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LAWOFCAESARONMUNICIPALITIES (8043BC) Before his death Julius Caesar was engaged in composing regulations for the distributionofgraintothepoorandothermattersforthewelfareofRomeandof Italy.

. These were in rough draft when Caesar was murdered. Apparently Mark AntonyfoundthesedraftsamongCaesarspapersand,includingallthoserelatingto Rome and Italy in a lex satura (mixed law, i.e., an omnibus act on heterogeneous subjects),hadthemratifiedunderasinglelaw,withoutrevision,aspartofCaesar's acts.SeeA.vonPremerstein,ZSS,43,1922,p.45. Sincethebeginningandtheendarelost,thereisnowaytodeterminetheextent andthescopeofCaesar'slegislation.Thefirstsixsectionsdealwiththegraindole Evidentlyacompletecensusofthecitizenswastaken,butallthatcanbeinferred fromthesurvivingsectionsisthatcitizenswithacertainamountofpropertywere disqualified.TheburdenofrepairandmaintenanceofthepublicstreetsofRome was placed on the property owners under supervision of the aediles (713). Vehicular traffic during the day, from sunrise to late afternoon, was limited to outgoingcartsortothosewithspeciallicense,withafewminorexceptions(1416). The use of stoas, arcades, and public areas by private individuals was regulated (1719). After a passage on two minor points (2021), the qualifications of magistrates and senators in Italian communities were prescribed (2227). MembershipinthelocalSenatewaslimited,andnewmemberscouldbeadmitted onlytoreplacethosewhohaddiedorhadbeendisqualified(22).Disqualification usually followed condemnation for any reason that caused infamy (25). Provision wasmadeforacompletecensusofRomancitizensinItaly(2829).Thelastsection (30) on the tablet indicates that someone had been delegated to draft a special charterforFundi.ItispossiblethatasimilarprovisionwasmadeforTarentumand othercities,whethersettledbyCaesar'sveteransornot. Thisbronzetablet,foundintwopartsin1732,waspostedatHeraclea,formerly a Greek city on the Gulf of Tarentum, and the only reasonable explanation for the recordingofsuchamedleyofunrelatedlawshereisthatHeraclea,likeFundi,must haveoweditschartertothislaw. ENGLISHTRANSLATION. 1)...Ifbythislawitisproperforanyonetomakehisdeclarationbeforetheconsul and if he is absent from Rome when it is proper for him to make his declaration, then his agent shall declare in the same manner and on the same days before the consulallthesamethingsthathisprincipalproperlyshouldhavedeclaredbythis lawifhewereinRome. 2)If by this law it is proper for anyone to make his declaration before the consul and if he or she is a ward, then his or her guardian shall declare in like manner beforetheconsulallthesamethingsonthesamedays,justastheownerproperly shouldhavedeclaredbythislawifheorshewerenotaward. 3)If the consul before whom by this law it is proper for these declarations to be

madeisabsentfromRome,thenthepersonrequiredtomakethedeclarationshall makeitbeforetheurbanpraetoror,inhisabsence,beforetheperegrinepraetorin thesamemannerasoneproperlyshoulddeclarebythislawbeforetheconsulifhe wereinRomeatthattime. 4)If none of the consuls or the praetors before whom by this law it is proper for declarationstobemadeareinRome,thentherequireddeclarationshallbemade beforetheplebeiantribuneinthesamemannerasoneproperlyshoulddeclareby thislawbeforetheconsulortheurbanpraetorortheperegrinepraetorifhewerein Romeatthattime. 5)The magistrate, before whom is made the declaration, which it is proper for anyonetomakeinaccordancewiththislaw,shallprovidethateachperson'sname, thethingswhichhehasdeclared,andthedayonwhichhehasdeclaredthemshall beenteredinthepublicrecordsandthatalltheseentriesshallbeaccuratelycopied on a tablet on the bulletin board in the Forum. Whenever and whereever grain is distributedtothepeopleheshallkeepthislistdisplayeddaily,forthegreaterpart ofeachday,whereitcanbeeasilyreadfromthegroundlevel. 