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RFM 300 SERIES REFRACTOMETER

OPERATORS MANUAL

Refractometer Models: RFM311 RFM340

Bellingham + Stanley Limited

OPERATORS MANUAL: ISSUE 8.1 SEPTEMBER 2007 MANUAL CODE: 25-101


This manual is applicable to RFM300 refractometers fitted with the following software:RFM311 25-801 Version 04 RFM340 25-804 Version 04

To display the code number of the software actually fitted, see page 3-1.

Trademark Acknowledgements
Epson, ESC/P are trademarks of Seiko Epson Corporation IBM and IBM PC are trademarks of International Business Machines Corporation Datac is a trademark of Datac plc

Copyright BELLINGHAM & STANLEY Ltd. 2006


All efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the contents of this manual. However, Bellingham & Stanley Ltd. can assume no responsibility for any errors contained in the manual or their consequences.

Printed in England

Bellingham & Stanley Ltd.


Longfield Road, North Farm Industrial Estate, TUNBRIDGE WELLS, United Kingdom. TN2 3EY Telephone: 0 1892 500400 Fax: 0 1892 543115

Bellingham & Stanley Inc.


1000 Hurricane Shoals Road, Bldg D. Suite 300 LAWRENCEVILLE, USA GA30043 Telephone: 770 822 6898 Fax: 770 822 9165

DECLARATION OF CONFORMITY
according to ISO/IEC Guide 22 and EN 45014

Manufacturers Name Manufacturers Address

Bellingham & Stanley Limited


Longfield Road, North Farm Industrial Estate, Tunbridge Wells, Kent TN2 3EY United Kingdom

declares that the product Product Name Model Number Product Options

RFM311, RFM340 Automatic Refractometer 25-11, 25-40 All

conforms to the following Product Specifications: Safety EMC

BSEN60950:1992 EN50081-1 - Emissions EN55022 EN55022 EN60555-2 EN60555-3

: : : :

Radiated Emissions to Class B Conducted Emissions to Class B Harmonic Fluctuations Voltage Fluctuations

EN50082-1 - Generic Immunity IEC 801-2 : 1984 Electrostatic Discharge - Class 3, 8 KV IEC 801-3 : 1984 Radio Frequency Susceptibility Class 2, 3V/m IEC 801-4 : 1988 Fast Burst Transients - Class 2, 1KV

Supplementary Information

The product herewith complies with the requirements of the Low Voltage Directive 73/23/EEC and the EMC Directive 89/336/EEC.

O P E R A T O R S

M A N U A L

Contents
Installation Basic Operation
A Tour of the Instrument Measuring a Sample Setting the Measurement Mode Sampling Techniques Temperature Control and Compensation

1 2
2-1 2-4 2-5 2-8 2-9

Setting Up the System


Password Calibration Configuration Temperature Probes User Defined Temperature Compensation User Defined Scales Key Function Map

3
3-1 3-2 3-3 3-8 3-9 3-10 3-MAP

Error Conditions & Messages Specification Spares & Accessories


Spare Parts Flow Through Cells

4 5 6
6-1 6-2

CONTENTS

Installation
Unpacking Contents List Part Numbers Positioning the System Mains Connection Power Supply Adaptor 1-1 1-1 1-1 1-2 1-4 1-4

INSTALLATION 1

UNPACKING

Carefully remove all of the packing material. It is recommended that the box and other packing materials are retained so that, should the need arise, the refractometer can be safely returned to the manufacturer. Check that all parts listed below are present and that no transit damage has occurred. If any are damaged or missing then contact the supplier immediately.

CONTENTS LIST

1 1 1 1 1 1

RFM 300 Series Refractometer, see below for part no. Power Supply Adaptor, 55-104 Spare Desiccator in sealed container, 13-395 Operators Manual, 25-101 Funnel (RFM311 only), 80-299 Strainer (RFM311 only), 80-300

PART NUMBERS

Instrument Model Number RFM311 RFM340

Refractometer assembly only 25-311 25-340

Refractometer complete with accessories 25-11 25-40

Description

UK Version 230V

Euro Version 230V 55-104

US Version 110V

Power supply unit (all instruments) Mains leads (for use with 55-104) 61-191

61-193

61-192

See Section 6 for a list of code numbers for spare parts and accessories.

INSTALLATION 1-1

POSITIONING THE SYSTEM

Choose a position for the system that is :* away from draughty or hot equipment like fans or heaters * out of direct sunlight or strong ambient light * away from potential sources of interference such as RFI generating equipment * within easy reach of a power point * not using a power circuit that also has large motors or noisegenerating equipment connected to it.

MODEL 340

Place the instrument and accessories on a bench that is flat and stable.

Circulator Assembly (optional)

Printer Package (optional)

Power Supply Adaptor

Refractometer

If using an optional temperature control circulator, connect it to the RFM300 using the tubes and clips supplied. Fill the circulator with water and switch on. When the system has been checked for leaks, switch on the RFM300.

1-2 INSTALLATION

MODEL 311

Put the funnel into the funnel support arm and push the flowcell inlet pipe onto the funnel outlet. Four 9mm diameter holes are provided in the mounting plate for fixing the instrument to a vertical surface. Ensure the wall is of a suitable construction to take the weight of the mounted refractometer.

307mm

100mm

Support the power supply on a stable surface near to a power outlet and in a position that will not be splashed with sample. Do not allow the weight of the power supply unit to cause strain on either the mains inlet or low voltage outlet cables. The outlet tubing should be taken to waste.

Outlet tube Power Supply Adaptor

INSTALLATION 1-3

MAINS CONNECTION

The power supply adaptor is supplied with a moulded mains cord and plug to suit one of several socket types as follows:UK EU US 13 Amp square pin to BS1363/A European Schuko plug 3 pin American plug

Mains cord wire colours LINE (PHASE) UK (230V) EU (230V) US (110V) brown brown black NEUTRAL (RETURN) blue blue white EARTH (GROUND) green/yellow green/yellow green

This power supply must be earthed. Earth terminal is used for functional earth only.

POWER SUPPLY ADAPTOR

WARNING: * For indoor use only. * Must be kept dry. * No user serviceable parts inside. * Do not open. * Do not cover, designed to operate with free air convection. * No cleaning required.

1-4 INSTALLATION

Basic Operation
A Tour of the Instrument
Operators Panel System Reset Temperature Control Presser Presser Options Temperature Measurement Desiccator Power Supply Services Panel

2-1
2-1 2-1 2-2 2-2 2-2 2-3 2-3 2-3 2-3

Measuring a Sample
Read Print

2-4
2-4 2-4

Setting the Measurement Mode


Entering a Password Selecting a Scale Temperature Compensation Reading Recurrence

2-5
2-5 2-5 2-5 2-6

Sampling Techniques
Cleaning Sample Application Sample Presser Temperature Stability

2-7
2-7 2-7 2-7 2-7

Temperature Control and Compensation


Why Control the Temperature? Temperature Compensation

2-8
2-8 2-8

BASIC

OPERATION

A Tour of the Instrument


The RFM300 Series refractometers are self-contained, easy-to-use instruments which are suitable for use in either a laboratory or on the factory floor. They are housed in rigid polyurethane foam moulded cases which are light in weight whilst being extremely rugged and have a high resistance to chemical attack from the majority of commonly used samples. The instruments are sealed against ingress of dust and water and so are easily cleaned with water or other solvents. They incorporate a range of measurement scales and other facilities which are accessed via a simple and user-friendly operators panel.

OPERATORS PANEL

The reading display is purely numeric and is formed from large, high contrast digits. The functions of the four "soft keys" are shown on the upper line of the alpha-numeric display and provide access to all of the refractometer control and data options. The lower line of the alphanumeric display and the numeric keys provide a means of entering and displaying prompts and data.

SYSTEM RESET

Pressing the two outermost softkeys together is referred to as SYSTEM RESET and will reset the instrument back to a starting condition, as if it had just been switched on. If at any time the instrument fails to respond to the softkeys or produces nonsensical data it may be restarted by pressing SYSTEM RESET or by turning the power off then on. Use of SYSTEM RESET is also a valid method of terminating lengthy operations, such as a test run or a long "delay before reading", should the operator so desire.

BASIC

OPERATION

2-1

TEMPERATURE CONTROL

At the left hand end of the prism plate, there are two pipe connections to enable the instrument to be connected to a constant temperature water circulator or bath. Water is circulated from these connections through a jacket which surrounds the prism on the underside of the sample dish. This keeps the prism and the sample dish at a constant temperature and will help to rapidly stabilise an applied sample. A temperature probe is mounted in the water jacket which can be used to correct the measured reading to 20C if temperature correction mode is selected.

