Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 26

Problem A : Tabascan Chontal Wexieo) Prove that ti] and [ul arc separate phonemes. 1. sis cold 5.

ilhim 2. lug bad 6. sum dried palm 7. fig 3. selj 4. sami earlier today

corn row corn meal

ti~Guuuriua[~iual LLA: [lid *

~w~i:or&IU/ uar. /I/ diak~ucnd?utiluaniu~W'nni7~n"u11d


Problem I : Mazatoco (Mexico) Prove that nasalized vowcls and oral vowcls are separate phonemes. 1. nafi cliff 5. n a b salt
2- s) 3. 4. tasa

sour hand
CUP

6. @ 7. t q
8-

loose married lion

Problem 2: Zinza Prove that high tone [ ' I and low tone unmarked are phonemic. 4. obukdmbe wedding feast to krcolne wet 1. kuioba thunderstorm we forgot 5, obukombo 2. tukebwa to fish by line we were stolen from 6. kufdba 3. tukgbwa

Problem 3 : Oaxacan Chontal (Mexico) Prove that [I] and Is], [ k ] and [ X I , [ t l and [\I, [ e l and [ a ] and [ a * ] are separate phonemes. 1. kuahx needle 8. tepa 2. paUxa he is able 9. trepa 3. epa sugar cane 10. axap 4. saxpa 1 ate 11. fa-set8 12. parjxaw 5. pPa he bit 6. kuhx bitter 13. &-pa 7. twpa I went away 14. aka9
\

[el, [ u l and Cu'l,


I bit I sif tcd water be is goin8 for a walk slowly he wcnt away bird

Problem 4 : Badaga Prove that [e.] is phonemically distinct from retroflex [ y 1, [ a ] from [0].
1.

mouth ass bangle

4. kat-e

I learned
warh it! plural of to.

2.

ktt-e

3. beb

5. tosgu d to-gb

Problem 5 : Tojotabat (Mexico) Prove that [ k 1 and [ k'

are separate phonemes.


8. hk'a 9.

1. kisim
2.
4.

my beard our feet hanging white he is carrying it he stirred it my grass

chop it down flea


\

koktik sak

k'ak

3. p'akan
5. skuxu

10. k'a%m
1 1. k'i3in

sugar cane warm to d r m reed

12, k'uutes 13. ?a k'


b. I
d

6. snika
7. kak

niou'ir n i ~ n ~ r i a e ~ u ~ m ~ u r a ; I n i ' 1 ~ ~ u u ~ ~ ~ u Z ' 1 1 ~ ~ n u ~ f i n ' 7 u


Problem 8 :

\iiPJr?; 5 ~:ui?ati~~m R f i tat 'my g d aan ~~(I 7

ow

L*ln:s:uu

/r/

uar

/tS ~ ~ u n u a r r n u ~ u ~ ~ u ~ a i u \ ~ ~ i n n ~ ~ ~ ~ u u ~

Problem 6 : Venda (South Africa) Are [ p n I allophones of one phoneme? State your evidence. 151 is a strongly labialized fricative in contrast with 1 z 1. [ q ] dental [ n 1 alveolar I. bagu a t your place 7 ene he 8. hana child hood 2. !o g tooth 3. muge master 9. khouno there 4. pari buffalo 10. Batanu five 5. pfheae baboon lee! 1I , Banani 6. B a ~ a four now 12. q n o Problem 7 : Hypothetical Language Prove that If/ and Ivl am separate pbonemsr. 1. mfsa wbale 3. tam 2. mavma house 4. kmtevsa

walrur garden

Problem C : Tojolabal (Mexico) Define the distribution of [ t I and f th ] that they are in complementary distribution and form one phoneme. pig 5, ,Zatath kind of plant 1. Eitam 2. makton a patch 6: muth chicken 3. potot' kihd of plant 7. nahath long 4. tiuan upside down 8. 'inath seed

fIl~~n.3~~1
[ t ] occurs initially or mediatly. [ th ] occurs finally. [ t 1 and [ th I are in coaplsnentaN distribution and fork one phoneme.