6)Thedistributorofgraintothepeopleorwhoeverhaschargeofsuchdistribution shallnotgive,order,orpermitgraintobegiventoanyoneofthosepersonswhose namesinconformitywiththislawhavebeenpostedbytheconsul,thepraetor,or the plebeian tribune on the bulletin board. If anyone in contravention of this regulationgivesgraintoanyoneofthosepersonssopostedheshallbeliabletoa penaltyof50,000sestercespayabletotheStateforeachmodiusofgrainsogiven, andanyonesomindedshallbeentitledtosueforthissum. 7)Each owner of property fronting on the streets of Rome or on streets within a mile of Rome, on which there is continuous settlement now or in the future, shall keep such portion of the street in repair at the discretion of that aedile who has jurisdiction in this quarter of the city by this law. The aforesaid aedile, at his discretion, shall provide that each owner of property fronting on the street shall keep in repair that portion of the street which by this law it is proper for him to maintainandheshallprovidethatnowatershallstandtheretopreventthepublic fromconvenientpassage. 8)The curule and the plebeian aediles now in office and those who shall be appointedorelectedorwhoshallenteruponthisofficeafterthepassageofthislaw shallagreeamongthemselvesorshallcastlots,withinthenextfivedaysafterthey have been designated to or have entered upon this office, to determine in which part of the city each shall have charge of the repair and the paving of the public streetsinRomeorwithinonemileofRome,andheshallhavetheoversightofsuch work.Whateverpartofthecitybecomestheresponsibilityofanyaedilebythislaw, the said aedile shall have the oversight of repairing and maintaining the streets whichareinthatpartasisproperbythislaw. 9)Whateverstreetliesbetweenatemple,apublicbuilding,orapublicareaonone sideandaprivatebuildingontheother,theaedilewhoisinchargeofthisregionof thecityshallleasethemaintenanceofhalfofthesaidstreet,wherethetempleor

thepublicbuildingorthepublicareaissituated. 10)Ifanyone,whoinaccordancewiththislawproperlyshouldmaintainthepublic street in front of his property, does not maintain it as he properly should in the judgmentoftheaedileconcerned,thelatterathisdiscretionshallleasethecontract for its maintenance. For at least ten days before he awards the contract, he shall postinfrontofhistribunalintheForumthenameofthestreettobemaintained, thedayonwhichthecontractshallbegiven,andthenamesofthepropertyowners onthatportionofthestreet.Totheaforesaidownersortheiragentsattheirhomes heshallgivenoticeofhisintentiontoleasethecontractfortheaforesaidstreetand ofthedayonwhichthecontractshallbegiven.Heshallmakethiscontractpublicly intheForumthroughtheurbanquaestororwhoeverisinchargeofthetreasury. Theurbanquaestororwhoeverisinchargeofthetreasuryshallprovidethat,inthe publicrecordsofmoneydue,entryshallbemadeofthatsumforwhichthecontract was awarded in the name of the person or persons, before whose property the streetruns,inproportiontothelengthandthebreadthofthestreetinfrontofeach property.Heshallassessthisamountwithoutmaliciousdeception,ontheowneror owners, for the benefit of the person who contracts for the maintenance of the aforesaid street. If the owner on whom this assessment has been imposed, or his agent,doesnotpaythismoneyorgivesecuritytherefortothecontractorwithinthe nextthirtydaysofhisnotificationoftheassessment,heshallbeobligedtopaythe amountassessedandapenaltyofhalfoftheamounttothecontractor.Inasuitfor thismoneythemagistrate,onapplication,shallappointajudexandgrantanaction in the same way as it is proper for a judex to be appointed and an action to be grantedinasuitfortherecoveryofamoneyloan. 