PRESSER

The RFM340 refractometer is fitted with a hinged presser which can be pulled down over a sample on the prism. This forces difficult samples into good contact with the prism and creates an improved environment for the sample whilst being measured.

The presser, code no. 24-80, is temperature controlled (in addition to the internal prism water jacket assembly) by circulating water through the presser hinge and integral channels in the presser arm. A temperature sensor probe is mounted in the centre of the presser which will monitor the temperature of the sample more closely than the probe in the prism water jacket. The temperature probe lead from the end of the presser should be connected to the socket on the left hand side of the instrument housing. The RFM311 is fitted with a vertical flow through cell without a temperature sensor.

PRESSER OPTIONS

Alternative accessories to the standard presser are available and can be fitted to any model. These are the Micro Flow Cell and Macro Flow Cell for continuous flow applications via piped connections and a Funnel Flow Cell for individual sampling. The optional flowcells also incorporate a temperature sensor and should be connected to the socket on the left hand side of the instrument housing.

2-2 BASIC

OPERATION

TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT

All models are fitted with the "prism" temperature sensor probe in the prism water jacket and may have either as standard, or optionally, a "sample" temperature sensor probe in the presser or flowcell. Either the prism, or the sample, sensor probe can be pre-selected to be used for display and temperature compensation. See page 3-8. Note: If a replacement presser or a flowcell is fitted, the code letter on the connector sleeve must be keyed into the instrument. See page 3-8.

DESICCATOR

A desiccator is mounted on the left hand side of the instrument housing. It is vital that this is kept in a dry condition. If the indicator should change from pale blue to pink, there is evidence of moisture in the instrument which the desiccator is no longer able to absorb. The most likely cause is that the housing has been opened for some time or the screws have not been replaced correctly. The desiccator should be unscrewed from the housing and a dry one fitted. The indicator should remain pale blue. If this fails to happen then it is indicative of a more serious moisture leak and a detailed investigation should be undertaken.

TEMPERATURE SENSOR

DESICCATOR INDICATOR BLUE INDICATOR PINK SATISFACTORY DRYING REQUIRED

View of the components on the left hand side of the instrument

The saturated desiccator should be placed in a warm oven at a temperature of 50 to 150C for 2 to 3 hours to drive off the retained moisture. Return the desiccator to a sealed container to prevent absorption of moisture from the atmosphere.

POWER SUPPLY

Power for the RFM300 Series refractometer is supplied from an external adaptor which, unlike the RFM300 itself, is not sealed against the ingress of moisture and should be kept dry and away from damp areas at all times.

SERVICES PANEL

The ON/OFF switch, power supply connector and RS232C serial port connector (to output data to a printer or computer) are mounted on the rear face of the instrument.

ON

POWER SUPPLY

SERIAL PORT

OFF

BASIC

OPERATION

2-3

Measuring a Sample
After switching on the instrument the Reading Display will be blank and the information display will show the reading and temperature modes. The current temperature will not be displayed until a reading is taken.

READ

Model RFM340. Lift the sample presser and place a small amount of water or sample on the prism (the circular glass-like area in the middle of the prism plate). The complete prism surface must be covered by the sample; generally 1ml is sufficient to achieve this. Now lower the presser onto the prism plate. Model 311 Ensure the tap is in the off position (knob horizontal). Half fill the funnel with water. Open the tap until sample starts to flow through and close the tap. Now press the READ key. After a few seconds, the reading will be displayed as shown.

PRINT

If an optional printer is connected, the reading may now be recorded by pressing the PRINT key. A displayed reading can only be printed once, so the READ key must be re-pressed before the PRINT key becomes available again. The reading value is accompanied by scale identification codes and additional data depending on the refractometer model. Typical printouts are shown below.

A detailed description of all printout formats is shown in Appendix D.

2-4 BASIC

OPERATION

Setting the Measurement Mode


ENTERING A PASSWORD
All RFM 300 series refractometers have 2 user defined passwords. The "operator" password allows access to the MODE functions only and the "supervisor" which provides unrestricted operation of all MODE and SETUP functions. After pressing MODE the user is prompted to enter the password. The first three keystrokes will be accepted and, if found to match the password, will allow the user to continue. If the password is incorrect the Key Function Display will return to the initial options. See "Setting Up The System", page 3-1, for details of how to change (or cancel) the passwords. Note : The password entry screen is not shown in subsequent keypress diagrams

SELECTING A SCALE

First press MODE then repeatedly pressing SCALE will step through the available measurement scales. Two scales, ri and bx are always in the list and in addition, any of five user defined scales can be included. u1, u2, u3, u4 & u5 can be set by the operator to specific product units such as % coffee solids or can be allocated to standard alternative scales, e.g. oechsle. See page 3-6 for more details. ri bx refractive index brix u1 u2 u3 u4 u5 user defined scale 1 used defined scale 2 user defined scale 3 user defined scale 4 user defined scale 5

TEMPERATURE COMPENSATION

First press MODE then repeatedly pressing TC alternately selects ... su ud no

and

When su is selected, the reading will be corrected to 20C. This compensation is valid for sugar solutions, products where sugar forms a predominant part of the measurement or samples with a temperature coefficient similar to sugar solutions. See page 2-8 for further details. Selecting ud will activate the used defined temperature mode, see page 3-9 for details.

BASIC

OPERATION

2-5

READING RECURRENCE

First press MODE, then repeatedly pressing RDGs will step through 3 or 5 reading recurrence modes, depending on the instrument model. single rdg cont rdgs cont rdg+prt multi rdg+prt 5 rdgs+prt Note: If printer type is set to none (see page 3-5), the modes with continuous printing cannot be selected. The operation of each mode is described in the table below. Reading recurrence mode single rdg When READ is pressed, a measurement will be taken, the reading displayed and then the instrument will wait for a further keypress Measurements will be repeatedly taken, automatically, and the readings displayed. Between successive readings, a pause allows the operator to press a key if required. This pause can be extended to decrease the reading repetition rate by entering a DELAY BEFORE READING (see page 3-4) Similar to cont rdgs but at the completion of each measurement, the reading value will also be sent to the RS232 serial port for printing When READ is press the instrument will operate just as in single rdg. However, when PRINT is pressed the user is prompted to enter a number of readings to be taken. The instrument will then take the selected number of readings and send each value to the RS232 serial port for printing followed by a summary analysis of the data. Similar to multi rdg+prt but the number of readings are set to 5 and the summary data analysis can be optionally selected (see page 3-6).

cont rdgs

cont rdg+prt

multi rdg+prt

5 rdgs+prt

The format of printed data will vary depending on the reading recurrence mode and the printer type selected (see page 3-5). Typical examples are shown in Appendix D.

2-6 BASIC

OPERATION

Sampling Techniques
In order to achieve the maximum performance from the RFM300 Series refractometer, it is essential that extreme care is taken when cleaning the instrument and applying sample to the prism. Sample concentration may vary considerably from the surface to the centre of a mass whether in a beaker or on a spoon or spatula. Both evaporation and temperature stabilisation can cause remarkably rapid drifting unless care is taken.

CLEANING

Always clean both the prism surface and the presser immediately after taking readings. Sample that has remained on the prism for long periods can be difficult to remove and small particles of dried matter can subsequently dissolve into later samples. Use clean tissue with water to remove old sample then dry with fresh clean tissue. Some samples, particularly oils and other chemicals, will require the use of a solvent, such as methyl alcohol, for removal and cleaning. NEVER use acetone, white spirit, Genklene, Arklone or any abrasive cleansers on any painted surface or, particularly, the membrane keypad panel.

SAMPLE APPLICATION

Always take sample from the centre of a container not from the surface where higher concentration skin layers will be present. Keep the time taken to transport the sample from the container to the prism to an absolute minimum to limit evaporation. With low viscosity liquids, use a disposable pipette once only. With high viscosity samples, scoop out sufficient with a clean, dry spatula. NEVER pour a sample directly from a container onto the prism.

SAMPLE PRESSER

The sample presser will improve measurement accuracy and repeatability by:1. Forcing the sample into intimate contact with the prism surface. This is particularly important with viscous, high concentration samples. Providing an enclosed environment for the sample so minimising contact with the air and limiting evaporation. Preventing strong ambient light from affecting the reading quality.

2. 3.

