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Juneau

Non-Motorized
Transportation Plan
Adopted September 17, 1997

“Bicycles are the indicators of healthy communities, like shellfish in a bay.”


- P. Scott Martin

“The problem is the world is full of intersections.”


- Judy Murphy
Acknowledgments

The Parks and Recreation staff would like to thank the many individuals and organizations that
helped develop and write the Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan.

The public for all their comments and continued support during the development of this plan.

Christine King for formatting, proofing and editing.

Kimberly Kiefer, Jim King, Mary Lou King, Edra Lewis, Carrie Macaulay, Therese Smith, Kristi
West and Myiia Whistler for proofing and editing.

The Bicycle Task Force Committee, Parks and Recreations Advisory Committee, Planning
Commission and Assembly for their support and input.

KINY, KJNO, KTOO and the Juneau Empire for meeting notifications and informational
announcements and articles.

Sheila Corey, Kevin Miller, Renee Rieser, Ari Sassi, Jeanette St. George and Rob Steedle for
computer related support.

The City and Borough of Juneau, Parks and Recreation Department prepared the Juneau Non-
Motorized Transportation Plan.

Therese Ambrosi Smith Director


James King Planner
Table of Contents

Chapter One
Introduction............................................................................................................1
Purpose...............................................................................................................2
Planning .............................................................................................................2
Transportation System .......................................................................................4
Community Characteristics................................................................................4
Setting ..........................................................................................................4
Climate.........................................................................................................5
Demographics ..............................................................................................6
Growth .........................................................................................................6
Goals and Objectives .........................................................................................6
Goal One: Engineering ................................................................................7
Goal Two: Education .................................................................................10
Goal Three: Compliance ............................................................................11
Goal Four: Encouragement ........................................................................12
Goal Five: Implementation ........................................................................13
Methodology ....................................................................................................14

Chapter Two
Benefits and Characteristics ..............................................................................16
Types of Users .................................................................................................17
Advanced/High Speed ...............................................................................17
Basic...........................................................................................................17
Novice/Low Speed.....................................................................................18
Types of Facilities............................................................................................19
Shared Roadway ........................................................................................19
Wide Lanes ................................................................................................19
Shoulder Lanes ..........................................................................................20
Bike Lanes .................................................................................................20
Multi-Use Pathways...................................................................................20
Trails ..........................................................................................................21
Sidewalks ...................................................................................................21
Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation............................................................21
Non-Motorized Transportation Facility Maintenance ...............................24
Existing Facilities ......................................................................................24
Bicycle Use ................................................................................................25
Accidents ...................................................................................................26
Bicycle Education ......................................................................................26
Bicycle Law Enforcement..........................................................................28
Bicycle Myths ............................................................................................29

Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan i


Table of Contents

Bikeway System Funding ..........................................................................33

Chapter Three
Inventory of Existing Facilities...........................................................................35
Existing Facilities ............................................................................................36
Subarea 1: Auke Bay to Echo Cove...........................................................36
Subarea 2: Mendenhall Valley...................................................................37
Subarea 3: Lemon/Salmon Creek ..............................................................40
Subarea 4: Douglas Island & Thane Road.................................................42
Subarea 5: Downtown Area .......................................................................44
Summary of Existing Facilities........................................................................45

Chapter Four
Recommendations ................................................................................................46
General Recommendations ..............................................................................46
Facility Maintenance..................................................................................46
Annual Bicycle Meeting ............................................................................47
CBJ Land Disposal ....................................................................................48
Enforcement...............................................................................................48
Transit Centers ...........................................................................................49
Bike Racks on Buses and at Bus Stops......................................................49
Bicycle Parking..........................................................................................49
Non-Motorized Commuter Park and Ride Lots.........................................50
Signs...........................................................................................................50
Bike Map....................................................................................................51
Juneau Junkers ...........................................................................................51
Adopt-A-Bikeway Program .......................................................................52
Bicycle Related Ordinances.......................................................................52
Bicycle Registration...................................................................................52
Ridership Survey........................................................................................53
Public Education ........................................................................................53
Nighttime Riding .......................................................................................54
Bike Flow...................................................................................................54
Sidewalks ...................................................................................................55
Awareness Building Measures...................................................................55
Sponsored Bicycling Events ......................................................................55
Mountain Bikes..........................................................................................55
Egan Drive .................................................................................................56
Site Specific, Low Cost Recommendations..................................................57
Non-Motorized Transportation System Improvements .............................61
Subarea 1: Auke Bay to Echo Cove...........................................................62

ii Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan


Map of Auke Bay to Echo Cove ..................................... following page 63
Subarea 2: Mendenhall Valley...................................................................64
Map of Mendenhall Valley .............................................. following page 69
Subarea 3: Lemon/Salmon Creek ..............................................................70
Map of Lemon/Salmon Creek.......................................... following page 71
Subarea 4: Douglas Island & Thane Road.................................................72
Map of Douglas Island & Thane Road ............................ following page 73
Subarea 5: Downtown Area .......................................................................74
Map of Downtown Area .................................................. following page 75
Borough Wide Improvement Projects .........................................................76

Chapter Five
Design Standards .................................................................................................78
Introduction......................................................................................................78
Types of Facilities............................................................................................81
Shared Roadways.......................................................................................81
Wide Lanes ................................................................................................82
Shoulder Lanes ..........................................................................................82
Bike Lanes .................................................................................................84
Multi-Use Paths .........................................................................................86
Bicycle Parking................................................................................................97
Recommended Standards...........................................................................98
Intersections ...................................................................................................102
Signing and Marking .....................................................................................109
On Road Bikeways ..................................................................................110
Multi-Use-Paths .......................................................................................114
Traffic Calming..............................................................................................116
Reducing Traffic Speeds................................................................................118
Discouraging Through Traffic on Local Streets ............................................120

Appendix I
Bibliography .....................................................................................................I 1-4

Appendix II
Glossary .......................................................................................................... II 1-3

Appendix III
Public Meeting Comments ............................................................................ III - 1
Top Priority Projects (Mendenhall Valley Meeting) ................................. III - 2
Bicycle Plan Comments............................................................................. III - 4

Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan iii


Table of Contents

Top Priority Projects (Downtown Meeting) .............................................. III - 7


Bicycle Plan Comments............................................................................. III - 9

Appendix IV
State and Local Bicycle Laws.......................................................................... IV-1
Alaska State Statute ..................................................................................... IV-2
Amusements and Sports......................................................................... IV-2
Criminal Law ......................................................................................... IV-2
Motor Vehicles ...................................................................................... IV-3
Alaska Administrative Code ........................................................................ IV-5
Public Safety .......................................................................................... IV-5
Juneau Code ............................................................................................... IV-15
Parental Responsibility ........................................................................ IV-15
Application of Provisions .................................................................... IV-15
Traffic Laws and Regulations Apply to Person Riding ....................... IV-15
Riding On............................................................................................. IV-15
Riding on Roadway, Trail and Path..................................................... IV-16
Carrying Article ................................................................................... IV-16
Lamps and Other Equipment ............................................................... IV-16
Driving on Sidewalks........................................................................... IV-17
Bicycle Parking.................................................................................... IV-18
Definitions ........................................................................................... IV-18

Appendix V
Facility Evaluation Criteria .......................................................................... V 1-3

iv Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan


Executive Summary

Commuter and recreational bicycling as well as other forms of non-motorized


transportation have become increasingly popular in Juneau over the past few years. The
1995 Parks and Recreation Survey reported seventy-seven percent of households have
one or more bicycles that were used in the last year. To accommodate this increased use
and to enhance the quality of life in our community, Juneau needs to create a
comprehensive, interconnected, well-maintained system of non-motorized transportation
facilities. The first step is the development of this Non-Motorized Transportation Plan.

The overall purpose of this plan is to identify and describe a safe, efficient, easy to use,
high quality network of non-motorized transportation routes, bicycle lanes and multi-use
pathways throughout the community. The planning of such a system has identified the
specific needs of the community, which can now be studied further for feasibility and
possible funding sources.

The first chapter introduces the reader to the purpose and function of this plan. The
benefits of bicycling, both individually and for the community as a whole, as well as the
study area and the goals and objectives are also addressed in this chapter.

The characteristics of Juneau that influence bicycle use and the different types of
bicyclists and bicycle facilities found in Juneau are described throughout Chapter Two.
In addition, this chapter contains findings gathered from an information search and public
comments. Maintenance of facilities, the type of use and provision of services, bicycle
accidents, bicycle education, law enforcement and bikeway system funding are each
discussed.

Chapter Three contains an inventory of the existing bicycle facilities in Juneau. Chapter
Four presents a plan for new facilities and a guide for future development. A listing of
improvement projects, based upon research and public input, is also included in this
chapter.

The discussion and establishment of optimum design standards for providing safe and
convenient facilities that will encourage and enhance non-motorized transportation in
Juneau is outlined in Chapter Five. These standards are to be used in the planning, design
and construction process, as well as for maintenance guidelines.

Methodology

Over the past few years there has been considerable effort to update the 1978 Juneau
Bicycle Plan. In 1990 a Bicycle Task Force Committee was formed. This committee
met regularly for the next few years producing pieces of the current Non-Motorized

Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan v


Transportation Plan. During the summer of 1997, two public meetings were held and
comments were gathered. From these comments and all of the previous work that was
done, a draft plan was completed. Over the summer, six different drafts of this plan were
produced and reviewed by the public, agencies, Parks and Recreation Advisory
Committee, Planning Commission and the Assembly.

Issues

Key issues that emerged are the need for:

• Better maintenance of existing facilities


• Better communication between the agencies that maintain facilities and the users
• Preservation of corridors through land before it is sold or developed
• Inclusion of non-motorized transportation facilities in capital improvement projects

It is important to the quality of life in Juneau to continue to improve the non-motorized


transportation facilities and encourage their use. This plan contains the ideas and
improvement recommendations to accomplish this goal.

vi Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan


Chapter One

Introduction

The environment surrounding our community provides many opportunities for outdoor
activities. Commuter and recreational bicycling are among these opportunities and along
with many other non-motorized forms of transportation have become increasingly
popular over the years. To accommodate the increased use of alternative forms of
transportation and to enhance the quality of life in our community, Juneau needs to create
a comprehensive, interconnected, well-maintained system of non-motorized
transportation facilities. The first step is the development of this non-motorized
transportation plan.

Kaxdigoowu Heen Dei

The overall purpose of this plan is to identify and describe a safe, efficient, easy to use,
high quality network of non-motorized transportation routes, bicycle lanes and multi-use
pathways throughout the community. Any implementation requires evaluation of
climate, topography, demographics, legality, safety, engineering and funding elements,
all of which are considered here.

This plan places emphasis on bicycle facilities consisting of shared roadways, wide lanes,
shoulder lanes, bike lanes, multi-use pathways and trails as defined in Chapter Two. The

Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan 1


Chapter One: Introduction

common user types considered include bicyclists, joggers, in-line skaters, pedestrians and
wheelchair users. These users will be referred to as non-motorized transportation users
throughout this document.

Purpose
As a working document, this plan will fulfill the following functions:

1. Be a guide for development of a City and Borough of Juneau (CBJ)


interconnected non-motorized transportation system, which effectively
accommodates transportation and recreational traffic. Specifically reserve
corridors on CBJ land for future pathway development.

2. Encourage an increase in alternative transportation use through provision of


safe, efficient, easy to use facilities that connect to activity centers and public
transit.

3. Decrease the number of bicycle and pedestrian related accidents by


identifying and correcting existing unsafe conditions and ensuring high safety
standards on new facilities.

4. Become a part of the overall Juneau Area Transportation System plan.

5. Ensure inclusion of non-motorized transportation in all transportation


planning, design and construction activities.

6. Encourage community wide non-motorized transportation safety, education


and enforcement programs.

7. Assist in working with CBJ, the U.S. Forest Service (USFS) and the Alaska
Department of Transportation and Public Facilities (DOT/PF) to secure
funding for development of non-motorized transportation facilities.

Planning
The Non-Motorized Transportation Plan addresses many of the recommendations made
and approved in the Comprehensive Plan of the CBJ by providing a logical, consistent
and purposeful approach to non-motorized transportation planning in Juneau. The need
to encourage alternative, safe, energy efficient modes of transportation is mentioned
consistently throughout the document. The CBJ Comprehensive Plan calls for the
development of a comprehensive transportation plan or inter-modal transportation plan,

2 Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan


which addresses the need for alternative transportation.
Specific implementing actions noted in the transportation
section of the CBJ Comprehensive Plan that are more
fully developed in the Non-Motorized Transportation Plan
are as follows:

Policy 4.3. It is the policy of the CBJ to promote and


facilitate transportation alternatives to automobiles as
a means of reducing congestion and air
pollution and conserving energy. CBJ Comprehensive Plan

4.3.7. Require bicycle and pedestrian paths, preferably separated from


automobile traffic, in all new growth areas and planned unit developments.

4.3.9. Provide secure bike parking facilities at public buildings and


encourage them in private developments.

4.3.10. Complete and/or upgrade a continuous separated bicycle/pedestrian


pathway between the Mendenhall Valley and downtown Juneau by
connecting those portions now existing.

4.3.11. Require sidewalks and bicycle paths or lanes along existing or


newly constructed arterial and collector streets where appropriate to provide
safe and efficient access and recreation and to reduce pedestrian/automobile
conflicts.

4.3.14. Identify pedestrian routes in the downtown area. Include provisions


for rest areas and methods to reduce the conflicts between pedestrian,
bicycle and vehicular traffic.

Policy 4.4. It is the policy of the CBJ to respond to the special transportation
needs of each subarea of the Borough and to integrate them into a Borough wide
comprehensive transportation plan.

4.4.17. Require sidewalks and bicycle paths or lanes along existing or newly
constructed arterial and collector streets, where appropriate, to provide safe and
efficient access and recreation and to reduce pedestrian/automobile conflicts.

Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan 3


Chapter One: Introduction

Transportation System
Successful non-motorized transportation plans are integrated into the overall
transportation plan of a city, region or state. They reflect the mobility and access needs
of a community and are placed in a wider context than simple movement of people and
goods. Issues such as land use, energy, the environment, livability and social, physical
and mental health, are all important factors.

Non-motorized transportation planning undertaken apart from other modes of planning


can lead to a viewpoint that these facilities are not integral to the transportation system.
If non-motorized transportation facilities are regarded as amenities, they may not receive
sufficient consideration in the competition for financial resources and available land. A
comprehensive plan that incorporates non-motorized transportation networks into an
overall transportation plan needs to be established. This will ensure that improvements,
which enhance bicycle travel, will also benefit other modes of travel and vice versa.

Bicycles are an important form of


transportation for many people in the
Juneau area. In order to accommodate
their needs, it is necessary to consider
non-motorized transportation facilities
in the beginning stages of all
reconstruction or new road projects.
Roadway improvements or new project
planning and design should include non-
motorized transportation facilities that
are safe, convenient, adequate and link
effectively with other transportation
modes. Bicycle Commuter

Community Characteristics
Non-motorized transportation facility planning can be affected by a combination of
natural features and human influences. This section discusses many of the attributes that
can affect non-motorized transportation facility development in Juneau.

Setting

Juneau is located in the Southeast Alaska Panhandle on a narrow strip of mainland


between Canada and the Pacific Ocean. The city is wedged between the rich inter-tidal
zone of the Inside Passage and glacial filled mountains. The Tongass National Forest

4 Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan


surrounds Juneau, leaving it an island of civilization in a vast, rugged wilderness. The
city is located 900 air miles northwest of Seattle, Washington and 700 air miles southeast
of Anchorage, Alaska. Juneau is separated from the continental highway system by 90
miles of water and rugged terrain.

Downtown Juneau

Over half a million tourists come to see the natural beauty of Juneau each year.
Surrounded by glaciers, mountains, fjords, forests, wildlife and undisturbed wilderness,
Juneau has some of the most spectacular natural wonders of the world, all within the city
limits. About ninety percent (90%) of the area within the Borough consists of water,
rugged mountains or glacial ice caps.

Climate

Juneau has a mild, maritime climate. Moisture in the airflow from the ocean meets
colder air from the mountains resulting in significant precipitation. The amount of rain
varies depending on location. Downtown receives the highest rainfall with 80 inches per
year; the Mendenhall Valley has much less with 50 inches. Summer rain typically comes
as a drizzle or mist, while fall can bring storms with much more intensity. Local
residents have become accustomed to the rain and tend to go about their business, rain or
shine. The average summer temperature range is from 44° to 65° F. The average winter

Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan 5


Chapter One: Introduction

temperature range is 25° to 35° F with lows not much below zero and occasional warm
periods in the forties. At 58° North Latitude, summer days are long while winter days are
short.

Demographics

Juneau’s 1997 population is just over thirty thousand and is expected to continue growing
at a .5 to 3% annual rate. 1 New mining operations in or around Juneau could boost the
population. Juneau has a fairly young, highly educated and generally high-income
population compared with the rest of the state and nation.

Growth

Development has already occurred


in much of the easily developable
flat land. As new growth fills in the
undeveloped spaces and begins to
spread into the less desirable areas,
such as wetlands and steep
mountainsides, the demand for
open space, trails, bicycle facilities
and alternative transportation
facilities will increase. Parcels that
have been identified for disposal in
the CBJ Land Management Plan
give some idea of where future Development on Douglas Island
development will occur.

Goals and Objectives


Establishing a set of common goals and objectives is important when preparing a
comprehensive non-motorized transportation system. These goals and objectives fall
within five distinct categories: Engineering, Education, Compliance, Encouragement, and
Implementation.

1
Reed Hansen and Associates, CBJ. Final Socioeconomic Impact Assessment Kensington Gold Project
May 1997.

6 Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan


Goal One

Engineering

To plan, design,
and implement a
local transportation
system, which
effectively and
safely
accommodates
non-motorized
traffic and
improves the
quality of life in
Juneau.
Local transportation system which accommodates non-motorized traffic

Objective A

Plan and design an interconnected system of safe, easy to use non-


motorized transportation facilities.

1. Determine the needs of commuting, recreating, touring and other non-


motorized transportation users of all ages and skills.

2. Provide roadways capable of safely accommodating shared use by


motor vehicle and non-motorized users.

3. Provide a continuous system of non-motorized transportation facilities,


such as shoulder lanes, bike lanes and multi-use pathways.

4. Develop a system of multi-


use pathways (physically
separated from motor
vehicle traffic), where
desirable and feasible, for
users of all ages and
abilities.

Multi-use pathway

Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan 7


Chapter One: Introduction

5. Provide for the establishment of inter-modal linkages with public


transportation.

6. Ensure that Borough schools and libraries are connected to adjacent


non-motorized transportation facilities.

7. Ensure that recreational facilities are connected to adjacent non-


motorized transportation facilities.

8. Connect major transportation hubs such as the ferry terminal, airport


and transit stops.

9. Prioritize construction, maintenance and operation of non-motorized


transportation facilities.

10. Monitor and analyze bicycle and other non-motorized transportation


related accident data in order to determine problem areas and design
safer facilities.

11. Consider mountain bike needs in future trail planning efforts.

Objective B

Provide new facilities that meet non-motorized transportation design


standards.

1. Provide non-motorized transportation facilities that meet applicable


standards and guidelines for design and location criteria in the
American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials'
(AASHTO) Guide for Development of Bicycle Facilities and the
Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) as supplemented and adopted
by the State of Alaska.

2. Provide uniform and effective signing and marking of all non-


motorized transportation facilities in accordance with the Federal
Highway Administration's Manual on Uniform Traffic Control
Devices (MUTCD) as supplemented and adopted by the State of
Alaska.

3. Develop innovative pavement markings such as bike lane symbols that


have directional arrows, stop signs, bicycles painted in traffic lanes to
indicate a shared roadway and others.

8 Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan


4. Ensure that when installing or upgrading traffic lights or signals, all
sensors will be able to recognize bicycles.

5. Develop local standards that supplement and supercede AASHTO and


MUTCD standards as appropriate for local conditions.

Objective C

Upgrade existing non-motorized transportation facilities to meet


design standards.

1. Upgrade all existing facilities to conform to AASHTO and MUTCD


standards.

2. Remove signs on existing roads and facilities that do not conform to


AASHTO and MUTCD standards and provide ones that do conform.

3. Ensure that all trails allowing mountain bikes are designed for them
and are equipped with adequate signs.

Objective D

Improve non-motorized transportation facility maintenance.

1. Adopt scheduled maintenance practices, which will maintain facilities


in a generally smooth, clean, and safe condition.

2. Include all shoulder lanes, bike lanes and multi-use pathways in


routine road maintenance programs.

3. Establish a method of reporting facility maintenance concerns to the


responsible agency and a method of getting action.

4. Provide winter maintenance for those facilities that have a demand for
it.

5. Establish a schedule and means for rebuilding and resurfacing non-


motorized transportation facilities.

Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan 9


Chapter One: Introduction

Goal Two

Education

Encourage and support non-motorized transportation safety education programs.

Objective A

Instigate safety and education programs aimed at all members of the


community, to improve non-motorized transportation skills,
observance of traffic laws and overall safety.

1. Offer safety education programs for all ages, through the school
system and community organizations.

2. Distribute informational flyers on helmet usage and cycling skills.

3. Make information available to parents informing them of the types of


accidents that involve young cyclists and other non-motorized
transportation users and give them ideas on preventive measures.

4. Increase motorist and cyclist awareness of legal rights of cyclists and


the safest ways to share the roadway through incorporating it into the
driver’s education manual and program.

5. Educate transportation professionals, including construction


contractors, on the needs and capabilities of non-motorized traffic.

Construction site forcing bicyclist into motor vehicle lane

10 Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan


6. Educate public officials and administrators of the needs of non-
motorized transportation users as well as the social, environmental,
personal, economic and community benefits.

7. Educate law enforcement officials on the statutory rights and


responsibilities of bicyclists, pedestrians and motorists and encourage
enforement.

Goal Three

Compliance

Increase safety and efficiency of non-motorized transportation through


enforcement and regulation.

Objective A

Encourage compliance with and enforcement of laws applicable to


non-motorized transportation.

1. Advocate enforcement of traffic laws for bicyclists who violate the


rules of the road and fail in their responsibilities as co-users of
transportation facilities.

2. Advocate enforcement of traffic laws with regard to the motorists who


violate bicyclists’ and pedestrian rights.

Objective B

Reduce the incidence of bicycle theft.

1. Provide appropriately
located, secure bike
racks and lockers,
protected from the
weather at various
destinations around
Juneau.

Secure bicycle rack

Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan 11


Chapter One: Introduction

2. Initiate a Borough-wide bicycle registration program to help identify


lost or stolen bicycles.

Goal Four

Encouragement

Encourage non-motorized transportation for health and social benefits and to


reduce motor vehicle congestion, pollution and the need for road and parking
expansion.

Objective A

Create an environment conducive to non-motorized transportation.

1. Encourage businesses and institutions to provide secure, weather


protected bicycle parking, shower facilities and other incentives to
support and accommodate those employees, customers and clients
electing to commute or travel by bicycle.

2. Develop a non-motorized transportation map that identifies facilities


like shoulder lanes, bike lanes, multi-use pathways and bike racks.
Place rules of the road and other safety guidelines on the map for
educational purposes.

3. Advocate public service announcements that encourage non-motorized


forms of transportation.

4. Advocate public service announcements that educate the public on the


shared use of roadways.

Objective B

Promote non-motorized transportation related recreation.

1. Encourage non-motorized transportation related recreational events as


a regular part of community activities.

2. Publish a listing of all non-motorized transportation related events or


activities in the Juneau area.

12 Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan


3. Publish a map and guide for both on and off-road routes that inform
the public of facilities and services.

4. Develop a system of bike lanes and multi-use pathways that inter-


connect neighborhoods, shopping areas and recreation areas.

Multi-use pathway connecting neighborhoods

Goal Five

Implementation

Ensure that non-motorized transportation planning is considered Borough wide.

Objective A

Incorporate Non-Motorized Transportation Plan recommendations in


all local-planning efforts.

1. Review all local, state and federal construction projects and land sales
during the design or review process for compliance with non-
motorized transportation needs.

2. Coordinate implementation of the Non-Motorized Transportation Plan


with the USFS, DOT/PF, Alaska State Parks, Alaska State Department
of Natural Resources and the University of Alaska facilities planning
and project design.

Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan 13


Chapter One: Introduction

3. Coordinate Non-Motorized Transportation Plan implementation with


new and existing park developments and subdivision layouts.

4. Seek public input on new non-motorized transportation projects.

5. Encourage land-use decisions that favor non-motorized transportation.

Methodology
Over the past few years there has been considerable effort toward updating the 1978
Juneau Bicycle Plan. Many opportunities have been provided for public input on this
plan. In 1990 a Bicycle Plan Task Force Committee, composed of members from a local
bicycle club, Parks and Recreation Advisory Committee, DOT/PF, Alaska State Parks,
USFS and the general public, was established. Over the next few years, this committee
began preparing a bike plan. Existing facilities were inventoried, problems with existing
facilities and how to fix them were identified and new projects were recommended. This
effort became the basis of the Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan.

In June of 1997, work on the plan continued. Two public meetings were held where
public input was gathered. The comments from these meetings is summarized in
Appendix III. These meetings reinforced many of the recommendations that came from
the Task Force’s efforts.

A review of existing plans,


documents and previous planning
efforts that pertain to non-motorized
transportation was done. State and
city recreation and development
plans were consulted and
transportation plans were examined.
Existing facilities were surveyed and
mapped. Conditions were
inventoried and deficiencies in the
existing system were then noted.
Laws pertaining to bikeways and
cyclists were researched and public Public meeting, 1997

input was sought.

From all of this input the first draft of this plan was compiled in July of 1997. Over sixty
copies were distributed to interested parties. From this, twenty responses were received,
and over thirty people attended the Parks and Recreation Advisory Committee meeting to
show their support. One of the formal responses was from the Juneau Freewheelers

14 Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan


Bicycle Club with more than 60 members “strongly endorsing the plan.” This plan has
had excellent input from the community with over a hundred individuals making
comments on it in one way or another.

The Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Planning effort has received considerable


media attention. There have been two articles in the Juneau Empire, one of which was a
front-page article; the other contained a picture of a map from the report. Our City, a
report from the CBJ, included a brief summary of the plan and had a large picture of a
cyclist. KINY, KJNO and KTOO have all had talk shows and numerous news reports on
the progress of the bike plan. A display was set up during the “bike to work day” from
which a list of interested people was generated. This was the beginning of a mailing list
that now has over a hundred interested people. Over all, this plan has had very good
publicity and many people in the community are aware that it is happening and have
taken part in its development.

Local newspaper coverage of “Bike to Work Day”

Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan 15


Chapter Two

Benefits and Characteristics

The many benefits of bicycling, walking and other modes of non-motorized


transportation for individuals and the community as a whole have been well documented
in national studies. 2 Recently, this energy efficient, economical, non-polluting, healthy
means of transportation has seen a large increase in popularity. Whether people are
bicycling, walking, in-line skating or running for exercise, recreation, relaxation or as a
mode of transportation, Juneauites seem to be gaining physical, mental and social
benefits from these activities.

Individual benefits occur in a


variety of ways. Regular exercise
improves physical health and its
role in the prevention and
management of several ailments is
well established. Any improvement
in muscular strength, endurance and
flexibility helps to protect against
injury and disability. Mental health
benefits, such as an improved
outlook on life and enhanced well
being can also be associated with Bicycling can provide physical, mental and social benefits
physical activity.

Non-motorized transportation provides a means of getting from one place to another for
those who do not have access to an automobile or choose not to use one. Economic
benefits may occur through a reduction of personal transportation costs, particularly if a
person regularly uses their bicycle or other means for commuting to work or running
errands. The potential for reduced health care costs through increased fitness also exists.

Community and societal benefits also result from an increase in the number of people
who use non-motorized transportation. Benefits, such as a reduction in air, water and
noise pollution, and a decrease in petroleum consumption and roadway congestion, can
result. Roadway improvements to increase the safety of bicyclists and pedestrians can
also enhance safety for motorists. Widening roads to include paved shoulders on rural,
two-lane roads has been shown to reduce run-off-road, head-on and sideswipe vehicle

2
U.S Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration. National Bike and Pedestrian
Study. 1992.

Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan 16


Chapter Two: Benefits and Characteristics

crashes. 3 The greater width also results in a decrease in the rate of normal roadway edge
degradation, which increases road longevity and saves money on maintenance costs.
Reduced traffic and parking congestion helps reduce wear and tear on roads and the costs
for new roads and parking facilities. Quality of life benefits can result from connecting
neighborhoods. Neighbors get a chance to know each other and greater community
cohesion can result. Recognizing these benefits, local, state and federal governments
have given increased attention to the bicycle as a legitimate mode of transportation. It is
in Juneau's best interest to develop and improve facilities to accommodate safe and
efficient bicycle use.

