzle

!p

Q

Venturi

Q

!p

Volumetric Flow Rate Measurement page 12

Flow Bench

A ow bench is a device for providing a controlled and measurable ow rate to or from a

device under test (DUT).

!p

n

Blower

Blast

Gate

plenum plenum

DUT

settling

screens

p

1 T

1

nozzle wall

p

atm

air

flow

Two plenums

Nozzle wall

Flow control damper (blast gate)

Blower

Instrumentation

Volumetric Flow Rate Measurement page 13

Nozzle Wall

Three nozzles are mounted in an

aluminum sheet that separates the

two plenums.

Using custom made rubber stoppers,

the nozzles can be operated one at

a time, or in parallel combinations.

Volumetric Flow Rate Measurement page 14

Role of the Blower

Blower overcomes p due

to pressure losses

Largest pressure drops are

due to nozzles and blast gate

!p

Blower

Blast Gate

plenum plenum

p

atm

Nozzle !p

Blast Gate !p

Fan !p

Blower !p

Volumetric Flow Rate Measurement page 15

Control of Flow Rate

During fan curve measurement

Blast gate controls system ow rate.

Flow rate determines fan ow rate.

At a given ow rate, the fan produces a xed pressure rise.

During system curve measurement

Blast gate controls system ow rate.

Flow rate determines pressure drop through DUT.

Volumetric Flow Rate Measurement page 16

System Curve or Loss Coecient Measurement

Locate the Device Under Test (DUT) at inlet

of ow bench

!p

n

Blower

Blast

Gate

plenum plenum

DUT

settling

screens

p

1 T

1

nozzle wall

p

atm

air

flow

System curve:

p

sys

= p

atm

p

1

= f(Q) (4)

p

sys

is pressure drop necessary

to overcome ow

resistance of DUT,

p

atm

is local ambient pressure,

p

1

is pressure in upstream

plenum,

Q is volumetric ow rate

measured by nozzle(s).

Volumetric Flow Rate Measurement page 17

Fan Curve Measurement

Locate the fan at inlet of ow bench

!p

Blower

Blast Gate

plenum plenum

settling screens

Fan curve:

p

fan

= p

1

p

atm

= f(Q) (5)

p

fan

is pressure rise provided

by fan,

p

atm

is local ambient pressure,

p

1

is pressure in upstream

plenum,

Q is volumetric ow rate

measured by nozzle(s).

Note that when the DUT is a fan, p

1

> p

atm

, and when the DUT is an electronic

enclosure, p

atm

> p

1

.

Volumetric Flow Rate Measurement page 18

Flow Bench Instrumentation

To compute ow rate, measure

Pressure in plenum 1

Temperature in plenum 1

Pressure drop across the nozzle

To characterize the DUT, measure the pressure drop between ambient and plenum 1. In

practice we measure

p

atm

with barometer

T

1

with thermocouple upstream of nozzle

p

atm

p

1

with inclined manometer or pressure

transducer

p

1

p

2

with manometer, pressure gage, or

pressure transducer

Volumetric Flow Rate Measurement page 19

Data Reduction (1)

Compute

p

1

= p

atm

(p

atm

p

1

)

Q = C

d

A

n

Y

s

2p

(1

4

)

(6)

C

d

is the nozzle discharge coecient,

A

n

is the area of the nozzle throat,

Y expansion factor to account for compressibility,

d

t

is the throat diameter,

p is the measured pressure drop across the nozzle,

is the uid density upstream of the nozzle

= d

t

/D is the contraction ratio,

D is the diameter of the upstream duct.

Volumetric Flow Rate Measurement page 20

Data Reduction (2)

The nozzles are built to ASME/ANSI specication, but are not individually calibrated.

Use the generic equation for the discharge coecient

C

d

= 0.9986

7.006

Re

t

+

134.6

Re

t

(7)

Re

t

=

V

t

d

t

=

4Q

d

t

(8)

V

t

= Q/A

n

is the velocity in the throat,

is the uid density,

is the uid viscosity evaluated at the pressure and

temperature upstream of the nozzle.

Volumetric Flow Rate Measurement page 21

Data Reduction (3)

The analytical expression for the expansion factor is

Y =

"

1

2/

1

(1)/

1

#

1/2

"

1

4

1

4

2/

#

1/2

(9)

where = c

p

/c

v

and

=

p p

p

0 Y 1. As p 0, Y 1.

Volumetric Flow Rate Measurement page 22

Data Reduction (4)

An iterative procedure is required to compute Q for each measured p:

Initialize:

Compute and store K

Q

= A

n

Y

s

2p

(1

4

)

Guess a value of C

d

, say C

d

= 0.98

Iterate:

1. Compute Q = C

d

K

Q

2. Compute Re

t

from equation (8)

3. Compute C

d

from equation (7)

4. If the new C

d

is close enough to the old C

d

, stop.

