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Explosive metal forming Dr.

Hani Aziz Ameen



Techni cal Col l ege Baghdad Ir aq- Di es and Tool s Eng. Dept .


((Explosive metal
Forming))


Dr. Hani Aziz Ameen

Asst . Pr of . i n M echani cal Engi neer i ng
Techni cal Col l ege - Baghdad
Di es and Tool s Engi neer i ng Depar t ment
E-mai l : hani azi zameen@yahoo.com





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Explosive metal forming Dr. Hani Aziz Ameen

Techni cal Col l ege Baghdad Ir aq- Di es and Tool s Eng. Dept .


Int r oduct i on:
is a met al forming t echni que t hat uses t he energy generat ed by an
expl osive det onat i on t o f orm t he met al work piece. This process can
deli ver a great deal of f lexibi lit y in t he met al-forming process.
Since explosive f orming t ransmit s t he explosively- generat ed energy
t hrough wat er, it can simul at e a vari et y of ot her convent i onal met al
f orming t echniques.
has been an accept ed met al -forming t echnique f or almost 50 years. I t
has been used in a wide variet y of appli cat ions in t he aut omot i ve,
aerospace, and marit i me indust ries. PA&E has ext ensive experience
usi ng t his t echnique t o f orm a wide variet y of met als. Typical formi ng
proj ect s yield very close t olerances and very high degrees of
repeat abilit y.
I t can of fer significant cost savings on short -run part s because it of t en
only requires a one-sided t ooling die. I n t he explosive hydro- f orming
process, t he wat er slug applies f orce evenly over t he surface of t he work
piece, as it f orms int o t he cavit y of t he forming die.
Propert ies of mat erial s at high rat es of def orming are most ly always
dif f erent of respect ive propert ies at st at i c loading. This causes much
inf luence on a great number of pract i cal advant ages.
The use of dynami c ef f ect s and increase of mat eri als pl ast icit y are
possibl e in t he cert ain i nt erval of def ormat ion velocit ies, which
det ermine t echnological process paramet ers for each kind of t he
prot ot ypes manuf act uring. To choose opt imal paramet ers of def ormat ion
t he relat ionshi p of mat erial def ormabil it y and it s propert ies should be
expressed wit h a physically subst ant iat ed regulari t y, t hat will enable t o
consider di fferent pract ical cases.

Benefits of Explosive Forming
Explosive-forming has many benef it s. I t employs lower t ooling cost s and
uses st amping t ype applicat ions whi ch only require a one-sided t ooli ng
die. Explosive energy can be t ransmit t ed dif ferent ly across t he part , in
order t o concent rat e force ont o specif ic f orming f eat ures. I t has a large
si ze capabil it y and is suit ed t o dif ficult configurat ions.
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Explosive metal forming Dr. Hani Aziz Ameen

Explosively- formed part s can range up t o 6 f eet and have very f ew
limit at ions. Explosive- f orming can simulat e many aspect s of all ot her
convent ional f orming met hods, wit hout t heir respect ive limit at ions.
improved qualit y of part s ( by hi gh-st rengt h mat erial s) , perf ect ing t he
inst allat ion t hrough adapt ing act ive media t o diff erent shapes of part ,
simply adapt i ng t o product ion process, reduct ion of product ion st ages,
f lexibilit y of t he process due t o quick and simple t ransformat ion of t he
t ool element s, l ow product ion cost s.
By Explosive forming as against t radit ional pract ice only one of t wo t ool s
is required eit her a die or a punch. By t hi s means labour consuming and
expensive mut ual mat ching of t oolings is excluded.

The simplified scheme of t he process is pi ct ured i n Fi g. 1. The energy
releasing upon explosion of hi gh explosi ve subst ance act s direct ly or
t hrough a conduct ive medium ( wat er) on a sheet billet and deform it t o
f it t he die prof il e. The waves generat ed at dynamic f orming cont ribut e t o
oscill at ory pressure change i n a basin t hat produce benef icial eff ect on
def ormat i on process.


Fig. 1




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(Fig. 2) Explosive f orming set up
Set up
The syst em used for st andoff dist ance operat ion consist of : -
An explosive charge.
An energy t ransmit t ed medium ( wat er, air, oil) .
A die assembly.
The workpiece.
Fi gure 2 shows an arrangement of st andof f dist ance explosive
f orming operat ion. The die assembly is put t oget her on t he bot t om
of t he t ank. Workpi ece is placed on t he die and blankholder placed
above. A vacuum is t hen creat ed in t he die cavi t y. The explosi ve
charge pl aced in posit ion over t he cent er of t he workpi ece. The
explosi ve charge is suspended over t he bl ank at a predet ermi ned
dist ance. The complet e assembly is i mmersed in a t ank of wat er.
Af t er t he det onat ion of explosive , a pressure pul se of high
int ensit y is produced. A gas bubble is also produced which expands
spherically and t hen col lapse unt il it vent s at t he surf ace of t he
wat er. When t he pressure pulse i mpinges against t he workpiece,
t he met al is displaced int o t he die cavit y.