Types of Users
Types of users can be broken down into three categories: advanced/high speed, basic and
novice/low speed. Because the skills, confidence and preferences of users can vary
dramatically, it is important to consider all three types when designing a non-motorized
transportation system.

Advanced/High Speed
Advanced or High Speed users consist mostly
of bicycle riders who use their bicycle much
the same way they would use their motor
vehicle. Convenience, speed and direct
access to a destination with minimum detour
or delay are their main priorities. Generally,
they are comfortable riding with traffic, but
prefer to have sufficient operating space on
the roadway or shoulder to eliminate the need
for them or passing motor vehicles to shift
Advanced/High Speed bicyclist position.

Basic
Basic users consist mostly of bicyclists and a
small number of in-line skaters. They may not
have the confidence or skill to ride in the way
advanced riders do, even though they may still be
using their bicycle for transportation. They
prefer to avoid roads with fast or busy traffic,
unless there is ample separation between them
and motor vehicles. Basic riders prefer and are Basic bicyclist

3
Oregon Department of Transportation. Oregon Bicycle and Pedestrian Plan. 1995.

17 Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan


most comfortable riding on designated bicycle facilities like
neighborhood streets, bike lanes and separated paths.

Novice/Low Speed
Novice or Low Speed users include, but are
not limited to, children, inexperienced
bicyclists, in-line skaters, skateboarders, ski-
skaters, wheelchair users and pedestrians.
They may not travel as far or as fast as
advanced or basic users, but they still make
up a major part of the non-motorized
transportation use in Juneau and need to be
accommodated. They often travel between
neighborhoods, schools, parks, stores and Novice/Low Speed bicyclist
recreation facilities. Residential streets
with low traffic volume and speeds, linked to designated bike lanes
along arterial streets and separated multi-use paths can safely and
efficiently accommodate these users without encouraging them to travel
in heavy traffic.

The Bicycle Federation of America estimates that only a small percentage of bicyclists
would be considered “advanced/high speed” with the majority of all cyclists falling under
the “basic” and “novice/low speed” categories. 4 By understanding the needs of these
non-motorized transportation users, planners and engineers will be better able to choose
the appropriate facility type and design, while also considering current roadway
conditions and limitations.

There is not a single type of facility that can


simultaneously accommodate all of these user types. A
system of interconnected facilities needs to be
implemented so that the advanced rider, who wants to ride
on the road may do so, while those that benefit from
shoulder lanes or separated paths have ample facilities
meeting their needs. All facilities should be designed to
have continuity. For example, separated paths used by
children should not end abruptly at a major street without
any crossing mechanisms. Bicycle facilities that end
Mendenhall Loop Road shoulder lane abruptly can be confusing and dangerous. An example of
ends abruptly near Nancy Street
this is the southbound shoulder lane on Mendenhall Loop
4
U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration. Selecting Roadway Design
Treatments to Accommodate Bicycles. 1994.

Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan 18


Chapter Two: Benefits and Characteristics

Road ending at Nancy Street leaving bicyclists stranded between a curb and traffic with
no space for inexperienced cyclists to ride and no way to get off the road.

Types of Facilities
There are several different types of non-motorized transportation facilities. Generally,
the term bicycle facility implies improvements or facilities intended to accommodate or
encourage bicycling. This can include bike lanes, separated paths, bike parking,
informational maps and signs, route markers, street-crossing amenities and other facilities
intended for the use of cyclists. Maps of existing facilities in Juneau and specifics about
them can be found in Chapters Three and Four. Standards for new development of these
types of facilities are discussed at length in Chapter Five.

Shared Roadway

Bicycles may be ridden on all roads, except where


prohibited (Egan Drive), regardless of whether there
are designated facilities. Many existing roadways
without bicycle facilities and roadways that cannot
be widened are shared by motorists and bicyclists.
A shared lane is a “standard” width travel lane that
is shared by motor vehicles and bicycles. The
Montana Creek Road is an example of a shared
roadway. Shared roadway

Wide Lanes

Where shoulder lanes or bike lanes are


warranted, but cannot be provided due
to space limitations, a wide lane may be
provided to accommodate bicycle travel.
A wide lane with a width of at least 14
feet allows an average size motor
vehicle to pass a bicyclist without
crossing the centerline. The lane
measurement should exclude both
Roadway with wide lanes parking spaces and a safety buffer for
the opening of car doors if there is
parallel parking. Glacier Highway in
front of the Federal Building is an
example of a road with wide lanes.

19 Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan


Shoulder Lanes

Shoulder lanes differ from bike lanes in that they are


not designed for exclusive use by bicycles. They
have no pavement markings other than the roadway
striping and may or may not have a “share the road”
sign. Shoulder lanes are often used in rural areas
where bicycle and motor vehicle traffic volumes do
not warrant bike lanes. Glacier Highway between
Channel Vista Drive and the Juneau Douglas High
Shoulder lanes School is an example of a shoulder lane.

Bike Lanes

A bike lane is a portion of the road that is


designated by striping, signing and pavement
makings for exclusive use by cyclists.
Bicycle lane markings can increase a
bicyclist's confidence in motorists not straying
into their path of travel and passing motorists
are less likely to swerve to the left out of their
lane to pass a bicyclist on the right. Douglas
Highway from Juneau Douglas Bridge to the
town of Douglas is an example of bike lanes.
Designated bike lane on Douglas Highway

Multi-Use Pathways

A multi-use pathway is a facility


that is physically separated from the
road. The separation can be an
open space or barrier and may be
within the road right-of-way or an
independent right-of-way. A
separated path can provide
bicyclists and other users with a
shortcut through a residential
neighborhood, an enjoyable ride in
a park or a leisurely ride along a
shoreline. Multi-use pathways need
to be located where there are
Multi-use pathway
minimal driveway crossings or road
intersections. Traffic intersecting a

Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan 20


Chapter Two: Benefits and Characteristics

separated pathway can place the cyclist in a position where the motorist does not expect
them. Kaxdigoowu Heen Dei, the new pathway along the Mendenhall River, is an
example of a multi-use pathway.

Trails

A trail is an unpaved corridor that is not


accessible to motorized vehicles and often
serves multiple uses such as hiking, skiing
or bicycling. While trails are sometimes
used as transportation corridors, their use is
primarily recreational. With the increasing
popularity of mountain bikes new trail
development or upgrades to existing trails
should be designed and constructed with
mountain bikes in mind. The existing trails
in the Dredge Lakes area are good Trail in the Dredge Lakes Recreation area
examples of trails suitable for mountain
bike use.

Sidewalks

Sidewalks are considered to be a portion of a road that is


designated for the use of pedestrians. These facilities are
not designed for bicycle use and should not be
considered bicycle facilities. The downtown area has
many sidewalks that do not accommodate bicycles. The
Alaska Administrative Code prohibits riding a bicycle on
business area sidewalks. The city code also prohibits
skateboards, roller skates, in-line skates and similar
devices on downtown sidewalks.
Juneau Douglas Bridge, sidewalk

Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation


Through the course of work on this document, information was gathered on many aspects
of non-motorized transportation in the City and Borough of Juneau (CBJ). The following
section is a discussion of the relevant information found in that research.

Despite our rugged topography and "damp" climate, non-motorized transportation in


Juneau has an avid, growing group of enthusiasts. Commuting bicyclists are often seen

21 Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan


along Glacier Highway, Douglas Highway
and other connecting routes. Families
commonly use separated pathways for a
wide array of activities in the Mendenhall
Valley and along Twin Lakes. Children
often commute to school, neighborhood
parks and shopping areas by bicycle, in-line
skates or walking. Mountain bike riders use
local trails to satisfy their style of riding. In-
line skates, wheelchairs, skate-skis, cross-
country skis and a wide variety of other
equipment can be seen throughout the
Borough. Bicycle clubs sponsor group rides
and racing events. Juneau businesses rent Family on multi-use pathway
bicycles to tourists and offer guided bike-
riding experiences. The Juneau Empire covers bicycling, in-line skating and related
events almost weekly. This flurry of activity has created a demand for a more user-
friendly non-motorized transportation system.

The CBJ first produced a bicycle plan,


which was adopted by the Assembly, in
1978. Through a coordinated effort
between private groups and public
agencies, a summary of existing
facilities and a guide for the
development of a local bikeway system
was composed. Six of the seven priority
projects identified in that document
have been constructed. The remaining
unfulfilled priority, providing access to
Bike racks at Glacier Valley Elementary School Sunny Point from Old Dairy Road, is
still on the wish lists of many Juneau
bicyclists today.

The success of the 1978 plan, as well as many other projects, has resulted in a variety of
heavily used non-motorized transportation facilities in Juneau. However, these facilities
are only the first step in creating a comprehensive, interconnected transportation system.
Many existing facilities need to be upgraded and interconnected to facilitate safe,
efficient movement of non-motorized transportation uses throughout the community.
With Juneau's population growth and an influx of visitors, the need to develop additional
facilities and services has dramatically increased. The recognition of the bicycle as a
valid transportation option at the local, state and federal level has brought bicycling

Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan 22


Chapter Two: Benefits and Characteristics

issues to the forefront. Updating and adding to the existing 1978 Bicycle Plan and
establishing universal standards to guide further development of Juneau’s non-motorized
transportation facilities is needed to meet the increasing demands of the community.

The 1978 Juneau Bicycle Plan stated that sixty-five percent of the population rode
bicycles and there were more bicycles than cars in Juneau. In the 1995 Parks and
Recreation Survey, respondents were asked how many bicycles were in their household
and if they were used within the last year. Seventy-seven percent of households reported
having one or more bicycles that were used in the last year. These statistically significant
surveys represent the community at two points of time in recent history. They both
indicate that a large percentage of the population owns and uses bicycles. Though the
two surveys ask slightly different questions, it appears there has been and still is a
significant amount of bicycle use in Juneau. National surveys show an increase in
bicycle use over the same period of time. It can be safely assumed that Juneau holds true
with the national trends of an increase in bicycle use per capita.

The linear nature of Juneau’s physical layout has both benefits and drawbacks to non-
motorized transportation. The physical terrain has limited roads and other developments.
The town is spread out along the waterfront with development clustered in valleys along
the way. This lack of compact densities means that distances are further between
neighborhoods and work areas. However, because of the limited number of possible
routes, many of the developed areas of Juneau can be interconnected with a small number
of facilities.

Juneau’s high annual precipitation rate


and long, wet winters have the potential
to dampen enthusiasm for bicycling and
other outdoor activities. However, as
with many activities in Juneau,
bicyclists have adapted to the weather
conditions. Many bicyclists can be seen
riding year-round, rain or shine.
Fenders on bicycles and rain gear are
common adaptations to avoid getting
wet and getting a distinct "stripe" of
mud up the riders back. Generally, mild
winters in Juneau contribute to an
Bicyclist adapted to the wet Juneau climate extended riding season. Though, with
the advent of fat tired bikes, many
cyclists are comfortable riding in snowy
conditions.

23 Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan


Non-Motorized Transportation Facility Maintenance

Debris on non-motorized transportation facility

The existing Juneau non-motorized transportation


system has many maintenance needs. The most
common complaint is the lack of sweeping on Multi-use pathway in need of reconstruction
roadway shoulders and bike lanes. This is
largely due to the lack of the Department of Transportation and Public Facilities
(DOT/PF) maintenance funding. Many of the bike lanes and multi-use pathways need
regular sweeping and damage repair. Non-motorized transportation routes and roadways
are susceptible to accumulations of debris, such as broken glass or sand. This can cause
cyclists to lose their balance and fall or swerve into traffic to avoid hazards. In addition,
many multi-use pathways have flooding problems broken up pavement and poor sight
distances due to clogged culverts, low maintenance and untrimmed brush intruding on the
pathway. These maintenance issues need immediate attention.

Existing Facilities

Currently, Juneau has approximately 40 miles of bike or shoulder lanes and 10 miles of
separated, multi-use pathways with several new projects in progress. The bikeways most
commonly used are shared roads, Mendenhall Loop Road separated paths, the separated
path along Egan Drive between Mendenhall Loop Road and Fred Meyer, the Twin Lakes
separated path, old Glacier Highway from Fred Meyer to downtown Juneau, and Douglas
Highway. Most facilities are in relatively good condition with the exception of the oldest
separated paths, which need resurfacing and other maintenance. Better maintenance, as
mentioned above is the top priority of local bicyclists. There are currently gaps or
limitations in the existing system of facilities that lessens the suitability for continuous,
safe riding. An example of this would be the need for a safer separated path between the
Salmon Creek access road and the end of Channel Vista Drive. This path is narrow and

Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan 24


Chapter Two: Benefits and Characteristics

steep with cyclists going down at a fast speed, while


cyclists coming up often have their heads down exerting
effort to pedal up the hill. A simple solution would be to
make a wider pathway and paint a centerline with
direction arrows.

There is a shortage of bicycle-related facilities and


amenities in Juneau, which typically encourage bike
travel. Juneau's stormy weather fosters a need for covered
and secure parking for both short and long-term situations.
Many public institutions, recreational facilities, and
businesses do not have bicycle parking facilities and what
exists is often poorly placed, poorly maintained or of
substandard design. Employer provision of showers for
Separated path connecting Channel employees who bicycle is rare in Juneau. Transit buses do
Vista Drive and Salmon Creek access
road
not have bicycle racks for transporting bikes and transit
centers do not have covered, secure areas for all-day
bicycle parking. There is no map or guide that shows existing facilities for non-
motorized transportation. These factors can all be a deterrent to the use of bicycles for
transportation.

Bicycle Use

Juneau appears to have a


fairly normal mix of
advanced, basic and
novice cyclists. Each
group uses predominantly
the same system, but in
different ways and at
different times with
different preferences.
Many advanced/high
speed cyclists express a
desire to have adequate
space along existing roads,
while basic and Bicyclists on multi-use pathway
novice/low speed riders
express desires for separated pathways. The CBJ needs to provide adequate facilities to
meet the needs of all three types of riders in a coordinated fashion. On some facilities,
most users seem to generally agree that one facility is better than the other. For example,
the general feeling is that a separated path along Egan Drive from Norway Point to

25 Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan


Yandukin Drive would accommodate all types of users. This would minimize the long,
round-about route that currently must be traveled to commute from the Mendenhall
Valley to downtown Juneau. A route along Egan Expressway would have good visibility
and is far enough from most residential areas that it would not attract many small
children, thus reducing conflicts between users.

Accidents

An accurate account of accident statistics in Juneau could help to identify any trends that
point towards a particular location or age group associated with accidents. Those areas or
age groups could then be targeted in subsequent improvements or safety education
programs.

The DOT/PF statistics show that the number of accidents in Juneau involving a motor
vehicle and a bicycle over the past six years has been on average, ten accidents per year,
one of these ten per year was a major accident. However, studies elsewhere have found
far more bicycle/motor vehicle accident victims reported to the emergency room than to
the police. Some statistics can be gathered from the hospital and EMS records, but those
only include accidents serious enough to require an ambulance or admission to the
hospital. These two sources do not capture those injuries that are dealt with at home, at
the doctor’s office or at an urgent care unit.

Bicycle Education

A wide variety of educational activities have been carried out in Juneau. The following
paragraphs describe some of the efforts that have taken place in recent years:

In the summer of 1997, the Juneau Police Department started offering a safe bicycling
program as part of their overall Community Watch Program. The program targets third
and fourth graders in all elementary schools with a classroom curriculum and bicycle
rodeo. The police department sponsored a bicycle rodeo in May 1997, with assistance
provided by the Safe Kids Coalition and the Juneau Freewheelers. Through the Safe
Kids Coalition, grants from Choate & Hempel and others provided for over 200 bicycle
helmets that were given away at the rodeo.

Each year Bartlett Regional Hospital sponsors Kid Safe® at Centennial Hall. Kid Safe®
features presentations and activities to help children (and their parents) learn more about
various kinds of safety. The Juneau Freewheelers Bicycle Club has presented skits,
mime, videos, and demonstrations on bicycle safety for the program. The club has given
away more than 150 bicycle helmets provided by the hospital. The hospital has also
worked with local schools to distribute bicycle helmets.

Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan 26


Chapter Two: Benefits and Characteristics

Members of the Juneau Freewheelers Bicycle Club have participated in a variety of


bicycle education activities in addition to their participation in Kid Safe®. Members
have taught both bicycle safety and bicycle maintenance classes through the Community
Schools program. A club member designed the bicycle safety portion of the Juneau
School District health and safety curriculum in 1988, and another member provided input
for a 1997 revision. The club has also assisted the Safe Kids Coalition and Parent-
Teacher organizations with bicycle rodeos. Members have given presentations to Scout
troops. One year the club gave presentations to the Juneau Police Department on bicycle
accidents, and safe cycling practices. Club members also worked with the Department of
Public Safety, Highway Safety Planning Agency to obtain a series of bicycle safety and
advocacy television spots. The planning agency also distributed copies of the spots to
Fairbanks and Anchorage bicycle clubs. The clubs then distributed the spots to local
television stations. The club has also sponsored showings of the Effective Cycling, a
video that teaches the principles of safe bicycling to adults.

The League of American Bicyclists, a national organization of bicyclists, has certified a


member of the Juneau Freewheelers as an Effective Cycling™ Instructor. The
certification process includes a written examination, on-bike on-road demonstration of
bicycle handling skills and traffic knowledge and teaching experience. The League has
sponsored Effective Cycling™ courses for bicycle club members since 1976. Recently,
the program has been revised to include a variety of courses to meet broader needs. On-
bike on-road experiences are considered essential for road, kid and off-road courses.
Courses include:

Road I – a course for novice riders wanting to become comfortable cycling on the
road.

Road II – for intermediate riders who want to enhance their riding skills and
become more proficient with bicycle maintenance.

Road III – for advanced riders serious about becoming proficient in the full
spectrum of non-racing bicycling skills.

Bicycle Commuting – for riders seeking to equip their bike for utilitarian cycling,
select optimum routes and work with employers to provide a positive commuting
environment.

Kids I – for parents who are assisting their young children with early cycling
education.

Kids II – for fourth, fifth, and sixth graders, covers bike handling, bike fit, helmet
use, basic traffic laws, bicycle safety checks, group riding techniques and where
to ride.

27 Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan


Kids III – included slightly more advanced skills for middle school children.

Families – for planning successful family outings.

Motorist Education – for driver’s education instructors who want to teach future
drivers how to safely co-exist on the road with cyclists.

Off-Road – bicycle handling skills and etiquette.

Effective Cycling Instructor – for the experienced cyclist who wants to become an
instructor.

Having qualified instructors is an important part of bicycle education. Parents, teachers


and police officers who base their instruction on bicycle safety myths, rather than facts,
can endanger cyclists rather than enhance their safety.

Bicycle Law Enforcement

Bicycles are legally classified


in the State of Alaska as
vehicles. As such, they are
allowed to drive on most
roads in the Borough with the
exception of Egan Drive. In
addition to motor vehicle
laws, there are bicycle laws
that cyclists must follow. A
listing of the state laws and
local regulations can be found
in Appendix IV.
Bicycles are legally classified in the State of Alaska as vehicles.

Motorists are sometimes unclear about what rules bicyclists must follow. In addition,
many bicyclists do not follow vehicle laws while riding. A common example of this is
when bicyclists run stop signs and traffic signals or ride against traffic. This causes
greater confusion and some resentment from motorists who complain that cyclists want to
be given the same privileges as motorized vehicles, but do not act accordingly.

Enforcement of bicycle laws in Juneau is sporadic and infrequent at best. Most police
officers have not received any formal bicycle education, and may be misinformed about
the laws and safe cycling practices. As a result, law enforcement officers may target
bicyclists riding safely and legally and ignore dangerous and illegal bicycling practices

Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan 28


Chapter Two: Benefits and Characteristics

like riding against traffic and riding at night without lights. For enforcement to be
effective, it must concentrate on the violations that actually endanger cyclist’s lives.

The police sometimes target a specific area for traffic enforcement and could easily
include bicycle enforcement in that action. Announcement of the targeted illegal practice
in advance can do more to educate the public than the few warnings or tickets given.

Bicycling Myths

Too often bicycle safety instruction and bicycle facility selection are based on myths.
Here are nine common myths relating to bicycles:

Bicycle Safety Myth #1: "Most bicycle accidents involve cars."

Only one-sixth of all bicycle accidents involve cars. An equal number (one-sixth) are
bike-bike accidents. Almost half of all bicycle accidents are falls. 5 The causes are
listed below:

1. Loose sand, gravel, rocks and other debris on the road.

2. Potholes.

3. Parallel bar grates.

4. Ridges and slots that parallel the route of travel.

5. Wet slippery roads and wet painted lines.

Thus, poor maintenance is a leading cause of bicycle accidents. However, car-bike


accidents tend to be more serious and are more often fatal.

Bicycle Safety Myth #2: "The chief cause of car-bike accidents is motorists approaching
from behind."

Car-overtaking-bike collisions account for less than 10% of car-bike accidents. Of


these, 6% are caused by the cyclist swerving in front of the car and only 4% by the
overtaking motorist. The motorist-caused car-overtaking-bike collision constitutes
about 0.3% of cycling accidents. 6 Eighty-five percent of urban and rural car-bike
5
Forester, John. Bicycle Transportation, 2nd edition, MIT Press, pp. 42 and 62.
6
Forester, John. Effective Cycling, 6th edition, MIT Press, p. 270.

29 Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan


accidents result from actions taking place in front of the bicyclist in turning and
crossing movements. 7

Bicycle Safety Myth #3: "It's safer to ride against traffic, so the cyclist can see the car
coming and get out of the way."

A product of Myth #2, this


dangerous practice results in the
cyclist being hit at an intersection.
Vehicle drivers look for traffic based
on the practice of vehicles traveling
on the right. For example, a
motorist at a stop sign waiting to
turn right looks to the left for traffic.
As a result, the motorist is more
likely to hit the wrong-way cyclist
coming from the right. Additional
Wrong way cyclists create confusion and safety concerns
reasons to ride with traffic:

1. Wrong-way riders are in head-to-head conflict with cyclists riding correctly.

2. The speed difference between a wrong-way cyclist and motor vehicles in the
same lane is much greater than for a cyclist riding properly. This has several
implications for a wrong-way cyclist:

a. An approaching motorist has less time to respond to the presence of the


wrong-way cyclist and may have to come to a complete stop to avoid a
collision. For a right-way cyclist, motorists have more time to respond to
his presence and at worst, need only slow down to the cyclist’s speed.

b. Should a collision occur, the impact would be much greater for a wrong-
way cyclist, since it will be head-on.

c. On a typical road with equal motorized traffic volumes in both lanes, a


wrong-way cyclist will encounter more traffic in his lane than a cyclist
riding with the flow.

3. Turning maneuvers for a wrong-way cyclist are much more dangerous and
complicated, because the cyclist is crossing paths with all other vehicles on
the road.

7
Forester, John. Effective Cycling, 6th edition, MIT Press, p. 265.

Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan 30


Chapter Two: Benefits and Characteristics

4. Traffic signs are posted on the right so that they are easily visible to drivers.

5. It is against the law in every state to ride against traffic.

Bicycle Safety Myth #4: "Bike paths are the safest place to ride a bicycle."

Separated paths are designed for multiple use and slow travel speeds. Cyclists trying
to ride at high rates of speed can have collisions with other users. Poorly designed
off-street bike paths can have an accident rate of 2.6 times higher than major streets! 8
Why?

1. Mixed traffic. The term “bike path” is misleading because it implies “bikes
only” when in actuality pedestrians, joggers, skateboarders, roller skaters, in-
line skaters, wheelchairs, strollers, dogs and bikers all use “bike paths”.
Multi-use paths is a more correct term for this type of facility.

2. Intersections. Most car-bike accidents take place at intersections (see Bicycle


Safety Myth #2). Unless intersections are eliminated, accidents may occur.

3. Poor visibility. Brush, fences and other obstructions cause accidents at


intersections and along curves.

4. Other. Slow design speeds, narrow bridges, sharp curves and poor
maintenance may cause accidents. Because separated paths often have a
greater variety and number of users than other facilities, they often have the
greatest number of accidents.

Bicycle Safety Myth #5: Sidewalks are safe because “cars don’t use sidewalks.”

Cars use sidewalks at alleys, driveways and parking lot exits and entrances.
Motorists don’t expect fast moving bicycles on sidewalks. Riding on sidewalks in
business areas is illegal in Alaska. Car doors, building doors, signs and poor visibility
at intersections make sidewalk riding dangerous. Pedestrians change direction and
speed suddenly and without warning. If a cyclist is not skilled enough to ride on
business area streets, then the cyclist should walk his/her bike on the sidewalk. Curb
cuts are for wheelchairs, not bicycles!

Bicycle Safety Myth #6: "The only special equipment you needed to ride a bike after dark
is reflectors."

8
Forester, John. Effective Cycling, p. 271.

31 Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan


In 1975 (just before reflectors were required on new bikes), 30% of bicycle fatalities
took place at night. By 1982, 42% of bicycle fatalities took place at night.9 A
Florida study found 60% of fatal bike accidents happened after dark. Of the cyclists
killed, fewer than one in ten had a light of any kind! 10 A 1993 study found about 7%
of bicycling took place after dark, while about 35% of the deaths occurred after
dark. 11

Reflectors are useless unless a light is directed toward them. The headlights of a car
waiting at a stop sign do not point at a cyclist approaching on the shoulder of the
road. As a result, the motorist pulls out and hits the bicycle. Cyclists also need a
headlight to see rocks, glass and other roadway hazards. Only cyclists with adequate
bicycle handling skills, traffic knowledge and proper equipment should ride at night.
In Alaska you are required to have a white headlight and a red taillight visible for 500
feet, a red rear reflector and side reflective material to ride when it is dark.
Sometimes it is "dark" at noon! 12

Bicycle Safety Myth #7: Bicyclists can do anything they want on a “bikepath.”

A person operating a bicycle on a trail, path or residential sidewalk needs to do the


following:

1. Exercise care to avoid colliding with other persons or vehicles.

2. Give an audible signal before overtaking and passing a pedestrian.

3. Yield the right-of-way to any pedestrian. 13

Stop, look and make sure it is safe before crossing streets (just like pedestrians). Make sure
it’s safe before crossing driveways and alleys. Stop if a motorist fails to yield.

9
Petty, Ross G. The Consumer Products Safety Commission’s Promulgation of a Bicycle Safety Standard,
Journal of Products Liability, Vol. 10, pp. 25-50 (1987).
10
Florida DOT, the Bicycle Program. How to Ride at Night and Stay Alive.
11
Magat Wesley A. and Moore Michael J. Consumer Products Safety Regulation in the United States and
the United Kingdom: The Case of Bicycles, Working Paper #93-11, Center for the Study of Business
Regulation and Economic Policy, The Fuqua School of Business, Duke University, 1993 as cited at
http://www.cpsc.gov/cpscpub/pubs/success/bikes.html.
12
Alaska Administrative Codes 13 AAC 04.010, 13 AAC 04.320, 13 AAC 04.325 and 13 AAC 04.335.
13
Alaska Administrative Code13 AAC 02.400(d).

Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan 32


Chapter Two: Benefits and Characteristics

Bicycle Safety Myth #8: “Allowing bicyclists to ride on Egan Drive would be deadly
dangerous! Children would play on the roadway! Inexperienced cyclists might weave
into the motor vehicle lanes.”

Motorists used the same arguments twenty-five years ago when cyclists demanded
access to the shoulders of controlled access highways. As noted by the New Jersey
Department of Transportation, “Care must be taken to distinguish between what has
actually happened when bicyclists were (are) permitted on Interstates and
speculations as to what might happen or could happen.” 14

Presently, bicyclists are allowed access to at least some Interstate shoulders in fifteen
states. 15 Policies vary, but the shoulders used tend to be in rural areas or where using
an alternate route involves greater danger or significantly greater distance. A
decision to open Egan Drive to bicyclists should be based on valid criteria, not
emotions. In summary, bicycle facility design and bicycle safety education should be
based on facts, not myths.