Otherwise, return to step (1)

Volumetric Flow Rate Measurement page 23

Data Reduction (5)

function Q = nozzleFlow(d,D,dp,p,T)

% nozzleFlow Volumetric flow rate of air through a long radius nozzle.

% --- Evaluate fluid properties and other constants

mu = airViscosity(T); % kinematic viscosity

rho = p/(287*(T+273.15)); % air density from ideal gas law

bbeta = d/D;

y = expansionFactor(p,dp,bbeta,1.4);

area = 0.25*pi*d^2;

qcon = area*y*sqrt(2*dp/(rho*(1-bbeta^4))); rcon = rho*d/(area*mu);

% --- Initialize and loop until cd converges

tol = 5e-6; it = 0; maxit = 25; cdold = 0; cd = 0.9;

while abs(cdold-cd)>tol && it<maxit

cdold = cd;

Q = cd*qcon;

Re = rcon*Q;

cd = 0.9986 - 7.006/sqrt(Re) + 134.6/Re;

it = it + 1;

end

if it>=maxit, error(No convergence after %d iterations,it); end

Volumetric Flow Rate Measurement page 24

Least Squares Fit to System Curve (1)

The energy equation for the system with an unpowered fan is

p

sys

g

= h

loss

(10)

Recall that for pipe systems, minor losses are represented by

h

minor

= K

V

2

2g

where K is the so-called minor loss coecient.

By analogy we assume that the loss through the system will also vary as the square of the

average velocity.

h

loss

= K

V

2

2g

= K

Q

2

2gA

2

(11)

where A is the eective cross-sectional area of the system.

Volumetric Flow Rate Measurement page 25

Least Squares Fit to System Curve (2)

Substitute p

sys

= gh

loss

from

Equation (10) into Equation (11)

p

sys

= CQ

2

(12)

where C = K/(2A

2

) is assumed

to be a constant for the system.

Typical loss coecient data

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3

0

50

100

150

200

250

Flow rate (m

3

/min)

P

r

e

s

s

u

r

e

d

r

o

p

a

c

r

o

s

s

t

h

e

p

l

a

t

e

(

P

a

)

data

curve fit

Volumetric Flow Rate Measurement page 26

Least Squares Fit to System Curve (3)

To obtain the system curve, measure a series of (p

sys

, Q) pairs. A least squares curve

t is then used to nd C.

Software tools (e.g. Matlab or spreadsheets) have built-in procedures for performing

least squares t to polynomials. Such a tool would require a curve t of the form

p

sys

= c

1

Q

2

+c

2

Q+c

3

But Equation (12) does not have the constant or a term linear in Q. Fortunately it is very

easy to derive a simple formula that uses the least squares principle to obtain C from

measured data

Volumetric Flow Rate Measurement page 27

Least Squares Fit to System Curve (4)

0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05

!10

0

10

20

30

40

50

Flow rate (m

3

/s)

P

r

e

s

s

u

r

e

d

r

o

p

(

P

a

)

Fit to ! p = c

1

Q

2

+ c

2

Q + c

3

System 1 data

curve fit

System 2 data

curve fit

0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05

0

10

20

30

40

50

Flow rate (m

3

/s)

P

r

e

s

s

u

r

e

d

r

o

p

(

P

a

)

Fit to ! p = c Q

2

System 1 data

curve fit

System 2 data

curve fit

Volumetric Flow Rate Measurement page 28

Least Squares Fit to System Curve (5)

Given a set of m data pairs(p

1

, Q

1

), (p

2

, Q

2

), . . . (p

m

, Q

m

), write the matrix

equation

2

6

6

6

4

Q

2

1

Q

2

2

.

.

.

Q

2

m

3

7

7

7

5

C =

2

6

6

6

4

p

1

p

2

.

.

.

p

m

3

7

7

7

5

(13)

Equation (13) is an overdetermined system for the one unknown value C. Multiply both

sides by (Q

2

1

, Q

2

2

, . . . , Q

2

m

)

T

Q

2

1

Q

2

2

Q

2

m

2

6

6

6

4

Q

2

1

Q

2

2

.

.

.

Q

2

m

3

7

7

7

5

C =

Q

2

1

Q

2

2

Q

2

m

2

6

6

6

4

p

1

p

2

.

.

.

p

m

3

7

7

7

5

(14)

Volumetric Flow Rate Measurement page 29

Least Squares Fit to System Curve (6)

Equation (14) is the normal equation for the over determined system in Equation (13).

Solving Equation (14) gives the value of C that is the least squares solution to

Equation (13).

Evaluating the inner products in Equation (14) gives

m

X

i=1

Q

4

i

!

C =

m

X

i=1

Q

2

i

p

i

!

(15)

This is just a scalar equation involving the one unknown value C. Solving for C gives

C =

P

m

i=1

Q

2

i

p

i

P

m

i=1

Q

4

i

(16)

Therefore, given pairs of (p, Q) data from a ow loss measurement, Equation (16)

provides a simple computational formula for obtaining the C that is the least squares t

of the data to Equation (12).

Volumetric Flow Rate Measurement page 30

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