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The SAP FI (Financial Accounting) Module has the competence of meeting all the

accounting and financial needs of an organization. Along with other managers,


Financial Managers within your business and same module can review the financial
position of the company in real time as contrasted to legacy systems which
necessitate overnight updates before financial statements frequently and can be
generated for management review. The real-time functionality of the SAP modules
allows for better decision making and strategic planning. The FI Module incorporates
with other SAP Modules such as MM (Materials Management), PP (Production
Planning), SD (Sales and Distribution), PM (Plant Maintenance), and PS (Project
Systems). The FI Module also assimilates with HR (Human Resources) that includes
PM (Personnel Management), Time Management, Travel Management, Payroll.
Document transactions occurring within the precise modules generate account
postings by means of account determination tables.

The SAP CO (Controlling) Module endow with supporting information to Management


for the purpose of planning, reporting, as well as monitoring the operations of their
business. Management decision-making can be achieved with the level of information
provided by this module. The Cost Element Accounting component provides
information which includes both the costs and revenue for an organization. These
postings are updated automatically from FI to CO. The cost elements are the
foundation for cost accounting and facilitate the User the ability to display costs for
each of the accounts that have been assigned to the cost element. Cost Center
Accounting provides information on the costs incurred by your business. You have
the ability to assign Cost Centers to departments and managers responsible for
certain areas of the business as well as functional areas within the SAP. Cost Centers
can be created for such functional areas as Marketing, Purchasing, Human
Resources, Finance, Facilities, Information Systems, Administrative Support, Legal,
Shipping/Receiving, or even Quality.

Some of the benefits of Cost Center Accounting:

(1) Managers can set Budget/Cost Center targets


(2) Cost Center visibility of functional areas of your business
(3) Planning
(4) Availability of Cost allocation methods and
(5) Assessments of costs to other cost objects.

Internal Orders provide a means of tracking costs of a specific job, service, or task.
Internal Orders are used as a method of gathering those costs and business
transactions that are linked to the task. This level of monitoring can be very detailed
but allows management the ability to review Internal Order activity. Activity-Based
Costing authorize a better definition of the source of costs to the process driving the
cost and it also enhances Cost Center Accounting that allows for a process-oriented
and cross-functional view of your cost centers. Product Cost Controlling allows
management the capability to examine their product costs and to make decisions on
the optimal price to market their products. The methods which can be utilized for EC-
PCA (Profit Center Accounting) are period accounting or by the cost-of-sales
approach. Profit Centers can be set-up to identify product lines, divisions,
geographical regions, offices, production sites or by functions. Profit Centers are
used for Internal Control purposes enabling management the ability to review areas
of responsibility within their organization.
Minimum configurations needed

SAP’s Financial Accounting (FI) and Controlling (CO) modules offer your
company some of the most important functionality in your entire SAP system.

Now there’s a monthly technical newsletter to help you boost the returns your
company earns from its investment in FI/CO. In every issue of FI/CO Expert, we
guarantee that you’ll discover new ways to:

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Enough FI/CO configuration to get going...

FI the Financials module can be thought as the 'core' of any integrated SAP
System because everything that has a monetary impact in the other modules
(where the 'real' business operates) flows through to FI - usually in real time and
automatically through the configuration. Usually there is pressure to get going
with the prototyping asap. When the other modules start prototyping their
transactions, the SAP system is going to want to post the financial impact to FI.
Thus the sooner that you (the FI/CO configurer) can get some core FI/CO
configuration going the better for all.
Remember all SAP configuration is essentially maintaining entries in a variety of
linked tables. Usually you need to maintain each little link or entry step by step.
Some new SAP configurers expect the transactions to be as 'complete' as a user
transaction - configuration is different. In R/2 days we had to just know what
tables to maintain - count yourself lucky that you have the IMG now!
Following are some guidelines (in increasing levels of functionality) to the FI
minimum configuration or master data setup for a new company code. Follow
the logical path in the IMG.
1. Minimum configuration to post a journal in FI
2. Minimum configuration to see expenses by cost center / post through to the CO Module
3. Minimum configuration to post to sub ledgers (AR, AP)
4. Minimum configuration to post from logistics modules to FI/CO (similar concept for other
modules)

1. Minimum configuration to post a journal in FI:


(The assumption is that you do not want to copy either the standard SAP
company or an existing company code because it will copy across too much that
is not similar or not required and therefore too much cleanup will be required).