Bicycle Myth #9: “Bicyclists should not be allowed on the road because they do not pay gas
taxes.”

Although cyclists do not pay gas taxes, unless they also own a car, they do pay for
use of the road. U.S. motorists pay 2.3 cents per mile in user charges but it costs 6.5
cents per mile for road maintenance and construction. The balance is funded through
federal taxes, local property taxes and sales taxes. Overall, motorists pay less tax
than the costs they impose, while bicyclists and pedestrians pay more then the costs
they impose. 16

Bikeway System Funding

A variety of funding opportunities for non-motorized transportation facilities exist in


Juneau. The CBJ Capital Improvements Program funding may be a source for repair of
existing CBJ facilities or for improvements necessary for safety purposes. The DOT/PF
manages many of the roadways where bikeways exist. The state and federal governments
14
Task Force Report on Bicycle Access to Limited Access Highways in New Jersey, New Jersey
Department of Transportation, Trenton, NJ, 1982, as cited in W.C. Wilkinson, A. Clarke, B. Epperson, and
R. Knoblauch, The Effects of Bicycle Accommodations on Bicycle/Motor Vehicle Safety and Traffic
Operations, Federal Highway Administration, July 1994, p. 53.
15
Wilkinson, W.C., Clarke, A., Epperson B. and Knoblauch R. The Effects of Bicycle Accommodations on
Bicycle/Motor Vehicle Safety and Traffic Operations, Federal Highway Administration, July 1994, p. 54.
16
Litman, Todd. “Who Really Pays? Challenging the Conventional Wisdom,” Bicycle Forum Magazine,
Issue No. 40, pp. 4-7.

33 Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan


regard bicycling as a legitimate form of transportation and eligible for funding. Project
funding for upgrades of state and federal roads often includes money for the development
of bicycle improvements. The CBJ should work closely with DOT/PF in the planning
process to incorporate those improvements in a manner that promotes the viability of a
bikeway system in Juneau.

In 1991 Congress passed the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA)
legislation, which recognized the transportation value of bicycling and walking. Federal
funding is available to DOT/PF through a number of programs. This funding source
provides an excellent method of gaining funding for major projects that qualify. The CBJ
is already cooperating with DOT/PF in establishing a project list. This plan will help to
support those projects already on the list and will suggest new projects worthy of
consideration.

The U.S. Forest Service has a matching fund program (Challenge Cost Share). These
funds can be applied to projects that are on Forest Service land. Other grants such as the
National Forest Foundation Grants are also available.

Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan 34


Chapter Three

Inventory of Existing Facilities

To establish an efficient interconnected non-motorized transportation system, it is


necessary to obtain an accurate account of existing facilities. This chapter contains an
inventory of existing non-motorized transportation facilities throughout the borough. The
main thoroughfares are listed with accompanying shoulders, bicycle lanes and/or multi-
use pathways. Some trails that are used by bicyclists are also listed.

Existing multi-use pathway

Existing bike lane

Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan 35


Chapter Three: Existing Facilities

Existing Facilities
Subarea 1 Auke Bay to Echo Cove
Unpaved Shared Paved Shared Paved Paved
Roadway Lanes Roadway Lanes Shoulder Lanes Separated Path
Road Corridors Segment Width Length Width Length Width Length Width Length
in miles in miles in miles in miles

Amalga Harbor Road All-Glacier Highway to End 9-11’ 0.7


Cohen/Aaron Drive All-Glacier Highway to End 9-10' 0.7
Glacier Highway Otter Way thru Auke Rec 12' 1.3
Glacier Highway Lena Loop to Point Stephens 1.5-2' 1.2
Glacier Highway Auke Rec to Lena Loop 4' 1.3
1
Glacier Highway Point Stephens Road to Yankee Cove 10-12' 14.2
2
Glacier Highway Yankee Cove to End 12' 3.0
Lena Loop Road All 10-12' 2.2
National Park Road Otter Way to End 12' 0.2
Otter Way Glacier Highway to End 9-11' 0.4
Peterson Creek Bridge 6' 0.1
Point Stephens Road Glacier Highway to End 12' 0.52

TOTAL (25.8 Miles) 3.9 19.3 2.6

Existing Facilities
1
Narrows to 10-11' after Shrine of St. Therese; 12' prior to Shrine
2
Chip Seal Surface

Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan 36


Chapter Three: Existing Facilities

Subarea 2 Mendenhall Valley


Unpaved Shared Paved Shared Paved Paved
Roadway Lanes Roadway Lanes Shoulder Lanes Separated Path
Road Corridors Segment Width Length Width Length Width Length Width Length
in miles in miles in miles in miles

Auke Lake Way Glacier Highway to Mendenhall Loop Rd 11-12' 0.6


Back Loop Road Glacier Spur Rd to Back Loop Bridge 6' 1.0 8' 1.0 3
Back Loop Road Back Loop Bridge to Auke Bay 6-8' 3.0
Berners Avenue Glacier Avenue to Radcliff 12' 0.2
Crest Street Old Dairy Road to Yandukin Drive 12' 0.4
Davis Glacier Highway to Churchill Way 12' 0.3
Del Rae Road Glacier Highway to Vintage Boulevard 12' 0.2
Egan Drive Yandukin Drive Intersection
Egan Drive Mendenhall Lp Rd to Glacier Hwy (N Side) 10' 1.0
Egan Drive McNugget Intersection (Cross Signal)
Egan Drive McNugget to Mendenhall Loop Rd. (S Side) 8' 0.6
Egan Drive Mendenhall Loop Rd Intersect. (Crosswalks)
Egan Drive Mendenhall Loop Rd to Riverside Dr (N Side) 8' 0.3
Egan Drive Riverside Drive to Brotherhood Bridge 6' 0.3 8' 0.3
Engineers Cutoff Glacier Highway to Fritz Cove Road 11-12' 1.6
Fritz Cove Road Glacier Highway to End 12' 2.6 2' 2.6
*
Glacier Highway Brotherhood Bridge 12' 0.1
4
Glacier Highway Brotherhood Bridge to Otter Way 7- 8' 4.5
Glacier Highway Old Dairy Road to End 0-8' 0.3
Glacier Highway Mendenhall Loop Road to Del Rae Road 12' 0.2
Glacier Highway McNugget to Mendenhall Loop Road 3-12' 0.6 5
6
Glacier Spur Road Mendenhall Loop Road to USFS Boundary 5-7' 0.4 8' 0.4
Glacier Spur Road USFS Boundary to End 5' 1.1 8' 1.1
Industrial Boulevard Glacier Highway to End 12' 0.4
James Boulevard Mendenhall Loop Road to Riverside Drive 4' 0.3 *
Existing Facilities
Subarea 2 Continued Mendenhall Valley
3
South side only
4
Sidewalk along Northbound Lane from Seaview Ave. to Auke Lake Way
5
McNugget to Jordan Creek 10-12' bike lanes; Jordan Creek to Mendenhall Loop Road 3' shoulder lane
6
Both sides
*
Sidewalks

Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan 37


Chapter Three: Existing Facilities

Unpaved Shared Paved Shared Paved Paved


Roadway Lanes Roadway Lanes Shoulder Lanes Separated Path
Road Corridors Segment Width Length Width Length Width Length Width Length
in miles in miles in miles in miles

Lemon Creek Road Churchill Way to End 12' 0.2


Mendenhall Loop Road Glacier Highway to Egan Drive 8' 0.2
Mendenhall Loop Road Egan Drive to Nancy Street 12' 0.4 8' 0.46
6
Mendenhall Loop Road Nancy Street to Glacier Spur Road 6 -8' 1.7 8' 1.7
Mendenhall Mall Road Mendenhall Lp. Road to Riverside Dr. 4' 0.2
Mendenhall Pen. Road Engineers Cutoff to End 9-11' 1.10
Montana Creek Road Mendenhall Loop Road to End 8-10' 0.5 10-12' 1.60 7
8
Old Dairy Road Yandukin Drive to Glacier Highway 5-7' 0.3
Radcliffe Road Glacier Highway to End 12' 0.50
River Road Mendenhall Loop Road to End 12' 0.4
Riverside Drive Egan Drive to Tournure Street 6' 2.3 *
Riverside Rotary Park 8' 0.3
Shell Simmons Drive Glacier Highway to Airport Terminal 3' 0.2*
Skaters Cabin Road Montana Creek Road to End 10-11' 0.3 10-11' 0.40
Stephen Richards Drive Mendenhall Loop Road to Riverside Dr 4' 0.3*
Tongass Boulevard Nancy Street to Mendenhall Loop Road 12' .07*
Tournure Street Riverside Drive to Mendenhall Loop Rd 12' 0.20
Tournure Street End to Mendenhall River School 8' 0.1
Trinity Drive Mendenhall Loop Road to Tongass Blvd 14' 0.10*
University Drive Mendenhall Loop Road to End 8' 0.2
Yandukin Drive Airport Terminal to Egan Drive 7-8' 1.0

TOTAL (40.07 Miles) 1.2 11.17 20.3 7.4

Existing Facilities
Subarea 2 Continued Mendenhall Valley
Unpaved Trails Paved Paths

7
Last Portion unpaved
8
First .02 miles no shoulder
*
Sidewalks

Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan 38


Chapter Three: Existing Facilities

Trail Corridors Segment Width Length Width Length


in miles in miles

Airport Wetlands Trail Airport Boundary to end of dike 4-10'


Cinema Drive End to Park Place 6' 0.1
E Mendenhall River Path Glacier Highway to Post Office 10' 0.4
Kaxdegoowu Heen Dei 8' 2.1
Mendenhall River School Loop 8' 0.3
Moraine Ecology Trail All 2' 1.5
Richards Drive Meander Way to Richards Drive 8' 0.1
Riverside Rotary Park Park Place to Riverside Rotary Park 6' 0.1
Tournure Street End to Mendenhall River School 8' 0.1
University Campus Path 10' 0.2
University Housing Path 10' 0.3
Dredge Lakes 2-10’ 8.4

TOTAL (13.6 Miles) 9.9 3.7

Existing Facilities
Subarea 3 Lemon/Salmon Creek
Unpaved Shared Paved Shared Paved Paved
Roadway Lanes Roadway Lanes Shoulder Lanes Separated Path
Road Corridors Segment Width Length Width Length Width Length Width Length

Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan 39


Chapter Three: Existing Facilities

in miles in miles in miles in miles

Channel Vista Drive Glacier Highway to End 8' 0.5


Egan Drive Norway Pt to Channel Dr (channel side)
Egan Drive Channel Vista Drive to Hospital Drive 10' 0.5
Egan Drive Channel Drive to Sunny Drive
Egan Drive Sunny Point Intersection
Egan Drive Sunny Drive to Yandukin Drive
Glacier Highway Highland Drive to Ross Way 7' 9 0.2
Glacier Highway Ross Way to Channel Vista Drive 4' 1.2
Glacier Highway Egan Drive to Craig Street 6' 1.2 8-9' 1.2
*
Glacier Highway Craig Street to Vanderbilt Hill 6' 0.4
Glacier Highway Vanderbilt Hill Rd. to Old Dairy Road 4-6' 3.7 10
Glacier Highway Intersection of Vanderbilt Road 8' 0.1
Old Dairy Road Glacier Highway to Egan Drive 8' 0.1
Sunny Drive Egan Drive to End 12' 0.5
Renninger Street Glacier Highway to Dzantik‘i Heeni 6' 0.2 11 10' 0.2

TOTAL (10 Miles) 1.0 7.0 2.0

Existing Facilities
Subarea 3 Continued Douglas Island & Thane Road

Unpaved Trails Paved Paths


Trail Corridors Segment Width Length Width Length
(in miles) (in miles)

9
Northbound lane used for parking
10
Schneider to Anka 4'
11
10' separated trail west side, 3' bike lane east side
*
Sidewalks

Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan 40


Chapter Three: Existing Facilities

Salmon Creek Trail All 2-10' 3.5

TOTAL (3.5 Miles) 3.5

Existing Facilities
Subarea 4 Douglas Island & Thane Road
Unpaved Shared Paved Shared Paved Paved
Roadway Lanes Roadway Lanes Shoulder Lanes Separated Path
Road Corridors Segment Width Length Width Length Width Length Width Length
in miles in miles in miles in miles

Blueberry Hills Road Pioneer Avenue to End 8' 0.3


Cordova Street Douglas Highway to Pioneer Avenue 12' 0.2

Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan 41


Chapter Three: Existing Facilities

Douglas Highway Douglas Bridge 4' 0.5*


Douglas Highway Douglas Bridge to Third Street 6' 1.6*,12
Fifth Street I Street to Laurel Drive 10-12' 0.9
Fish Creek Road North Douglas Highway to Eaglecrest 12' 5.1
Goodwin Road Blueberry Hills Road to End 8' 0.1
Jackson Road Blueberry Hills Road to End 8' 0.2
N Douglas Highway Douglas Bridge to Fish Creek Road 5-8' 6.0 13
N Douglas Highway Fish Creek Road to Boat Launch 3-4' 2.5
N Douglas Highway Boat Launch to End 11.5‘ 3.8
Pioneer Avenue Cordova Street to Blueberry Hill Road 12' 0.6
Savikko Road Third Street to Mayflower Island 12' 0.2
St. Ann’s Avenue Third Street to Laurel Drive 8-10' 0.5
Thane Road South Franklin Street to End 9.5-10.5' 5.0 14
Third Street Douglas Highway to Savikko Road 12' 0.4*
Treadwell Street St. Ann’s Avenue to Fifth Street 10' 0.1

TOTAL (28 Miles) 5.1 11.7 10.6 0.6

Existing Facilities
Subarea 4 Continued Douglas Island & Thane Road

Unpaved Trails Paved Paths

Trail Corridors Segment Width Length Width Length


in miles in miles

Treadwell Ditch Trail 15 All-Douglas to Eaglecrest 2-6' 1.8

12
2 Mile Section from Bridge to Cordova 3'
13
From bridge, first 3.6 miles: 8' shoulder lanes; next 2.4 miles: 5-6'
First 0.4 miles 12' ≠
14
15
Currently unsafe for bicycles because of washed out bridges, downfalls and wetlands
*
Sidewalks

Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan 42


Chapter Three: Existing Facilities

Treadwell Historic Trail All 4-10' 1.0

TOTAL (2.8 Miles) 2.8

Existing Facilities
Subarea 5 Downtown Area
Unpaved Shared Paved Shared Paved Paved
Roadway Lanes Roadway Lanes Shoulder Lanes Separated Path
Road Corridors Segment Width Length Width Length Width Length Width Length
in miles in miles in miles in miles

Basin Road East Street to Trestle 4.5-9' 0.3


Basin Road Trestle to End 9-12' 0.8
Calhoun Ave Twelfth Street to Fourth Street 8-12' 0.3*
*
Egan Drive Douglas Bridge to Eighth Street 12-12.5' 0.1
Egan Drive Eighth St to Whittier St (Inbound) 12’ 0.2* 8' 0.2*
*
Egan Drive Eighth St to Whittier St (Outbound) 12' 0.2
Egan Drive Whittier Street to Main Street 12' 0.2*

Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan 43


Chapter Three: Existing Facilities

Glacier Avenue Willoughby Avenue to Glacier Highway 13-22' 16 0.5*


Main Street Egan Drive to Fourth Street 14' 0.2*
*
Marine Way Main Street to South Franklin 11.5-12' 0.2
South Franklin Street Marine Way to Thane Road 12' 0.5*
Tenth Street Glacier Avenue to F Street 10.5' 0.1
Tenth Street F Street to Egan Drive 12' 0.1
*
Twelfth Street Glacier Avenue to Calhoun Avenue 12' 0.3
Willoughby Avenue Egan Drive to Glacier Avenue 13' 0.4*

TOTAL (4.6 Miles) 0.8 3.6 0.2

Unpaved Trails Paved Paths


Trail Corridors Segment Width Length Width Length
(in miles) (in miles)

Perseverance Trail All 2'- 8' 3.0

TOTAL (3.0 Miles) 3.0

Summary of Existing Facilities


Subarea 1-5 City & Borough of Juneau

Summary of Road Corridor Facilities


Unpaved Shared Paved Shared Paved Paved
Roadway Lanes Roadway Lanes Shoulder Lanes Separated Path
Area Length in Miles Length in Miles Length in Miles Length in Miles

Subarea 1 - Auke Bay to Echo Cove 3.9 19.30 2.6


Subarea 2 - Mendenhall Valley 1.2 11.17 20.3 7.4
Subarea 3 - Lemon/Salmon Creek 1.00 7.0 2.0
Subarea 4 - Douglas Island & Thane Road 5.1 11.70 10.6 0.6
Subarea 5 - Downtown Area 0.8 3.60 0.2

16
Industrial sub-segment 8-10'; Downtown sub-segment 11 1/2' ; Highschool section inbound 20' outbound width 11'
*
Sidewalks

Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan 44


Chapter Three: Existing Facilities

TOTAL (108.47 Miles) 11.0 46.77 40.5 10.2

Summary of Trail Corridor Facilities


Unpaved Trails
Total Total Paved Paths
Area Length in Miles Length in Miles

Subarea 1 - Auke Bay to Echo Cove 0.0


Subarea 2 - Mendenhall Valley 9.9 3.7
Subarea 3 - Lemon/Salmon Creek 3.5
Subarea 4 - Douglas Island and Thane Road 2.8
Subarea 5 - Downtown Area 3.0

TOTAL (22.9) 19.2 3.7

Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan 45


Chapter Four

Recommendations

This chapter contains recommendations that will facilitate non-motorized transportation


in Juneau. The first section is comprised of general recommendations followed by site
specific, low cost recommendations that could be done immediately. The second section
contains a list of major projects and identifies them on the inserted maps. The last
section contains a list of Borough wide projects.

The recommendations were gathered from previous planning efforts, planning


documents, two public meetings and other professional and public comments. The public
meeting comments are summarized in Appendix III. Proposed corridors and site-specific
facilities are listed as short, medium or long term needs and by map subarea. The five
subarea maps show existing and proposed facilities.

There are several underlying goals that have determined whether a project is a short,
medium or long range need. First, are those projects, which are in immediate need of
repair or maintenance to minimize unsafe conditions and second, are those projects,
which improve the basic network of facilities.

General Recommendations
Facility Maintenance

Establishing regular maintenance of existing


non-motorized transportation facilities,
including frequent and extensive sweeping,
pavement repair, drainage repair and sign and
pavement symbol replacement, is the top
priority of this plan. Bicycle lanes often
become covered with sand, gravel, broken
glass and other debris from littering,
construction sites, spillage of uncovered
truckloads and winter sanding. This creates a
danger for both the bicyclist and motorist,
because an excessive amount of debris in a
bicycle lane can cause the cyclist to fall or
forces them to ride in the traffic lane.
Unswept bike lane

Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan 46


Chapter Four: Recommendations

Residents would like to see preventative maintenance occur on a regular basis.


Establishing a regular sweeping and resurfacing schedule would eliminate potholes,
debris and abrupt edges, all of which are extremely dangerous for all types of non-
motorized transportation users. Requiring contractors to keep the roads swept near
construction zones and requiring trucks to cover their loads and have tailgates would help
matters considerably.

A responsive system of reporting maintenance problems needs to be established.


Residents voiced a significant amount of frustration at the current system of calling the
Alaska Department of Transportation and Public Facilities (DOT/PF) and being told they
have no maintenance money to sweep bicycle paths, lanes and shoulders more then once
a year. Maintenance was ranked as the top priority for those who attended the public
bicycle workshops in June of 1997. This plan recommends an annual bicycle facility
maintenance meeting as discussed below.

Many communities throughout the United States have taken over the responsibility of
maintaining non-motorized transportation facilities from the State. Maintenance is often
done more thoroughly and more often when the local government adopts this
responsibility. Necessary information was not compiled to make a recommendation on
this idea, but it is recommended that the issue be researched in the future to help resolve
the maintenance problem.

A winter maintenance plan needs to be developed so that facilities with a demand for
snow and gravel removal would be plowed and facilities with a demand for cross-country
skiing would be left unplowed. This needs to include bike lanes and shoulders where
snow is often stored.

Annual Bicycle Meeting

It is recommended that an annual meeting with City and Borough of Juneau (CBJ) Public
Works, DOT/PF and the bicycle riding public be established. This meeting would
provide an official time and place to discuss non-motorized transportation maintenance
needs. The Parks and Recreation Advisory Committee could facilitate the meeting every
October when maintenance issues are still fresh in cyclist’s minds. From this meeting, a
list of projects that need to be addressed could be compiled and given to CBJ Public
Works and DOT/PF. This would help consolidate the many comments they receive and
give them an official list to work from, as well as give them an idea of what the most
important maintenance projects are. The two agencies would also have an opportunity to
discuss working together to address maintenance issues.

47 Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan


CBJ Land Disposal

Land that is in the CBJ Land Disposal Plan needs to be


evaluated and major non-motorized transportation easements
need to be established before the sale of the property. Once
CBJ land is sold it is very difficult to request developers to
provide a pathway easement and it can become cost
prohibitive to the development. Therefore, it is essential to
evaluate each piece of land before it is disposed of and
preserve pathway corridors before the land is put on the
market. The following parcels of land, which are slated for
disposal in the CBJ Land Management Plan and contain
proposed pathway corridors are: Douglas, Fred Meyer,
Switzer Creek, Thunder Mountain and Windfall Avenue. CBJ Land Management Plan

The Manager, during negotiations for land disposal, will evaluate the feasibility of
preserving a corridor and include those discussions as a goal in the negotiations.
Preservation of corridors is highly desirable, but may not be feasible in all cases.

Enforcement

Several areas of enforcement could improve bicycle safety. First, riders should be ticketed
when riding on the wrong side of the road or when failing to stop or yield at intersections, as
well as anytime they are
blatantly breaking the laws
and ordinances that regulate
their actions. Second, cars
illegally parked within 8 feet
of the pavement should be
ticketed on those segments of
road where this is prohibited
(North Douglas Highway,
much of Glacier Highway,
etc.). This is a safety concern,
because it forces cyclists into
the traffic lanes in order to get
around parked cars, as well as
Enforcement of no parking zones would improve bicycle safety leaving slick oil spills on the
pavement. Third, the City’s
dog ordinances need to be enforced, as dogs can create safety problems and are a nuisance
(long dog leashes are hard to see and to maneuver around, feces on trail, etc.). Fourth,
automobile speed limits need to be enforced where non-motorized transportation facilities are
not adequate (Egan Drive between the Juneau Douglas Bridge and Main Street).

Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan 48


Chapter Four: Recommendations

Transit Centers

The CBJ Capital Transit, Transit Development Plan, which was completed in March
1997, suggests creating transit centers and park and ride lots. These facilities could also
easily accommodate bicycle commuters. Bike lockers, covered bike racks, bike racks on
buses and a covered place to wait for the bus, are cost-effective ways for Capital Transit
to access a new market.

Bike Racks on Buses and at Bus Stops

Public comments from meetings on the bike plan, as well as the 1996 Capital Transit
Development Plan, show a strong interest in bike racks on the buses. This is a great way
to attract new riders. However, planning is needed before these types of racks are
implemented on buses. Several issues need to be addressed, such as, what to do with
bikes that are forgotten on the bus and where cyclists can put their bikes if the racks are
full.

The first step is to put bike racks and/or lockers at main bus stops; if the racks on the bus
are full, a rider can lock up their bicycle and board the bus. This would also encourage
people to ride their bicycles to the bus stops and then ride the bus to their destination.
The main bus stops that need facilities are keyed on the subarea maps in this chapter.

Bicycle Parking

Adequate bicycle parking facilities can reduce theft and conflict

Many bicycle destinations in Juneau lack adequate bicycle parking facilities. Existing
facilities often do not have enough spaces to accommodate the number of cyclists using
the facility. Bicycle parking facilities need to be placed at all locations that attract
bicycle commuters. This includes commercial buildings, parks, stores, malls, work

49 Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan


places and other centers of activity. The parking section in Chapter 5 makes
recommendations on standards for bicycle parking.

Non-Motorized Commuter Park and Ride Lots

There are many large parking lots throughout the community that could be used for park and
ride lots. A commuter could drive a car to these lots and then ride their bike, in-line skate or
use other modes of non-motorized transportation to get from the parking lots to their
destination. The following parking lots could be identified as park and ride lots:
Subport, Bill Ray Center, Nugget Mall, Mendenhall Mall, Kmart and the empty lot south
of the DOT/PF facility at 3 mile Egan Drive.

Signs

Many of the bicycle facilities in Juneau are poorly marked or not marked at all. This is
confusing for both motorists and bicyclists. Signs and pavement markings are needed on
all bike lanes and appropriate facilities. For example, the shoulder lanes along
Mendenhall Loop Road need to be marked as bike lanes to alleviate motorists from
honking at bicyclists and indicating that they should use the separated paths. It is not safe
for bike riders that are riding at high speeds to be on the separated paths; they need to be
on shoulder or bike lanes. Separated paths and bike lanes are two types of facilities for
two distinctly different types of users and they should be used accordingly.

Unclear bicycle facility signs can cause confusion

Confusion of motorists and cyclists is often due to the lack of


proper signs and markings on the pavement. The two signs
above leave some question as to what facility the sign is referring
to. Both could be interpreted to mean that bicycles are
encouraged on the sidewalk. This is not true in either case. The
sign to the left is confusing because the meaning of the diamond
is not universally used or understood. Some places use this

Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan 50


Chapter Four: Recommendations

symbol to indicate high occupancy lanes for carpools and buses. Clear signs that are easy
to understand even for those that are not familiar with the rules of the road are needed.

Signs indicating bicycle facilities help reduce confusion and


safety problems. It is important to let cyclists know which roads
and routes are appropriate for their use and which ones are not.
An example of this is the abrupt end of the shoulder lane on
Mendenhall Loop Road when coming from the Glacier to Egan
Drive close to the Nancy Street intersection. The lane ends
abruptly with no way for a cyclist, who is not comfortable riding
in traffic, to continue on safely and no way for them to get to the
separated paths running along the road. Signs and pavement
markings at the last crossroad would give cyclists and motorists
visual cues of the ending of the bike lane and help eliminate
Mendenhall Loop Road
confusion and safety problems. shoulder lane ends
abruptly without warning
(Signage needed)
There are other places in the borough where bicycle facilities
end abruptly without warning to cyclists or motorist. Clear pavement markings, such as
lines delineating bike lanes, symbols and bike lane labeling, clear vehicle stop lines and
crosswalks need to be in place and well maintained.

Bike Map

A bicycle map showing existing shoulder lanes, bicycle lanes, separated paths,
bicycle routes and bike racks/lockers is needed to show bicycle users the facilities
available to them. Safety rules and suggestions clearly printed on the back of the
map can help educate bicyclists on current safety and maintenance procedures.
Placing a display with a map of existing non-motorized transportation routes at the
Alaska Marine Highway Ferry Terminal would help visitor bicyclists identify a
route to their destination. A bicycle map could also guide visitors to town without
using Egan Drive.

Juneau Junkers

Adopt lost or unwanted bikes and paint them bright yellow and park them downtown for
anyone to use. When the user was done using the bike it would be parked in the nearest
city rack for the next person. This has worked very successfully in Salem, Oregon, as
well as other places. Some logistics would have to be worked out, such as, where and
how many bicycle racks to place around town. A person would have to be hired or an
organization such as the Southeast Alaska Guidance Association (SAGA), to redistribute
bunched up bikes, retrieve lost ones and repair broken ones.

51 Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan


Adopt-A-Bikeway Program

Set up an Adopt-A-Bikeway program to help maintain non-motorized transportation


facilities. This could be done much the same way as adopt-a-highway programs are set
up with volunteers cleaning up garbage. If the right kind of groups were used, it could go
one step further with volunteers cutting brush, painting symbols, sweeping and replacing
or repairing signs. Organizations such as Boy Scout Troops, bicycle clubs or
construction companies could be trained to provide such services. However, if work goes
beyond garbage pickup it would be important to have a staff person on site ensuring
standards were adhered to and other maintenance actions were done correctly.