TEMPERATURE STABILITY

The refractive index of liquids changes significantly with temperature. It is important that the temperature of a sample is constant throughout its mass before an accurate reading can be taken. To minimise the time necessary to achieve stabilisation, apply a sample sufficient in size to just cover the prism and give a reliable reading.

BASIC

OPERATION

2-7

Temperature Control and Compensation


WHY CONTROL THE TEMPERATURE?
As the refractive index of liquids varies with temperature, it is of vital importance that the temperature of the sample is monitored and controlled. The main advantage of temperature control is that it allows the refractometer to run at the same (or at least near to the) temperature of the product under test. This has the beneficial effect of reducing drift through a shorter sample stabilisation time and hence lessens influencing effects such as evaporation and corruption of the sample. Wherever possible, it is highly recommended to control the temperature of the refractometer and the sample too, with a water bath or circulator.

SUGAR TEMPERATURE COMPENSATION

The sugar temperature compensation applied in the RFM300 refractometers is that required for water and sucrose solutions. It conforms to the published Icumsa 1978 correction tables which covers the ranges 10 to 40C and 0 to 80 Brix and has been extended to cover 5 to 60C by using additional data. Although the correction is specifically applicable to pure sucrose solutions, it is also valid for many sugar based food products. However, it must be stressed that the correction values may be unsuitable for other, non-sugar based, products and great care should be exercised if the compensation mode is used with these samples. The compensation mode corrects readings from the refractometer back to 20C. That is, it allows the refractometer to run at the temperature of the product under test but produces readings as if the system was running at 20C. However, temperature compensation should not be considered as just an alternative to temperature control. If the sample temperature is changing (eg. after a warm sample is applied to a cool prism) then there is inevitably a delay between the actual temperature of the sample in contact with the prism face and the temperature detected by the sample temperature probe; (the probe cannot have instant response). Therefore, there is bound to be some degree of inaccuracy from the compensation calculations. Temperature compensation will only be valid if the detected sample temperature is stable, so there is a great advantage in controlling the prism temperature to rapidly achieve stability. To simplify routine measurement procedures, a delay period of 0 to 9999 seconds can be selected. This will then delay printing a reading to allow for temperature stabilisation. See "Set Delay Before Reading" in section 3, Setting up the System.

2-8 BASIC

OPERATION

Setting Up the System


The QUIT soft-key can be used at any time during the following operations to return to the initial softkey options (Setup, Mode, Read, Print), or to cancel the current operation.

Passwords
Entering the Password Change Password Display the Software version

3-1
3-1 3-1 3-1

Calibration
Set Zero Set Span Entering a Number

3-2
3-2 3-2 3-2

Configuration
Reading Quality Display Resolution Set Delay Before Reading Alter RS232 Select a Printer Type Batch & Operator Codes 5 rdgs+prt Print Summary Setting the Clock Changing the Date Format Changing the Display Contrast

3-3
3-3 3-3 3-4 3-4 3-5 3-5 3-6 3-6 3-7 3-7

Temperature Probes
Select Temperature Probe for Compensation Select Temperature Probe Tolerance Letter

3-8
3-8 3-8

User Defined Temperature Compensation


Setting the User Defined Temperature Coefficient Constant Selecting the User Defined Temperature Compensation Mode

3-9
3-9 3-9

User Defined Scales


Select a Standard User Defined Scale Create a Special User Defined Scale Cancel a User Defined Scale

3-10
3-11 3-12 3-13

Key Function Map

3-MAP

SETTING

UP THE SYSTEM

Passwords
All of the setting up functions described in this section are accessed by pressing the SETUP key, following which, the operator will be prompted to enter a password. There are 2 passwords in the RFM300 Series refractometers; the "operator" password and the "supervisor" password. The "operator" password allows access to the MODE functions only and the "supervisor" which provides unrestricted operation of all MODE and SETUP functions. Each password is a 3 digit number in the range 001 to 255 and is initially set as follows:"Operator" "Supervisor" 123 135

ENTERING THE PASSWORD

After pressing SETUP the user is prompted to enter the password. The first three keystrokes will be accepted and, if found to match the password, will allow the user to continue. If the password is incorrect the Key Function Display will return to the initial options. Note : The password entry screen is not shown in subsequent keypress diagrams

CHANGE PASSWORDS

The "operator" and "supervisor" passwords can be changed to any three digit numbers in the range 001 to 255. The first three keystrokes will be accepted; if an incorrect key is pressed, QUIT and start again. Setting the "operator" password to 000 will give unrestricted access to the MODE functions and the "Key in password:" screen will not be displayed after pressing MODE. Setting the "supervisor" password to 000 will give unrestricted access to both the MODE & SETUP functions and the "Key in password:" screen will not be displayed after pressing MODE or SETUP. CAUTION! Access to the MODE & SETUP functions is only possible by entering the passwords. DO NOT FORGET THEM! In the event of passwords being forgotten contact Bellingham & Stanley Service Department for assistance.

DISPLAY THE SOFTWARE VERSION

This keypress sequence will show the software version on the lower line of the display in the form:Prog: RFM340 25-804-02 Where 25-804 02 is the software code is the software version

SETTING

UP THE SYSTEM

3-1

Calibration
Calibration is essential to ensure accurate readings over the required measuring range and should be performed at the low end (ZERO) and the high end (SPAN) of this range with samples of known values. There are two user adjustments to the calibration which should be checked at regular intervals, e.g. daily, and set if necessary. These are ZERO, which can be considered as an offset to the displayed values, and SPAN, which is a scaling, or multiplying, factor. Although the ideal sample for setting ZERO is distilled water, any known sample at the low end of the measurement range can be used. SPAN should be checked with a known sample at the upper end of the measurement range. The sample should be placed on the prism and allowed to stabilise prior to selecting the ZERO or SPAN routine described below. ZERO & SPAN are set with the MODE conditions currently selected, i.e. on any of the seven scales and with or without temperature compensation.

SET ZERO

Apply water or sample and allow to stabilise before commencing ZERO routine. Press ENTER to calibrate at the default value displayed or key in the actual sample value. Pressing ENTER will take a reading and correct it to the new value.

SET SPAN

Apply sample and allow to stabilise before commencing SPAN routine. Press ENTER to calibrate at the default value displayed or key in the actual sample value. Pressing ENTER will take a reading and correct it to the new value.

ENTERING A NUMBER

The RFM300 will accept numeric input in either fixed decimal point format, e.g. 123.4 or in scientific notation as 1.234E2. One of the softkeys (second from left) gives access to the minus (-), decimal point (.) and exponent (E) symbols that will be required to enter both numerical formats. As the operator enters the number the RFM300 responds to the key strokes by changing the symbol that the soft-key offers. If an error is made while entering the number the operator may use the CLEAR softkey to erase the entry. The ENTER soft-key is available throughout the process and may be pressed at any time to accept the entry. Note that if the number being entered is negative, then press the minus soft-key before entering the number. Otherwise, if the number is less than 1, then press 0 first to show the decimal point soft-key.

3-2 SETTING

UP THE SYSTEM

Configuration
READING QUALITY

Press SETUP, CONFG, DSPLY & QUAL. Three options are then shown on the top line... NONE DSPLY or BLANK

Quality is an arbitrary figure used to describe the worth of a reading. The quality value is derived from the optical pattern caused by placing a sample on the prism. A high quality value indicates a well defined optical pattern which in turn makes the signal easier to resolve; a low value indicates a less well defined pattern and hence a less reliable reading. The quality value for the sample used to set ZERO (normally distilled water) is automatically set to 100, which can then be used as a reference with which to compare other measured samples. When DSPLY is selected, a QUALity number will be shown in the centre of the lower line of the display after a sample has been READ. If you select BLANK, then you will be requested to enter a threshold value. If a reading quality value falls below the threshold value, the numerical screen is blanked. If NONE is selected, the quality value will not be displayed or affect the displayed reading.

DISPLAY RESOLUTION

First press SETUP, CONFIG & DSPLY, then repeatedly pressing RESOL alternately selects... lo and hi The resolution of the measurement reading both on the display and to the printer will be as shown in the table. Reading resolution Scale ri other lo 0.0001 0.1 hi 0.00001 0.01

(RFM340)

SETTING

UP THE SYSTEM

3-3

SET DELAY BEFORE READING

DELAY BEFORE READING causes a wait period after the READ key has been pressed (or between successive readings in continuous mode) before the READ function is actually commenced. This delay provides a fixed time for the sample to stabilise on the prism and to achieve thermal equilibrium throughout the sample mass. The valid delay range is 0 to 9999 seconds; 0 seconds giving no delay.