11)Ifitisproperforacontractforstreetmaintenancetobeletinaccordancewith this law, the aedile who properly should do so shall award the contract for the maintenance of this street through the urban quaestor or ever is in charge of the treasury,withtheprovisothatthemaintenanceofthisstreetshallbesubjecttothe approvaloftheaedileresponsibleforthegivingofthecontract.Theurbanquaestor or whoever is in charge of the treasury shall provide that the amount of the contract, for which each street is so leased, shall be awarded and assigned to the contractorortohisheir,towhomitproperlyshouldbeawardedinaccordancewith thetermsofthecontract. 12)Itisnottheintentofthislawtopreventtheaedilethequattuorvirsinchargeof cleaningthecitystreets,andtheduumvirsinchargeofcleaningthestreetsoutside thecitywallswithinamileofRome,whoeverareappointedhereafter,fromcaring forthestreetcleaningorfromhavingjurisdictioninthematterasisproperbylaws orplebiscitesordecreesoftheSenate. 13)Whereverabuildingabutsonanalleyway,theownershallkeepthisalleyway properly paved along the whole face of the building with whole, durable, well joinedpavingblockstothesatisfactionoftheaedilewhohasjurisdictionoverroads inthatdistrictinaccordancewiththislaw. 14)After January 1 next no one shall drive a wagon along the streets of Rome or alongthosestreetsinthesuburbswherethereiscontinuoushousingaftersunrise

or before the tenth hour of the day, except whatever will be proper for the transportationandtheimportationofmaterialforbuildingtemplesoftheimmortal gods, or for public works, or for removing from the city rubbish from those buildingsforwhosedemolitionpubliccontractshavebeenlet.Forthesepurposes permissionshallbegrantedbythislawtospecifiedpersonstodrivewagonsforthe reasonsstated. 15)Whenever it is proper for the vestal virgins, the king of the sacrifices, or the flamenstorideinthecityforthepurposeofofficialsacrificesoftheRomanpeople; whatever wagons are proper for a triumphal procession when any one triumphs; whatever wagons are proper for public games within Rome or within one mile of RomeorfortheprocessionheldatthetimeofthegamesintheCircusMaximus,itis nottheintentofthislawtopreventtheuseofsuchwagonsduringthedaywithin thecityfortheseoccasionsandatthesetimes. 16)Itisnottheintentofthislawtopreventoxwagonsordonkeywagonsthathave beendrivenintothecitybynightfromgoingoutemptyorfromcarryingoutdung from within the city of Rome or within one mile of the city after sunrise until the tenthhouroftheday. 17)RespectingpublicareasandpublicarcadesinRomeorwithinamileofRome, which are by law under the jurisdiction of the aediles or of those magistrates in charge of cleaning the streets and the public areas in Rome or within a mile of Rome,nooneshallhaveanystructurebuiltorerectedintheseareasorarcades,nor shallanyoneacquirepossessioninanywayoftheseareasorarcades,norshallhe encloseorbaroffanypartofthem,topreventfreeuseandaccessofsuchareasor arcades by the people, except for such persons to whom permission has been grantedbystatutesorplebiscitesordecreesoftheSenate. 18)When the censor or any other magistrate in accordance with the terms of the contractproclaimsthatcertainareasaretobesetasideortobeusedtoyieldpublic revenueorfortheproductionoftribute,andwhenprovisionismadeinthetermsof thecontractforthosewholeasethereservationandtheuseofsuchareasthatthey mayuseandenjoythem,orthattheseareasshallbeguardedbythelessees,itisnot the intent of this law to prevent these lessees from the use and the enjoyment of these areas, as shall be allowed each one to do so without malicious intent in accordancewiththetermsofthecontract. 19)If anyone provides games in Rome or within one mile of Rome it is not the intentofthislawtopreventhimfrombuildingorerectinginpublicplacesastageor a platform or other structures that are required for such games, or from using publicareasonthosedaysonwhichhegivesthegames. 20)It is not the intent of this law to prevent clerks and copyists attending magistratesfromusingpublicareasforpurposesofsuchattendance,whereverthe magistratecommandstheirservices. 21)If the censors assigncertain areas topublic slaves fordwelling orfor use itis nottheintentofthislawtopreventsuchuseoftheseareas.