Bicycle Related Ordinances

The current city ordinances need to be reviewed and where


appropriate brought into compliance with state laws. The
City Mandatory Side Path Law should be changed to allow
bicycles to ride on the side of roads that also have separated
pathways. These are two types of facilities that are
designed for two types of users. Forcing advanced cyclists
to ride on multi-use pathways can cause safety concerns.
The State of Alaska did away with this law years ago, now
it is time for the city to follow suit.

A series of City ordinances that would help keep gravel and


other debris from collecting on bike lanes should be
considered. First, require trucks hauling gravel and other
debris to cover loads and have tailgates. Second, require
construction companies to regularly sweep debris that is
Construction zone with heavy amounts spilled on roadways and bike facilities near construction
of debris left in shoulder lane sites. Third, the
possibility of requiring
wheel washes at long term construction sites, gravel
pits and other sites, where debris is tracked onto the
roadway, should be explored. Fourth, shaking trucks
by driving over a series of bumps before they leave
construction sites or gravel pits would help debris fall
off loads before they hit the road.

Bicycle Registration
Required tailgates would help reduce the
The establishment of a bicycle registration system amount of spilled debris along roads
could help police return lost or stolen bicycles. New

Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan 52


Chapter Four: Recommendations

bicycles should be registered at stores upon purchase. A simple form or possibly an


Internet based bike registration, should be instituted so as not to create an excess of paper
work for the Juneau Police Department (JPD).

Ridership Survey

Further research into the number of riders using specific facilities would be helpful in
determining which facilities need to be upgraded or where new facilities need to be
constructed. This could be accomplished by counting bicycle traffic passing key
locations. Perhaps DOT/PF would help with this effort while they are doing traffic
counts.

A ridership survey would be useful in determining where the greatest needs or demands
exist. However, it is important to note that several comments have been received during
the planning process of this document stating that some individuals currently ride their
bikes in Juneau mostly for recreation and not for transportation. This is because they feel
the existing bicycle facilities are unsafe and inadequate. Many have stated that if there
were better facilities they would use bicycles more for transportation. When using
surveys and traffic counts, it should be remembered that by creating better facilities,
demand will increase.

Public Education

A comprehensive, ongoing bicycle safety and public education program aimed at


children, adults, bicyclists and motorists is needed. The JPD and the Juneau School
District are encouraged to continue their efforts on bicycle safety education. Adults also
need to be targeted for this type of education. All of the individuals who operate
motorized and non-motorized vehicles on the road need to be informed of the rules
concerning bicycles. It is important for motor vehicle drivers to understand that they
need to share the road with bicyclists and what rules bicyclists are supposed to follow.
Articles in the newspaper, public service announcements, information booths, posters and
other activities that help incorporate bicycle safety education into the community are
needed.

An example of an issue that many motorists do not understand is the rate of speed at
which a bicyclist can move. Some of the most common accidents occur when a driver,
apparently underestimates their speed, passes a bicyclist on the left and then makes a
right turn cutting the cyclist off.

Both cyclists and motorists need to know how to share the road safely. This requires an
understanding of current safety rules and suggestions. It also requires that bicyclists need

53 Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan


to have the skills to ride comfortably in various traffic situations. Effective Cycling
classes could help with this education process.

Nighttime Riding

After dark is a risky time to ride especially if the rider is unskilled and does not
have adequate safety equipment. Street lights can help with this problem, but often
do not lead all the way to the rider’s destination, thus encouraging riding at night
and then leaving riders in the dark. In general, riding at night should not be
encouraged. When riding at night, riders are required to have a headlight, taillight,
rear reflector and pedal reflectors. It is also a good idea to have a reflective vest,
reflective tape on pants, bike frame, helmet and gloves. It is also very important to
remember that all of this safety equipment does not make a cyclist invincible, it is
still very hard for cars to see cyclists and extreme caution should be used at all
times.

Bike Flow

Non-motorized transportation
flow should go in the same
direction as motorized traffic
flow. Because traveling against
traffic was taught as the safest
way to travel a few years back,
and due to the lack of adequate
facilities, this rule is often
compromised. When developing
new roads or upgrading existing
roads, it is important to allow
enough space on the right of
traffic to allow bicyclists to
safely ride with traffic. Traveling against traffic causes confusion and safety concerns

Both motorists and bicyclists should be educated about the importance of riding
with traffic rather then against traffic flow. The benefit of this is that motorists are
expecting vehicles to move in the direction of traffic and are not looking for a
bicycle rider moving against traffic. The chances of a collision are significantly
lower when two vehicles are going the same direction.

Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan 54


Chapter Four: Recommendations

Sidewalks

Sidewalks should not be considered as


bicycle facilities. They are generally not
designed for bicycling. However, use by
children or other slow moving,
inexperienced riders are acceptable except
on busy downtown sidewalks. Sidewalks
are very important to pedestrian
circulation and should be built in
conjunction with bike lanes or separated
paths. This is clearly stated in the
American Association of State Highway
Sidewalks should not be considered as bicycle facilities
Officials (AASHTO) guidelines.
Sidewalks are not designed for the speeds
that bicycles travel or for bi-directional travel. These types of activities often cause
conflicts with pedestrians and fixed amenities like signposts, street trees, fire
hydrants and utility poles. Fast moving cyclists coming from sidewalks across
streets where motorists are not expecting them are the cause of many bicycle/motor
vehicle accidents.

Awareness Building Measures

Encourage CBJ Public Works and DOT/PF employees to bicycle enough to become
aware of the bicycle issues in Juneau. Encourage JPD to have at least one bicycle
mounted officer every day in summer.

Sponsored Bicycling Events

Sponsored bicycling events, much the same as the CBJ Parks and Recreation sponsored
hikes, could provide more educational and social opportunities for residents. A focus on
kids could provide them with an activity that would be fun, yet teach them about bicycle
safety and where facilities are located. These activities could include bicycle rodeos or
organized rides.

Mountain Bikes

Recreational bicycling is not the focus of this plan, but since many public comments were
received this section will summarize them. Juneau has a high number of mountain bike
riders currently using existing facilities. This generally means off-road type riding on
trails or pathways. There are currently no maintained mountain bike facilities in Juneau,

55 Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan


forcing much of the use to happen on trails that are not designed for it. As a result, trails
erode, hikers are offended and mountain bikers are hurt.

Juneau needs to establish and maintain some multi-use trails that could accommodate
mountain bike use. The most commonly suggested places are Treadwell Ditch Trail and
Dredge Lakes recreation area. These are very logical places due to existing conditions.
With relatively little effort these areas could be fixed up to accommodate mountain bikes.
If facilities were established for mountain bike use, it would be easier to close other
dangerous or sensitive trails to mountain bikes.

Other locations that should be considered are Sheep Creek Road and the Smith/Honsinger
Pond across Egan Drive from Fred Meyer. The Sheep Creek Road was built for mining
exploration and is now in the process of being abandoned. It would make a nice
mountain bike facility and could be a safer riding location then the Perseverance Trail.
The Smith/Honsinger Pond is on the list of lands recommended for acquisition in the
Juneau Parks and Recreation Comprehensive Plan, July 1996. This property would make
a good loop track around the pond for racing or just recreating.

Egan Drive

Egan Drive is currently the only road in Juneau


that is closed to non-motorized transportation.
There is no law, ordinance or standard that states
the need to keep this road closed to bicycle
traffic. When the road was first opened, it was
determined that motor vehicle speeds were too
fast to safely accommodate bicycles. Since that
time, motor vehicle speeds have been reduced on
Egan Drive due to the addition of several
Egan Drive stoplights and bicycles have become widely
accepted as a legitimate means of transportation.
These two factors may warrant a second look at
the feasibility of opening Egan Drive to bicycles.

The opening of Egan Drive has come up at all five of the meetings held during the
summer of 1997, where public testimony was heard. Advanced cyclists would like to see
this road opened in order to shorten the distance of commuting between downtown and
the Mendenhall Valley. However, this facility would not accommodate inexperienced
cyclists, pedestrians or other types of users. For the most part, these types of users would
not be comfortable on Egan Drive and as a result, would not use it. Perhaps pursuing a
license system for advanced riders from DOT/PF and the State Troopers would be a
method of gaining access to this roadway.

Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan 56


Chapter Four: Recommendations

The recommendation of this plan is to put a


separated pathway on the outside of Egan
Drive. This has been widely supported by
public comments. It would separate users
from traffic, eliminating the safety problem of
riding so close to high-speed traffic. This
facility would also accommodate a variety of
less experienced users and give access to the
wetlands. The overall concern would be
whether this facility has enough demand to
justify the cost of construction. A detailed use
survey could help determine the current
demand, however, it is important to remember
that a new facility like this would attract
bicyclists and others that are not currently
Proposed separated path along Egan Drive on the outside
using non-motorized modes of transportation. of the guard rail

Site Specific, Low Cost Recommendations

1. Grates

Replace grates which have slots running parallel to the


road, such as the ones in front of the Federal Building,
J&J Deli and Auke Bay, with ones that will not eat
bicycle tires.

Grates running parallel to road

2. Drainage Problems on Multi-Use Paths

Fix the drainage problems on multi-use paths: Egan Drive


(north side) between Channel Vista and Hospital Drive;
Egan Drive (north side) between Fred Meyer and
McNugget Intersection; Mendenhall Loop Road separated
paths along both sides of the road.

Flooded multi-use pathway

57 Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan


3. Juneau Douglas Bridge Intersection

Fix bike lanes at intersections to meet


AASHTO guidelines: Juneau Douglas Bridge
needs a bicycle lane painted to the right of the
through lane coming from Douglas to Tenth
Street.

4. Stoplights Bicycle lane needed

Reset the stoplight at Egan Drive and Mendenhall Loop Road so bicyclists will not
have to wait for several light cycles to cross.

5. Crosswalks

Put a second crosswalk at Egan Drive and McNugget Intersection so that riders will
not have to cross Egan Drive and then Glacier Highway to get to McDonalds.

6. Traffic Sensors

Install traffic sensors that detect bicycles at all intersections where bicyclists need to
cross.

7. Blind Pathway at Nancy Street

Separated path along Mendenhall Loop Road at Nancy Street needs to be raised so
that cyclists can see traffic turning onto Nancy Street.

8. Bike Symbols and Direction Arrows

Paint bike symbols with direction


arrows on bike lanes (Twin Lakes,
Mendenhall Loop Road, North Douglas
Highway). This will help eliminate
motorists from honking at cyclists using
these facilities. Bike symbols and direction arrows needed

9. Stop Signs

Place stop signs and paint stop lines before multi-use pathways along Mendenhall
Loop Road.

Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan 58


Chapter Four: Recommendations

10. Dredge Lakes Mountain Bike Facility

The demand for mountain bike facilities in Juneau has dramatically increased over
the past few years. A designated facility is needed to accommodate these riders. It
is recommended that the Dredge Lake area be developed with a network of trails and
riding areas for Mountain Bikes.

11. Goat Hill Easements

Before the area above Auke Lake known as Goat Hill is developed a close look at
potential bicycle path easements, needs to be done.

12. Mendenhall Loop Road and Nancy Street

The shoulder lanes along Mendenhall Loop Road end abruptly at Nancy Street. For
bicyclists coming toward Egan Drive this leaves them on a narrow road wedged
between a curb and traffic. These shoulders need to be extended to Egan Drive. As
an interim measure a paved path from the road down to the existing paved path and
signs adequately notifying bicyclists of the abrupt ending of the lane need to be put
in place.

13. Intersection of Egan Drive and Riverside Drive

This intersection needs a second crosswalk across Egan Drive. It is difficult for
southeast bound riders on Egan Drive to cross to Riverside Drive. Currently, they
must cross two cross walks to get on the right side of the road. A second crosswalk
would make it so only one major road crossing was needed.

14. Intersection of Egan Drive and Mendenhall Loop Road

This intersection needs crosswalk on the right turn lane coming from town. It is
difficult to cross from island to separated bike path. Yield to pedestrian, signs also
need to be installed.

15. McNugget Intersection

This intersection needs two crosswalks across Egan Drive and from existing islands
across right turn lanes of Glacier Highway. A cyclist crossing Egan towards the
mall now has to wait for a second signal to get across Glacier before getting to a
legal bike route (to ride on the right side of the road). Bicycle safety could be
increased with a second crosswalk at this intersection.

59 Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan


16. Intersection of Egan Drive and Glacier Highway at Salmon Creek

This intersection needs pedestrian signals and crosswalks.

17. Hospital Hill, Sign improvements

Signs and pavement markings directing bicyclists from Glacier Highway to the bike
path along Hospital Hill are needed.

18. Intersection of Douglas Bridge and North Douglas Highway

Bicyclists coming from Juneau going to Downtown Douglas are cut off by vehicles
turning right going out North Douglas Highway. Signs warning bicyclists and motor
vehicle drivers as well as a bike lane painted across the right turn lane would help
minimize this dangerous situation.

19. Intersection of Douglas Bridge and Egan Drive

Motor vehicles coming from Douglas turning right often are looking left watching
for traffic and fail to see pedestrians and bicyclists crossing to the island. Painting
lines on the pavement to indicate a through lane for bicycles to Tenth Street and
painting a crosswalk across the right turn lane could help minimize this dangerous
situation.

Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan 60


Chapter Four: Recommendations

Non-Motorized Transportation System Improvements

The following section lists major improvement projects to the existing non-
motorized transportation system and site specific improvements. The system
improvements are listed in order of anticipated need. The immediate needs are listed
first with the long range needs being listed last. Each corridor is identified on the
maps with numbers corresponding to the lists.

Improvements that are difficult to show as lines on a map are listed as site specific
improvements with letters corresponding to the specific locations on the maps.

61 Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan


Chapter Four: Recommendations

Non-Motorized Transportation System Improvements


Subarea 1 Auke Bay to Echo Cove

Immediate Needs
No. on
Map Corridor Section Improvement Project
1 Glacier Highway Tee Harbor to Echo Cove Shoulder Lanes Construction 6' Wide
7 Auke Rec By-pass Otter Way to Lena Point Road Shoulder Lanes Construction 8' Wide

Medium Range Needs


No. on
Map Corridor Section Improvement Project
4 Amalga Harbor Road Glacier Highway to End Shoulder Lanes Construction 6' Wide
6 Lena Point Road Glacier Highway around loop to End Shoulder Lanes Construction 6' Wide
8 Auke Rec Service Road All of Auke Rec Road after bypass is constructed Shoulder Lanes Construction 6' Wide

Long Range Needs


No. on
Map Corridor Section Improvement Project
3 Eagle River Amalga Harbor to Eagle Beach State Park Establish Pathway Easement 50' Wide

Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan 62


Chapter Four: Recommendations

Site Specific Improvements


Subarea 1 Auke Bay to Echo Cove

Immediate Needs
(Letters indicate location of site specific improvements on the following map.)

A. Move Guardrails Along Glacier Highway B. Auke Rec Bypass Area Future Plan

The guardrails along Glacier Highway from Tee Harbor to A new area will be opened to development as a result of the
Echo Cove are placed at the pavement edge. This causes an new Auke Rec bypass. This area needs to be analyzed for
extremely dangerous situation, forcing bicyclists to ride in the future bicycle facility demands. Connections to the park and
traffic lane with no place to get off the road. This section of other proposed developments should be considered.
road needs shoulder lanes, however as an interim measure, the
guardrails need to be moved a few feet away from the Bike Racks – Keyed on Map
pavement to allow space for bicyclists to get off the road if
needed.

Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan 63


Chapter Four: Recommendations

Non-Motorized Transportation System Improvements


Subarea 2 Mendenhall Valley

Immediate Needs
No. on
Map Corridor Section Improvement Project
4 Montana Creek Road Back Loop Road to Skaters Cabin Shoulder Lanes Construction 6' Wide
6 Trappers Lane Trappers Lane to Glacier View Pathway Separated Paved Path Construction 10' Wide
7 Montana Creek Road Back Loop Bridge to Arctic Circle Separated Paved Path Construction 10' Wide
8 Montana Creek Road Connection to Mendenhall Campground Separated Paved Path Construction 10' Wide
9 Back Loop Bridge Underpass Under Back Loop Bridge to Tamarack Court Separated Paved Path Construction 10' Wide
13 Tamarack Court River Road to End Shoulder Lanes Construction 6' Wide
14 River Road Back Loop Road to Kaxdigoowu Heen Dei Shoulder Lanes Construction 6' Wide
15 Mendenhall River Back Loop Bridge to Tournure Street Separated Paved Path Construction 10' Wide
16 Tournure Street Riverside Drive to Back Loop Road Shoulder Lanes Construction 8' Wide
24 Sierra Street Sierra Street to Kiowa Street Separated Paved Path Construction 10' Wide
25 Jordan Creek Court Jordan Creek Court to Granite Drive Separated Paved Path Construction 10' Wide
26 Dudly Street Dudly Street to Amalga Street Separated Paved Path Construction 10' Wide
27 Trinity Drive Mendenhall Loop Road to Tongass Blvd. Shoulder Lanes Construction 6' Wide
28 Jennifer Drive Tongass Blvd. to Rainbow Row Shoulder Lanes Construction 6' Wide
30 Mendenhall River Path (E. Side) Postal Way To Meander Way and to Riverside Dr. Separated Paved Path Construction 10' Wide
31 Tongass Blvd. Nancy Street to Mendenhall Loop Road Shoulder Lanes Construction 6' Wide
32 Malissa Drive Malissa Drive to Rainbow Row Separated Paved Path Construction 10' Wide
33 Mendenhall River Bridge Dimond Park to Kaxdigoowu Heen Trail Bridge Construction 10' Wide
34 Nancy Street Mendenhall Loop Road to Tongass Blvd. Shoulder Lanes Construction 6' Wide
35 Fritz Cove Road Glacier Highway to End Shoulder Lanes Construction 6' Wide
37 Brotherhood Bridge All Shoulder Lanes Construction 8' Wide
38 Riverside Drive Egan Drive to Dimond Park Separated Paved Path Construction 10' Wide
39 Mendenhall Loop Road Egan Drive to Nancy Street Shoulder Lanes Construction 6' Wide
40 Brotherhood Bridge Vintage Park under bridge to Meadow & Alder Separated Paved Path Construction 10' Wide
41 Egan Drive (South Side) Mendenhall Loop Road to Riverside Drive Separated Paved Path Construction 10' Wide
43 Del Rae Road/Glacier Highway Glacier Highway to Mendenhall Loop Road Shoulder Lanes Construction 6' Wide
44 Mendenhall Loop Road Glacier Highway to Egan Drive Separated Paved Path Construction 10' Wide
45 O'Day Drive End to Glacier Highway Separated Paved Path Construction 10' Wide
48 Radcliff Road Del Rae Road to End Shoulder Lanes Construction 6' Wide
51 Old Dairy Road U.S. Forest Service to Glacier Highway Shoulder Lanes Construction 6' Wide
55 Glacier Highway Old Dairy Road to End (behind Fred Meyer) Shoulder Lanes Construction 6' Wide

Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan 64


Chapter Four: Recommendations

Non-Motorized Transportation System Improvements


Subarea 2 Continued Mendenhall Valley

Medium Range Needs


No. on
Map Corridor Section Improvement Project
5 Auke Mountain Bench Corridor Montana Creek Road to Auke Nu Drive Establish Pathway Easement 50' Wide
11 Thunder Mountain Path Egan Drive to Glacier Separated Paved Path Construction 10' Wide
12 Glacier Powerline Road Glacier Spur Road to End Separated Paved Path Construction 10' Wide
17 Threadneedle Street Mendenhall Loop Road to End Shoulder Lanes Construction 6' Wide
19 Auke Lake Way Glacier Highway to Back Loop Road Shoulder Lanes Construction 6' Wide
20 Auke Lake Loop Trail Around Lake Separated Paved Path Construction 10' Wide
21 Montana Creek Kaxdigoowu Heen Dei to Back Loop Road Separated Paved Path Construction 10' Wide
22 Duck Creek Path Nancy Street to end at Mendenhall Loop Road Separated Paved Path Construction 10' Wide
23 Valley Blvd. Mendenhall Loop Road to End Shoulder Lanes Construction 6' Wide
29 Glacier Cinemas Connection Sprucewood Subdivison to Cinema Separated Paved Path Construction 10' Wide
36 Engineers Cutoff Road Glacier Highway to Fritz Cove Road Separated Paved Path Construction 10' Wide
42 Meadow Lane/Eagle Street Radcliffe Road to Brotherhood Bridge Shoulder Lanes Construction 6' Wide
46 Jordan Creek Jordan Avenue to McNugget Trail Separated Paved Path Construction 10' Wide
47 Industrial Blvd. Glacier Highway to End Shoulder Lanes Construction 6' Wide
49 Berners Avenue Glacier Highway to Radcliffe Road Shoulder Lanes Construction 6' Wide
53 Duck Creek Cessina Road to Radcliffe Road Separated Paved Path Construction 10' Wide
58 Airport Dike Trail Existing Trail to Nugget Mall Separated Unpaved Path Construction 8' Wide

Long Range Needs


No. on
Map Corridor Section Improvement Project
2 Montana Creek Road Skaters Cabin Road to End Shoulder Lanes Construction 6' Wide
3 Skaters Cabin Skaters Cabin to Montana Creek Road Establish Pathway Easement 50' Wide
10 Mendenhall Lake/River Path Mendenhall Glacier Vis. Cntr to Back Loop Bridge Separated Paved Path Construction 10' Wide
18 Thunder Mountain Road Thunder Mountain Path to Mendenhall Loop Road Separated Paved Path Construction 10' Wide
57 Airport Dike Trail Radcliffe Road to End Separated Unpaved Path Construction 8' Wide
59 Smith/Honsinger Pond Loop Trail around Pond Separated Unpaved Path Construction 8' Wide
60 Mendenhall Peninsula Road Engineers Cutoff to End Shoulder Lanes Construction 6' Wide

Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan 65


Chapter Four: Recommendations

Site Specific Improvements


Subarea 2 Mendenhall Valley

Immediate Needs
(Letters indicate location of site specific improvements on the following map.)

A. Rebuild Montana Creek Road D. Transit Center Facilities

The recently abandoned upper section of Montana Creek road The Capital Transit, Transit Development Plan that was
is a valuable recreation resource and connection to Montana completed in March 1997 suggests creating transit centers and
Creek Trail. The washed out sections of the road should be park and ride lots. These facilities could also easily
rebuilt and maintained as a mountain bike facility in the accommodate bicycle commuters. Bike lockers, covered bike
summer and a cross-country skiing area in the winter. It could parking, bike racks on the bus and a covered place to wait for
also be used for commercial mountain bike tours. the bus are extremely cost-effective ways for Capital Transit to
access a new market. The recommended locations include
B. Dredge Lakes Mountain Bike Facility Nugget Mall, Glacier Cinema parking lot and Main Street
Downtown.
The demand for mountain bike facilities in Juneau has
dramatically increased over the past few years. A designated E. Mendenhall Loop Road and Nancy Street
facility is needed to accommodate these riders. It is
recommended that the Dredge Lake area be developed with a The shoulder lanes along Mendenhall Loop Road end abruptly
network of trails and riding areas for Mountain Bikes. at Nancy Street. For bicyclists coming toward Egan Drive, this
leaves them on a narrow road wedged between a curb and
C. Goat Hill Easements traffic. These shoulders need to be extended to Egan Drive.
As an interim measure a paved path from the road down to the
Before the area above Auke Lake known as Goat Hill is existing paved path and signs adequately notifying bicyclists of
developed a close look at potential bicycle path easements, the abrupt ending of the lane need to be put in place.
needs to be done.

Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan 66


Chapter Four: Recommendations

Site Specific Improvements


Subarea 2 Continued Mendenhall Valley

F. Rebuild Multi-Use Path Along Mendenhall Loop Road too small. It needs to be replaced with a ten-foot wide bridge
that can support maintenance vehicles.
The separated path
between Egan Drive H. Rebuild Brotherhood Bridge
and Glacier Spur
Road running along The bridge needs to be widened to accommodate bike lanes
Mendenhall Loop and sidewalks. The current sidewalks are unsafe for bicyclists.
Road needs
resurfacing on both I. Intersection of Egan Drive and Riverside Drive
sides of the road.
The pavement has This intersection needs a second crosswalk across Egan Drive.
many cracks and It is difficult for southbound riders on Egan Drive to cross to
bumps caused by Pathway has severe root damage Riverside Drive. Currently, they must cross two cross walks to
tree roots. The get on the right side of the road. A second crosswalk would
pavement is twenty make it so only one major road crossing was needed.
years old, worn-out and needs replacing.

It is recommended that the existing pavement be removed, the


roots be severed with a trenching machine and plastic or metal
root barriers be installed to prevent future root damage. The
pathway should be raised to prevent flooding. The tread width
should be increased to ten feet to accommodate the heavy
amount of traffic this pathway receives and to minimize edge
crumbling by maintenance vehicles.

G. Replace Duck Creek Bridge

The bridge over Duck Creek between Mendenhall Mall Road


Cyclists are funneled onto narrow sidewalk which causes conflicts with
and Egan Drive on the West Side of Mendenhall Loop road is pedestrians and safety concerns

Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan 67


Chapter Four: Recommendations

Site Specific Improvements


Subarea 2 Continued Mendenhall Valley

J. Intersection of Egan Drive and Mendenhall Loop Road new bridge that is ten feet wide and would support
maintenance vehicles is needed.
This intersection needs crosswalk on the right turn lane coming
from town. It is difficult to cross from island to separated bike L. Sidewalks and Bike Lanes along Glacier Highway
path. Yield to pedestrian, signs also need to be installed.
Glacier Highway between McNugget Intersection and
K. Jordan Creek Bridge Mendenhall Loop Road has a high amount of pedestrian and
bicycle traffic. To adequately accommodate both, bicycle
The existing bridge over Jordan Creek on the separated path lanes and sidewalks need to be constructed along this section of
along the north side of Egan Drive is to narrow and unsafe. A road.

M. McNugget Intersection

This intersection needs two crosswalks across Egan Drive and


from existing islands across right turn lanes of Glacier
Highway. A cyclist crossing Egan towards the mall now has to
wait for a second signal to get across Glacier before getting to a
legal bike route (to ride on the right side of the road). Bicycle
safety could be increased with a second crosswalk at this
intersection. Bike lanes also need to be added to Glacier
Highway between the McNugget Intersection and Old Dairy
Road and on the first few hundred feet of Old Dairy Road.

N. Rebuild Separated Path along Egan Drive (north side)

The separated path between the end of Glacier Highway


(behind Fred Meyer) and the Mendenhall Loop Road along the
north side of Egan Drive needs rebuilding. This is the only
legal link between the Mendenhall Valley and Town and has
Narrow unsafe bridge over Jordan Creek

Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan 68


Chapter Four: Recommendations

Site Specific Improvements


Subarea 2 Continued Mendenhall Valley

bad cracks and bumps. The edges of the path are crumbling edge crumbling by maintenance vehicles. The bridge over
due to maintenance vehicles driving to close too the edge and Jordan Creek is too narrow and a hazard. It needs to be
plants infiltrating the cracks. The deteriorated state of this trail replaced with a ten-foot wide bridge that can support
makes it a safety hazard for cyclists trying to use it. The maintenance vehicles. Much of this trail also needs to be
pavement is twenty years old and needs replacing. raised to prevent flooding or adequate drainage installed.

O. Intersection of Egan Drive and Yandukin Drive

This intersection needs a stoplight and crosswalks for


pedestrians crossing Egan Drive.