Problem

D : Qaxacan Chontal (Mexico)


rhc grows fat
liver thick heron quiet they sow ten mother

State muons for proving that [ n ] and [g ] are one phonemc. 1. moygi', tomorrow ' 10. par~guy

2. l i ~ i b o 3 wa8uy . 4. $a% 5. kanduy 6. @a 7. P Y P 8. apando 9. toTuY

his grand mothdr ho carria that he leevh wild borr she w a s h laple
i

11. fut3guy
12. e n t e b 13. tars 14. go? IS. 6 y 16. fabry? 17. bama? 18; nana

I grow

nsu8Jqwi
[ 01 occwa Woro a volu conaomnt or at final, [ n ] oocon elmwhore. Thus [ n ] and [ g] aro in complomatary distribution and form one phoneme.

Problem 8: A z W (Moxico) I 683. [ W $and [ w ] are allophona of a single phoneme. State their bitribvtion. fl, 1. iffiti fbart 6. watsinko tomorrow 2. iwa and 7. BieBeitsi biggish 8. tcusi Bi hungry 3 Beyak . la8 9. tehW3 we 4 Bebfbyi . big he tokes you yostorday 10. miW~ka S. iydWa

Problem 9 : Popoluca (Mexico) State the distribution of [ m l and [MI, I n ] and [ N I. 1. pwga noPj 3. hoN
2.

[%I and [%I. [ g l


woman armadillo snake very

and [I$].

put in the ground flat bird little girl


1 go

7.

yovmo

8. nats

9. tsa%

4. w0.m 5. anokpa
6. mok

10. tsa*M
11, antalma

my country chill

corn

12. iii-wi

Problem 10 : Korean 11 ? I are in complementary distribution and form one phoneme. State the distribution. /UP/ is a high back unrounded vowel. 1. kal fruit that'll go 12. silkwa window 2. k m u l shade 13. tulzhag how much 3. mu1 water 14. almana name 4. pal leg 15. i h m i road 5. $a1 arm 16. kiri then 6. saul Seoul 17. k u ? m to the street 7. tatwl all of them 18. ka'riro 8. ilkop seven 19. sa'iam person we 9 ipalsa . barber 20. uA summer 10. omtlppam tonight 21. yaftun 11. pulphym discomfort Problem 11 : Swahili (I3ast Africa1 L3 Q ] are in complementary distribution and form one phoneme. State the distribution, Forms marked. contain both allophones. drum 12. watoto children 1. n g m a 13. ndoto 2. bma fort dream cattle 14. mboga 3. tjarnbe vegetable 15. ndogo little 4. b3mb P~P 16. $go rooster 5. m b a Pray 17. h k a axe 6. m a llec 18. okota 7. @ f a cure pick up 19. mbla nurse one 8. M a 20. mtego trap 9. 5fP taste incream 2 1. khmdn *sheep 10. njgeza 22. kamggo *wash-out 11. hqga strangle
'

212

Problem 12 : Zulu (South Africa) [3 o ] are in complementary d k r i b u W sad form one phoneme. State the distribution. lc q xl are clicks. 161 is a voiced bilrblal implosive stop. 13. i b n i I. 63aa see 14. umondli guardian 2. b h a bind one who roasts despoil 15. umosi 3. m3sa jeeloury 16. inoni 4.' um3na fat 17. udoli doll 5. i m M car story-teller 18. umxoxi 6. i q l 3 small of back 19. imomfu jerscy cow 7. im:, frog this 8. isicx:, head ring 20. lolu stove 21. isitofu 9. ibaiwe Pt and the tree picture 10. isitbanbe 22. nomuthi you acted like a man I I. inWana 23. udodile son strange man 24. ibokisi box 12. urnfrazi Problem 13': Karok (California) The difference between long and short consonants is not phonemic. State the distribution. Long consonants and vowels are marked by a following1. 8dk1in 2. o h a t
3. d & i k i r
4. yu'ftl

<

bile doe PUPPY no6e wet

6 fand-kat .
7. Va*pun

mosquito on the ground middle deer cave

8. 9d98p

5.

p h r

9. pi*fiE 10. ? h i

Problem 14: Keresan (New Mexico)


[ i !I are in mmplementary distribution

sod form one phoneme. State the distribuhon.