ALTER RS232

There is an RS232C serial interface port on the rear face of the instrument for sending data to a printer or for communication with a remote computer. The RS232C baud rate and data word structure can be set by selecting ALTER RS232. There are three baud rates available, 300, 1200 & 9600, and two word structures, either 7 bit with even parity or 8 bit with no parity. There is a combined XON/XOFF software and DSR/DTR type hardware handshake control system with connections on the Lemo 6 way sealed "E" type connector as shown below. Interconnecting lead part no. 54-01 is suitable for connection to a printer and, when used in conjunction with interface adaptors part no. 54-51, for connection to an IBM PC or equivalent. Lemo 6way pin no. Body shell 2 3 4 5 6 Description Direction 54-01 25way plug pin no. 1 out in in out 6 20 7 2 3 54-51 25way skt pin no. 1 6 20 7 2 3 9way skt pin no. 6 4 5 3 2

Protective ground DTR DSR Signal ground Received data Transmitted data

3-4 SETTING

UP THE SYSTEM

SELECT A PRINTER TYPE

The "printer type" can be set to... none 24 column or 40+ column none will disable the printer output and should be selected if a printer will not be used. 24 column should be selected if a Datac 24 column printer (B&S code 55-02U) or similar is to be used. If the printer has a print width of 40 or more columns, then select 40+ column. The printout formats vary depending on the refractometer model and the printer type selected. A detailed description of all printout formats is shown in Appendix D.

BATCH & OPERATOR CODES

As well as being defined by the date and time, a printed reading can also be identified by two code numbers; the Batch code which is a 6 digit number and the Operator code which is 2 digits. Initially, both codes are inhibited from operation but either can be selected by entering BatOp numbers as follows:0 1 2 3 No Batch or Operator Batch code only Operator code only Batch & Operator codes

Other numbers could give unexpected results and so should not be entered. When PRINT is pressed, you will be requested to enter a Batch code and then an Operator code. If ENTER is pressed without pressing number keys, then the codes will be printed as 000000 and 0.

SETTING

UP THE SYSTEM

3-5

5 rdgs + prt PRINT SUMMARY

At the end of every multi rdg+prt print run, a summary of the readings will be printed, including maximum, minimum, mean values etc.. Initially, this summary will not be printed at the end of a 5 rdgs + prt print sequence though any of the summary items can be individually selected by "5rdgs". First, decide which summary items are to be printed, then add together the values for those items. Enter the number following the "5rdgs" sequence shown on the left.

Examples: Enter 63 for all items to be printed Enter 6 for minimum and maximum values only Enter 0 for no summary Numbers greater than 63 could give unexpected results and so should not be entered.

Item No. of readings Minimum reading Maximum reading Mean of readings Spread of readings Standard deviation

Value 1 2 4 8 16 32

SETTING THE CLOCK

This option allows the user to alter the current date and time held by the systems real-timeclock.

3-6 SETTING

UP THE SYSTEM

CHANGING THE DATE FORMAT

This option gives the user the choise of either displaying the date and time using the European format of DD-MM-YY (day-monthyear) or American format of MM-DD-YY (month-day-year).

CHANGING THE DISPLAY CONTRAST

This instrument has a user definable contrast setting for the matrix LCD display. The contrast setting might require changing after the instrument has been defaulted. The contrast can also be effected by temperature, so might also require changing should the instrument be used at low temperatures. To set the contrast, switch off the instrument. Whilst holding the 5 key on the keyboard, switch on the instrument.

Current Contrast Value

Increase Contrast Decrease Contrast

The current contrast value is displayed in the numerical screen. Pressing 1 and 6 will decrease and increase the contrast respectively. When the ideal contrast has been found, press the QUIT softkey to save any changes.

SETTING

UP THE SYSTEM

3-7

Temperature Probes
SELECT TEMPERATURE PROBE FOR COMPENSATION
Allows selection of either the "sample" temperature probe (in the presser or flowcell) or the "prism" temperature probe (mounted internally in the water jacket) for display of temperature and temperature compensation of the reading if selected. A p or s is shown after the temperature on the lower line of the display after a sample has been READ, to indicate which probe is in use.

SELECT TEMPERATURE PROBE TOLERANCE LETTER

The two temperature probes described above are high stability Pt100 sensors with a small but significant tolerance. If a temperature probe is replaced (e.g. a flowcell is fitted instead of the original presser) then the tolerance must be keyed into the instrument. This is specified as a letter and can be found on the sleeve around the connector body.

Probe tolerance letter

Press UP or DOWN until the correct letter is displayed and then press SLCT.

3-8 SETTING

UP THE SYSTEM

User Defined Temperature Compensation


The RFM300 range of instruments incorporate a User Defined Temperature Compensation mode. It enables the instrument to automatically correct for samples other than sucrose with known temperature coefficients. Temperature corrections are made using the following linear equation. r = n + (A * (t - 20)) where r n A t = = = = corrected reading in refractive index uncorrected reading in refractive index sample temperature coefficient in refractive index / C temperature of selected active probe in C

If the readings are to be displayed in any scale other than refractive index, then they will be converted from r, the corrected refractive index value.

SETTING THE USER DEFINED TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENT CONSTANT

The entered coefficient constant must be in refractive index scale. ri / C

SELECTING THE USER DEFINED TEMPERATURE COMPENSATION MODE

To use the user defined temperature compensation select the ud temperature compensation mode from the MODE menu. (See page 2-6 for more details) After quitting from the MODE menu, the instrument will return back to the main display and subsequent displayed readings will be corrected using the UDTC equation.

SETTING

UP THE SYSTEM

3-9

User Defined Scales


The RFM300 Series refractometers can incorporate up to seven measurement scales, refractive index, brix and five user definable scale positions. Pressing MODE, SCALE, as described on page 2-5, will step through the 2 permanent scales (ri and bx) and any of the 5 definable positions that have been allocated.

Any of these 5 positions can be set by the operator to either ... standard, fixed scale data stored in a scale table within the instrument or ...
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

ze o0 oe bu f1 f2 f3 bm sc ap -------

Standard Scales Table (see page 3-11)

Scale Selection List Pressing MODE, SCALE steps through all allocated scales ri bx
A B C D E

bu __ sc cf --

(see page 2-5) ... to empirically determined data to create special scales pertaining to a specific product. For example, if a company is familiar with their own particular units, which could be as obscure as grams of coffee solids/gallon, then it is possible to construct a user defined scale to read directly in these units, rather than read in brix and use a cross reference chart.

6 polynomial constants entered by the user to create a scale with units (and identification characters) relevant to a specific product ================ In this example, the user has entered identification characters cf

Specially Created Scales (see page 3-12)

3-10 SETTING

UP THE SYSTEM

SELECT A STANDARD USER DEFINED SCALE

There are up to 16 standard scales stored in the RFM300 (though not all have been defined at the time of writing). Any standard scale can be transferred across into the user defined scale selected.

Press UP or DOWN until the appropriate User Scale (A,B,C,D,E) is displayed and press SLCT. Press UP or DOWN until the appropriate Std Scale designation is displayed and press SLCT. The designation of undefined Scales is shown as "".

No. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

Desig. ze o0 o2 bu f1 f2 f3 bm sc ap zeiss

Scale

oechsle (no decimal place) oechsle (1 decimal place) butyro 42% fructose 55% fructose 90% fructose baum sodium chloride probable alcohol not defined not defined not defined not defined not defined not defined

Standard scales currently available

SETTING

UP THE SYSTEM

3-11

CREATE A SPECIAL USER DEFINED SCALE

The sequence to enter special scale DATA shown on the left, enables the operator to type in 6 polynomial constants for each user defined scale.

Press UP or DOWN until the appropriate User Scale (A,B,C,D,E) is displayed and press SLCT. Enter the value for polynomial constant A (see "Entering a number" on page 3-2 for information on numeric entry). Then similarly enter values for constants B,C,D,E,F. If any constants are not required, e.g. 4 term polynomial, then enter 0. The first of two scale identification characters can then be entered. This can either be 0 to 9, by pressing the appropriate numeric key, or a letter, by pressing UP/DOWN and then SLCT.