P. Vintage Park Pathway

The separated
pathway along
Mendenhall River
from Brotherhood
Bridge to Postal
Way needs
resurfacing due to
root damage.
Severe root damage

Severely damaged pathway, needs reconstruction


Bike Racks – Keyed on Map

It is recommended that the existing pavement be removed, the


roots be severed with a trenching machine and plastic or metal
root barriers be installed to prevent future root damage. The
tread width should be increased to ten feet to accommodate the
heavy amount of traffic this pathway receives and to minimize

Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan 69


Chapter Four: Recommendations

Non-Motorized Transportation System Improvements


Subarea 3 Lemon/Salmon Creek

Immediate Needs
No. on
Map Corridor Section Improvement Project
2 Switzer Creek Pathway Lemon Ck. Subdiv. to Dzantik'i Heeni Middle School Separated Paved Path Construction 10' Wide
4 Central Avenue Lund Street to Lemon Street Separated Paved Path Construction 10' Wide
8 Vanderbilt Hill Road Glacier Highway to Egan Drive Shoulder Lanes Construction 8' Wide
9 Egan Drive Norway Point to Yandukin Drive Separated Paved Path Construction 10' Wide
10 Channel Vista Drive Glacier Highway to End Shoulder Lanes Construction 6' Wide

Medium Range Needs


No. on
Map Corridor Section Improvement Project
5 Davis Avenue/Lemon Creek Road Glacier Hwy to Lemon Creek Correctional Facility Shoulder Lanes Construction 6' Wide
6 Lemon Creek Pathway (W. Side) Lemon Creek Bridge up creek to end of future Dev. Separated Paved Path Construction 10' Wide
7 Anka Street/Commercial Blvd. Glacier Highway to Costco Shoulder Lanes Construction 6' Wide

Long Range Needs


No. on
Map Corridor Section Improvement Project
1 Switzer Creek Bench Pathway Dzantik'i Heeni Middle School to Fred Meyer Establish Pathway Easement 50' Wide
3 Lemon/Salmon Cr. Bench Pathway Switzer Creek to Salmon Creek Establish Pathway Easement 50' Wide

Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan 70


Chapter Four: Recommendations

Site Specific Improvements


Subarea 3 Lemon/Salmon Creek

Immediate Needs
(Letters indicate location of site specific improvements on the following map.)

A. Intersection of Egan Drive and Sunny Drive the bike lanes in this area and implementing better signs and
pavement markings would help motor vehicles realize the
This crossing of Egan Drive is very difficult and dangerous. It presence of bicycles.
leaves Sunny Point isolated with no way to get across Egan
Drive. A stoplight or underpass is needed to facilitate a safe D. Intersection of Egan Drive and Glacier Highway at Salmon
crossing. Creek

B. Widen Bicycle Lanes along Glacier Highway from Mapco This intersection needs pedestrian signals and crosswalks.
to Western Auto
E. Hospital Hill, Sign improvements
Due to the high traffic volume of this road and the increased
bicycle traffic from the new middle school, Kmart, Mapco, Signs and pavement markings directing bicyclists from Glacier
Costco and Western Auto this road needs wider bicycle lanes. Highway to the bike path along Hospital Hill are needed.
The high amount of construction related equipment depositing
debris on the road also causes unsafe conditions for bicyclists. F. Widen Salmon Creek Connection
This section of road needs to have the existing four and six foot
bicycle lanes expanded to eight feet wide and consideration of The separated path from Channel Vista Drive down the hill to
restrictions on trucks hauling gravel and debris (discussed in the Salmon Creek Power Plant needs to be widened. Widening
Chapter Four). the path and painting a center line could minimize the blind
spot at the top as well as help with the shy distance from the
C. Intersection of Glacier Highway and Anka Street concrete wall. The flooding problem at the base also needs to
be fixed.
This intersection is dangerous for through riders due to the
heavy amount of traffic turning onto Anka Street. Widening Bike Racks – Keyed on Map

Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan 71


Chapter Four: Recommendations

Non-Motorized Transportation System Improvements


Subarea 4 Douglas Island & Thane Road

Immediate Needs
No. on
Map Corridor Section Improvement Project
1 North Douglas Highway Boat Launch Ramp to False Outer Point Separated Paved Path Construction 10' Wide
2 North Douglas Highway Boat Launch Ramp to End Shoulder Lanes Construction 6' Wide
11 Thane Road South Franklin to End Shoulder Lanes Construction 6' Wide

Medium Range Needs


No. on
Map Corridor Section Improvement Project
4 Treadwell Ditch Trail Downtown Douglas to Eaglecrest Ski Area Separated Unpaved Path Construction 8' Wide
5 Bonnie Brae Subdivision North Douglas Highway to Treadwell Ditch Separated Unpaved Path Construction 8' Wide
7 Douglas Bench Trail Fifth Street to Foster Avenue Separated Paved Path Construction 10' Wide
8 Crow Hill Crow Hill to Treadwell Ditch Separated Unpaved Path Construction 8' Wide
9 Douglas 3rd Street Douglas Highway to End Shoulder Lanes Construction 6' Wide
13 North Douglas Highway North Douglas Highway End to Middle Point Shoulder Lanes Construction 6' Wide

Long Range Needs


No. on
Map Corridor Section Improvement Project
3 Fish Creek Road North Douglas Highway to End Shoulder Lanes Construction 6' Wide
10 Thane Road Rock Dump to Sheep Creek Separated Paved Path Construction 10' Wide
12 Douglas Island Loop Trail North Douglas Road to Sand Beach Separated Paved Path Construction 10' Wide

Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan 72


Chapter Four: Recommendations

Site Specific Improvements


Subarea 4 Douglas Island & Thane Road

Immediate Needs
(Letters indicate location of site specific improvements on the following map.)

A. Intersection of Douglas Bridge and North Douglas The Recommendation of the Non-Motorized Transportation
Highway Plan is to include the preservation of these corridors for
alternative transportation use for the long term. Determining
Bicyclists coming from Juneau going to Downtown Douglas recreational mix prescribed for these corridors is beyond the
are cut off by vehicles turning right going out North Douglas scope of this planning effort and is best addressed by the
Highway. Signs warning bicyclists and motor vehicle drivers managing agencies through the public process.
as well as a bike lane painted across the right turn lane would
help minimize this dangerous situation. Bike Racks – Keyed on Map

B. Treadwell Ditch

The Treadwell Ditch Trail falls primarily on State and Forest


Service lands: there are access trails that fall on CBJ lands.

Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan 73


Chapter Four: Recommendations

Non-Motorized Transportation System Improvements


Subarea 5 Downtown Area

Immediate Needs
No. on
Map Corrridor Section Improvement Project
1 Downtown Waterfront Walk Norway Point to West 7th Street Separated Paved Path Construction 10' Wide
2 Glacier Highway Highland Drive to Willoughby Avenue Shoulder Lanes Construction 6' Wide
7 Willoughby Avenue Glacier Highway to Egan Drive Shoulder Lanes Construction 6' Wide
9 Egan Drive 10th Street to Marine Way Shoulder Lanes Construction 6' Wide
10 * Downtown Waterfront Walk Subport to South Side of Rock Dump Seawalk on Pilings 15' Wide

Medium Range Needs


No. on
Map Corridor Section Improvement Project
4 Gastineau Avenue Gastineau Avenue to Thane Road Separated Paved Path Construction 10' Wide
5* Telephone Hill Main Street to Gold Creek Separated Elevated Pathway 12' Wide
6 10th Street Glacier Highway to Egan Drive Shoulder Lanes Construction 6' Wide
8* Telephone Hill Tunnel Willoughby to Main Street Separated Paved Path Construction 10' Wide

Long Range Needs


No. on
Map Corridor Section Improvement Project
*
3 Gold Creek Water Front Walk to Cope Park Cantilevered Over Creek
11 Gold Creek Cope Park to Basin Road/Gold Creek Bridge Separated Paved Path Construction 10' Wide

*
The Downtown waterfront walk, Telephone Hill separated path, Telephone Hill Tunnel and Gold Creek separated path all need further study and evaluation to
determine if they could become safe bicycle facilities or would be better pedestrian facilities.

Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan 74


Chapter Four: Recommendations

Site Specific Improvements


Subarea 5 Downtown Area
Immediate Needs
(Letters indicate location of site specific improvements on the following map.)

A. Intersection of Douglas Bridge and Egan Drive roads for getting through town. Further study needs to be done
to determine feasibility of bicycling on the seawalk.
Motor vehicles coming from Douglas turning right often are
looking left watching for traffic and fail to see pedestrians and
bicyclists crossing to the island. Painting lines on the
pavement to indicate a through lane for bicycles to Tenth Street
and painting a crosswalk across the right turn lane could help
minimize this dangerous situation.

B. Intersection of Willoughby Avenue and Egan Drive

This is the main throughway for bicyclist coming into town. It


is extremely difficult to cross Egan Drive so bicyclists often
ride on the sidewalk along the northbound lane. This is
dangerous and against AASHTO standards. Opening the
Telephone Hill Tunnel for bicycle use and a stop light at this
intersection would help to minimize the problem. Continuous seawalk needed from Norway Point to Rock Dump

C. Seawalk
Bike Racks – Keyed on Map
A seawalk from Norway Point to the rock dump would give
access to the waterfront and would provide an alternative to the

Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan 75


Chapter Four: Recommendations

Borough Wide Non-Motorized Transportation Improvement Projects

The following list represents recommended non-motorized 1997, (Appendix III) and from a variety of other public input.
transportation projects as defined by this plan. The list of These projects were taken from the previous pages of non-
projects was created from public comments received from motorized transportation system improvement lists and
letters, draft plan reviews, two public meetings held in June represent the most immediate needs in Juneau.

Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan 76


Chapter Four: Recommendations

Borough Wide Non-Motorized Transportation Improvement Projects

Immediate Needs No. On


Corridor Section Improvement Subarea Map
Brotherhood Bridge Vintage Park to Meadow Lane Separated Path Under Bridge 2 40
Delrae Road Glacier Hwy. to Mendenhall Loop Rd. Bicycle Lanes Construction 6' Wide 2 43
Downtown Waterfront Norway Point to Rock Dump Seawalk and Paved Path 5 1,10
Egan Drive Willoughby & Egan Intersection Stoplight 5
Egan Drive Norway Point to Yandukin Drive Separated Paved Path Construction 3 9
Egan Drive Intersection of Glacier Hwy. at Salmon Ck. Pedestrian Crossing 3 D
Egan Drive Intersection of Sunny Drive Pedestrian Crossing 3 A
Egan Drive Intersection of Yandukin Drive Pedestrian Crossing 2 O
Egan Drive Fred Meyers to Mendenhall Loop Road New Bridge & Resurface Pathway 2 N
Egan Drive (S. Side) Mendenhall Lp. Rd. To Riverside Dr. Separated Paved Path Construction 2 41
Egan Drive Intersection of Riverside Drive Cross Signals & Crosswalks 2 I
Glacier/Willoughby Highland Drive to Willoughby Avenue End Shoulder Lanes Construction 6' Wide 5 2,7
Glacier Highway Mapco to Western Auto Shoulder Lanes Construction 8' Wide 3 3
Glacier Highway McNugget Intersection to Egan Drive Bicycle Lanes, Sidewalks & Crosswalks 2 L
Glacier Highway Brotherhood Bridge Shoulder Lanes Construction 8' Wide 2 37
Glacier Highway Tee Harbor to Echo Cove Bicycle Lanes Construction 6' Wide 1 1
Mendenhall Loop Road Glacier Highway to Egan Drive Separated Paved Path Construction 2 44
Mendenhall Loop Road Egan Drive to Glacier Spur Road Resurface Separated Paths 2 F
Mendenhall Loop Road Egan Drive to Nancy Street Shoulder Lanes Construction 6' Wide 2 39
Mendenhall River (E. Side) Postal Way to Dimond Park Separated Paved Path Construction 2 30
Montana Creek Road Back Loop Bridge to Arctic Circle Separated Paved Path Construction 2 7
Montana Creek Road Back Loop Road to Skaters Cabin Bicycle Lanes Construction 6' Wide 2 4
North Douglas Highway Boat Ramp to False Outer Point Separated Paved Path Construction 4 1
O’Day Drive South End to Glacier Highway Separated Paved Path Construction 2 45
Old Dairy Road USFS Office to Glacier Highway Shoulder Lanes Construction 6' Wide 2 51
River Road Back Lp. Rd. To Kaxdigoowu Heen Dei Shoulder Lanes Construction 6' Wide 2 14
Riverside Drive Egan Drive to Dimond Park Separated Paved Path Construction 2 38
Salmon Creek Connection Channel Vista Drive to Power Plant Separated Paved Path Widening 12’ 2 F
Switzer Creek Lemon Creek Sub. To Dzantik’i School Separated Paved Path Construction 3 2
Tenth Street Egan Drive to Glacier Highway Bicycle Lanes Construction 5 6
Thane Road South Franklin Street to End Shoulder Lanes Construction 6' Wide 4 11
Thunder Mountain USFS Visitor Center to Egan Drive Separated Paved Path construction 2 11
Tournure Street Riverside Drive to Back Loop Road Shoulder Lanes Construction 8' Wide 2 16
Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan 77
Chapter Five

Design Standards

Introduction

As bicycle, in-line skating,


pedestrian and other non-
motorized transportation use in
Juneau increases, so do
conflicts between these uses
and motor vehicles. A well-
designed transportation system
is needed to provide a safe,
efficient environment for both
non-motorized and motorized
movement. This chapter
provides guidelines for the
development of non-motorized
transportation facilities Roadway accommodating non-motorized and motorized movement
throughout the City and
Borough of Juneau Alaska. The purpose of these standards is to ensure that all
organizations involved in bikeway development are in agreement on the design and
construction of bicycle facilities.

These standards are based on the best practices in use throughout the United States, as
well as, accepted national standards and supplementary material from the 1996 Oregon
Department of Transportation “Oregon Bicycle and Pedestrian Plan.” Guidelines should
be used with the understanding that each project is unique and in some situations design
adjustments may be needed to achieve the best results. Such projects should be evaluated
on a case-by-case basis, in consultation with a qualified engineer or landscape architect.

Choosing the Appropriate Facility Type

Facility selection involves a critical analysis of the types of bicyclists and other users that
are likely to use the corridor, as well as the current conditions within the corridor. The
different types of users and kinds of facilities are defined in Chapter Two. Clearly, if the
proposed facility is an off road corridor, a multi-use path will be the facility of choice. If

Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan 78


Chapter Five: Design Standards

the route is along an existing or planned roadway, primary users, traffic volume, traffic
speed and presence of truck and bus traffic should be considered.

In order to determine primary use, the types of users that live and work nearby, as well as
the types of nearby destinations need to be considered. For example, connections
between neighborhoods, schools and parks should be planned with the child cyclist in
mind. However, actual conditions may warrant a different design solution. Each project
should be fully analyzed by a professional who is knowledgeable about bicycle facility
designs.

Designs

There are several different types of facility improvements that can be utilized in a non-
motorized transportation system. They vary from simple design considerations, such as
incorporating appropriate drainage grates, to detailed design work for a multi-use
pathway. Some designs will be more appropriate where traffic volumes and speeds are
higher while others are designed for areas where use of the road right-of-way is not
practical.

In selecting the appropriate facility for an area, the primary purpose along with several
other factors should be considered to determine the type, location, and priority. These
factors include:

Physical barriers Prevention/Reduction of Accidents


Directness of Route Frequent/Convenient Access
Attractiveness Security
Minimum of Delays Use Conflicts
Maintenance Pavement Surface Quality
Truck and Bus Traffic On-Street Motor Vehicle Parking
Cost/Funding Traffic Volumes and Speeds
Local Laws Intersection Conditions
Bridges

The guidelines set up by the American Association of State Highway Transportation


Officials (AASHTO) should be consulted when designing or planning any bicycle
facility. This guide contains information that will help engineers, planners and policy
makers design bicycle facilities, which accommodate bicycle traffic in a safe and
efficient manner.

Appropriate and consistent signing and marking is essential for safety on bikeways.
Signs should be used to alert cyclists of potential hazards and communicate regulatory

79 Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan


messages to both cyclists and motorists. Signing and marking also sends a message to
motorists that cyclists are permissible users of the road network.

Any bicycle facility that contains traffic control devices must conform to the state
adopted Federal Highway Administration's "Manual On Uniform Traffic Control
Devices" (MUTCD). These assure uniformity in shape, color symbols, wording, and
lettering.

Facilities should also be designed to meet the Americans with Disabilities Act and
adopted State standards.

Special Design Considerations

Certain conditions exist that warrant special attention to assure that a safe system of
bikeways is maintained. The following section will discuss those situations and how they
can be prevented or the hazard reduced.

Transition Zones and Ending Points

The frequency of transition zones between facility types should be minimized to provide
a more coherent non-motorized transportation system. Where such transitions are
unavoidable, care should be taken to inform the bicyclist or other users of the transition,
and provide an effective changeover. For example, where a multi-use path connects to a
roadway with bicycle lanes, signage and intersection, improvements should be used to
encourage bicyclists to ride correctly, rather than proceeding forward on the wrong side
of the road.

Because bicycle lanes and multi-use paths tend to attract novice users, who may not be
comfortable in difficult traffic situation, it is important to ensure that these facilities do
not end at hazardous areas or leave users in traffic conditions that may exceed their
capabilities. This is especially important during the early construction of non-motorized
transportation facilities, when there will be inevitable gaps in the bicycle transportation
system.

In circumstances where a facility ends in a roadway environment that is less then ideal,
cyclists and motorists should be warned in advance of the upcoming transition. Signage
and pavement makings should clearly indicate that the bicycle facility ends. Advance
signage should be placed to give cyclists and motorists plenty of time to take evasive
action if needed.

Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan 80


Chapter Five: Design Standards

A measure to warn motorists of the likelihood of encountering a bicyclist is a “Share the


Road” sign. These signs consist of the standard bicycle warning sign with a “Share the
Road” sub-plate.

Combining Types of Bicycle Facilities

Combining different types of bicycle facilities can create confusion for the cyclist and
motorists and can result in an unsafe situation. For example, if a two-way separated bike
path ended up on a highway shoulder with no accommodation for a cyclist to reach the
correct side of the road, unpredictable behaviors might result. Some bicyclists may dart
across traffic to reach the other side, some may continue down the highway riding against
traffic. The confusion resulting from erratic behavior of a bicyclist can surprise and
anger motorists. These types of situations should be avoided.

Bike Paths under Bridges

Special design practices must be considered when multi-use pathways cross under
bridges. Pathways should be constructed above the spring and fall flooding marks, while
maintaining adequate vertical clearance. Vertical clearance under bridges should be a
minimum of eight feet, though ten feet is desirable. This clearance should be considered
in all bridge reconstruction. If the potential for flooding exists, the pathway should be
designed to withstand the flooding. Maintenance may need to be scheduled after each
flooding to remove debris from the pathway.

Adequate lighting needs to be provided under bridges where practical. This will increase
user visibility and discourage crime. Approaches to bike paths under bridges are also
important. The transition from bright sunlight to the shaded crossing under bridges can
be a hazard. Care should be taken in designing approaches that are of minimal grade and
at an angle where oncoming multi-use path traffic can be seen easily.

Types of Facilities

Bicycles are legally classified as vehicles and are ridden on most public roads in Juneau,
which are open to bicycle traffic with the exception of Egan Drive. Roadways must be
designed to allow bicyclists to ride in a manner consistent with the vehicle code.

Shared Roadways
There are no specific bicycle standards for most shared roadways; they are simply the
roads as constructed. Shared roadways function well on local streets and minor collectors

81 Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan


and on low-volume rural roads and
highways. Shared roadways are suitable
in urban areas on streets with low speeds
(25 MPH or less) or low traffic volumes.

In rural areas, the suitability of a shared


roadway decreases as traffic speeds and Shared roadway
volumes increase, especially on roads
with poor sight distance. Where bicycle use or demand is potentially high, roads should
be widened to include shoulder lanes where travel speeds and volumes are high.

Many urban local streets carry excessive traffic volumes at speeds higher than they were
designed to carry. These can function as shared roadways if traffic speeds and volumes
are reduced. There are many "traffic calming" techniques, discussed later in this chapter,
that can make these streets more amenable to bicycling on the road.

Wide Lanes
A wide lane may be provided where
there is inadequate width to provide
the required bike lanes or shoulder
lanes. This may occur on retrofit
projects where there are severe
physical constraints and all other
options have been pursued, such as Wide Lanes
removing parking or narrowing travel
lanes. Wide lanes are not particularly attractive to most cyclists; however, they do allow
a motor vehicle to pass cyclists within a travel lane.

To be effective, a wide lane must be at least 14 ft wide, but less than 15 ft. Usable width
does not include curb and gutter. Widths greater than 15 ft encourage the undesirable
operation of two motor vehicles in one lane. In this situation, a bike lane or shoulder
bikeway should be striped.

Shoulder Lanes
Paved shoulders are not only an excellent way to accommodate bicycles, but they also
provide a variety of safety, operational and maintenance needs.
1. Space is provided for motorists to stop out of traffic in case of mechanical
difficulty, a flat tire or other emergency.
2. Space is provided to escape potential crashes.

Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan 82


Chapter Five: Design Standards

3. Sight distance is improved.


4. Highway capacity is improved.
5. Space is provided for maintenance operations, such as snow removal.
6. Lateral clearance is provided for signs and guardrails.
7. Storm water can be discharged farther from the pavement.
8. Structural support is given to the pavement.

Paved shoulders in rural areas serve the needs of all types of cyclists and provide the
additional benefit of an area for pedestrians. On higher speed roads (over 50 mph) and in
urban areas they may only be preferable for advanced type riders.

Width Standards

When providing shoulders for


bicycle use, a width of 6-ft is
recommended. This allows a
cyclist to ride far enough from
the edge of the pavement to avoid
debris, yet far enough from
passing vehicles to avoid
conflicts. If there are physical Shoulder Lanes
width limitations, a minimum 4-ft Min: 5’ against curb or guardrail 4’ open shoulder
shoulder may be used. Shoulders
against a curb face, guardrail or other roadside barriers must have a 5-ft minimum
width or 4-ft from the longitudinal joint between a curb and gutter and the edge of the
travel lane. On steep grades, it is desirable to maintain a 6-ft, (min. 5-ft) shoulder, as
cyclists need the additional space for maneuvering. Shoulder lanes should be striped
with a 4” fog line.

Pavement Quality and Maintenance

Paved shoulders should have the same pavement structural design as that of the
roadway. On shoulder widening projects it is best to do it in conjunction with
pavement overlays. This provides a smooth, seamless joint, reduces cost of both
projects due to increased quantities of material being purchased and disrupts traffic
only once. The thickness of pavement and base material will depend upon local
conditions, and engineering judgment should be used.

83 Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan


Shoulder lanes should be regularly swept and kept free of potholes. Unpaved parking
lots and access roads should be paved 15 ft away from the shoulder to reduce the
encroachment of debris onto the shoulder.

Bike Lanes
Bike lanes are provided along roads where there is high potential bicycle use. They are
one-way facilities that carry bicycle traffic in the same direction as adjacent motor-
vehicle traffic; bike lanes should always be provided on both sides of a two-way street.
Motorists are prohibited from using bike lanes for driving and parking, but may use them
for emergency avoidance maneuvers or breakdowns.

Width Standards

The standard width of a bike lane is 6 ft, as measured from the center of stripe to the
curb or edge of pavement. This width enables cyclists to ride far enough from the
curb to avoid debris and drainage grates, yet far enough from passing vehicles to
avoid conflicts. By riding away
from the curb, cyclists are more
visible to motorists.

The minimum bike lane width is 4


ft on open shoulders and 5 ft from
the face of a curb, guardrail or
Bike Lanes parked cars. A clear riding zone of
Min: 5’ against curb, parking or guardrail: 4’ open
4 ft is desirable if there is a
shoulder
longitudinal joint between asphalt
pavement and the gutter section.

Bike lanes wider than 6 ft may be desirable in areas of very high use, on high-speed
facilities where wider shoulders are warranted or where they are shared with
pedestrians. Adequate marking or signing must be in place so lanes are not mistaken
for a motor vehicle lane or parking area. A bike lane must always be marked with
pavement stencils and a 8" wide stripe. This width increases the visual separation of
a motor vehicle lane and a bike lane. If parking is permitted, the bike lane must be
placed between parking and the travel lane and have a minimum width of 5 ft.

Drainage Grates

Care must be taken to ensure that drainage grates are bicycle-safe. Grates and
manhole covers should be placed outside the bicycle travel lane. Grates with wide
slots running parallel to the road may cause bicycle wheels to fall between the slots,

Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan 84


Chapter Five: Design Standards

causing the rider to fall. Replacing this particular style of grate is a necessity. The
most effective way to avoid drainage-grate problems is to eliminate them entirely and
replace them with inlets in the curb face. All inlets, grates and manhole covers
should be flush with the pavement and raised after a pavement overlay to within 1/4"
of the new surface. If this is not possible or practical, the pavement must taper into
them to eliminate abrupt edges at the inlet.

Restriping Existing Roads with Bike Lanes

Retrofitting bike lanes onto many existing roadways by marking and signing existing
shoulders as bike lanes can accommodate the needs of cyclists. This may require
physically widening the roadway to add bike lanes or restriping the existing roadway
to add bike lanes. Where existing width does not allow full standards to be used, it
may be possible to modify portions of the roadway to accommodate bike lanes.
Current standards are: 14 ft center lanes, 12 ft travel lanes, 6 ft bike lanes and 8 ft
parking lanes.

These guidelines should be used to determine how the roadway could be modified to
accommodate bike lanes, without significantly affecting the safety or operation of the
roadway. It is crucial to use good judgement when planning bike lanes and a traffic
engineer should review each project.

Reduce Travel Lane Widths

The need for full-width travel lanes decreases with speed:


1. Up to 25 MPH: travel lanes may be reduced to 10 or 10.5 ft.
2. 30 to 40 MPH: 11 ft travel lanes and 12 ft center turn lanes may be acceptable.
3. 45 MPH or greater: try to maintain a 12 ft outside travel lane and a 14 ft center
turn lane especially if there are high bus or truck volumes.

Reconsider the Need for Parking

A roadway's primary function is to move people and goods, rather than to store
stationary vehicles. When parking is removed, safety and capacity are generally
improved. To stave off potential conflicts, careful research is needed before making a
proposal.

85 Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan


Multi-Use Paths
Though originally conceived to provide a facility for bicyclists separated from motor-
vehicle traffic, paths often see greater use by pedestrians, joggers and skaters, sometimes
even equestrians. The planning and design of multi-use paths must therefore take into
account the various skills, experience and characteristics of these different user types.

Where Paths are Appropriate

Well-planned and
designed multi-use
paths can provide
good pedestrian
and bicycle
mobility. They
can have their own
alignment along
streams and
greenways or may
be components of
a community trail
system. Paths can
serve both
commuter and
recreational
Good design of multi-use path
cyclists. Many
inexperienced cyclists fear motor vehicle traffic and will not ride on streets until they
gain experience and confidence. A separated path provides a learning ground for
potential bicycle commuters and can attract experienced cyclists who prefer an aesthetic
ride.

The key components to successful paths include:

1. Where continuous separation from traffic can be achieved by locating


paths along a river or a greenbelt with few street or driveway crossings. Paths
directly adjacent to roadways that have many street or driveway crossings are
not recommended, as they tend to have many conflict points.

2. Scenic qualities, offering an aesthetic experience that attract cyclists and


pedestrians.

Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan 86


Chapter Five: Design Standards

3. Connection to land-uses, such as shopping malls, downtown, schools,


recreation areas, neighborhoods and other community destinations.

4. Well-designed street crossings, with measures such as bike and pedestrian


activated signals, median refuges and warning signs for both motor vehicles
and path users.

5. Shorter trip lengths than the road network, with connections between dead-
end streets or cul-de-sacs or as short-cuts through open spaces.

6. Visibility: proximity to housing and businesses increases safety. Despite


fears of some property owners, paths have not attracted crime into adjacent
neighborhoods.

7. Good design, by providing adequate width and sight distance and avoiding
problems such as poor drainage, blind corners and steep slopes.

8. Proper maintenance, with regular sweeping and repairs. The separation


from motor vehicle traffic can reduce some maintenance requirements, such
as sweeping the debris that accumulates on roads.

Important Considerations

Crossings

The number of at-grade crossings with streets or driveways should be limited. Poorly
designed crossings put pedestrians and cyclists in a position where motor vehicle drivers
do not expect them at street crossings.

Access

Limiting crossings must be balanced with providing access. If a path is to serve


bicyclists and pedestrians well, there should be frequent and convenient access to the
local road network. Access points that are spaced too far apart will require users to travel
out of direction to enter or exit the path. The path should terminate where it is easily
accessible to and from the street system, such as at a controlled intersection or at the end
of a dead-end street. Directional signs should direct users to and from the path.

Security

Multi-use paths in secluded areas should be designed with personal security in mind.
Clear sight distances improve visibility. Location markers, mileage posts and directional

87 Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan


signing help users know where they are. Frequent accesses improve response time by
emergency vehicles.

Maintenance

Multi-use paths require special trips for inspection, sweeping and repairs. They must be
built to a standard high enough to allow heavy maintenance equipment to use the path
without deterioration.