Forms

It will be necessary to describe four environmenu, two for each allgphone; marked 'contain both allophone#. 1. handiyiii 2. ma%w

/ ' I marks stress.


13. na'lriwim

it is 4angeroua vulture 'bison *be hot afraid P~M faknife

14, v w i t

moccasin parrot and it was serpent witch doctor and


tosent
'

3. m d w 4. siy6Uu~ 5, k9ik 6. w1iIuiI


7. hiqkiy

15;

16. j61w 17. f' u%vatraan IS. y a M t 19. h a % t w i

8. kinallk 9. ma-%'art 10. ipd-n 11. yd.ilpin" 12. viztu*

his head fox water bottle shoulder arrow

20. 2 I. 22. 23. 24.

he*Yo'*~a~ ki-w ku'cd-ma~ strdaZ~u~

mist fished he buried it *I'll not be afraid cloth

I Problem 15 : Korean [ s 3 z 1 are in complementary distribution and form one phoneme. State the distribution. Items marked with contain two allophones. 1. satan division 12. giktag dining room color 13. 'Bilsu *mistake 2. srtk 3. s a new 14. Hinpu bride 4. s u o4 novel IS. bgza businoss 5. su number 16. inzn greetings 6. sul wino 17. inzw& publisher 7. susul operation 18. pagzft cushion 8. k k e world 19. $hugzok custom 9. k k r m taxes 20. wnzikEom restaurant lo. k u l i l *washroom 21, yqzucsln receipt I I. %hap game
\

Problem 16 : Totonac (Mexico) Voiculess vowels [ j g y ] are in complementary distribution with voiced voWls [ i a u ] and form throe phonemes /i a u/. State the distribution. 7. snapawhite I. c a w he stacks 8. stapt beans 2. cilinkq , it resounded cut it 3. kasitti 9. gumpi porcupine 10. t a a q h ~ you plunged it. uncle 4. kuk; 11. tiha% he rested Peppery 5. 4kak) 12. tuks. it broke 6. mikf snow
q

Problem I7 : Persian [ ? Y I ] are in complementary distribution and form one phoneme, State tho distribution. Forms marked with * contain two allophones. voiced 1. a?tCI 2. f a s i 3. &dFi 4. 7th

[?I

trill army Persian a little bit road

[i1 voiced
9. a h d l 10. b r h d : 11. b&id 12. b i b . n g

flap

starched *brother go!

pale

17. 18. 19. 20.

[ f ] voiceless trill ahdf starch udf last anaf pomegranate better behtdl

5. F&t 6. ?aeng 7. 8, ? z ;

'is

right pint beard day

13. boT& 14. IS. d a ~ h 16. #ifin:

hairbrush

why?
you have

21. 22. 23. 24.

fe

four &Iuf what kind? h.Sir?tow/' *however &i lion 0

Problem 18 : Ganda (East Africa) [ I i ] are in conlplementary distribution and form one phoneme. State the distribution. Forms marked * contain both allophones. I ' I marks high pitch. I' I marks,low pitch. Idyl i s an alveopalatal stop. Doubldd vowels are long.