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Explosive metal forming Dr. Hani Aziz Ameen

Techni cal Col l ege Baghdad Ir aq- Di es and Tool s Eng. Dept .


Ex pl osi v es

Explosives are subst ances t hat undergo rapid under chemical
react ion during whi ch heat and large quant it ies of gaseous
product s are creat ed. Explosive can be solid (T.N.T-
t ri nit rot oluene) , liqui d (Nit roglycerine) or gaseous ( Oxygen and
acet ylene mixt ures) .
Explosive are di vided int o t wo classes; Low explosive in which t he
ammuni t ion burns rapidl y rat her t han expl oding, hence pressure
build up is not large, and Hi gh explosive which have high rat e of
react ion wit h a large pressure build up. Low explosives are
general ly used as propellant s in guns and rocket s for t he propelli ng
of missile.

Di e mat er i al s

Dif f erent mat erial s are used f or t he manuf act ure of t he dies for
expl osive working, f or inst ance high st rengt h t ool st eels , plast ics,
concret e. Relat ively low st rengt h dies are used f or short run it ems
and f or part s where close t olerance are not crit ical , while for longer
runs higher st rengt h die mat erials are requi red. Kriksit e and plast ic
f aced dies are empl oyed for light forming operat ion, cast st eel s,
and duct ile iron for medium requirement s, f iberglass and kiksit e
f or low pressure and f ew part s, f iberglass and concret e for low
pressure and large part s and epoxy wit h concret e for low pressure
and large part s.

Tr ansmi ssi on medi um

Energy released by t he explosive i s t ransmit t ed t hrough medium
like wat er, air, oil, gelat in and liquid salt s. Wat er i s one of t he best
media for explosive forming since it i s available readi ly,
inexpensi ve and product s excellent result s. The t ransmissi on
medium is import ant regarding pressure magnit ude at t he
workpiece. Wat er is more desi rable medium t han ai r for produci ng
high peak pressures t o t he workpiece.

For mabi l i t y aspect s

Formabi lit y has been def ined as t he abi lit y of a sheet met al t o be
def ormed by a speci fic sheet met al forming process f rom it s
original shape t o a def ined shape wit hout f ailure. I n normal
expl osive formi ng operat ions, t he maj or charact erist ics of t he
workpiece met al t hat det ermi ne formabilit y are duct ilit y and
t oughness. I t is general pract ice not t o exceed t he elongat ion, as
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Explosive metal forming Dr. Hani Aziz Ameen

Techni cal Col l ege Baghdad Ir aq- Di es and Tool s Eng. Dept .


det ermined by t ension t est ing, in f orming a part f rom t he same
met al t hat .


The ex pl osi v e f or mi ng of domes

The explosive f orming of met al bl anks is accompanied by l arge
plast ic deformat ion at high rat e of st rain, under bi- axi al or t ri- axi al
st at es of st ress.

A. St rain energy of deformat ion
I n order t o reach at a rat ional met hod f or predict ing t he
amount of explosive charge it i s necessary t o comput e t he
st rain energy of plast ic energy of plast ic def ormat ion of t he
met al part of workpiece: -

U =

( 1 )
Where U is st rain energy

(



)

+ (



)

+ (

.( 2)

(



)

+ (



)

+ (



)

. ( 3)

For most st rain hardening mat erials: -

= K

. ( 4)

K is const ant and n is t he st rain hardening exponent

For st rain hardeni ng mat erial

U =

( 5)


Ef f ect of ex pl osi v e st andof f di st an ce on st r ai n di st r i b ut i on
i n t he ex pl osi v e f or mi ng of f l at ci r cu l ar bl ank s

Using cent rally l ocat ed charge as shown in t he f ig. 3 t o explosivel y
f orm of a fl at circular blank, t he dist ri but ion of st rain across a
diamet er of t he blank will vary wit h t he rat io of st andof f dist ance,
( L) t o t he diamet er of t he die opening, ( D) .
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Explosive metal forming Dr. Hani Aziz Ameen


Fig. 3
Est i mat i ng of t ot al st r ai n ener gy an d t h e w ei g ht ch ar ge r eq ui r ed
f or an ex pl osi v el y f or med dome i n si ngl e sh ot .



a- Comput ing t he value of D
o
and B
o


Do= D + r e (6)

Bo= 4w

+ B

. . (7)

R
w
W
1
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Explosive metal forming Dr. Hani Aziz Ameen

Techni cal Col l ege Baghdad Ir aq- Di es and Tool s Eng. Dept .