Then enter character.

the

second

identification

However, before commencing the process of creating a special user defined scale with specific product units, a number of samples must be prepared with known values in the user units. The quantity of samples required depends on the range to be covered, the degree of non-linearity (compared with refractive index) and the variability of the data, but the minimum number should be 6 with at least 10 being preferred. The general rule being, the more, the better. The samples must then be measured on the refractometer, using the refractive index scale. Only use temperature compensation mode if the sample is sugar based or if the temperature coefficient is known to be similar to that of sucrose solution. It is always preferable to control the temperature of the refractometer wherever possible. The refractometer is basically calibrated in refractive index. A 6 term polynomial is then used to convert the readings to the user defined scale units as shown below:u = A + Bx + Cx2 + Dx3 + Ex4 + Fx5 where u = reading in user units x = refractive index - 1.33 and A,B,C,D,E,F are the polynomial constants

3-12 SETTING

UP THE SYSTEM

Once the sample data is available, the "RFM300 Utility Software", code no. 25-265, supplied with the refractometer, should then be used to calculate the polynomial constants. This software program will operate on any IBM compatible PC and can be used either independently, the constants then being entered into the refractometer as shown on the previous page, or with a link between refractometer and computer with interface leads 54-01 & 54-51 when the constants will be downloaded directly. Polynomials with 2 to 6 terms (including the offset) should be considered; any higher unused terms can be set to zero. Choose the number of terms that gives minimum errors with the original data, providing that the line runs smoothly through the points without any wild deviations. See the typical curve below. This can best be established by viewing a graph of the points and the calculated line. If an IBM compatible computer is not available, then B&S can carry out the complete service either calculating constants from customer data or from supplied samples. Contact B&S sales department for details.

CANCEL A USER DEFINED SCALE

If any of the five User Defined Scales are not required for normal use, they can be removed from the SCALE selection list using the sequence shown on the left.

Press UP or DOWN until the appropriate User Scale (A,B,C,D,E) is displayed and press SLCT. If all five User Defined Scales are Cancelled, then pressing SCALE will select only refractive index (ri) or brix (bx).

SETTING

UP THE SYSTEM

3-13

Key Function Map

Print the displayed reading Take and display a reading

Select temperature compensation, reading recurrence mode & scale

Enter ZERO or SPAN aim value and wait for correction

Change passwords

Set the quality mode

Set "delay before reading" and reading resolution

Enter UDTC coefficient constant Cancel user defined scale Select standard scale no. Enter UDS polynomial constants

Select printer type

Set batch and operator variable

Set 5rdgs summary printout mode

Set clock

Enter sample or prism temperature probe selection tolerance letter

Select sample or prism temperature probe for compensation

SETTING

UP THE SYSTEM

3-MAP

Error Conditions & Messages


Printing System Lockup Displayed Readings Memory Corruption Error Codes Setting Default Values 4-1 4-1 4-1 4-1 4-2 4-3

ERROR

CONDITIONS

&

MESSAGES

Error Conditions & Messages


PRINTING

When data is sent to the printer by pressing PRINT, the characters are placed in an output buffer and are removed by the printer when it is ready. If there is not a printer connected or the printer is "off-line", then the characters remain in the buffer and a message will be displayed, requesting you to select retry or quit. If the printer is now ready to print, press retry. Pressing quit will cancel the print and return you to the main menu.

SYSTEM LOCKUP

If at any time the instrument fails to respond to the soft keys or produces nonsensical displays, press SYSTEM RESET or switch the power off, then on again.

DISPLAYED READINGS

If the display reading is

or

then the calculated reading is out of range. This could be due to a poor sample application. Clean off and re-apply.

MEMORY CORRUPTION

Most of the numbers and values used in the refractometer calculations are stored in volatile memory, i.e. when the instrument is switched off, the values are lost. There are some values, however, that must be retained even when the power is removed and these are held in a special, non-volatile memory. The instrument checks this stored data during switch-on initialisation and when the data is saved following a change in configuration. If an error is detected, a warning message will be displayed, similar to the screen shown below. The user should press any key and the operation will continue. Refer to the table on the page below for a list of error codes.

ERROR

CONDITIONS

&

MESSAGES

4-1

ERROR CODES
Error code 2

Memory Corruption Error Codes


Problem Incorrect setting in temperature or linearisation data. Could cause possible temperature or reading inaccuracies. Unable to "save" current settings. Action Contact B&S Service Department.

Press any key to clear the error message, then press CONFG, then QUIT. This will retry the "save" routine. If error repeats, contact B&S Service Department. Contact B&S Service Department.

20

Incorrect setting in linearisation data. Could cause possible reading inaccuracies.

When contacting B&S Service Department, please have the following information ready:a. b. c. RFM300 serial number (on label at the rear of the instrument housing). Software version (see page 3-1). Error code.

4-2 ERROR

CONDITIONS

&

MESSAGES

SETTING DEFAULT VALUES

If an error code 4 has occurred or if the instrument fails to start up correctly after switching on, then it could be advisable to reset certain settings to the original factory set (or default) values. Switch the instrument off. Press, and hold down, the 9 key and switch on. Do not release the key until the screen shows ...

Selecting YES will set:Reading mode Quality display Display resolution (if applicable) Delay before reading Operator Password Supervisor Password Selected scale Temp compensation RS232 serial conditions Scale selection list Date format Printer type 5rdgs printer summary Batch & Operator codes

single rdg display hi 0 123 135 bx su 8-bit,NP,9600 baud (ri, bx only) DD/MM/YY 24 column 0 (none) (none)

After pressing YES or NO, the next screen will be displayed ...

Selecting YES will set:ZERO aimpoint (ri) SPAN aimpoint (ri) ZERO aimpoint (bx) SPAN aimpoint (bx)

1.33299 1.41000 0.00 45.00

ZERO/SPAN correction points are set to approximate values (this will ensure that a reading value can be displayed, although it will be incorrect) After pressing YES or NO, the next screen will be displayed ...

Selecting YES will set:All U.D. scales Constant A All U.D. scales Constant B All U.D. scales Constant C All U.D. scales Constant D All U.D. scales Constant E All U.D. scales Constant F U.D. scales identification characters U.D. temperature compensation constant

0 476.19 0 0 0 0 u1,u2,u3,u4,u5 0

After setting default values, it is essential that ZERO and SPAN are both set.

ERROR

CONDITIONS

&

MESSAGES

4-3

Specification
Performance Temperature Temperature Compensation Prism Prism Plate Interface Physical Power Requirements 5-1 5-1 5-1 5-1 5-1 5-1 5-2 5-2

SPECIFICATION 5

Specification
PERFORMANCE

Model

RFM311 Refractive index

RFM340

Range minimum Range maximum Display resolution Repeatability () Brix Range minimum Range maximum Display resolution Repeatability ()

1.33 1.43 0.0001 0.0001

1.33 1.54 0.0001/ 0.00001 0.00003

0 50 0.1 0.1

0 95 0.1/0.01 0.02

TEMPERATURE

Circulation water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 to 60C Ambient . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 to 45C Storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -5 to 60C

TEMPERATURE COMPENSATION PRISM

ICUMSA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 to 40C Extended . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 to 10 and 40 to 60C

Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Artificial sapphire ND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.7686 Sample surface diameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12mm

PRISM PLATE INTERFACE

Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 326 S 36 stainless steel Dish diameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43mm Prism gasket . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Silicon rubber

Type . . . . . . . Baud rate . . . . Word structure Handshaking .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RS232C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300, 1200 or 9600 7 bit with even parity or 8 bit with no parity . . . Combined DSR/DTR type + XON/XOFF

SPECIFICATION 5-1

PHYSICAL

Model RFM340 Length Width . Height Weight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290mm 210mm 160mm . . 6.2Kg

Model RFM311 Depth Width . Height Weight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220mm 280mm 350mm . . 7.9Kg

POWER REQUIREMENTS

Power Supply types 55-104 Voltage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 to 230V~10% Frequency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 to 60 Hz Max. load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 mA

5-2 SPECIFICATION

Spares & Accessories


Spare Parts
Power Supplies Pressers Flow Through Cells Optional Accessories Miscellaneous

6-1
6-1 6-1 6-1 6-1 6-1

Flow Through Cells


Introduction Continuous flow through cells Macro Funnel flow through cell Installation

6-2
6-2 6-2 6-3 6-4

SPARES & ACCESSORIES 6

Spare Parts

Description

UK Version 230V

Euro Version 230V

US Version 110V

POWER SUPPLIES PRESSERS

Power supply unit (all instruments)

55-104

Without temperature sensor With temperature sensor (RFM340)

24-81 24-80

FLOW THROUGH CELLS

Micro bore continuous Macro bore continuous Macro bore funnel Vertical continuous for RFM311