I. 'okirdyd~b~i 2. bkddydy6la' / t t 3. bltugu~a 4. bkiggbl; 5 bkhl$t'a . 6. bkdtibidli \ 7. b m u ~ a ~ a \ # \ 8. bmulema I I I 9. nla'lwaana \\ LO, tuleep
# \ d

- to be full of
to dish up to buy to open to bring -to attack mad man lame person fought we tighten

11. ifi*ffmbf 12. 6iidvdl:fid 13. 'Cfliia' 14. e'ttd6ndhb I 5. mye%&r" 16. iidyfi; 17. 'ok'ulffrh 18. 61riieIo' 19. bkdmf8a' A.4 / 20. plrlpl?~
)

a *istle *beam name shop only Gospel *to eat with *story to swallaw Pepper

Problem 19: Karok (California) Are [ a a ] allophones of one phoneme? State your evidence. /I / is a combination of strong stress and high pitch. Unmarked vowels have strong stress and low pitch. 7itraax 2. tit$ 3. d r a 4. Eani'k

r.

arm mama bread mosquito

5. 6. 7. 8.

%Eaa*t 78'x~k qa'sar tanukydanar

rat two wet shovel

Gleason, Henry A., Jr. 1955. Workbook in Lkst~iptiveLinguistics. New York : Henry Holt and Company. Pike, Kenneth L. 1947. Phonemics. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Prcss.

Problem A : Tetelcingo Aztec (Mexico) Identify the pronominal morphemes.

I.

nibeci

I fall you fall 1 sleep you sleep

I eat you eat

2. ti beci
3. n i k d i
4.

I cry
you cry

tikoci

Problem I : Isthmus Aztec (Mexico) Identify the plural and future morphemes.

I.

patani

he flies he is ashamed he laughs they fly they laugh he drinks it they drink it he will laugh

9. kimaga
10. kimagah

he hits it they hit it he will fly he will be ashamed they will drink it he pities him they pity him they are ashamed

2. pina-wa

3. wecka
4. patanih

I 1. patanir
12. pina-was 13. koniash
14. kiknelia
15.

5. weckah 6. konia 7, koniah


8. weckas

kikneliah

16. pina-wah

Problem 2 : Choctaw (Oklahoma) Identify ail the morphemes. 1. pisalitok

I saw
you will see me

you called

2. iLapisa8i
3. Eipisali
4.

I will call you


you call

I see you
you hit me (pres)

me

ihso

I will like I liked you


you like me you see

5. Eisoli

6. ihotok

I bit you (pres) you hit (past)


I will bit

7. soliEi

Problem 3 : Kanuri (Nigeria) What type of affix is shown? What is its form and approximate meaning? ~ivenlkajil'sweet', what is a likely fwm for kweetness'? Given Inam~alal 'goodness', what ig a likely form for 'good'? ' 1. gana 2. kura
3. kurugu
4.

''.

small big long excellent bad

la. namgana 2a. namkura 38. wmkurugu


4a. namkarite
58.

smallness bigness length excellence badness

karite

5. dibi

namdibi

Problem 4: Ganda (Uganda) What type of affixes is shown? Whet are their forms and approximate meanings? Given labalongol 'twins', what is a likely form for 'twin'? 1. omukazi 2. omustlwo 3. omusika 4. omuwala 5. omulenzi woman doctor heir girl
b?'

women doctors heirs girls boys

Problem 5 : Bontoc (Philippine Islands) What type of affix is used to form tbo verb? Describe its form and relatiopship to the stem. Given lpusil 'poor', whet would be the most likely meaning of Ipumusil? Given /$tad/ 'dark', what would be the most likely form meaning 'he is becomingt dark'? Given lpuniukawl 'he is becoming white', what is tht&~ost likely form meaning 'white'?
I. fikas 2. kilad 3. bato 4. fusul

strong red stone enemy

la. fumikas 2a. kumilad 3a. bumsto 4a. fumusul

he he he he

is is is is

becoming becoming becoming becoming

strong red stone an'enemy

Problem 6 : Samoan (The Pacific)


,

What typeofatax is used to make thoifarm, of the verb used with a plural subject? Describe its form and rtlationship to the stem. Given lgaluel '(he) works', what would be the most likely form with a plural abject? Given lalolofa/ '(they) love', what would be the most li.kely form with a singular subject?