On-Street Facilities

As bicyclists gain experience and realize some of the advantages of riding on the road,
many stop riding on paths placed adjacent to roadways. This can be confusing to
motorists, who may expect bicyclists to use the path. The presence of a nearby path
should not be used as a reason to not provide adequate shoulders, bike lanes or sidewalks
on the roadway.

Standards

Paths intended for multiple use by commuters and recreationists should be built to a
standard that accommodates the various users with minimal conflicts. Designing to a low
standard to save money can lead to problems if the path is popular.

Paths Next to Roadways

Multi-use paths should not be attached linearly to roadways; half of the bicycle traffic
will ride against the normal flow of motor vehicle traffic, which is contrary to the rules of
the road, with the following consequences for bicyclists:

When the path ends, bicyclists riding against traffic tend to continue to travel on
the wrong side of the street, as do bicyclists getting to a path. Wrong-way travel
by bicyclists is a major cause of bicycle/automobile crashes and should be
discouraged.

At intersections, motorists crossing the path often do not notice bicyclists,


especially where sight distances are poor.

Bicyclists on the path often are required to stop or yield at cross-streets and
driveways.

Stopped motor vehicle traffic on a cross-street or driveway may block the path.

Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan 88


Chapter Five: Design Standards

Because of the closeness of motor vehicle traffic to opposing bicycle traffic,


barriers are often necessary to separate motor vehicles and bicyclists. These
barriers are obstructions, complicate maintenance of the facility and waste
available right-of-way.

Guidelines

Separated paths along roadways should be evaluated using the following guidelines:

1. Bicycle and pedestrian use is anticipated to be high.

2. The adjacent roadway is a heavily-traveled, high-speed thoroughfare where


on-road bikeways and sidewalks may be unsafe.

3. The path will generally be separated from motor vehicle traffic, with few
roadway or driveway crossings.

4. There are no reasonable alternatives for bikeways and sidewalks on nearby


parallel streets.

5. There is a commitment to provide path continuity throughout the corridor.

6. The path can be terminated at each end onto streets with good bicycle and
pedestrian facilities or onto another safe, well-designed path.

7. There is adequate access to local cross-streets and other facilities along the
route.

8. Any needed grade-separation structures do not add substantial out-of-direction


travel.

9. The total cost of providing the proposed path is proportionate to the need.
This evaluation should consider the costs of:

a) Grading, paving, drainage, fences, retaining walls, sound walls, signs


and other necessary design features.

b) Structures needed to eliminate at-grade crossings.

c) Additional maintenance, including the need for specialized


maintenance equipment.

89 Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan


Standards
Width & Clearances

The standard width for a two-


way multi-use path is 10 ft; they
should be 12 ft wide in areas
with high mixed-use. Faster-
moving bicyclists require
greater width than pedestrians;
optimum width should be based
on the relative use by these two
modes. High use by skaters
may also require greater width.
The minimum width is 8 ft. Multi-use path standards
However, 8 ft wide multi-use
paths are not recommended in most situations because they may become over-
crowded and they are not wide enough for maintenance vehicles. On 8 ft wide
pathways maintenance vehicles often cause edge cracking and do not leave room for
users to safely pass them. They should only be constructed as short connectors, or
where long-term usage is expected to be low and with proper horizontal and vertical
alignment to assure good sight distances.

Lateral Clearance

A 3 ft or greater (2 ft min.) "shy" or clear distance on both sides of a multi-use path is


necessary for safe operation. This area should be graded to the same slope as the path
to allow space to stop and get off the path. This space can also accommodate other
uses such as pedestrians, joggers or horses.

Overhead Clearance

The standard clearance for overhead obstructions is 10 ft, (min. 8 ft).

Separation from roadway

Where a path is parallel and adjacent to a roadway, there should be a 5 ft or greater


width separating the path from the edge of the roadway or a physical barrier of
sufficient height should be installed (see section on railings).

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Chapter Five: Design Standards

Typical Pavement Sections

Multi-use paths should be designed with sufficient surfacing structural depth for the sub-
grade soil type to support maintenance and emergency vehicles. If the path must be
constructed over a very poor sub-grade (wet and/or poor material), treatment of the sub-
grade should be considered.

Multi-use path pavement structure

Grades & Cross-Slope

AASHTO recommends a maximum grade of 5% for bicycle use, with steeper grades
allowable for up to 500 ft, provided there is good horizontal alignment and sight distance.
Extra width is also recommended. Engineering judgment and analysis of the controlling
factors should be used to determine what distance is acceptable for steep grades.

If use by pedestrians is expected, ADA requirements must be met: the grade of separated
pathways should not exceed 5% to accommodate wheelchair users. Based on AASHTO
recommendations and ADA requirements, 5% should be considered the maximum grade
allowable for multi-use paths.

The standard cross-slope grade is 2% to meet ADA requirements and to provide drainage.
Curves should be banked with the low side on the inside of the curve to help bicyclists
maintain their balance.

Grade Crossings of Thoroughfares

At-grade crossings introduce conflict points and grade separation should be sought.
When grade separation structures cannot be justified, signalization or other measures
should be considered to reduce conflicts. Good sight distance must be provided so
vehicle drivers can see approaching path users. Where a path must cross a roadway at an
intersection, improvements to the alignment should be made to increase the visibility of
approaching path users.

Structures

The width of multi-use path structures is the same as the approach paved path, plus a 2 ft
shy distance on both sides. For example, a 10 ft wide path requires a 14 ft wide structure.

91 Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan


The standard overhead clearance of
under-crossings is 10 ft; an 8 ft min.
may be allowable with good horizontal
and vertical clearance, so users
approaching the structure can see
through to the other end.
Undercrossings should be visually
open for the personal security of users.
Multi-use pathway bridge
Illumination is needed in areas of poor
visibility.

There are advantages and disadvantages to both overcrossings and undercrossings:

Under-crossings

Advantages: They provide an


opportunity to reduce approach
grades, as the required 10 ft
clearance is less than the clearance
required for crossing over a
roadway. If the roadway is
elevated, an undercrossing can be
constructed with little or no grade.
They are often less expensive to
build.

Disadvantages: They may present


security problems, due to reduced
visibility. They may require
drainage if the sag point is lower
than the surrounding terrain.
Undercrossing dimensions
Over-crossings

Advantages: They are more open and present fewer security problems.

Disadvantages: They require longer approaches to achieve the standard 17 ft of


clearance over most roadways. With an additional structural depth of 3 ft, the total
rise will be 20 ft. At 5%, this requires a 400 ft approach ramp at each end, for a total
of 800 ft. This can be lessened if the road is built in a cut section.

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Chapter Five: Design Standards

Undercrossing configuration

Overcrossing configuration

93 Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan


Railings, Fences & Barriers

Fences or railings along paths may be


needed to prevent access to high-speed
highways or to provide protection along
steep side slopes and waterways. A
height of 4.5 ft keeps a cyclist from
falling over the railing or fence.
However, the use of these facilities
should be carefully evaluated and used
only where absolutely necessary.
Excessive fences and railings can
become safety hazards.
Railing with “rub rail”
Openings in the railing must not exceed
6" in width. Where a cyclist's handlebar may come into contact with a fence or barrier, a
smooth, wide rub-rail should be installed at a height of 3 ft. Where concrete barriers are
used, adding tube railing or chain link
fencing may be necessary to achieve the
required height.

Fences should only be used where they are


needed for safety reasons. They should be
placed as far away from the path as possible.
Duplication of fences should be avoided,
such as fences on the right-of-way and fences
to keep pedestrians off highways.

Care must be taken to avoid a "cattle chute"


effect by placing a high chain-link fence on
each side of a path.
“Cattle-chute” effect

Preventing Motor-Vehicle Access

Geometric Design

One method branches the path into


two narrower one-way paths just
before it reaches the roadway, making
it difficult for a motor vehicle to gain
access to the path:
Split path discourages motor-vehicle access

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Chapter Five: Design Standards

Short Curb Radii

Short curb radii of 5 ft can


make it difficult for motorists
to enter a path from the
roadway.

Bollards

Barrier posts ("bollards")


may be used to limit vehicle
traffic on paths. However,
they are often hard to see and
Short curb radius and bollard at the entrance to path
cyclists may not expect
them. When used, they must
be spaced wide enough (5 ft) for easy passage by cyclists and bicycle trailers as well
as wheelchair users. A single bollard is preferred, as two may channelize bicyclists to
the middle opening, creating conflicts. They should not be placed right at the
intersection. They should be painted with bright, light colors and have reflective
strips for visibility.

Curb Cuts

Curb cuts for bicycle access to


multi-use paths should be built so
they match the road grade without
a lip. The width of the curb cut is
the full width of the path when the
approaching path is perpendicular
to the curb and a minimum of 8 ft
wide when the approaching path is
parallel and adjacent to the curb.
Greater widths may be needed on
downhill grades.
Curb cuts for paths
Drainage

Multi-use paths must be constructed with adequate drainage to avoid washouts and
flooding and to prevent silt from intruding onto the path.

95 Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan


Vegetation

All vegetation, including roots, must be


removed in the preparation of the
subgrade. Paths built in wooded areas
present special problems. The roots of
shrubs and trees can pierce through the
surface and cause it to bubble up and
break apart. Preventive methods include
removal of vegetation, realignment of
the path away from trees, and placement
Path adjacent to trees of root barriers along the edge of the
path. An effective barrier is created
with a 12" deep metal or plastic shield; greater depth is required for some trees such as
cottonwoods.

Paths with Heavy Use

If a path must handle a high number of users, it should be wider than standard (10 ft). A
separate soft-surface jogger or equestrian path may be constructed alongside the paved
path.

Stairways

Where a
connection is
needed to a
destination or
another path at a
different elevation,
a stairway can be
used where the
terrain is too steep
for a path. A
grooved concrete
trough should be
provided so
bicyclists can
easily push their
Stairway provides easy access for bicycles and pedestrians
bicycles up or down.

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Chapter Five: Design Standards

Bicycle Parking

For a bikeway network to be used to its full potential, secure bicycle parking needs to be
provided at likely destination points. Bicycle thefts are common and lack of secure
parking is often cited as a reason people hesitate to ride a bicycle to certain destinations.
The same consideration should be given to bicyclists as to motorists, who expect
convenient and secure parking at all destinations.

Bicycle racks must be designed so that they:

1. Do not bend wheels or damage other bicycle parts.


2. Accommodate the high security U-shaped bike locks.
3. Accommodate locks securing the frame and both wheels.
4. Do not trip pedestrians.
5. Are covered where users will leave their bikes for a long time.
6. Are easily accessed from the street and protected from motor vehicles.

To provide real security for the bicycle (with


its easily removed components) and
accessories (lights, pump, tools and bags),
either bicycle enclosures or lockers are
required.

Bicycle parking facilities are generally


grouped into 2 classes:
Long Term

Provides complete security and protection


from weather; it is intended for situations
where the bicycle is left unattended for long
periods of time: apartments and condominium
complexes, schools, places of employment
and transit stops. These are usually lockers,
cages or rooms in buildings.

Bicycle parking provided away form main


sidewalk area

97 Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan


Short Term

Provides a means of locking bicycle frame and both wheels, but does not provide
accessory and component security or weather protection unless covered; it is for
decentralized parking where the bicycle is left for a short period of time and is visible
and convenient to the building entrance.

Recommended Standards
Dimensions

1. Bicycle parking spaces should be


at least 6 ft long and 2 ft wide, and
overhead clearance in covered
spaces should be at least 7 ft.

2. A 5 ft aisle for bicycle


maneuvering should be provided
and maintained beside or between
each row of bicycle parking.

3. Bicycle racks or lockers should be


securely anchored.

These dimensions ensure that bicycles


can be securely locked without undue
inconvenience and will be reasonably
safeguarded from theft as well as Bicycle parking dimensions
intentional or accidental damage.

Covered Parking
1. Bicycle parking for residential, school and commercial uses should be covered.
2. Where motor vehicle parking is covered, bicycle parking should also be covered.
3. Where there are 10 or more bicycle parking spaces, at least 50% of the bicycle
parking spaces should be covered.

Juneau weather has mild temperatures with periods of intermittent rain. Many short trips
can be made by bicycle without getting wet; however, if the bicycle must be left
unattended for a long time, a rider might hesitate to leave it exposed to the weather.

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Chapter Five: Design Standards

Covered parking is necessary for long-term parking (mostly residential and employee
uses). For customers, visitors and other occasional users, covered parking is also
beneficial. Covered spaces can be building or roof overhangs, awnings, lockers or
bicycle storage spaces within buildings.

Covered parking needs to be


visible for security, unless
supplied as storage within a
building. Covering should
extend 4 ft beyond the parking
area, to prevent crosswinds from
blowing rain onto bicycles.

Location

1. Bicycle parking should be


located in well lit, secure
locations within 50 ft of the
Covered parking at Glacier Valley Elementary School
main entrance to a building,
but not further from the entrance than the closest automobile parking space and in no
case further than 50 ft from an entrance where several entrances are involved.

The effectiveness of bicycle parking is often determined by location. To reduce theft, a


highly visible location with much pedestrian traffic is preferable to obscure and dark
corners. Because of its
smaller size, the bicycle can
be parked closer to the
rider's destination than a car.

Racks near entrances should


be located so that there are
no conflicts with
pedestrians. Curb cuts at
the rack location discourage
users from riding the
sidewalk to access the racks.
Many sites need two types
Bicycle racks near store entrance yet out of pedestrian flow of bicycle parking: short-
term for customers, which
should be up front; and long-term (covered) for employees, which may be placed farther
away. Separating bicycle from car parking by a physical barrier or sufficient distance
protects parked bicycles from damage by cars.

99 Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan


2. Bicycle parking may also be provided inside a building in secure and accessible
locations.

This provides a high degree of security and protection, at the expense of some
convenience. Dedicated rooms with card locks are very effective. Locating a room close
to changing and showering facilities enhances its attractiveness.

3. Bicycle parking provided in the public right-of-way should allow sufficient passage
for pedestrians (6 feet).

Number of Spaces

The recommendations are based on specific and easily measurable criteria such as size of
buildings, number of residential units, number of classrooms, etc. Combined parking
could be allowed in areas of concentrated small businesses, such as downtown and in
business parks. Publicly provided bicycle parking could also be used.

For park-and-ride lots, requirements need to relate the number of bicycle parking spaces
to the probable service area such as the number of residents within a three mile radius of
a facility.

The amount, location and usage of bicycle parking should be monitored and adjusted to
ensure that there is an adequate supply. If bicycle use increases, the need for bicycle
parking may increase above that specified when facilities are constructed. Employment
and retail centers should voluntarily provide additional parking to satisfy the demands of
customers and employees.

Insufficient bicycle parking facilities can create a jumble of confusion

Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan 100


Chapter Five: Design Standards

Recommended Number of Bicycle Parking Spaces


Land Use Minimum Required Minimum
Category Bicycle Parking Spaces Covered
Amount
Residential

Multi-family residential, general 1 space per unit 100%


Multi-family residential, seniors 4 or 1 space per 5 units, 100%
or with physical disabilities whichever is greater

Institutional

Schools — Elementary 4 spaces per classroom 100%


Schools — Jr. Hi or Middle School 4 spaces per classroom 100%
Schools — Sr. High 8 spaces per classroom 100%
College 1 space per 4 students 100%
(plus 1 space per student housing room/unit)
Transit Centers/Park & Ride Lots 5% of auto spaces (or 100% of demand, 100%
depending on accessibility to bicyclists)
Religious Institutions 1 space per 40 seat capacity 25%
Hospitals 1 space per 5 beds 75%
Doctor, Dentist Offices 2 or 1 space per 1000 ft2, whichever is greater 25%
Libraries, Museums, etc. 2 or 1 space per 1000 ft2, whichever is greater 25%

Commercial

Retail Sales 0.33 space per 1000 ft2 50%


Auto-oriented Services 2 or 0.33 space per 1000 ft2, whichever is greater 10%
Groceries/Supermarkets 0.33 space per 1000 ft2 10%
Office 2 or 1 space per 1000 ft2, whichever is greater 10%
Restaurant 1 space per 1000 ft2 25%
Drive-in Restaurant 1 space per 1000 ft2 25%
Shopping Center 0.33 space per 1000 ft2 50%
Financial Institutions 2 or 0.33 space per 1000 ft2, whichever is greater 10%
Theaters, Auditoriums, etc. 1 space per 30 seats 10%

Industrial

Industrial Park 2 or 0.1 space per 1000 ft2, whichever is greater 100%
Warehouse 2 or 0.1 space per 1000 ft2, whichever is greater 100%
Manufacturing, etc. 2 or 0.15 space per 1000 ft2, whichever is greater 100%

Note:

Each individual use needs to be evaluated for bicycle parking - e.g. a commercial accessory use in
an industrial district may have different requirements than the industrial uses around it. Similarly,
in mixed-use developments, the amount of each use and required bicycle parking needs evaluation.
Finally, within each use category one needs to consider the different user categories - residents,
employees, customers, etc. - and parking requirements for each.

101 Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan


Signing

1. Directional signs are needed where bicycle parking locations are not visible from
building entrances or transit stops.

2. Instructional signs may be needed if the design of bicycle racks isn't readily
recognized as such.

3. For security reasons, it may be desirable not to sign long-term employee parking
within a building, to avoid bringing bicycles to the attention of potential thieves.

Other Recommendations

Long-term bicycle parking spaces should be provided at no cost or with only a nominal
charge for key deposits, etc. Residential parking spaces should be available to residents
as part of rental or ownership contracts. Short-term bicycle parking should be available
near the building entrances of all land uses and should be free.

Intersections

Most conflicts between roadway users occur at intersections, where one group of
travelers crosses the path of others. Good intersection design indicates to those
approaching the intersection what path they must follow and who has the right-of-way,
including pedestrians and bicyclists, whose movements are complicated by their lesser
speed and visibility.

Basic Principles

1. Signals should be timed so they do not impede bicycle or pedestrian traffic with
excessively long waits or insufficient crossing times.

2. Simple right angle intersections are usually the simplest to treat for bicycle and
pedestrian movement. The problems are more complex at skewed and multiple
intersections.

3. Good design creates a path for bicyclists that is direct, logical and close to the path of
motor vehicle traffic; only in rare cases should they proceed through intersections as
pedestrians.

4. Bicyclists should be visible and their movements should be predictable.

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Chapter Five: Design Standards

5. Bike lanes should be striped to a marked crosswalk or a point where turning vehicles
would normally cross them. The lanes should resume at the other side of the
intersection.

Skewed & Multiple Intersections

Skewed intersections are generally undesirable for all roadway users and introduce
complications for bicyclists. Every reasonable effort should be made to design the
intersection so that only two roads cross at a given point and they do it at a right angle.

Right-Turn Lanes

Right-turn lanes should be used only where warranted by a traffic study, as they present
these problems for cyclists:

1. Right-turning cars and through bicyclists must cross paths.

2. The additional lane width adds to the crossing distance of the intersection.

3. Right-turn moves are made easier for motorists, which may cause inattentive
drivers not to notice pedestrians on the right.

Good designs make through bicyclists and right-turning motor vehicles cross prior to the
intersection, with these advantages:

1. This conflict occurs away from the intersection and other conflicts.

2. The difference in travel speeds enables a motor vehicle driver to pass a bicyclist
rather than ride side-by-side.

3. Bicyclists are encouraged to follow the rules of the road: through vehicles
(including bicyclists) proceed to the left of right-turning vehicles.

Where it is not possible to add a full-right turn lane, the bike lane should still be placed to
the left of right-turning motor-vehicles.

103 Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan


Exceptions

Heavy Right Turns

If the major traffic movement at


an intersection is to the right, and
straight through leads to a minor
side street, then the bike lane may
be placed on the right and
wrapped around the curve,
assuming that the majority of
cyclists will desire to turn right
too.

Bike lane follows major traffic flow to the right

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Chapter Five: Design Standards

Tee Intersections

At a Tee intersection, where the traffic split is approximately 50% turning right and
50% turning left, the bike lane should be dropped prior to the lane split. This
encourages cyclists to position themselves in the correct lane instead of making a left
turn from the right side of the road. Where traffic volumes are very high, a left- and
right-turn bike lane should be considered.

Bike lanes at T intersections


Signals

On signals that function "on-call" (with loop detectors), there are several improvements
that can be made to benefit cyclists:

1. Placing loop detectors in bike lanes on side street to trip the signal.

2. Placing loop detectors in bike lanes to prolong green phase when a bicyclist is
passing through (the upcoming yellow phase may not allow enough time for a
cyclist to cross a wide intersection).

105 Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan


3. Increasing the sensitivity of existing loop detectors in bike lanes and painting
stencils to indicate to cyclists the most sensitive area of the loop.

4. Placing push-buttons close to the roadway where a bicyclist can reach them
without dismounting.

Signalized intersection sensitive to bicycles

Right-turn Lane without Room for a Bike Lane

Where there is insufficient room to mark a minimum 4 ft bike lane to the left of the right-
turn lane, a right-turn lane may be marked and signed as a shared-use lane, to encourage
through cyclists to occupy the left portion of the turn lane.

Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan 106


Chapter Five: Design Standards

Modern Roundabouts

A roundabout is a method of handling traffic at intersections commonly used in Europe,


Australia and Japan. Roundabouts are now gaining acceptance in this country. Early
attempts at roundabouts were often not successful for several reasons, mainly:

1. The radius was too small (creating difficulties for trucks).

2. The radius was too large (encouraging high speeds).

3. The right of way was not clearly defined (causing confusion and collisions).

4. Pedestrians were allowed access to the middle of the roundabout.

Modern urban roundabout

107 Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan


Modern roundabout design has several distinctive features:

1. A radius large enough to allow movement by trucks, but small enough to slow
traffic speeds.

2. A visual obstruction, through landscaping, that obscures the driver's view of the
road ahead, to discourage users from entering the roundabout and proceeding at
high speeds.

3. The right-of-way clearly established: drivers entering the roundabout yield to


drivers already in the roundabout.

4. There is no bicycle or pedestrian access to the center of the roundabout, which


should not contain attractions such as fountains or statues.

One of the major advantages of roundabouts is the reduced need for travel lanes, as traffic
is constantly moving (signals create stop-and-go conditions for motor vehicles - extra
travel lanes are needed to handle capacity at intersections).

Other advantages include:

1. Reduced crash rates.

2. Reduced severity of injuries (due to slower speeds).

3. Reduced costs (compared to traffic signals, which require electrical power).

4. Reduced liability by transportation agencies (there are no signals to fail).

Most of the advantages and disadvantages of roundabouts affect motor vehicle flow, but
there are advantages and disadvantages for bicyclists and pedestrians:

Advantages for Pedestrians and Bicyclists

1. The reduced cost frees funds for other purposes, including bicycle and pedestrian
facilities.

2. The reduced need for travel lanes frees right-of-way for other purposes, including
bicycle and pedestrian facilities.

3. Traffic flows at a more even pace, making it easier for bicyclists and pedestrians
to judge crossing movements.

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Chapter Five: Design Standards

4. Pedestrians have to cross only one or two lanes of travel at a time, in clearly
marked crosswalks.

5. Bicyclists negotiate intersections at speeds closer to that of motor vehicles.

6. Mid-block crossing opportunities may be improved if the number of travel lanes


can be reduced.

Disadvantages for Pedestrians and Bicyclists

1. Traffic flowing more evenly may reduce pedestrian crossing opportunities as


fewer gaps are created.

2. Pedestrians are responsible for judging their crossing opportunities; there is no


signal protection provided, though pedestrian signals can be added at special sites.

3. Bicyclists must share the road and occupy a travel lane; by riding too far to the
right, they risk being cut off by vehicles leaving the roundabout in front of them.

Signing and Marking

Signing and marking of bikeways and walkways must be uniform and consistent for them
to command the respect of the public and provide safety to users. Signing and marking
must be warranted by use and need. All signing and markings of bikeways and walkways
within the City and Borough of Juneau should be in conformance with the
recommendations of this section.

Well-designed roads make it clear to users how to proceed and require very little signing.
Conversely, an over-abundance of warning and regulatory signs may indicate a failure to
have addressed problems. The attention of drivers, bicyclists and pedestrians should be
on the road and other users, not on signs on the side of the road. Oversigning degrades
the usefulness of signs, causes distractions, creates a cluttered effect, is ineffective and
wastes resources.
Language Barriers

Many people don't read English. The message conveyed by signs should be easily
understandable by all roadway users: symbols are preferable to text.

109 Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan


Sign Placement

Signs placed adjacent to roadways must conform to adopted standards for clearance and
breakaway posts.

On-Road Bikeways
Shared Roadways & Shoulder Bikeways

In general, no signs are required for these two types of bikeways. Bicyclists should
be expected on all local streets, which are mostly shared roadways. Bicyclists riding
on shoulder bikeways are well-
served with adequate width and a
smooth pavement.

On narrow roads heavily used by


cyclists, it may be helpful to install
bike warning signs with SHARE
THE ROAD on the sign, where
there is insufficient shoulder width
for a significant distance. This
signing should be in advance of the
roadway condition. If the roadway
condition is continuous, an
additional rider "NEXT XX MILES" Bicycles on roadway warning signs
may be used.

Directional signs are useful


where it is recommended that
bicyclists follow a routing that
differs from the routing
recommended for motorists.
This may be for reasons of
safety, convenience or because
bicyclists are banned from a
section of roadway (the routing
Directional signs
must have obvious advantages
over other routes).
Marking

A normal 4" wide fog line stripe is used on shoulder bikeways.

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Chapter Five: Design Standards

Bike Lane Designation

Bike lanes are officially designated to create an exclusive or preferential travel lane
for bicyclists with the following markings:

1. An 8 inch white stripe.

2. Bicycle symbol and


directional arrow stencils on
pavement.

Bike lane stencil dimensions Bike lane designation

111 Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan


Optional NO PARKING signs may be installed if problems with parked cars occur;
painting curbs yellow also indicates that parking is prohibited.

Stencil Placement

Stencils should be placed after most


intersections; this alerts drivers and
bicyclists entering the roadway of the
exclusive nature of the bike lanes.
Stencils should be placed after every
intersection where a parking lane is
placed between the bike lane and the
curb.

Supplementary stencils may also be


placed at the entrance of intersections,
to warn cyclists not to enter a bike lane
on the wrong side of the road.

Additional stencils may be placed on


long sections of roadway with no
intersections. A rule of thumb for
appropriate spacing is: multiply
designated travel speed (in MPH) by 40.
For example, in a 35 MPH speed zone,
stencils may be placed approximately Bike lane stencil placed out of path of
every 1400 feet. turning vehicles

Care must be taken to avoid placing stencils in an area where motor vehicles are
expected to cross a bike lane - usually driveways and the area immediately after
an intersection.

Intersections

Bike lanes should be striped to a marked crosswalk or a point where turning vehicles
would normally cross them. The lanes should resume at the other side of the
intersection. Bike lanes are not normally striped through intersections; however, it
may be appropriate to do so where extra guidance is needed; in this case, they may be
striped with dashes or colored to guide bicyclists through a long undefined area.

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Chapter Five: Design Standards

Right Turn Lanes at Intersections

The through bike lane to the left of


a right-turn lane must be striped
with two 8" stripes and connected
to the preceding bike lane with
dashes 8" x 3 ft on 15 ft centers.
This allows turning motorists to
cross the bike lane. A stencil must
be placed at the beginning of the
through bike lane. Sign, BEGIN
RIGHT TURN LANE, YIELD TO
BIKES, may be placed at the
beginning of the taper in areas
where a through bike lane may not
be expected.

Outer Edge of Bike Lane

Where parking is allowed next to a


bike lane, the parking area should
be defined by parking space
markings or a solid 4" stripe.
Reflectors and raised markings in
Bike lane marking at right-turn lane bike lanes can deflect a bicycle
wheel, causing the cyclist to lose
control. If pavement markers are needed for motorists, they should be installed on the
motorist's side of the stripe and have a beveled front edge.

Special Use Signs

Where bicyclists are allowed to use sidewalks and the sidewalks


are too narrow for safe riding (usually on a bridge), a sign may be
used to encourage cyclists to walk.