24-82 24-86 24-83 25-211

OPTIONAL ACCESSORIES

Printer interface cable - 25way "D" type plug IBM PC or compatible computer adaptor (for use with 54-01) Printer package including power supply and interface cable 54-01 Circulator (Heating and Cooling) including 2 tubes 56-036 and 4 clips 56-035 Circulator (Heating only) including 2 tubes 56-036 and 4 clips 56-035 55-02U 56-16U 56-14U

54-01 54-51 55-02E 56-16E 56-14E 55-02S 56-16S 56-16S

MISCELLANEOUS

Desiccator Funnel for RFM311 Strainer for RFM311 Connector blanking cap (Serial Port) Connector blanking cap (Temp Sensor) Operators manual (English) Operators manual (Spanish) Operators manual (French) Operators manual (German) RFM300 Utility software (for remote operation and User Defined Scale creation) (for use on an IBM PC or compatible)

13-395 80-299 80-300 23-65 62-023 25-101 25-111 25-112 25-113 25-265

SPARES & ACCESSORIES 6-1

Flow Through Cells


INTRODUCTION

The RFM340 refractometer is supplied with a Sample Presser Assembly, type 24-80, incorporating an integral temperature sensor and water circulation jacket. The presser is intended for use where sample application would be undertaken manually with the aid of a spatula or pipette. However, this application technique may be inappropriate for some products, so to meet these alternative requirements, a range of sample application accessories, or flow through cells, are available. Flow through cells come in two configurations, a funnel type and a continuous flow type. The funnel type allows the user to pour sample from a flask, beaker or bottle into the flowcell. The continuous flow type allows the RFM300 to be connected to a "process" where a continuous stream of sample is pumped through the cell. Flow through cells have the added advantage of isolating the sample from the atmosphere thereby maintaining the sample in an uncorrupted state for greater periods than that which would occur if a standard sample presser was used.

CONTINUOUS FLOW THROUGH CELLS

The Continuous flow through type cell design allows the connection of the RFM300 directly into a production system thereby enabling continuous sampling of the product. The Continuous flow through cell is available in two forms: a Macro version and a Micro version. The Macro version has an identical nozzle and cell capacity to that of the Funnel type, the Micro version has approximately half the capacity of the Macro version.

6-2 SPARES & ACCESSORIES

The Micro flow-through cell is intended for applications where small amounts of sample are available. Both the Macro and Micro flow-through cells incorporate a water circulation jacket to aid sample stabilisation and an integral temperature sensor for faster temperature compensation. The design provides easy access to the prism face for cleaning by simple lever and latch retaining mechanism.

MACRO FUNNEL FLOW THROUGH CELL

The Macro Funnel flow through cell is designed for batch sample application of low viscosity samples. The design features an anti-syphon vented waste system that accepts bulk sample applied from a bottle or similar vessel. Sample sizes should be in the region of 50ml to allow the system to automatically flush the cell cavity and retain sufficient sample for the system to measure. The antisyphon / auto-flushing system relies on the waste run-off pipe not exceeding the height of the cell cavity for reliable operation. The funnel flow through cell incorporates an integral temperature sensor for fast temperature compensation and the design provides easy access to the prism face for cleaning by a simple lever and latch retaining mechanism. The flowcell incorporates a water jacket that may be connected to the water circulation system of the RFM300 to aid sample stabilisation.

SPARES & ACCESSORIES 6-3

INSTALLATION

If the RFM300 is connected to a water circulator, then disconnect it and drain the water channels in the instrument. If the presser is equipped with a temperature probe then unplug it from the left-hand side of the instrument housing. Separate the sample presser by removing the three screws from the rear of the Arm Mounting Block - see below.

Arm Mounting Block

Arm Gasket

The presser should now be detached from the instrument and safely stored for future use. Inspect the intervening Arm Gasket; if it is misshapen or damaged, then replace it. Offer the flow cell up to the Arm Mounting block, ensure that the gasket is correctly located in slot on the front of the block, and secure with the three screws. Connect the temperature probe and update the probe letter as described in Section 3, Setting Up the System - Temperature Probes - Select Temperature Probe Tolerance Letter. Where appropriate, connect all piping and ensure that suitable pipe clips are installed. Start the circulator and check for leaks. The flow cell is secured to the prism plate by rotating the central Arm Lever - up, to open the two Arm Latches - and down, to locate them over the edge of the prism plate. Ensure that a good seal exists between the rubber ring around the edge of the flow through cell cavity and the prism plate.

6-4 SPARES & ACCESSORIES

Contents
Spanning techniques
Introduction Medium pros and cons Setting span with a sugar solution Setting span with an oil Setting span with a reference fluid Setting span with a test piece

A
A-1 A-1 A-2 A-2 A-2 A-2

Preparation of sugar samples


Introduction Apparatus required Constituents Procedure Notes Sucrose sample record sheet

B
B-1 B-1 B-1 B-2 B-2 B-3

Health and Safety Information


Methylene iodide

C
C-1

Printout Formats
Introduction Single & Continuous readings Continuous + Prt Multi rdgs + Prt 5 Readings + Prt Single & Continuous readings Continuous + Prt Multi rdgs + Prt 5 Readings + Prt (printer: (printer: (printer: (printer: (printer: (printer: (printer: (printer: 24 column) 24 column) 24 column) 24 column) 40+ column) 40+ column) 40+ column) 40+ column)

D
D-1 D-1 D-1 D-2 D-2 D-3 D-3 D-4 D-4

CONTENTS

Spanning Techniques
INTRODUCTION
As an aspect of regular maintenance, it is recommended that the zero and span points of the RFM300 are periodically checked. Checking the zero point is easier than span as the medium used is invariably water which is comparatively inert. Checking the span involves the use of standard liquids, which tend to be unstable, or solid test pieces which are often difficult to apply with repeatable results. There are four groups of media that are commonly used for span calibration: Sugar solutions, oils, standard reference fluids and test pieces. The choice of calibration sample should be the result of weighing up the advantages and disadvantages of a particular medium, considering what areas of the scale are predominantly used and the environment under which the measurements will be taken.

MEDIUM PROS AND CONS


SUGAR SOLUTIONS OILS

ADVANTAGES Easy and safe to handle. Easy and safe to handle.

DISADVANTAGES Subject to evaporation. Limit of 60Brix. Short shelf life. High temperature coefficient. Temperature control to within 0.1C required. High temperature coefficient. Expensive. Temperature control to within 0.1C required. Difficult to apply consistently. Contact fluid is a hazardous substance.

REFERENCE FLUIDS

Easy and safe to handle. Repeatable at specified temperature. Low temperature coefficient.

TEST PIECES

SPANNING TECHNIQUES A-1

SETTING SPAN WITH A SUGAR SOLUTION

a. b. c. d.

Prepare or obtain a sugar concentration. See Appendix B.

solution

with

the

required

Thoroughly clean the prism and presser. Apply approximately 1ml of solution to the prism using a disposable pipette. Allow time for the sample temperature to stabilise. Repeatedly press "READ" until the readings are stable. Keep this stage as short as possible otherwise the sample will be affected by evaporation. Select the SPAN option. Re-apply and retest when the spanning process is complete.

e.

SETTING SPAN WITH AN OIL

a.

As with sugar samples, calibration oils must be of known characteristics. Oils tend to have a high temperature coefficient and therefore control of the instrument and sample temperatures are of paramount importance. Thoroughly clean the prism and presser. Use methyl alcohol if the previous sample was an oil. Apply sufficient oil to the prism using a disposable pipette to give a depth of sample over the prism of approximately 2mm. Note that the sample will form a meniscus against the sample dish which will tend to draw sample away from the prism. Allow time for the sample temperature to stabilise. Repeatedly press "READ" until the readings are stable. Select the SPAN option. Re-apply and retest when the spanning process is complete.

b. c.

d. e.

SETTING SPAN WITH A REFERENCE FLUID

a.

All the conditions that apply to oils apply to reference fluids with the following exceptions. Firstly, check that the manufacturer specifies a reading value for the temperature that the fluid will be used at. Secondly, reference fluids are expensive because they are certified accurate at a given temperature - DO NOT ECONOMISE BY PLACING TOO LITTLE ON THE PRISM.

SETTING SPAN WITH A TEST PIECE

a. b.

Clean prism and test piece thoroughly using methyl alcohol. Place a very small quantity of contact liquid (methylene iodide, see Appendix C) on either the prism or the polished surface of the test piece, (less than the area of a pin head). Place the test piece on the prism and press down to make as good a contact as possible. Remove the test piece and wipe off any contact liquid using clean tissue.

c. d.