manao matua malosi punou savali peso laga atama'i

(he) wishes (he) is old (he) is strong (he) .bends (he) travels (he) sings (he) weaves (he) is wise

la. 2a. 3a. 4a. 5a. 6a. 7a. 8a.

manana0 matutua malolosi punonoy savavali lalaga atamamavi

(they) wish (they) are old (they) are strong (they) bend (they) travel (they) sing (they) weave (they) are wise

Problem B: Cocama (Peru)

1. iwa
2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Identify the possessive arm heart ia daki. head ti nose ka farm dawidi yucca pua hand uka house

adjective morphemes my la. tiwa my 2a. tia 3a. tiaki my 4a. tati my 5a. taka my 6a. tiawidi my 7a, tupua my 8a. tuka my

and state their distribution. Ib. niwa arm heart 2b. nia head 3b. niak/ nose 4b. nati 5b. naka farm yucca 6b. niawidi 7b. napua hand 8b. nuka house

your arm your heart your head your nose your farm -your yucca your hand your house

(t-1 occurs bef0re.a stem 4 t h vowel initial. (ti-) occurs before a stem beginning with Id1 and Id1 is deleted. (ta-1 occurs before a stem beginning with a voiceless consonant except Ipl. (tu-1 occun before a stem beginning with Ipl (t-lti-am-rtu-) are allomorphs of a single morpheme meaning 'my.' (n-1 occun before a stern with vowel initial. Ini-1 occun before r rtern be~inningwith Id/ and Id/ ir deleted. ' (no-) occurs beforo r rtem beginnin8 with a voioolm consonant. In--ni--na-l are allomorphs of the rune morpheme meaning 'your.' :Problem C: Englisb Prove that (irn-rinrri-1 are allomorphr of the Mme morpheme. 1. i m ' p a e a l impossible 7. i'revmnt irreverent

2. i.'litaract
3. insa'fizant

illiterate insufficient inept intolerant inordinate

8. in'vaelyabal
9

invaluable infrequent insufficiency instability irreplaceable

in'friykwent

4. in'ept

10. insa'figdhsiy 11. 1nstdbUatiy 12. iriy'pleysabal

5. in'talaraht
6. in'wdnat

~ l l ~ ~ ~ U * ~ I l l
{im-) occurs before a bilabial stem. (i-I occurs before E) retroflex or lateral stem. {in-) occurs elsewhere, (im--in-4-1 are allomorphs of the same morpheme. Problem 7: Yaruba (Nigeria)

Dewxibe the affix. Pitches am naarlcad / 'I high, /' I, unmarked mid. 1. bs bvertake la. IrSbs is ov~ftaking 2. ba hide 28. Ddba is hiding 3. bh perch 3a. 86b8 is perching 4. f5 break k b? nfl is breaking 5. b writs Sa. @ is writing 6. gitn climb %. b g h is climbing 7. WS come 7a. #+v4 is comimg 8. b 80 8a. & I is going 9. stm sleep 9 1 d@u 4, is sleepmg fi& 10. j 6 lOa.6j6 is fighting 1s M 1. is spreading wead 11. t5 12. ditn 1241.iadDn is paining pain '
Problem 8 : Ilocano (Philippine Islands) What are the allomorphs of the morphemes meaning 'my, your, and his'? State their distribution. your chair lb. tugawna his chair my chair la, tugawmo 1. tugawko

2. sabak
3. bapako

my banana 2a. aabam my rice my food 3a. bagasma


4a. ridam

your banana your rice your food

2b, aabana
3b. brgolna 4b. 8id8na

his banana his rice his food

4. sidak

Problem 9: Turkish State the distribution of the albmorphr of the morpheme muniog 'my.' the hand the eye la, elim la. gi)ziim
my hand

m eye Y
I

'' 3.

dif

4.
5.

kz i

kui giil kol pul yaH 10. dost 1 1 , ev 6. 7. 8. 9.

the the the the the the

tooth girl bird rose arm stamp

38. diFim
48.
5a.