Bicycle Use of Push-Buttons

Where it is recommended that bicyclists use a


push-button to cross an intersection (usually
where a multi-use path crosses a roadway at a
signalized intersection), instructional signs
should be used:

113 Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan


Multi-Use Paths

Paths should be signed with appropriate


regulatory, warning and destination signs.

Regulatory Signs

Regulatory signs inform users of traffic laws


or regulations. They are erected at the point
where the regulations apply. Common
regulatory signs for bicyclists are:

Note: The standard stop sign and yield sign


are reduced versions of standard motor
vehicle signs, to be used where they are visible
only to bicyclists (where a path crosses
another path or where a path intersects a
roadway at right angles).

Appropriate use of sign


Note: Bicycle stop and yield signs should be
used where signs are visible to motor vehicle
traffic.

Appropriate use of sign


Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan 114
Chapter Five: Design Standards

Warning Signs

Warning signs are used to inform path users of potentially hazardous conditions. They
should be used in advance of the condition. Most are reduced versions (18" X 18") of
standard highway warning signs:

1. Curves
2. Intersections
3. Hill
4. Height and Width Constraints
5. Path Crossing Roadway

A sign with "XING" rider should be used only where a multi-use path crosses a
roadway in an unexpected location. This sign is not for use where bike lanes and
shoulder bikeways cross streets at controlled intersections.

Directional, destination & street signs

Where a path crosses a roadway or branches off into another path, directional and
destination signs should be provided. It is also helpful to have street name signs at
street crossings and access points. Signs directing users to the path are also helpful.

End of path

Where a path ends, and bicyclists must continue riding on the roadway, signs should
be used to direct cyclists to the right side of the road to minimize wrong-way riding.

Placement of Signs

Signs should have 3 ft lateral


clearance from the edge of the path
(min 2 ft). Because of cyclists' and
pedestrians' lower line of sight, the
bottom of signs should be about 5 ft
above the path. If a secondary sign is
mounted below another sign, it should
be a minimum of 4 ft above the path.
Signs placed over a path should have
a minimum vertical clearance of 8 ft.

Sign clearances

115 Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan


Striping

On paths with high


use, a broken yellow
centerline stripe may
be used to separate
travel into two
directions. Spacing
may be either 3 ft
segments and 9 ft gaps
or 10 ft segments and
30 ft gaps. A solid
centerline stripe should
be used through curves
and areas of poor sight
distance.
Path striping

Note:
Attempts to separate pedestrians from cyclists with an additional painted lane
have not proven successful and are not recommended.

Review of Existing Bikeway Signing

Many bikeways are signed and marked in a manner that is not consistent with current
standards and practices. Periodic review of existing signs is recommended to upgrade
and standardize bikeway signing. Other signs that are not appropriate for the situation, as
well as bike lane stencils, should be removed.

Traffic Calming

Citizens are often concerned about excessive traffic volumes and speeds on residential
streets. Local streets are intended to serve the adjacent land use at slow speeds, yet they
are often designed so that high speed travel is accommodated. Well-designed traffic
calming devices effectively reduce traffic speeds and volumes while maintaining local
access to neighborhoods.

Motorists often choose short-cuts through residential areas when the arterial or collector
street system is not functioning properly. Traffic calming should be viewed as an area-

Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan 116


Chapter Five: Design Standards

wide treatment, rather than a solution for only one or two problem streets, so that through
traffic is not diverted onto other residential streets; this may require improving the arterial
street system.

Public involvement is needed for residents, businesses, planners and engineers to


understand the issues and agree with the proposed changes.

The benefits of traffic calming for bicycling are:

1. Reduced traffic speeds and volumes allow bicyclists to share the road with
vehicles.

2. Quieter streets and increased ease of crossing enhance the non-motorized


environment.

3. Lower traffic speeds increase safety (high speeds are responsible for many
accidents).

4. Parents will be more likely to let their children walk or ride a bike in the
neighborhood if the streets are made safer.
Some earlier attempts at traffic calming in this country have not proven effective for
several reasons:

1. The technique slowed cars down excessively, encouraging drivers to accelerate to


higher speeds to make up for lost time, which increases noise and air pollution.
For example, speed bumps are uncomfortable to cross at even very low speeds
and are unpopular with bicyclists.

2. The technique was a misuse of traffic controls, breeding disrespect for their
legitimate use; for example, four-way stop signs are often ignored where there is
no perceived danger.

3. No further efforts were made beyond placing speed limit signs. Most drivers
travel at a speed they feel comfortable with, which is usually a product of
roadway design.

Effective traffic calming techniques rely on these general principles:

1. The street design allows drivers to drive at, but no more than, the desired speed.

2. The street design allows local access, while discouraging through traffic.

117 Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan


3. Traffic calming works best when roads are properly designed in the first place.

Traffic calming can be viewed as a method to help reestablish the proper hierarchy for
streets:

1. Local streets should carry local traffic at slow-speeds, with bicyclists sharing the
road and pedestrians crossing freely.

2. Collector streets should carry traffic to and from local streets and arterioles at
moderate speeds. Bicyclists should be able to share the road or ride on bike lanes.

3. Pedestrians should be provided with buffered sidewalks and frequent crossing


opportunities.

4. Arterial streets should carry mostly through traffic. Bicyclists should be


accommodated with bike lanes. Pedestrians should have buffered sidewalks and
reasonably-spaced crossing opportunities.

Reducing Traffic Speeds

Reducing traffic speeds can be accomplished through physical constraints on the roadway
or by creating an "illusion of less space". Motorists typically drive at a speed they
perceive as safe; this is usually related to the road design, especially available width.

Physical Constraints

Narrow Streets or Travel Lanes

Narrow cross-sections can effectively reduce speeds, as most drivers adjust their
speed to the available lane width. Narrow streets also reduce construction and
maintenance costs.

Speed Humps (not speed bumps)

If well-designed, speed humps allow a vehicle to proceed over the hump at the
intended speed with minimal discomfort, but driving over the hump at higher speeds
will rock the vehicle. The hump is designed with a reversing curve at each end and a
level area in the middle long enough to accommodate most wheelbases.

Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan 118


Chapter Five: Design Standards

Speed hump

Chokers (curb extensions)

Chokers constrict the street width and reduce the pedestrian crossing distance

Illusion of Less Space

Creating Vertical Lines

By bringing buildings closer to the roadway edge or by adding tall trees, the roadway
appears narrower than it is.

Coloring or Texturing Bike Lanes

Drivers see only the travel lanes as available road space, so the roadway appears
narrower than it is. Painting the road surface is expensive; lower-cost methods
include:

1. Paving travel lanes with concrete and bike lanes with asphalt or the reverse.
2. Slurry-sealing or chip-sealing the roadway and not the bike lanes.
3. Incorporating dyes into concrete or asphalt.

Creating vertical lines and colored bike lanes can be used on higher speed arterials, as
there is no change in the roadway width available to motor vehicles.

119 Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan


Chicanes

By alternating on-street parking, landscaping or other physical features from one side
of the road to the other, the driver does not see an uninterrupted stretch of road. The
roadway width remains adequate for two cars to pass.

Discouraging Through Traffic on Local Streets

These techniques physically limit access to local streets for through traffic. This may
require some out-of-direction travel for some trips. Techniques include:

Diverters and Cul-de-Sacs

These prohibit all movements into a certain section of street.

Caution should be used when physically restricting access: this may contradict other
transportation goals, such as an open grid system. Cul-de-sacs should allow through
bicycle and pedestrian access.

Living Streets

This idea originated in Holland and takes traffic calming to its ultimate realization: streets
are designed primarily for foot traffic, bicyclists and children playing - automobiles are
treated as guests. This requires a legislative change, as this is a modification of existing
right-of-way laws. The burden of responsibility for safety is on motorists: they are
assumed to be at fault if they hit a pedestrian.

The street is designed with physical constraints that allow only local motor vehicle access
(residents and visitors) at low speeds. Streets are designed with physical constraints that
do not allow high speed. Signs are posted warning entering motorists of the street
characteristics - the signs depict children playing and pedestrians.

A new treatment such as this requires public involvement, support from the residents and
a street system that functions well enough so that through traffic has access to a
reasonable alternative route. As with all traffic calming measures, emergency vehicles
must be able to access residences.

One major advantage is cost: streets are very narrow, which reduces the total paved
surface area and there is no need for curb and sidewalks.

A similar concept is already in use in Boulder Colorado - they are called "access lanes."

Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan 120


Chapter Five: Design Standards

Other traffic-calming techniques and design details not discussed here may be found in
other publications such as FHWA-PD-93-028, Case Study No. 19: "Traffic Calming,
Auto-Restricted Zones and Other Traffic Management Techniques - Their Effects on
Bicycling and Walking."

On-Street Parking

While the primary purpose of a public right-of-way is to transport people and goods, on-
street parking is often cited as an advantage for pedestrians, primarily as a buffer. Yet
on-street parking also uses space that could be used for wider sidewalks or bike lanes.

121 Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan


Appendix I

Bibliography

Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan I-1


Appendix I: Bibliography

Bibliography

American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, 1991. Guide for
the Development of Bicycle Facilities.

City and Borough of Juneau, 1997. The Capital City Vision Project, Juneau’s 20/20
Vision for Downtown.

City and Borough of Juneau, 1997. Final Socioeconomic Impact Assessment, Kensignton
Gold Project.

City and Borough of Juneau, 1996. Land Use Ordinance, Ordinance Serial No. 87-49.

City and Borough of Juneau, 1990. West Mendenhall Valley Greenbelt and Trail System.

City and Borough of Juneau, Community Development Department, 1995.


Comprehensive Plan of the City & Borough of Juneau.

City and Borough of Juneau, Community Development Department, 1996.


Comprehensive Plan of the City and Borough of Juneau, 1995 Update.

City and Borough of Juneau, Community Development Department, 1996. Douglas


Highway Corridor Traffic Study.

City and Borough of Juneau, Community Development Department, 1994. Downtown


Tour Season Traffic Study.

City and Borough of Juneau, Lands and Resources Department. 1994. CBJ Land
Management Plan.

City and Borough of Juneau, Lands and Resources Department, 1997. CBJ Switzer Area
Land Study.

City and Borough of Juneau, Parks and Recreation Department, 1995. CBJ Trail
Management Plan.

City and Borough of Juneau, Parks and Recreation Department, 1996. Comprehensive
Plan.
City and Borough of Juneau, Parks and Recreation Department, 1978. Bicycle Plan.

I-2 Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan


City and Borough of Sitka, Parks and Recreation Department, 1993. Sitka Preliminary
Bicycle Plan.

Department of Community Planning, Fairbanks North Star Borough, 1989. Bike Plan.

Florida Department of Transportation, Safety Office, 1996. Florida Bicycle Facilities


Planning and Design Manual.

King, Mary Lou, Taku Conservation Society, The Juneau Audubon Society, 1994. 90
Short Walks Around Juneau.

Missoula City and County, 1994. Missoula Non-Motorized Transportation Plan:


Guidlines for Creating a Non-Motorized Travel Network in the Greater Missoula
Area.

Municipality of Anchorage, Department of Parks and Recreation, Design and


Development Division, 1985. Anchorage Trails Plan.

Municipality of Anchorage, Capital Projects Office, 1983. Coastal Trail Route Study
Design.

Municipality of Anchorage, Department of Community Planning and Development,


1996. Areawide Trails Plan.

National Park Service, U.S. Forest Service, Alaska State Parks, City and Borough of
Juneau, 1993. The Juneau Trails Plan.

Nordata Services for City and Borough of Juneau, 1986. West Mendenhall Valley
Greenbelt Plan.

North Carolina State University, James King and Linda DuBois, 1997. Juneau
Greenway Design and Computer Technology in the Design Process.

Oregon Department of Transportation, 1995. Oregon Bicycle and Pedestrian Plan.

Seminole County, Planning and Development Department, 1993. Seminole County


Recreational Trail Systems, Trail Development Guidlines.

U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, 1995. Economic Impacts of
Protecting Rivers, Trails and Greenway Corridors.

Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan I-3


Appendix I: Bibliography

U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, Publication No.


FWHA-PD-94-023. The National Bicycling and Walking Study.

I-4 Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan


Appendix II

Glossary

Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan II-1


Appendix II: Glossary

Glossary

AASHTO - Abbreviation for American Association of State Highway and


Transportation Officials.

ADA – Abbreviation for American Disabilities Act.

Bicycle Facilities - Improvements and provisions made to accommodate or encourage


bicycling. This includes parking facilities, maps, bikeways and shared roadways not
specifically designed for bicycle use.

Bicycle Lane (Bike Lane) - A portion of the road that has been designated for use of
bicycles.

Bicycle Route (Bike Route) - A portion of the bikeway system designated as an


approved route by local authority for bicycles either with or without a specific bicycle
route number.

Bikeway - A road or path which is in some way designed for bicycle use.

CBJ – Abbreviation for the City and Borough of Juneau.

DOT/PF – Abbreviation for the Department of Transportation and Public Facilities.

FHWA - Abbreviation for Federal Highway Administration.

ISTEA – Abbreviation for Inter-modal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act.

JPD – Abbreviation for Juneau Police Department.

Limited Access Road - A road on which bicycles are prohibited.

Multi-Use Path - A bikeway or pathway that is physically separated from the roadway
by an open space or barrier.

MUTCD - Abbreviation for Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices. These are
approved by the Federal Highway Administration as national standards for placement and
selection of all traffic control devices on or adjacent to all highways open to public travel.
NHTSA - Abbreviation for National Highway Transportation and Safety Administration.

II-2 Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan


Root Barrier – A plastic or metal sheet placed in the ground vertically to prevent roots
from growing under pavement.

Shared Roadway - Any roadway that does not have a designated bike lane which may
be used legally for cycling regardless of whether it is specifically designated as a
bikeway.

USFS – Abbreviation for United States Forest Service.

Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan II-3


Appendix III

Public Meeting Comments

Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan III-1


Appendix III: Public Meeting Comments

Top Priority Projects


Mendenhall Valley Public Meeting - June 10, 1997

Top priority projects as ranked in the Mendenhall Valley Bicycle Plan public meeting on
June 10th, 1997. Eight participants each selected five priority projects giving their
number one choice five points, their number two choice four points and on down to their
fifth choice getting one point.

Points Projects

25 Maintenance of exiting facilities, such as regular sweeping and repaving when


needed.

14 Need better crossings at all major Egan Drive intersections: Mendenhall Loop
Road, Riverside Drive, McNugget, Sunny Point, Lemon Creek and Salmon
Creek.

13 Widen bicycle lanes along Glacier Highway from Mapco to Western Auto.
10 Rebuild separated path along Egan Drive (north side) from Glacier Highway to
Loop Road.

9 Make master plan to determine specific allowable uses for every trail.
8 Add shoulder lane from Auke Rec to the end of the road.
8 Create separated path along Egan Drive from Norway Point to Yandukin Drive.
5 Establish a separated corridor from Mendenhall Visitor Center to Salmon Creek
along the base of Thunder Mountain continuing on along the bench above Fred
Myers, Lemon Creek and Twin Lakes.

5 Add a two foot dirt shoulder on the outside of the pavement on all paved roads
and separated paths to allow for runners, walkers and horses (Fritz Cove Road,
Kaxdigoowu Heen Trail).

5 Open Egan Drive to bicycle traffic.


4 Connect separated paths along Riverside Drive from Egan Drive to Dimond
Park.

Top Priority Projects Continued


Mendenhall Valley Public Meeting - June 10, 1997

III-2 Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan


Points Projects

4 Keep separated paths in natural areas and wetlands unpaved.

3 Rebuild and maintain Montana Creek Road for commercial bike tours.

2 Develop Dredge Lake trails for mountain biking.


2 Create separated path from Back Loop Bridge to Skater’s Cabin along stream
that runs through Montana Creek Subdivision Phase III.

1 Do not make Windfall Lake and Herbert Glacier trails into bicycle trails.
1 Create culvert crossings of major roads as overhead crossings tend not to be
used.

Bicycle Plan Comments


Mendenhall Valley Public Meeting - June 10, 1997

Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan III-3


Appendix III: Public Meeting Comments

Good Corridors from the Master Plan

Create shoulder lanes along Glacier Highway from Auke Rec to the end of the road.
Create separated path running along the base of Thunder Mountain from Egan Drive to
Glacier.

Create separated path connecting Dimond Park to Vintage Business Park along
Mendenhall River and build a bridge to Kaxdigoowu Heen trail.

Create bike lanes along Fritz Cove Road.


Create bike lanes along Mendenhall Loop Road from Egan Drive to Nancy Street.
Connect separated path along Riverside Drive from Egan Drive to Dimond Park.
Designate and preserve Temsco pond loop trail, but keep the trail gravel.
Create separated path along Egan Drive from Yandukin Drive to Norway Point.
Create separated corridor from Mendenhall Visitor Center to Salmon Creek along base of
Thunder Mountain on bench above Fred Myers, Lemon Creek and Twin Lakes.

Bad Corridors from the Master Plan

There is not a master plan to determine specific allowable uses for every trail.
Do not make Windfall Lake and Herbert Glacier trails into bicycle trails.
Do not pave separated path at base of Thunder Mountain.
Intersection of Egan Drive and Mendenhall Loop Road, Egan Drive and Riverside Drive
and McNugget are all hard to cross with a bicycle.

The separated path from 10th street to the Subport is really a sidewalk and hard for
bicyclists to use.

The proposed waterfront path would be dangerous for bicycles.

Additional Corridors to Add to the Master Plan


Add bicycle lanes on Amalga Harbor Road from Glacier Highway to Amalga Harbor.
Add bicycle lanes along road in front of Auke Rec.

III-4 Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan


Add 2' dirt shoulder along outside of pavement on all paved roads and separated paths to
allow for runners, walkers and horses (Fritz Cove Road, Kaxdigoowu Heen Trail).

Need better crossing at Egan Drive intersections: Mendenhall Loop Road, Riverside
Drive, McNugget, Sunny Point, Lemon Creek and Salmon Creek.

Develop Dredge Lake trails for mountain biking.

Preserve and enhance the Power Plant Road by the Glacier.


Discourage center islands on roads, like the one along Glacier Highway in front of
K-Mart.

Widen Bicycle lanes along Glacier Highway from Mapco to Western Auto.
Keep separated paths in natural areas and wetlands unpaved.
Create a straight shot from Brotherhood Bridge to Fred Meyers so bicycles can pass
through without current detours.

Open Egan Drive to bicycle traffic.


Create culvert crossings of major roads, as overhead crossings tend not to be used.
Create better turning lanes for Costco and PTI.
Maintenance of exiting facilities, such as regular sweeping and repaving, when needed.
Rebuild separated path along Egan Drive (north side) from Glacier Highway to Loop
Road.

Create multi-use trails with paved surface and gravel shoulders.


Turn Treadwell Ditch into a bike path.
Create separated path from end of Thane Road to Pt. Bishop.
Create shoulder lanes along Egan Drive from 10th Street to Subport.
Designate Basin Road as a bicycling facility.

Continuation of Additional Corridors to Add to the Master Plan


Preserve Perseverance Trail for bike use.
Create mountain bike trails on Blueberry and Crow Hill.

Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan III-5


Appendix III: Public Meeting Comments

Rebuild and maintain Montana Creek Road for commercial bike tours.
Create separated path from Back Loop Bridge to Skater’s Cabin along stream that runs
through Montana Creek Subdivision Phase III.

Move guardrails back from the edge of road from Auke Rec. to end of the road.
Make master plan to determine specific allowable uses for every trail.

III-6 Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan


Top Priority Projects
Downtown Public Meeting - June 12, 1997

Top priority projects as ranked in the Downtown Bicycle Plan, public meeting on June
12th, 1997. Fifteen participants each selected five priority projects giving their number
one choice five points, their number two choice four points and on down to their fifth
choice getting one point

Points Projects

39 Have local government create a year round maintenance program for existing
bicycle facilities (sweeping, snow removal, repaving, signs, road painting) and
a public education program. Have companies that are spilling debris pay for
regular cleanup.

38 Create a separated path along Egan Drive from Yandukin Drive to Norway
Point.

15 Create bike lanes along Glacier Highway from Tee Harbor to Echo Cove or
future end of the road.

15 Create centralized mass transit facilities at Nugget Mall, Mendenhall Mall,


Bartlett Hospital, University and Downtown at the Subport or Main Street, with
bicycle accommodations like: lockers and covered bike racks.

15 Put sidewalks and bike lanes along Glacier Highway from McNugget
Intersection around loop to intersection of Mendenhall Loop Road and Egan
Drive.

15 The Egan Drive, Willoughby Avenue intersection near Centennial Hall needs a
stoplight.

14 Add bike lanes to 10th Street from Glacier Avenue to the Juneau/Douglas
Bridge and make both intersections safe and easy for bicyclists to cross with
signs and more maintenance.

13 Put up signs and paint pavement to clarify bike routes (Mendenhall Loop Road
and most other facilities).

Top Priority Projects Continued

Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan III-7


Appendix III: Public Meeting Comments

Downtown Public Meeting - June 12, 1997

Points Projects

13 Put bike racks at bus stops (High School, Downtown, Nugget Mall, etc.).

8 Create separated path under Brotherhood Bridge connecting the Vintage


Business Park Trail to Scott Drive.

5 Create shoulder lanes along Thane Road.


4 Create separated bike path along the base of Thunder Mountain.

4 Make separated paths level for ease of use during slippery winter conditions.
4 Rebuild bridge and repave separated path that runs along the north side of Egan
Drive from Glacier Highway to Mendenhall Loop Road.

4 Fix dangerous Costco Intersection by making the bike lane outside of the turn
lane or having a round-about.

4 Create safe easy to use facilities connecting neighborhoods to schools.


4 Dedicate and develop mountain bike facilities.
3 Develop Treadwell Ditch as a bicycle facility.
3 Fix holes and create bike lanes along Glacier Highway and Willoughby Avenue
from the High School to Centennial Hall.

2 Create a “Bike Map”.


1 Enforce speed limits along Egan Drive from Gold Creek to Main Street.

III-8 Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan


Bicycle Plan Comments
Downtown Public Meeting - June 12, 1997

Good Corridors from the Master Plan

Create bike lanes along Glacier Highway from Tee Harbor to Echo Cove or future end of
the road.

Create bike lanes along Engineer’s Cutoff Road.


Dedicate and improve Windfall Lake trail as a bicycle facility.
Create separated bike path along the base of Thunder Mountain.
Create shoulder lanes along Mendenhall Loop Road from Egan Drive to Nancy Street.
Create a separated path along Egan Drive.
Set aside an easement for the Lemon Creek bench trail from Salmon Creek to Fred
Myers.

Create shoulder lanes along North Douglas highway from boat launch to future end of
road.

Establish easement for a separated path all the way around Douglas Island.
Develop Treadwell Ditch as a bicycle facility.
Create shoulder lanes along Thane Road.
Create a Sea Walk from the Rock Dump to Norway Point.

Bad Corridors from the Master Plan

Do not turn Montana Creek and Herbert Glacier trails into bike trails.
It would be very difficult to widen Fritz Cove Road.
Do not turn Dike trail into a bike facility.
Do not build a trail along Gold Creek, would rather see money spent in other areas and
existing crossings.

Additional Corridors to Add to the Master Plan

Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan III-9


Appendix III: Public Meeting Comments

Have local government create a year round maintenance program for existing bicycle
facilities (sweeping, snow removal, repaving, signs, road painting) and a public
education program.

Separated paths along Auke Rec area and through new development areas created by the
new by-pass.

Make separated paths level for ease of use during slippery winter conditions.
Move motor vehicle stop signs along Mendenhall loop road and other separated paths so
traffic stops before the bike path.

Designate and enhance Dredge Lakes area for mountain bicycling.


Make Loop Road/Egan Drive Intersection safer and easier to cross by bicycle.
Create bike lanes along Montana Creek Road to Skaters Cabin.
Make McNugget Intersection safer and easier to use with painted bike lanes and signs for
both motor vehicles and bicyclists.

Rebuild bridge and repave separated path that runs along the north side of Egan Drive
from Glacier Highway to Mendenhall Loop Road.

Install signs and pavement markings to direct people from bike lanes on Glacier Highway
at Salmon Creek to separated bike path that runs along Hospital Hill.

Put up signs and paint pavement to clarify bike routes (Mendenhall Loop Road and most
other facilities).

Create an education program for bicyclists and motor vehicle drivers.


Create easements for separated paths around Goat Hill and other lands up for disposal.
Create a better crossing for Egan Drive at the Fred Meyer intersection.
Create centralized mass transit facilities at Nugget Mall, Mendenhall Mall, Bartlett
Hospital, University and Downtown at the Subport or Main Street, with bicycle
accommodations like: lockers and covered bike racks.

Put bike racks at bus stops (High School, downtown, Nugget Mall, etc.).
Continuation of Additional Corridors to Add to the Master Plan
Put a separated trail around Mendenhall Peninsula from the end of Fritz Cove Road to the
end of Mendenhall Peninsula Road.

III-10 Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan


Extend Airport Dike Trail around the end of the runway to Egan Drive.
Put up signs to notify bicyclists and cars of the ending of shoulder lanes along
Mendenhall Loop Road at Nancy Street. Create separated trail from road down to
existing, separated bike path.

Schedule regular sweeping of bike lanes in the Lemon Creek area where there is constant
spilling of gravel and other debris. Have the companies that are spilling the debris pay
for regular cleanup.

Create a separated path along the north side of Egan Drive from Lemon to Salmon Creek
intersections.

Fix dangerous Costco Intersection by having the bike lane outside of the turn lane or a
round-about.

Create a separated path or bike trail up Hidden Valley along Lemon Creek.
Create a “Bike Map”.
Put sidewalks and bike lanes along Glacier Highway from McNugget Intersection around
loop to intersection of Mendenhall Loop Road and Egan Drive.

Widen separated path from Channel Vista Drive down the hill to the Salmon Creek
Power Plant. Fix blind spot at top by widening the path and painting a center line and
direction arrows. This could become a route for emergency vehicles if Egan Drive were
blocked.

Create a separated trail from Juneau/Douglas Bridge to Treadwell Historic Trail.


Put better bicycle lanes, signs and pavement markings on entryways to Juneau/Douglas
Bridge especially the right turn lane into town and going out North Douglas.

Suspend a bicycle/pedestrian path under Juneau/Douglas Bridge.


Have construction companies place adequate warning signs for bicyclists entering
construction zones.

Continuation of Additional Corridors to Add to the Master Plan

Fix holes and create bike lanes along Glacier Highway and Willoughby Avenue from the
High School to Centennial Hall.

Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan III-11


Appendix III: Public Meeting Comments

Create bike lanes or alternate route along Admiral Way from Willoughby Street to the
library.

Enforce speed limits along Egan Drive from Gold Creek to Main Street.
The Egan Drive Willoughby Avenue intersection near Centennial Hall needs a stoplight.
The road going through Evergreen Cemetery needs identification signs and maintenance.
Add bike lanes to 10th Street from Glacier Avenue to the Juneau/Douglas Bridge and
make both intersections safe and easy for bicyclists to cross with signs and more
maintenance.

Create separated path under Brotherhood Bridge connecting the Vintage Business Park
Trail to Scott Drive.

Create safe easy to use facilities connecting neighborhoods to schools.


Dedicate and develop mountain bike facilities.

III-12 Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan


Appendix IV

State and Local Bicycle Laws

Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan IV-1


Appendix IV: State and Local Bicycle Laws

Alaska State Statute


Title 5. Amusements and Sports

Chapter 35. Sports Facilities Grants and Sports Funds

(Although this section is cited in both 13 AAC 02.330 and 13 AAC 04.400(h) in regard
to bicycle races on roadways, it has nothing to do with either bicycle races or roadways.)

Title 11. Criminal Law

Chapter 46. Offenses Against Property

Sec. 11.46.260. Removal of Identification Marks

a. A person commits the crime of removal of identification marks if, with intent to
cause interruption to the ownership of another, the person defaces, erases, or
otherwise alters or attempts to deface, erase, or otherwise alter any serial number or
identification mark placed or inscribed on a propelled vehicle, bicycle, firearm,
movable or immovable construction tool or equipment, appliance, merchandise or
other article or its component parts.

b. Removal of identification marks is:

1. A class C felony if the value of the property on which the serial number or
identification mark appeared is $500 or more;

2. A class A misdemeanor if the value of the property on which the serial number or
identification mark appeared is $50 or more but less than $500;

3. A class B misdemeanor if the value of the property on which the serial number or
identification mark appeared is less than $50.