A-2 SPANNING TECHNIQUES

e. f.

Replace the test piece on the prism using only the contact liquid left on the prism. Do not use extra liquid. The test piece should now stick to the prism with the minimal amount of contact liquid and should be very difficult to remove. If necessary, repeat removal of the test piece and wiping surplus contact liquid off the test piece until good contact is achieved. When the test piece is correctly in contact, the reading will be reasonably stable and pressure applied to the test piece will not alter this. Select the SPAN option. application. Re-apply and retest to verify the

g.

h. i.

Drip methyl alcohol around the test piece. It should then be possible to lift off the test piece without undue effort. Clean the prism with methyl alcohol.

SPANNING TECHNIQUES A-3

Preparation of Sugar Samples


INTRODUCTION
Accurate sugar solutions provide a simple and convenient method of setting calibration but if the results are to be meaningful, must be prepared with great care and attention to detail. Sugar samples are prepared by weight of sugar / weight of solution; eg.:15 grams of sucrose + 85 grams of water = 15% sugar (or 15Brix). Concentrations higher than 60% are not recommended as they are difficult to dissolve and crystallise easily. If kept in a refrigerator at less than 5C, samples will remain accurate for one week. After this time, significant bacterial growth can occur, particularly with low concentrations, and they should be discarded. Prepare a "Sugar Sample Record Sheet" as shown on page B-3 and always write down measured weights and calculations. This will assist in verification if the sample later appears to be incorrect.

APPARATUS REQUIRED

Balance: Containers:

Minimum range- 0-160 grams; resolution- 0.001 gram. Recommended- 175ml low density polyethylene, screwcap bottles. It is vital that the cap provides a good seal & it is advantageous if the material is lightweight to minimise the tare. Optional but will speed up mixing and dissolving, particularly with high concentration samples.

Shaker:

CONSTITUENTS

Distilled water. Sucrose. Normal granulated sugar is suitable provided it is kept dry and clean.

PREPARATION

OF

SUGAR SAMPLES B-1

PROCEDURE

a. b.

Ensure the container & cap are clean & free from dust and are perfectly dry. Place container on the balance pan and tare (re-zero; if a tare facility is not available, then record the container weight & subtract from subsequent readings). Pour sugar into the container to as near as possible to "Sucrose Weight - Aim Grams" value. Enter "Sucrose Weight - Actual Grams" in column B. Calculate "Total Weight - Aim Grams" from B ( 100 / A ) Add distilled water to the container to as near as possible to "Total Weight - Aim Grams". If the weight should overshoot, DO NOT attempt to remove any water from the container; use the weight shown or discard the sample and re-start. Enter "Total Weight - Actual Grams" in column C. Calculate "Actual Concentration" from B / C 100 and enter the value rounded to two decimal places. Write Actual Concentration on a self adhesive label and stick on the container. Place the cap on the container. Place the container in the shaker and agitate for a minimum of 20 minutes or swirl the sample in the container by hand until fully dissolved. Leave the sample in a refrigerator overnight to stabilise. Agitate the sample very slowly for 10 minutes or gently swirl the container by hand to ensure total mixing. Store in a refrigerator at 2-5C until required (DO NOT allow to freeze). Discard the sample after 7 days.

c. d. e. f.

g. h. i. j.

k. l.

m. n.

NOTES:

1. 2. 3.

Switch on the balance 30 minutes before use to stabilise. Sterility is vital. If there is any doubt about a sample, discard it and repeat. The "Sugar Weight - Aim Grams" values shown on the next page are designed to make best use of the balance and containers recommended but can be varied to suit other equipment.

B-2 PREPARATION

OF

SUGAR SAMPLES

SUCROSE SAMPLE RECORD SHEET


Batch Number Date Operator A Reqd. Conc. % 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 : : : B Sucrose Weight Aim Grams 5 10 15 22 29 35 42 48 55 62 70 83 Actual Grams * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 20.0000 10.0000 6.66667 5.00000 4.00000 3.33333 2.85714 2.50000 2.22222 2.00000 1.81818 1.66667 = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = 100/A B*(100/A) Total Weight Aim Grams Actual Grams C (B/C)*100 Actual Conc. %

PREPARATION

OF

SUGAR SAMPLES B-3

Health & Safety Information


Methylene iodide
Physical data Appearance and odour: Melting point: Boiling point: Wt per ml @ 20C: Solubility in water: Colourless to pale brown liquid, chloroform-like odour. 6C 180C (decomposes) 3.32g Immiscible

Fire and explosion hazard Flash point: None

Health hazard TLV: LD50: Effect on:Inhalation: Eyes: Skin contact: Ingestion: Harmful Irritates Irritates Harmful Unknown No data Emergency First Aid:Remove from exposure, rest and keep warm; obtain medical attention. Irrigate thoroughly with water; if splashing has occurred or in severe cases, obtain medical attention. Wash thoroughly with soap and water; obtain medical attention. Remove and air contaminated clothing before re-use. Wash out mouth thoroughly with water; obtain medical attention.

Reactivity Stability: Reaction with water: Decomposition products: Darkens on exposure to air. None. Highly toxic fumes of iodides.

HEALTH

AND

SAFETY INFORMATION C-1

Spillage disposal Small spillage: Absorb on sand, shovel into bucket and transfer to open area for burial. Site of spillage should be washed thoroughly with water and soap or detergent.

Special protective measures Ventilation: Gloves: Eye protection: Local exhaust General Special fume cupboard if handling large quantities Nitrile Goggles

Notes: 1. Data source, BDH Limited. 2. Although the amount of methylene iodide supplied by Bellingham & Stanley Ltd. for use as a test piece contact liquid is small in comparison with the typical laboratory quantities that this information was prepared for, the data is still generally applicable and inhalation and all skin contact should be positively avoided.

C-2 HEALTH

AND

SAFETY INFORMATION

Printout Formats
INTRODUCTION SINGLE & CONTINUOUS READINGS
Printer: 24 column This appendix section will show you the printed output from the RFM300 when using different printers and reading recurrence modes.

With either Batch or Operator codes operational

Heading repeated every 8 readings

RFM340 BT99123 28-09-99 Z= 26-09-99 S= 26-09-99 ri notc (p), Delay = 0 Batch: 123456 Op: 0 13:35 1.36987 20.0C Batch: 123457 Op: 0 13:38 1.38733 20.0C Batch: 123458 Op: 0 13:44 1.41002 20.0C Batch: 123458 Op: 0 13:46 1.36982 20.0C Batch: 123458 Op: 0 13:58 1.36893 20.0C Batch: 123458 Op: 0 14:04 1.41211 20.1C Batch: 123458 Op: 0 14:09 1.40366 20.1C Batch: 123457 Op: 0 14:12 1.38733 20.0C

RFM340 BT99123 28-09-99 Z= 26-09-99 S= 26-09-99 ri notc (p) Delay = 0 Batch: 123456 Op: 0 13:35 1.36987 20.0C

Model Code Serial Number Date of printing Date of last zero Date of last span Scale identifier code Temp. compensation mode Temperature probe Delay in seconds Batch code Operator code Time of printing Reading in selected scale Temperature when reading

Without either Batch or Operator codes operational

Heading repeated every 16 readings

RFM340 BT99123 28-09-99 Z= 26-09-99 S= 26-09-99 ri notc (p), Delay = 0 13:35 1.36987 20.0C 13:38 1.38733 20.0C 13:44 1.41002 20.0C 13:46 1.36982 20.0C 13:58 1.36893 20.0C 14:04 1.41211 20.1C 14:09 1.40366 20.1C 14:12 1.38733 20.0C

CONTINUOUS+PRT
Printer: 24 column

Heading repeated every 16 readings

RFM340 BT99123 28-09-99 Z= 26-09-99 S= 26-09-99 ri notc (p), Delay = 0 13:35 1.36987 20.0C 13:38 1.38733 20.0C 13:44 1.41002 20.0C 13:46 1.36982 20.0C 13:58 1.36893 20.0C 14:04 1.41211 20.1C 14:09 1.40366 20.1C 14:17 1.39768 20.0C 13:35 1.36987 20.0C 13:38 1.38733 20.0C 13:44 1.41002 20.0C 13:46 1.36982 20.0C 13:58 1.36893 20.0C 14:04 1.41211 20.1C 14:09 1.40366 20.1C 14:17 1.39768 20.0C