&im
kuhm giiliim kolum pulum Y U dostum evi m

age the friend the house

6a. 7a. 8a. 9a. 10a. I la.

my my my my my ny

100th girl bird rose arm stamp

my age my friend my hbuse

Problem 10 : Hanunoo (Philippine Islands) Two affixes are illustrated in this data. Describe each of them. There are two morphophonemic changes in the roots. Describe each of them. They are best described in a particular order. Which? Why? 1. 2. 3. 4. vusa duwa tulu %pat
'

5. lima 6. "unum 7. pitu

one two three four five six seven

la. kasva 2a. kadwa 3a. katlu 4a. kapvat 5a. kalima 6s. kanvum fa. kapitu

once twice three times four times five times six times seven times

Ib. 2b. 3b. 4b. Sb. 6b.

vusahi duwahi tuluhi vupati limahi vunumi 7b. pituhi

make it one! make it two! make it three! make it four! make it five! make it six! make it seven!

Problem D : Tzeltal (Mexico) List the allomorphs of the verb-forming suffix and under each allomorph the stem stems with which it occurs. to to to to to to to to loan nourish steal speak,with sowe take a wife be one's namesake commit sin bet "p velek' k'op vabat 63. 'inam 7a. helol 8%. mu1 la. 2a. 3a. 4a. 5a. debt strength stealing speesh servant wife namesake sin

01

9. -wayzin
10. -wayibin

to dream of to use for bcd to provide bod Ibt to accompany to fall backwards

9a. way@

dream ' bed to divide in pieces to join fall backwards

I I. -mak'lin
12. -c'aklin 13. -hawc'un

I@. wayib Ila. -mak' 12a. -ctak 13a. -hawc'-

NMes
I. The second column docs not nac~usrilyOive the forms of the stems.
2. The stem formative -1in 11 and 12 constitutes a morpheme.
3. There is a loss of a phoneme

111 in 9.

I-unl occurs with the stem: -ham' (-an1 occurs with the stems: bbS pip (-inw-am-unl k'op
,

(-in] occurs with the stems: Pabeg @inammu1 way8 helol wayib -mak' -c'ak are allomorphs of the same morpheme.

Problem 11 : Sierra Aztec (Mexico) State the condition of the p 1. piotet 088 2. tit fire 3. spat skunk 4. takat man 5. masat deer 6. askat ant 7. t d i n rabbit 8. miston cat 9. sitalin star 104 kimiEin rat I I. Zapolin grasshopper 12. tet rock 13. mosta day 14. pi0 chicken

and the distribution of its allomorphs, e8BS la. piotmeh fires 2a, timeh skunks 3a. epamsh men 4a. takah deer 5a, masamah ants 6a. askameh rabbits 7a. to8imah cam 8a. mistomeh stars 9a. sitalimeh ram 10a. kimiameh grasshoppers I la. 8apolimeh rocks 12a. temeh days Ifa. mostah chickens 14a. piomeh

Problem 12 : Tsotsil (Mexico) Identify all the morphemss and describe the distribution of the allomorphs of the morphemes. I. -k'u*si put a wedge in la. -k'u8 wedge

2.' -8ik'u

3. - b n i 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. -vovi -tVu8i -ukub -1ekub -9ik'ub -tuib

put a prop under put a prop against


80 CnzY become wet
.

2a. -iik* 3a. -hn

prop w d boneath an objoct prop uwd, against an objact crazy wet white good black smelly