22)Thosepersonswhoholdofficeinmunicipalities,colonies,prefectures,markets, or meeting places of Roman citizens, whether duumvirs, quattuorvirs, or under whateverothertitletheyholdmagisterialpowersbythevoteofthecitizensinthe aforesaid communities, shall not appoint, substitute, coopt, or have named as decurionsorconscriptsintheSenateanyoneintheaforesaidcommunities,except intheplaceofasenatordeceased,orcondemned,oronewhoadmitsthatheisnot qualifiedbythislawtobeasenator,adecurion,oraconscriptinthatcommunity. 23)AfterJanuary1,inthesecondyearfollowingenactmentofthislaw,noperson underthirtyyearsofageshallbeacandidatefor,accept,oradministertheofficeof duumvir, quattuorvir, or any other magistracy in a municipality, a colony, or a prefecture,unlesshehasservedthreecampaignsinthecavalryorsixcampaignsin theinfantryofalegion."Thesecampaignsheshallhaveservedforthegreaterpart ofeachyeareitherincamporinaprovince.Twohalfyearcampaignsmaycountas separate years. If anyone has exemption from military service by statutes or plebiscitesortreaty,wherebyheshouldnotproperlyserveagainsthiswill,heisnot subject to this restriction." Nor shall anyone who is an auctioneer, a master of funeralceremonies,oranundertaker,"solongasheisengagedinsuchatrade,bea candidatefor,accept,administer,orholdtheofficeofduumvir,quattuorvir,orany othermagistracy,norshallhebeasenatororadecurion,oraconscript,norshallhe givehisvoteassuchinamunicipality,acolony,oraprefecture.Ifanyoftheabove mentionedpersonsactsincontraventionofthislawheshallbeliabletoapenaltyof 50,000sestercespayabletotheState,andanyonesomindedshallbeentitledtosue forthissum. 24)Ifanyoneholdselectionsinamunicipality,acolony,oraprefectureafterJuly1 nextfortheelectionoforthesubstitutionforduumvirs,quattuorvirs,oranyother magistrates,heshallnotannounceorordertobeannouncedtheelectionofanyof the aforesaid magistrates who is under thirty years of age, unless he has served threecampaignsinthecavalryorsixcampaignsintheinfantryofalegion,during whichcampaignsheshallhaveservedincamporinaprovinceforthegreaterpart ofeachyear,orfortwohalfyears,whichmaycountwithhimforseparateyears,ifit is allowed by statutes or plebiscites, or unless he has exemption from military service by statutes or plebiscites or treaty, whereby he should not properly serve against his will. Nor shall he declare the election of anyone who is employed as auctioneer,masteroffuneralceremonies,orundertaker,"solongasheisemployed in such a trade, as duumvir, quattuorvir, or whoever may be magistrate in that community.Norshallhechoose,substitute,orcooptsuchpersonsintothesenate among the decurions or the conscripts. Nor with malice aforethought shall he call uponsuchpersonsfortheirvotenorshallherequirethemtospeakortocasttheir vote.Ifanyonedoessoincontraventionofthislawheshallbeliabletoapenaltyof 50,000sestercespayabletotheState,andanyonesomindedshallbeentitledtosue forthissum. 25)Nooneshallbeadmittedamongthedecurionsandtheconscriptsinthesenate ofanymunicipality,colony,prefecture,market,ormeetingplaceofRomancitizens, norshallanyonewhocomesunderthefollowingcategoriesbepermittedtoexpress his opinion or to cast his vote in that body: anyone who is condemned for theft

which he himself has committed or who compounds such theft; anyone who is condemned in an action for trusteeship, partnership, guardianship, mandate, inflictionofinjuryorfraud;anyonewhoiscondemnedeitherbythePlaetorianLaw orforsomethingthathehasdoneordoescontrarytothatlaw;"anyonewhobinds himselftofightasagladiator;anyonewhodeniesadebtonoathbeforethepraetor ortakesanoaththatheissolvent;anyonewhogivesnoticetosuretiesorcreditors that he cannot pay his debt in full or who compounds with them to that effect; anyone for whom the sureties pay and settle the obligation; anyone whose possessionsareseizedandadvertisedforsaleatpublicauctionbytheedictofthe magistrate in charge of the administration of justice, excepting the cases of those whose property was so treated when they were wards, or of someone who was absent on public business, provided that he does not contrive fraudulently to be absent for such purpose; anyone who is condemned at Rome by public trial whereby it is unlawful for him to remain in Italy and who is not restored to his formerstatus;anyonewhoiscondemnedbypublictrialinthatmunicipality,colony, prefecture, market, or meeting place of which he is a citizen; anyone who is condemned of having lodged a false accusation or of having done something from collusion; anyone who is deprived of his rank in the military service because of disgrace;anyonewhomageneraldismissesfromthearmyindisgrace;anyonewho takes money or any other reward for bringing in the head of a Roman citizen; anyonewhoprostituteshisbodyforgain;anyonewhotrainsgladiatorsoractson thestageorkeepsabrothel.Ifanyoftheaforesaidpersonsincontraventionofthis law takeshis place or gives hisvote amongthe decurions or the conscripts in the senateoftheabovementionedcommunitiesheshallbeliabletoapenaltyof50,000 sestercestobepaidtotheState,andanyonesomindedshallbeentitledtosuefor thatsum. 