Initial Business Decisions Required:

Item to be decided Comment


Code of company code (4 You could setup new one later, copying the
Digit Alphanumeric) configuration
Code of Chart of Accounts Not very visible, but the maintainers of the chart may
want to decide this name
Length of the GL A/c SAP allows 10 digits, however 5-7 appears to be the
number and the account normal range. Typically the number of accounts
number range guidelines, should be in the low hundreds. Decide on the
possibly also the numbers ranges of numbers for each type of account as
of some key accounts much as you can so that the team can start getting
required for automatic used to them. EG: standard SAP usually has 4xxxxx
postings (see below) as expense accounts, 11xxxx as Bank Related
accounts etc.

Configuration steps:

Step Comment
Define the company code IMG
Define the name for a chart IMG
of accounts
Maintain the global IMG - Use standard SAP variants for the parameters
parameters to start with & update later
Define the default amount IMG - Define for a blank group - so any new test
tolerances user can post during prototyping
Define document number IMG - Copy from the standard ranges
ranges
Create some of the GL Master data:
minimum accounts needed A/R and A/P control a/cs, a petty cash or suspense
to start off with. a/c to hold sundry offset postings while debugging, a
revenue account, some expense accounts. This list
will expand as you go - see the section on account
determination.

Suggest you create with reference from the standard


chart and company code and use those
specifications (account groups, fields status groups
etc) for now, so that these accounts will be
reasonably appropriately setup.
Now you should at least be able to post a GL journal. To test I suggest you use
balance sheet accounts only, since you will not have setup the cost elements for
the expense accounts. All projects would at least be using the Cost center and
Cost Element functionality of CO as a minimum. So - on to the next step.

2. Minimum configuration to see expenses by cost center / post


through to the CO Module

Initial Business Decisions Required:

Item to be decided Comment


Structure of standard cost The structure should follow the organizations
center hierarchy intended responsibility reporting hierarchy (the
budgetary responsibility). Allow the appropriate
number of levels.
Hierarchy node name The coding of the nodes is quite important because
coding they can be used to report on the levels in the
standard reports, and so will be very visible to the
users
Cost Center Naming Useful to begin following the intended standards
Standards ASAP so that test data looks as real as possible.

Configuration steps:

Step Comment
Define the controlling area IMG, not very visible to users, if you are only going
to have one, you could default it later
Assign the company code IMG
to the controlling area
Create the beginnings of CO - Cost Center Master data
the standard cost center
hierarchy
Create a representative set CO - Cost Center Master data
of cost centers, assigning
them to the appropriate
node in the cost center
hierarchy
Create all the expense Either in the IMG - for all GL accounts in a specific
accounts as primary cost range, or individually in the CO - Cost Center Master
elements data
Now you should be able to post a GL document (journal) to an expense account
and code it to the cost center. The posting should then be viewable via Cost
Center reporting and GL Account line Item Display.
3. Minimum configuration to post to sub ledgers (AR, AP)

Initial Business Decisions Required:

Item to be decided Comment


GL Account Number of see account number range comments above
Control accounts

Configuration steps:

Step Comment
Create the AP and AR see account creation comments above
Control accounts in the GL
Create a couple of If using SD and MM too, inform the SD and MM
customer and vendor analysts so that they can complete the account
accounts creation on the SD/MM side for the customer and
vendor respectively.
Now you should be able to post a FI-AR customer invoice and an FI-AP vendor
invoice.

4. Minimum configuration to post from logistics modules to FI/CO


(similar concept for other modules)

So far it was relatively easy going, now it starts getting a little more difficult.
Following are the very broad steps - for more detail see the sections on
Organization structure and Integration.

Initial Business Decisions Required:

Item to be decided Comment


SD and MM organization Not a trivial decision, and may require rework, so at
structure and relationship to this stage, decide on a simple best guess with the
the FI/CO elements SD/MM team to get you going

Configuration steps:

Step Comment
Assign the SD and MM IMG; to get prototyping going you need at least 1 set
organization elements to of working relationships that the whole team can
the FI/CO elements work with (EG: 1 Sales Area, 1 Purchasing
Organization, 1 Plant etc)
Maintain the basic IMG; For example : Revenue Account Determination
automatic account for SD. As the modules test or prototype expanded
determination for each functionality, the SAP will look for the accounts to
module which it should post. You could maintain on an as
needed basis. The SAP documentation and
configuration does not always explain clearly which
piece of account determination is used for which
type of functionality, so it is sometimes difficult to be
pro-active. being reactive has the benefit that
hopefully each side (e.g.: MM and FI) can develop
an understanding of what the business transaction is
and therefore where it should be posting. Otherwise
the MM person may not even be aware that he has
generated a certain type of posting ! (You'd be
amazed at some of the lack of ownership from a
logistics consultant for the financial postings that
they generate).
Now the other modules will be able to process a thin 'path' using agreed
organization elements and base functionality, all the way through to FI.