1 1 4(

(8)

b- Calculat ing of max. permissible dept h of draw

w

( 2n + 1) ( 4n + 13) . ( 9)

A- I f w

t hi s means we are needi ng only one shot .


B- I f w

< t his means we are needing mult iple shot ( more


t han one shot ) .

c- I f A condit ion is sat isf ied t hen ef f ect i ve draw dept h( w

) should be
calculat ed as follows: -

U

=

( Bo D

) .. ( 10)

w

= w | U

| + 0.57 r

. . ( 11)

U

4
D
2
h
o
K
n+1
jln j1 + 4(
w

D
) [ [
n+1
. . (12)

U
F
= [
3
3

n+1
K
n( n+1)
h
o
j[
Bo-B
2
Bo[
n+1
_[
D
o
2

-2n
[
Bo
2

-2n
_.( 13)

d- Est imat ing of t he charge weight using t he geomet rical met hod: -

W=
2 U
T

1
( 1-cos) c
.( 14)
e = specific ene r gy of t he char ge

1

1
= 4.23 3.7 [
L

for
L

0.5 .. ( 15)

1

1
= 4.02 3.7 [
L

for
L

1 . ( 16)

cos = [t an
-1
D
2L
. . ( 17)

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Explosive metal forming Dr. Hani Aziz Ameen

Techni cal Col l ege Baghdad Ir aq- Di es and Tool s Eng. Dept .


= t an
-1
D
2L
.( 18)
e- I f B condit ion is sat isf ied one must comput e t he dept h of t he draw
of t he f irst shot and t he required weight exact ly as in t he st ep c
and d t hen must comput e t he dept h of t he dome and weight of t he
charge for second shot as f ollows: -

Mul t i ple shot explosive formi ng

I f h
1
is a mat erial t hi ckness af t er f irst shot and
h
2
is a mat erial t hickness af t er second shot t hen: -








h
1
h
2
=
R
2
w
2
R
1
w
1
. . ( 19)
h
1
h
2
=
1+
4v
1
2
D
2
1+
4v
2
2
D
2
( 20)
t he t hickness st rain
t
i s t hen given by: -

t
= ln
h
1
h
2
= ln
1 +
4w
1
2
D
2
1 +
4w
2
2
D
2
. (21)

cII
= t

w
2
w
1

2

char ge
Fi g.5 M ul t i pl e shot f or mi ng seq uen ce
h
1
h
2
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Explosive metal forming Dr. Hani Aziz Ameen

Techni cal Col l ege Baghdad Ir aq- Di es and Tool s Eng. Dept .



cII
= ln
1+
4v
1
2
D
2
1+
4v
2
2
D
2
.( 22)
Usi ng Hill formula ( e

=
1
2
( 2n + 1) ) for max. per missibl e bi- axial
st rain energy and equat ing it t o t he max. ef fect ive st rain at
t he end of t he second shot we get : -
1+
4v
1
2
D
2
1+
4v
2
2
D
2
= cxp j
4
11
( 2n + 1) [ ( 23)
Solving f or
w
2
D
we have
w
2
D
=
1
2
_
[1 +
4w
1
2
D
2
exp j
4
11
( 2n + 1) [ 1 ( 24)
Aft e r obt aining w2 , now we can calculat e s t r ain ener gy per unit volume
for t he second shot:-
U
2
=
K
n+ 1
_ln (
1 +
4w
2
2
D
2
1 +
4w
1
2
D
2
_
n + 1
.( 25)
t he t ot al st rai n energy of t he deformat ion can be calcul at ed by: -
( U
T
)
2
=

4
D
2
h
o
K
n+1
_ln (
1+
4v
2
2
D
2
1+
4v
1
2
D
2
_
n+1
( 26)
The expl osi ve energy ( E
T
)
2
deli vered t o t he bl ank by t he second
shot may be est imat ed as foll ows: -
( E
T
)
2
=
1
2

2
( 1 cos
2
) W
2
e . ( 27)
Where
2
is defi ned i n fi gure 5, w
2
is t he weight of second charge
and e is t he speci fic energy of t he expl osi ve i. e. energy per uni t
wei ght of t he charge.
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Explosive metal forming Dr. Hani Aziz Ameen

Techni cal Col l ege Baghdad Ir aq- Di es and Tool s Eng. Dept .