RFM340 BT99123 28-09-99 Z= 26-09-99 S= 26-09-99 ri notc (p) Delay = 0 13:35 1.36987 20.0C

Model Code Serial Number Todays date Date of last zero Date of last span Scale identifier code Temp. compensation mode Temperature probe Delay in seconds Time of printing Reading in selected scale Temperature when reading

PRINTOUT FORMATS D-1

MULTI RDGs+PRT
Printer: 24 column

RFM340 BT99123 28-09-99 Z= 26-09-99 S= 26-09-99 ri notc (p), Delay = 0 13:35 1.36987 20.0C 13:38 1.38733 20.0C 13:44 1.41002 20.0C 13:46 1.36982 20.0C 13:58 1.36893 20.0C 14:04 1.41211 20.1C 14:09 1.40366 20.1C 14:17 1.39768 20.0C 14:35 1.36987 20.0C 14:38 1.38733 20.0C 14:44 1.41002 20.0C 14:46 1.36982 20.0C 14:58 1.36893 20.0C 15:04 1.41211 20.1C 15:09 1.40366 20.1C 15:17 1.39768 20.0C 16 readings Min: 1.36893 Max: 1.41211 Mean: 1.38993 Spread: 0.43128 Std Dev: 0.02645

RFM340 BT99123 28-09-99 Z= 26-09-99 S= 26-09-99 ri notc (p) Delay = 0 13:35 1.36987 20.0C 16 readings 1.36893 1.41211 1.38993 0.43128 0.02645

Model Code Serial Number Todays date Date of last zero Date of last span Scale identifier code Temp. compensation mode Temperature probe Delay in seconds Time of printing Reading in selected scale Temperature when reading Number of readings Smallest reading Largest reading Mean average reading Spread of the readings Standard Deviation of the readings

5 READINGS + PRT
Printer: 24 column

RFM340 BT99123 22-01-95 Z= 26-09-99 S= 26-09-99 bx sutc (s) Delay = 5 Batch: 900125 Op: 0 10:01 12.34 27.8C 10:01 12.36 27.8C 10:02 12.35 27.8C 10:02 12.36 27.8C 10:02 12.35 27.8C 5 readings Min: 12.34 Max: 12.36 Mean: 12.35 Spread: 0.02 Std Dev: 0.01

RFM340 BT99123 28-09-99 Z= 26-09-99 S= 26-09-99 bx sutc (s) Delay = 5 Batch: 900125 Op: 0 10:01 12.34 27.8C (Optional) 5 readings 12.34 12.36 12.35 0.02 0.01

Model Code Serial Number Todays date Date of last zero Date of last span Scale identifier code Temp. compensation mode Temperature probe Delay in seconds Batch code Operator code Time of printing Reading in selected scale Temperature when reading Number of readings Smallest reading Largest reading Mean average reading Spread of the readings Standard Deviation of the readings

D-2 PRINTOUT FORMATS

SINGLE & CONTINUOUS READINGS


Printer: 40+ column

Heading repeated every 16 readings

RFM340 BT99123 Date: 28-09-99 Delay: 4 Last ZERO: 26-09-99 Last SPAN: 26-09-99 Batch Op Time ri notc Temp(s) Qual 123456 0 13:35 1.36987 20.0C 89 123457 0 13:38 1.38733 20.0C 88 123458 0 13:44 1.41002 20.0C 87 123458 0 13:46 1.36982 20.0C 88 123458 0 13:58 1.36893 20.0C 88 123458 0 14:04 1.41211 20.1C 91 123458 0 14:09 1.40366 20.1C 89 123458 0 14:17 1.39768 20.0C 88 123456 0 14:35 1.36987 20.0C 87 123457 0 14:38 1.38733 20.0C 88 123458 0 14:44 1.41002 20.0C 88 123458 0 14:46 1.36982 20.0C 91 123458 0 14:58 1.36893 20.0C 96 123458 0 15:04 1.41211 20.1C 95 123458 0 15:09 1.40366 20.1C 97 123458 0 15:17 1.39768 20.0C 96 RFM340 BT99123 Date: 28-09-99 Delay: 4 Last ZERO: 26-09-99 Last SPAN: 26-09-99 Batch Op Time ri notc Temp(s) Qual 123456 0 15:35 1.36987 20.0C 89 123457 0 15:38 1.38733 20.0C 88 123458 0 15:44 1.41002 20.0C 87 123458 0 15:46 1.36982 20.0C 88 123458 0 15:58 1.36893 20.0C 88 123458 0 16:04 1.41211 20.1C 91 123458 0 16:09 1.40366 20.1C 89 123458 0 16:17 1.39768 20.0C 88 123456 0 16:35 1.36987 20.0C 87 123457 0 16:38 1.38733 20.0C 88 123458 0 16:44 1.41002 20.0C 88 123458 0 16:46 1.36982 20.0C 91 123458 0 16:58 1.36893 20.0C 96 123458 0 16:04 1.41211 20.1C 95 123458 0 16:09 1.40366 20.1C 97 123458 0 16:17 1.39768 20.0C 96

RFM340 Model Code BT99123 Serial Number Date: 28-09-99 Todays date Delay: 4 Delay in seconds Last ZERO: Date of last zero Last SPAN: Date of last span ri Scale identifier code notc Temp. compensation mode (s) Temperature probe 123456 Batch code 0 Operator code 13:35 Time of printing 1.36987 Reading in selected scale 20.0C Temperature when reading 89 Reading quality value

CONTINUOUS+PRT
Printer: 40+ column
RFM340 BT99123 Date: 28-09-99 Delay: 4 Last ZERO: 26-09-99 Last SPAN: 23-09-99 Time ri notc Temp(s) Qual 13:35 1.36987 20.0C 89 13:38 1.38733 20.0C 88 13:44 1.41002 20.0C 89 13:46 1.36982 20.0C 89 13:58 1.36893 20.0C 90 14:04 1.41211 20.1C 88 14:09 1.40366 20.1C 89 14:17 1.39768 20.0C 89 13:35 1.36987 20.0C 89 13:38 1.38733 20.0C 89 13:44 1.41002 20.0C 89 13:46 1.36982 20.0C 89 13:58 1.36893 20.0C 90 14:04 1.41211 20.1C 90 14:09 1.40366 20.1C 89 14:17 1.39768 20.0C 89

Heading repeated every 16 readings

PRINTOUT FORMATS D-3

MULTI RDGs+PRT
Printer: 40+ column
RFM340 BT99123 Date: 28-09-99 Delay: 3 Last ZERO: 26-09-99 Last SPAN: 23-09-99 Time ri notc Temp(s) Qual 13:35 1.36987 20.0C 89 13:38 1.38733 20.0C 88 13:44 1.41002 20.0C 89 13:46 1.36982 20.0C 89 13:58 1.36893 20.0C 90 14:04 1.41211 20.1C 88 14:09 1.40366 20.1C 89 14:17 1.39768 20.0C 89 13:35 1.36987 20.0C 89 13:38 1.38733 20.0C 89 13:44 1.41002 20.0C 89 13:46 1.36982 20.0C 89 13:58 1.36893 20.0C 90 14:04 1.41211 20.1C 90 14:09 1.40366 20.1C 89 14:17 1.39768 20.0C 89 16 readings Max: 1.41211 Min: 1.36893 Spread: 0.04318 Std Dev: 1.38993 RFM340 Model Code BT99123 Serial Number Date: 28-09-99 Todays date Delay: 3 Delay in seconds Last ZERO: Date of last zero Last SPAN: Date of last span ri Scale identifier code notc Temp. compensation mode (s) Temperature probe Batch: 123456 Batch code Op: 0 Operator code 13:35 Time of printing 1.36987 Reading in selected scale 20.0C Temperature when reading 89 Reading quality value 16 readings Number of readings 1.38993 Smallest reading 1.41211 Largest reading 1.38993 Mean of the readings 0.43128 Spread of the readings 1.38993 Standard deviation of readings

5 READINGS + PRT
Printer: 40+ column

RFM340 BT99123 Date: 28-09-99 Delay: 3 Last ZERO: 26-09-99 Last SPAN: 23-09-99 Time ri notc Temp(s) Qual 13:35 1.36987 20.0C 89 13:38 1.38733 20.0C 88 13:44 1.41002 20.0C 89 13:46 1.36982 20.0C 89 13:58 1.36893 20.0C 90 5 readings Max: 1.41002 Min: 1.36893 Mean: 1.38993 Spread: 0.04318 Std Dev: 0.02164

D-4 PRINTOUT FORMATS