26)If this law declares a person to be ineligible to serve as senator, decurion, or conscript, to speak or to cast a vote in the senate of a municipality, a colony, a prefecture, a market, or a meeting place, no one who summons the senate, the decurions, and the conscripts in the aforesaid communities shall summon with maliceaforethoughtsuchanineligiblepersontomeetwiththem.Heshallnotask himforanopiniontherenorwithmaliceaforethoughtshallbidhimvoteorallyor byballot.Noonewhohassupremeauthorityintheaforesaidcommunitiesbythe voteoftheircitizensshallallowwithmaliceaforethoughtanyineligiblepersonto attend the senate with the decurions or the conscripts, to be included in their number,togivehisvoteorallyorbyballotthere.Heshallnotacceptsuchpersons ascandidatesforelectioninanyelectoralassemblyofthepeopleoroftheplebs.If inviolationofthislawsuchapersonhasbeenelectedbytheaforesaidassemblies the magistrate shall not announce the election. And no magistrate or person with authorityinthatcommunityshallpermithim,withmaliceaforethought,towitness the games or to attend public banquets with the senate, the decurions, or the conscripts. 27)Whoeverbythislawarenotpermittedtobesenators,decurions,orconscripts oftheaforesaidcommunitiesshallnotstandascandidatefororaccepttheofficeof duumvir,quattuorvir,oranyotherofficefromwhichhewouldpassintothesenate of the aforesaid communities. Nor shall such persons take their seat in the senatorial circle of decurions and conscripts to witness games or gladitorial

combats or to participate in public banquets. If anyone of such persons is announcedasselectedincontraventionofthislaw,heshallnotbecomeduumviror quattuorvir or hold any magistracy or office of authority in that community. If anyone acts in contravention of this law he shall be liable to a penalty of 50,000 sestercestobepaidtotheState,andanyonesomindedshallbeentitledtosuefor thissum. 28)Whoever has the chief magistracy or the supreme authority in those municipalities,colonies,orprefecturesofRomancitizenswhichexistinItalyatthat timewhenthecensororsomeothermagistratetakesthecensusatRomeshalltake thecensusoftheRomancitizensinalltheaforesaidcommunitieswithinsixtydays afterheknowsthatsuchcensusisbeingtakenatRome.HeshalIlacceptfromthem under oath their names, praenomens, parents or patrons, tribes, cognomens, the ageofeachcitizen,andthestatementofhispropertyinaccordancewiththepattern ofthecensus,whichshallbepostedatRomebytheofficialwhoisabouttotakethe censusofthepeopleatthattime.Heshallenterallthisonthepublicrecordsofhis municipality.HeshalldispatchtheseregisterstothecensorsatRomebymeansof the envoys chosen for this purpose by the majority vote of the senate when this matter is voted. He shall provide that the census shall be completed and that the envoysshallappearbeforethecensorsatRomeandshalldelivertheregistersofthe respective municipalities, colonies,orprefecturesmore than sixty days before the census at Rome is completed. This censor, or whatever other magistrate conducts the census of the people in the next five days after the arrival of the envoys, shall acceptwithoutfraudulentintenttheregistersofthecensusfromthem.Fromthese registersofthecommunitiesheshallprovidethattheentriesshallbecopiedinthe publicrecordsandthatsuchrecordsshallbefiledinthesameplacewherearefiled theotherpublicrecordscontainingthecensusofthepeople. 29)Itisnottheintentofthislawtorequireapersonwhohasresidenceinseveral municipalities,colonies,orprefecturesandwhoisenteredinthecensusinRometo beregisteredbythislawinthecensusoftheaforesaidcommunitiesaswell. 30)Whoeverisorhasbeencommissionedbyalaworaplebiscitetogiveacharter for the municipality of Fundi or for the citizens of that municipality, whatever supplements, amendments, or corrections are made to this charter in the year immediatelyafterthepeopleauthorizethislawshallbebindingonthecitizensof Fundi,aswouldhavebeenifthesehadbeenincorporatedbyhimwhenfirsthegave a charter to Fundi on the authority of the law or the plebiscite. No one shall interpose a veto or interfere in any way to invalidate the aforesaid supplements, amendments,orcorrections,ortopreventthemfrombeingbindingonthecitizens ofFundiandobeyedbythem. http://webu2.upmf grenoble.fr/Haiti/Cours/Ak/Anglica/heracleensis_johnson.html

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