Sec. 11.46.270. Unlawful Possession

a. A person commits the crime of unlawful possession if the person possesses a


propelled vehicle, bicycle, firearm, movable or immovable construction tool or
equipment, appliance, merchandise or other article or its component parts knowing
that the serial number or identification mark placed on it by the manufacturer or
owner for the purpose of identification has been defaced, erased, or otherwise altered
with the intent of causing interruption to the ownership of another.

IV-2 Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan


b. Unlawful possession is:

1. A class C felony if the value of the property on which the serial number or
identification mark appeared is $500 or more;

2. A class A misdemeanor if the value of the property on which the serial number or
identification mark appeared is $50 or more but less than $500;

3. A class B misdemeanor if the value of the property on which the serial number or
identification mark appeared is less than $50.

Title 28. Motor Vehicles

Chapter 15. Drivers' Licenses

Sec. 28.15.231. Assessment of Points, Driver Improvement Interview

b. Points may not be assessed for violating a provision of a state law or regulation or a
municipal ordinance regulating standing, parking, equipment, size, or weight; nor
may points be assessed for violations by pedestrians, passengers or bicycle riders, or
for violations of provisions relating to the preservation of the condition of
traffic-control devices on the highways.

Chapter 40.

AS28.40.100 Definitions for Title

6. Highway means the entire width between property lines of every way or place, of
whatever nature when a part or all is open to the public as a matter of right for
purpose of vehicular traffic. The term includes, but is not limited to, a dedicated or
public subdivision street regardless of whether or not it is in the highway system
and a roadside rest area, as provided by AS 41.20.050 - 060.

17. Vehicle means a device in, upon, or by which a person or property may be
transported or drawn upon or immediately over a highway or vehicular way or area
except devices used exclusively upon stationary rails or tracks.

Sec. 41.21.864. Grants for the Establishment of Trails and Footpaths

Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan IV-3


Appendix IV: State and Local Bicycle Laws

Within the limits of available appropriations, a city or borough of any class is entitled to
state grants for the purpose of acquiring land or rights-of-way over land and establishing
and maintaining trails and footpaths on that land or those rights-of-way.

a. Within the limits of available appropriations, the Department of Transportation and


Public Facilities is entitled to state grants for the establishment and maintenance of
footpaths and trails along certain designated existing highways or when a highway,
road or street is being constructed, reconstructed or relocated after June 7, 1972.

b. Before a grant is awarded under this section, application shall be submitted to the
commissioner of natural resources, accompanied by a comprehensive plan for the
establishment of trails and paths. The plan may provide for ski trails, dog sled trails,
motorized vehicle trails, bicycle paths, bridle paths, footpaths and other trails and
paths and designate separate and incompatible uses of these trails and paths.

c. Upon approval of the plan, funds shall be utilized and disbursed to cities and
boroughs and to the Department of Transportation and Public Facilities according to
regulations adopted by the commissioner of natural resources.

d. Before the distribution of funds by the commissioner, consideration shall be given to


the extent of funding available under other federal, local and state aid programs.

e. Nothing in AS 41.21.864 - 41.21.872 prohibits a city or borough for which a grant is


authorized from entering into an agreement with the Department of Natural
Resources for the establishment and maintenance of trails and footpaths outside cities
and boroughs.

Sec. 41.21.866. Paths and Trails Along Highways

The commissioner of transportation and public facilities shall administer the plan and
program providing for the establishment and maintenance of footpaths, bridle paths,
bicycle paths, ski trails, dog sled trails, motorized vehicle trails and other paths and trails
along certain designated existing highways, or when a highway, road or street is being
constructed, reconstructed or relocated after June 7, 1972. Trails established under an
approved plan submitted by the Department of Transportation and Public Facilities may
be used for those types of uses written into the plan. A uniform system of marking the
paths and trails established under this section shall be established by the commissioner of
transportation and public facilities.
Alaska Administrative Code
Title 13. Public Safety

IV-4 Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan


Chapter 2. Motor Vehicle and Driving Offenses: Rules of the Road.

13 AAC 02.095. Use of Divided and Controlled-Access Highway Restrictions.

b. When the Department of Transportation and Public Facilities or a municipality, with


respect to a controlled-access highway under its jurisdiction, prohibits or limits the
use of the highway to certain types of vehicles or traffic, it must erect and maintain
signs on the highway notifying drivers of the limitations.

13 AAC 02.130. Stop Signs and Yield Signs

a. Repealed 6/28/79.

b. Except when directed to proceed by a police officer, fireman or authorized flagman,


a driver of a vehicle approaching a stop sign shall stop at a clearly marked stop line
or, if none, before entering the crosswalk on the near side of the intersection or, if
none, at the point nearest the intersecting roadway where the driver has a view of
approaching traffic on the intersecting roadway before entering it. After having
stopped, a driver shall yield the right-of-way to a vehicle in the intersection or
approaching on another roadway so closely as to constitute an immediate hazard.

c. The driver of a vehicle approaching a yield sign shall slow to a speed reasonable for
the existing conditions and, if required for safety, stop as required in (b) of this
section. After slowing or stopping, the driver shall yield the right-of-way as provided
in (b) of this section.

13 AAC 02.200. Required Position and Method of Turning

a. Left Turns.

1. The driver of a vehicle intending to turn left shall approach and make the turn
from the extreme left-hand lane lawfully available to traffic moving in the
direction of travel of the vehicle. Unless conditions prevail which necessitate
other action to assure safety, a vehicle turning to the left must proceed into the
extreme left-hand lane lawfully available to traffic moving in the same direction
as the vehicle on the roadway being entered.
2. Where a special turn for making left turns by drivers proceeding in opposite
directions has been indicated by official traffic control devices.

A. A left turn may not be made from any other lane.

Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan IV-5


Appendix IV: State and Local Bicycle Laws

B. A vehicle may not be driven in the lane except when preparing for or making
a left turn from or into a roadway or when preparing for or making a U-turn
when permitted by law.

13 AAC 02.330. Racing on Highways

Motor vehicles can't. But cites AS 05.35

13 AAC 02.385. Applicability of Regulations to Bicycles

a. Every person operating a bicycle upon a roadway has all the rights and is subject to
all of the duties applicable to the driver of any other vehicle as set out in this chapter,
in addition to special regulations in secs. 385-420 of this chapter, except as to those
provisions of this chapter which by their nature have no application.

b. No person may violate the provisions of secs. 385-420 of this chapter. The parent or
guardian of a child may not authorize or knowingly permit a child to violate a
provision of this chapter.

c. When signs are erected indicating that no right, left or U-turn is permitted, no person
operating a bicycle may disobey the direction of the sign unless first pulling to the
extreme right or shoulder of the road, dismounting and making the turn as a
pedestrian.

13 AAC 02.395. Riding on Bicycles and Certain Non-motorized Conveyances

a. Repealed 6/28/79.

b. No person operating a bicycle upon a highway may carry a person other than the
operator, unless the bicycle is equipped with a seat for the passenger, except that an
adult rider may carry a child securely attached to his person in a backpack or sling.

c. No person operating a bicycle or other non-motorized conveyance may attach, hold


on by hand or otherwise secure the bicycle or conveyance or himself to another
vehicle so as to be towed or pulled.
d. A person operating a bicycle upon a highway shall maintain control of the bicycle
and shall at all times keep at least one hand upon the handlebars of the bicycle.

e. No person may operate a unicycle, coaster, roller skates or a similar device on a


roadway.

IV-6 Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan


f. This section does not apply upon a roadway closed to motorized vehicle traffic.

13 AAC 02.400 Riding Bicycles on Roadways and Bicycle Paths

a. A person operating a bicycle upon a roadway shall ride as near to the right side of the
roadway as practicable and shall give way to the right as far as practicable to a motor
vehicle proceeding in the same direction when the driver of the motor vehicle gives
audible signal.

b. Persons riding bicycles on a roadway may not ride more than two abreast except on
paths or parts of roadways set aside for the exclusive use of bicycles. Persons riding
bicycles two abreast may not impede traffic and, in a laned roadway, shall ride
within the farthest right lane.

c. When a shoulder of the highway is maintained in good condition, an operator of a


bicycle shall use the shoulder of the roadway.

d. A person operating a bicycle on a trail, path, sidewalk or sidewalk area shall:

1. Exercise care to avoid colliding with other persons or vehicles;

2. Give an audible signal before overtaking and passing a pedestrian; and

3. Yield the right-of-way to any pedestrian.

e. Repealed 6/28/79 (Mandatory sidepath rule).

f. A person riding a bicycle intending to turn left shall, unless he dismounts and crosses
as a pedestrian, comply with the provisions of sec. 200 of this chapter. The operator
of a bicycle must give a signal by hand and arm continuously during the last 100 feet
traveled unless the hand is needed in the control or operation of the bicycle. When
stopped to await an opportunity to turn, a hand and arm signal must be given
continuously by the operator.

g. No person may ride a bicycle upon a sidewalk in a business district or where


prohibited by an official traffic-control device.

h. No bicycle race may be conducted upon a roadway, except as provided under AS


05.35.

Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan IV-7


Appendix IV: State and Local Bicycle Laws

13 AAC 02.420. Parking of Bicycles

a. No person may park a bicycle on a street or sidewalk in a manner which obstructs


pedestrian traffic or the parking and driving of motor vehicles.

b. No person may secure a bicycle to any of the following publicly owned facilities:

1. Fire hydrants;

2. Police and fire call boxes;

3. Electric traffic signal poles;

4. Stanchions or poles located within bus zones or stands;

5. Stanchions or poles located within 25 feet of an intersection; or

6. Trees under 10 inches in diameter.

c. A bicycle parked on a highway must comply with the provisions of this chapter
regulating the parking of vehicles.

13 AAC 02.482. Limited Use of Vehicular Ways and Areas

a. No pedestrian, rider of a bicycle or driver of a vehicle may travel on a vehicular


way or area as defined in 13 AAC 40.010 when it is designated for use by a
different mode of travel than that used by the pedestrian, rider of a bicycle or
driver of a vehicle.

b. A driver of a non-motorized vehicle traveling upon a vehicular way or area shall,


regardless of whether an official traffic-control device is present, yield the
right-of-way in the manner specified in sec. 130(c) of this chapter to any traffic
using a roadway, driveway or vehicular way or area on which motor vehicle
traffic is authorized.
13 AAC 02.560. Application of Traffic Regulations

The traffic regulations apply exclusively to the equipping, condition, movement or


operation of a vehicle, bicycle, motorcycle, motor-driven cycle, person or animal upon a
highway or a state-operated and maintained ferry facility, except where a limited
application or a different place is specifically referred to in a section.

IV-8 Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan


Chapter 4. Motor Vehicle and Driving Offenses: Vehicle Equipment

13 AAC 04.004. Sale or Use of Equipment

c. No person engaged in the business of selling bicycles at retail may sell a bicycle
unless the bicycle has an identifying number permanently stamped or cast on its
frame.

13 AAC 04.010. When Lights are Required

Every vehicle upon a highway or other vehicular way or area within the state must
illuminate lights required in this chapter between a half hour after sunset and a half hour
before sunrise and at any other time when, because of insufficient light or other
atmospheric conditions, persons or vehicles on the highway are not clearly discernible at
a distance of 1000 feet. Stop lights, turn signals and other signaling devices must be
illuminated as required by this chapter.

13 AAC 04.020. Headlights

a. Except as otherwise provided in this chapter, a motor vehicle must be equipped with
at least two headlights, one on each side of the front of the motor vehicle. The
headlights must emit white light to the front of the vehicle, comply with the
requirements and limitations set out in this section and be mounted at a height of not
more than 54 inches or less than 24 inches.

d. Repealed 6/28/79.

f. Headlight systems which provide a single distribution of light are permitted on all
implements of husbandry, motor-driven cycles, bicycles and off-highway vehicles
regardless of date of manufacture, if the systems are, as far as practicable, mounted
and aimed as required in (a) of this section and are of sufficient intensity to reveal a
person or a vehicle at a distance of 200 feet in advance of the vehicle, except as
otherwise provided for motor-driven cycles or bicycles in sec. 320(a) and (d) of this
chapter.

g. A motor vehicle may be driven under the conditions specified in sec. 10 of this
chapter when equipped with two illuminated lights upon the front of the vehicle
capable of revealing persons and vehicles 100 feet ahead; provided, however, that a
vehicle using the lights may not be driven at a speed in excess of that specified in 13
AAC 02.325(c).

Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan IV-9


Appendix IV: State and Local Bicycle Laws

13 AAC 04.02513 AAC 04.025. Taillights

a. Except as otherwise provided in this chapter, a vehicle must be equipped with at least
two taillights mounted at the same level, as widely spaced laterally as practicable,
and as low as practicable, but not less than 20 inches above the roadway on the rear,
so that when lighted emit a red light plainly visible from a distance of 1000 feet to
the rear. Passenger cars manufactured or assembled before January 1, 1958, must
have at least one taillight.

b. Repealed 6/28/79.

c. Either a taillight or a separate light must illuminate, with a white light, the rear
registration plate, so that it is clearly visible from a distance of 50 feet to the rear.
The light must be wired so as to be illuminated when the headlights or auxiliary
driving lights are illuminated.

13 AAC 04.030. Reflectors

a. Except as otherwise provided in this chapter, a vehicle must have on the rear, either
as a part of the taillights or separately, two or more red reflectors mounted at a height
not less than 20 inches, except that if the highest part of the permanent structure of
the vehicle is less than 24 inches, the reflector must be mounted as high as that part
of the permanent structure will permit. The reflectors must be as widely spaced
laterally as practicable and be visible at night from all distances within 600 feet of
the vehicle.

b. Repealed 6/28/79.

13 AAC 04.210. Horns and Warning Devices

a. A motor vehicle operated upon a highway or other vehicular way or area, except for
snowmobiles, must be equipped with a horn in good working order and capable of
emitting sound audible under normal conditions from a distance of at least 200 feet,
but no horn or other warning device may emit an unreasonably loud or harsh sound
or a whistle. The driver of a motor vehicle shall, when reasonably necessary to
insure safe operation, give audible warning with his horn, but may not otherwise use
the horn when upon a highway or other vehicular way or area.

IV-10 Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan


b. No vehicle may be equipped with, nor may a person use, a siren, whistle or bell,
except as otherwise permitted in this section.

c. A vehicle may be equipped with a theft alarm signal device, which is installed so that
it cannot be used by the driver as an ordinary warning signal. A theft alarm signal
device may use a whistle, bell, horn or other audible signal, but may not use a siren.

d. Every authorized emergency vehicle must be equipped with a siren, whistle or bell
capable of emitting sound audible under normal conditions from a distance of at least
500 feet; the siren may be used only when the emergency vehicle is operated in
response to an emergency call or is in the immediate pursuit of a suspected violator
of the law. The driver of the emergency vehicle shall sound the siren when
reasonably necessary to warn pedestrians and other drivers of its approach.

13 AAC 04.220. Mirrors

a. A motor vehicle must be equipped with a mirror mounted on the left side of the
vehicle; every motor vehicle except a motor-driven cycle, bicycle or off-highway
vehicle, must be equipped with a mirror mounted either inside the vehicle
approximately in the center or outside the vehicle on the right side.

c. All mirrors required by this section must be maintained in good condition and
located to reflect to the driver a view to the rear of the vehicle.

13 AAC 04.230. Tires

a. No person may drive or move on a highway a motor vehicle or trailer having a metal
tire in contact with the roadway.

b. No tire on a vehicle moved on a highway may have on its periphery a protuberance


of a material other than rubber which projects beyond the tread of the traction surface
of the tire, except that it is permissible to use:

1. Implements of husbandry with tires having protuberances which will not injure
the highway;

2. Tire chains when required for safety because of snow, ice or other conditions
which may cause a vehicle to skid; or

Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan IV-11


Appendix IV: State and Local Bicycle Laws

3. Pneumatic tires having studs designed to improve traction without substantially


injuring the surface of the highway; however, their use may be limited to certain
months or types of vehicles or both.

e. No person may drive a vehicle with a tire in unsafe operating condition or with a
tread depth of less than two thirty-seconds (/f2//i3/i2) of an inch measured in two
adjacent tread grooves at three equally spaced intervals around the circumference of
the tire. No tread measurements may be made at the location of a tread wear
indicator, tie bar, hump or fillet.

f. No person in the business of selling, repairing or installing tires may sell, offer for
sale, or install for highway use a tire which is in unsafe condition or which has a
tread depth of less than two thirty-seconds (/f2//i3/i2) of an inch measured as
specified in (e) of this section.

13 AAC 04.257. Emission-Control Systems

When a motor vehicle is equipped with an emission-control system or when a motor


vehicle is required by a statute or regulation to have an emission-control system, the
system must be maintained in good working order.

13 AAC 04.320. Headlights

c. A bicycle, when ridden at the times when lights are required under 13 AAC 04.010,
must be equipped with at least one light on the front of the bicycle, emitting white
light visible from a distance of at least 500 feet in front of the bicycle under normal
atmospheric conditions.

13 AAC 04.0325. Taillights

a. A bicycle must be equipped with a taillight which displays a red light visible 500 feet
to the rear of the bicycle.

13 AAC 04.335. Reflectors

b. Every bicycle, when ridden at the time when lights are required under 13 AAC
04.010, must be equipped with a red reflector on the rear of the bicycle and reflective
material visible from the sides of the bicycle meeting the visibility requirements of

IV-12 Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan


13 AAC 04.030(a). Nothing in this subsection prohibits the use of additional
reflectors or reflective materials upon a bicycle.

13 AAC 04.340. Brakes

b. Every bicycle must be equipped with a brake system, maintained in good working
condition, which will enable its driver to stop the bicycle within 25 feet from a speed
of 10 miles per hour on dry, level, clean pavement.

13 AAC 04.355. Other Equipment

a. Every motor-driven cycle and bicycle must be equipped as required by the applicable
provisions of secs. 210, 220, 230, and 257 of this chapter.

13 AAC 40.010. Definitions

In chapters 02, 04, 06, and 08 of this title, and in AS 28, unless otherwise provided:

1. Alley means a street or highway intended to provide access to the rear or side of
lots or buildings in urban districts and not intended for use by through vehicular
traffic;

5. Bicycle means a vehicle propelled exclusively by human power upon which a


person may ride, having two tandem wheels or three wheels in contact with the
ground, except scooters and similar devices;

6. Bus means every motor vehicle designed for carrying more than 10 passengers
and used primarily for the transportation of passengers and every motor vehicle
designed and used for the transportation of persons for compensation, except a
taxicab or school bus;
7. Business district means the territory contiguous to and including a highway,
other than a controlled-access highway, when within any 600 feet along the
highway there are buildings in use for business or industrial purposes, including,
but not limited to, hotels, banks, office buildings, railroad stations or public
buildings other than schools which occupy at least 300 feet of frontage on one
side or 300 feet collectively on both sides of the highway; however, if the
highway is physically divided into two or more roadways, only those buildings
facing each roadway separately may be regarded;

Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan IV-13


Appendix IV: State and Local Bicycle Laws

9. Controlled-access highway means every highway, street or roadway where


access to or from the highway is determined by the public authority having
jurisdiction over the highway, street or roadway;

14. Divided highway means a highway divided into two or more roadways by
leaving an intervening space or by a physical barrier or by a clearly indicated
dividing section;

21. Intersection means the area within the prolongation or connection of the lateral
curblines or, if none, the lateral boundary lines of the roadways of two highways
which join one another approximately at right angles or the area within which
vehicles traveling upon different highways joining at any other angle meet;
where a highway includes two roadways 30 feet or more apart, every crossing of
each roadway by an intersecting highway is a separate intersection; if
intersecting highways include two roadways 30 feet or more apart, every
crossing of the roadways of the highways is a separate intersection; the junction
of an alley with a street or highway is not an intersection;

22. Laned roadway means a roadway which is divided into two or more clearly
marked lanes for vehicular traffic;

31. Park or parking mean the standing of a vehicle, whether occupied or not; it
does not include the stopping temporarily for the purpose of and while actually
engaged in loading or unloading property or passengers;

33. Pedestrian means any person afoot; it includes a person on skis or snowshoes;

43. Right-of-way means the right of one vehicle or pedestrian to proceed in


preference to another vehicle or pedestrian approaching under circumstances of
direction, speed and proximity which give rise to danger of collision unless one
grants precedence to the other;
48. Sidewalk means that portion of a street between the curblines or the lateral
lines of a roadway and the adjacent property lines and intended for use by
pedestrians;

54. Stop or stopping means a complete cessation from movement or the halting,
even momentarily, of a vehicle, whether occupied or not, except when necessary
to avoid conflict with other traffic or in compliance with the directions of a
police officer or traffic-control sign or signal;

55. Street means a highway as defined in AS 28;

IV-14 Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan


56. Urban district means the territory contiguous to and including a street with
structures devoted to business, industry or dwelling houses situated at intervals
of less than 100 feet for a distance of at least a quarter of a mile;

Juneau Code

72.02.380. Bicycles - Parental Responsibility

A parent of a child or the guardian of a ward may not authorize or knowingly permit his
child or ward to violate a provision of Sections 72.02.380 through 72.02.410 of this chapter.

72.02.385. Bicycles - Application of Provisions

The regulations in Sections 72.02.380 through 72.02.410 of this chapter apply to a bicycle
operated upon a highway, trail or path subject to the the exceptions in these regulations.

72.02.390. Bicycles - Traffic Laws and Regulations Apply to Person Riding

A person operating a bicycle upon a highway shall be granted all of the rights and is subject
to all of the duties applicable to the driver of a vehicle by traffic regulations, statute or
ordinance, except as to those provisions of traffic regulations, statutes or ordinances, which
by their nature have no application.

72.02.395. Bicycles - Riding On

a. A person operating a bicycle on or along a highway shall ride only upon or astride a
permanent and regular seat attached to the bicycle.
b. A bicycle, when ridden upon or along a highway may not be used to carry persons other
than the operator, unless it is equipped with a seat for other riders.

72.02.400. Bicycles - Riding on Roadway, Trail and Path

a. A person operating a bicycle upon a highway shall ride as near to the right side of the
roadway as practicable, exercising due care when passing a standing vehicle or one
proceeding in the same direction.

b. Persons riding bicycles may not ride more than two abreast except when the highway,
trail or path is set aside for the exclusive use of bicycles. Where a usable path for a

Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan IV-15


Appendix IV: State and Local Bicycle Laws

bicycle is provided adjacent to a roadway or when shoulders of the highway are


adequate, a bicycle rider shall use the path or shoulder and may not use the roadway.

d. A person operating a bicycle on a trail, path or sidewalk which is also used by other
vehicles or pedestrians shall exercise due care to avoid colliding with a person or other
vehicle which may be using the trail, path or sidewalk.

e. A person operating a bicycle on a highway shall give way to the right as far as is
practicable to a motor vehicle proceeding in the same direction when the driver of a
motor vehicle gives audible signal.

72.02.405. Bicycles - Carrying Article

A person operating a bicycle on or along a highway may not carry an article which prevents
him from keeping at least one hand upon the handle bars.

72.02.410. Bicycles - Lamps and Other Equipment

a. A bicycle, when operated on a highway during the hours of darkness, shall be equipped
with a lamp on the front which shall emit a white light and shall be visible from a
distance of at least five hundred feet to the front and with a red reflector on the rear
which shall be visible from all distances between six hundred and one hundred feet to the
rear when directly in front of the lawful upper beam of a headlamp on a motor vehicle.
A lamp emitting a red light visible from a distance of five hundred feet to the rear may be
used in addition to the red reflector.

b. A bicycle shall be equipped with a brake which enables the operator to make the braked
wheel skid on dry, level, clean pavement.

72.10.090. Driving on Sidewalks

a. The driver of any vehicle except a bicycle shall not drive within any sidewalk area
except at a permanent or temporary driveway.

b. No person shall ride a bicycle upon a sidewalk within the central business traffic district
or any business district.

c. Whenever any person is riding a bicycle upon a sidewalk, such person shall yield the
right-of-way to any pedestrian and shall give audible signal before overtaking and
passing such pedestrian.

IV-16 Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan


72.10.140. Use of Skateboards, Roller Skates, Roller Blades and Similar Devices
Restricted.

a. No person operating a skateboard, roller skates, roller blades, unicycle, coaster, or


similar device, shall go upon any roadway or street except while crossing a roadway
or street one a crosswalk. When so crossing the roadway or street, the person must
dismount from the device and must obey all duties applicable to pedestrians.

b. No person may operate a skateboard, roller skates, in-line skates, unicycle, coaster, or
similar device;

1. in the Marine Park Parking Garage, or

2. on private property which has been posted with a clearly visible sign
prohibiting such operation, or on a sidewalk, roadway or street if such private
property or public way is within certain portions of the Juneau Central
Business District, . The portion of the Juneau Central Business District in
which such devices are prohibited is shown on the attached Exhibit A and
described as follows: Franklin Street from the Marine Park Parking Garage to
Fourth Street, Seward Street from Marine Way to Fourth Street, Marine Way
from the Marine Park Parking Garage to Main Street, the following streets
between Franklin Street and Main Street: Front Street, Second Street, Third
Street, and Fourth Street, all of Shattuck Way, Municipal Way and Ferry Way.

c. This section does not apply to roadways or streets while being used for a parade or
other officially organized activity permitted under this title.

72.12.065. Bicycle Parking

No person shall park a bicycle upon a street or highway other than upon the roadway against
the curb or upon the sidewalk in a rack to support the bicycle or against a building or at a
curb, in such manner as to afford the least obstruction to pedestrian traffic, nor shall any
bicycle be parked on the street within a parking meter zone.

72.28.0010. Definitions

Bicycle means a device propelled solely by human power upon which a person may ride,
having not less than two nor more than three wheels in contact with the ground.

Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan IV-17


Appendix IV: State and Local Bicycle Laws

Highway means the entire width between property lines of every way or place, of whatever
nature when a part or all is open to the public as a matter of right for purpose of vehicular
traffic. The term includes, but is not limited to, a dedicated or public subdivision street
regardless of whether or not it is in the highway system and a roadside rest area, as provided
by AS 41.20.050 - 060.

Roadway means the main traveled portion of a highway, city street, alley or ferry facility
improved, designed or ordinarily used for vehicular travel, exclusive of the berm or
shoulder. In the event a highway or city street includes two or more separate roadways,
the term "roadway" refers to each roadway separately but not to all such roadways
collectively.

IV-18 Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan


Appendix V

Facility Evaluation Criteria

Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan V-1


Appendix V: Facility Evaluation Criteria

Non-Motorized Transportation Facility Evaluation Criteria

5 3 0 -3 -5
Health and Quality of Life (Air and water quality,
neighborhood continuity, access to basic necessities) This
project provides a significant contribution to improved
health or quality of life through reduction or removal or
existing negative factors. Weighting: 1
5 3 0 -3 -5
Safety: Addresses demonstrated safety problem of
significance. Weighting: 4
5 3 0 -3 -5
Improves intermodal transportation or lessens redundant
facilities. Weighting: 2
5 3 0 -3 -5
Local, other agency or user contributions available to fund
construction costs. Weighting: 2
5 3 0 -3 -5
Local, other agency or user contributions available to fund
operations and maintenance costs. Weighting: 3
5 3 0 -3 -5
Public support and demand for the project. Weighting: 3
5 3 0 -3 -5
Environmental considerations: wetlands, wildlife habitat,
etc. Weighting: 1
5 3 0 -3 -5
Connections: Project bridges gap or removes barrier
between exiting trail systems or neighborhoods, schools,
shopping, work and recreation areas or provides interpretive
center continuity. Weighting: 3
5 3 0 -3 -5
Project is tied to a recreation, educational or tourism event.
This project would strongly support/sustain this event.
Weighting: 2
5 3 0 -3 -5
Any of the six intrinsic qualities: scenic, historic, cultural,
natural, archaeological, recreational. (One point for each)
Weighting: 3
SCORING

V-2 Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan


Anticipated annual visitor volume. Weighting: 2 SCORING

5 3 0 -3 -5
Significant innovation, creativity or unique benefits not >2000 <200
otherwise rated. Weighting: 2
5 3 0 -3 -5
Feasibility: land ownership, finances, physical barriers.
Weighting: 3
5 3 0 -3 -5

Juneau Non-Motorized Transportation Plan V-3

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