Case study of domed shape forming

Estimate the required (TNT) charge weight (W) to produce flanged dome
shape made of Aluminium alloy 2014-0 with the following dimensions:-
B =3.3m , D = 3m, w = 1m, h
o
= 0.02m and r
e
=0.01m.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Solution
From tables:
K = 320.4Mpa, n = 0.244,
1

1
= 4.23 3.7 [
L

= 3.6 and
e = 0.393 10
6
m.N/Kg and chose
L

=
1
6
= 0.167.

1- Do= D + 2 x r e = 3.02 m.

2- Bo= 4w
2
+ B
2

= 3.86 m, is a blank diameter.

3- To calculat e max. pe r mis sible dept h:

w
1
=
D
11
( 2n + 1) ( 4n + 13) =1.072 m.

w
1
> w so we need just a single shot to achieve the process.

4. w

= w j
B
o
2D
o
( B
o
B) [ + 0.57 r
c
= 0.64 m.(but we apply w = 1m).

5. To calculate the energy required to form the dome:

U
D
=

4
D
2
h
o
K
n+1
jln j1 + 4(
w
D
) [ [
n+1
= 10.5 10
6
N.m.

6. To calculate the energy required to form the flange:

U
F
= [
3
3

n+1
K
n( n+1)
h
o
j[
Bo-B
2
Bo[
n+1
_[
D
o
2

-2n
[
Bo
2

-2n
_
= 0.98 10
6
N.m

The total energy required to form the dome:

E
T
= U
T
= U
D
+ U
F
= 11.48 10
6
N. m.


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Explosive metal forming Dr. Hani Aziz Ameen

Techni cal Col l ege Baghdad Ir aq- Di es and Tool s Eng. Dept .


So the explosive charge (W) can be calculated :

W =
2L
T

1
( 1cos
1
) e



1
= tan
-1
[
D
2L


Since
L
D
= 1.67

L= 0.5 m

So W required is 17 kg.


Conclusions and disruptions
In explosive metal forming chemical energy from the explosive is used to
generate shock waves through a medium which are direct to the workpiece at
very high velocities. This process was mostly used to form large and bulky
components typically for military and aerospace components and now can be
used for small parts with complex shapes and low capital investment also the
ability to vary energy levels over wide ranges provides greater capabilities
than conventional forming methods. The process can be achieved by the
simplest requirements such as one side die, the workpiece and an explosive
charge.
Beside all advantage with some limitations and although it is not new process
but one feel that the information about explosive forming is still not enough,
may be due to the difficulty of understanding what happens exactly during the
process so someone trying to simulate the method, another reason is dealing
with explosive so the informations are not available and forbidden.
To provide a fully picture about explosive forming there must be additional
information available.








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Exampl es t hat have been pr oduced by expl osi ve f or mi ng
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References

1. Herold, K.P.; Vovk, V.; Taran, V.; Vovk, A: Explosive forming of high-
strength sheet material. 10-th International conference Sheet Metal, Ulster, E;
April, 2003.
2. Hydroforming - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
3. Taran, V.*; Vovk, V.* ; Sabelkin, V.**; Vovk, A.* . * Otto-von-Guericke-
University Magdeburg, Magdeburg, Germany** IMP, Mexico(Explosive
Forming of Metal Blanks).
4. Principals and practice of explosive metal working by A.A. EZRA.


The Aut hor


Dr . Hani Azi z Am een , Bi r t h dat e 1971 i n Baghdad- Ir aq, has Ph.D. i n
M echan i cal Engi neer i ng Appl i ed M ech ani cs f r om t he Un i ver si t y of
Techno l ogy Ir aq i n 1998. He has mor e t han 50 publ i shed paper s and he i s an
exper t i n t h e ANSYS sof t war e and f i ni t e el emen t anal ysi s.
Wor ki n g i n sever al uni ver si t i es and col l eges (Technol ogy Un i ver si t y-
Al Nahr een Uni ver si t y- Ti kr i t Uni ver si t y Techni cal Col l ege Al M u sai b).
And now h e i s Asst . Pr of essor i n t he Techni cal Co l l ege Baghdad / Di es and
Too l s Engi neer i ng Depar t men t .
E-mai l : hani azi zameen@yahoo.com
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