4a. vov Sa. t'uH


6a: sak

become b m e become become

white good black rmlly

7a. lek 8a. 'ik' 98. tu

Problem 13: Danakil (Eritrea) Identify all the allomorphr of the plural morpheme.
Singular Rural

la!den 'fillit I i'fi9 a'9u r tor'bus wa'kaii gi' ra gu'lub tor'bal da'le a'mo guru'muda / an tas'wir a'midda ma'go sir'wal manfi'o hanga'la bu'rnar 'nabti roga'va t 'alvi ay'yam

porcupine neck fingernail


Ox

18den'wa filli'ts

Ufi"a
a9u'ra to' rabus wakal'wa gira'ri gulu'ba to'rabil dale'la amolrna gurumud'wa raii'te , ta'sawir &mid'& mago'ga si'rawil manfi'wa hanga11w8 bi'samit nabsl'to mgavat 'wa alPi'te ayyami'te

polics "cap companion nre kneb canvas cloth sore heed log nose picture houw pole debt panu sieve brain nail face* heelth patoh baby week

~ l e k o ,Henry A., Jr. 1955. Work&& Holt and Company.

tt~Drrcriprlrc LI~guitCIa. New York

Henry

rod Crlvin R. Renrcb. 1960. Merrlfield, William R., Coortrnce M. N~kh,

Norpkdogy-

W z Labom~oryh f d . Glendalo, Califorair : Summer Iartitute of Linguistics, a


Nido, Ea#eao A. 1949. Mor~Mogy. (second edition), Ann Arbor :I
Michigan P m .

The Univorrity of

.pl---rr~-~*-w

.~rrrRllP.-

0
(1

JL

ne m
W a
lurr3
= M '

SaMOlr

npQdlmuluznuijn', m n) Y u u u 4 12 4 tR n c z o d . 0

nrd, a, 30
n?uin?nrtu, 1 2 7 n3uito~. 169

n?ui 2 1 9 6
fltihfflfloll;, 5.45.66, 12 3

nziejrauj, 22.52

nirnta~iurruuv"nn!io,39.71
nirnnunn"utauj.122

nitnaun~u1au~olliu6avu'i, 12 2

nitnnuniiur4uaolliu6avn'J, 1 3 2 nirrrollnAi~n'u'lfiu8ntz,1 4 nirJliflrz"luia,


nirBuu6.39
14 2

nitoonrauj, 21

nirwnt?alao~~~di. loo
hnou, 51 uuaunir4if~6iuauuo~uiinorl,
17 5 d 0 f i ~ i ~ 6 ~ 03 i i ~ . 1t3 nru'flfliuiffierolli*7

nirllnud. 1 7 6
fllf dtzG41, 1 7 6 fllld?371fl, 1 61 2 1 7 185,189, 190 3 , 6 , 6,

nir~~.J%u~;uu, 37.39
nitddaulfiul~u~d~n~iu~~ud~, 13 2 nittdduuldn~~nu wzl&~j, 21.25
~ l f ~ ( ~3 l ~ 4 , 1 ~ 2
flltll~fll~~4, 18-19

~1aiuiGuvo~1~0.~, 47
flaiufiir.iun'uni~hmaolli, 39
d P 3 U , 47, 57 11 C l

rraiuifiuratilauuojntznau, 4 1
naiufanuo~l#iuo~tli~i,153 13 3,

nit3aut au, 87

raium~rPinirlauinrPi, 154.155
fi37UQ4UO4flnU,46, 5 1
A

nitda~vdaur~uj. 101,102

~~aiuvaiiu,3,154. 1 5

19 7

niuiflirfiaui, 33 niniiu, IM niuiuofiSau, 93 niuifluq. 93


I

ninidf~rua, 93,130,135,137 nininu)~, 9 nini3Guu, 34 niuiflur~, 34 niniuiUUu, 122,123

amplitude, 51
allomarph, 39 allophone, 39 analogous, 72 Anthony, Edward M., 67, 78 arytenoids. 23, 24 Bloch, Betnard, 85 BlOOmf~eld, Leonard, 84, 85, 92 broad-band, 53
Chomslry, Noam, 11, 13.97. 156,

158, 193 Coe&s, George, 2


H ~ X I L ~42, ~ , 71, 151 U 36,

coda. 102 checked syllable, 102 closed syllable, 102 complementation, 39 complementary distribution, 39 contour tone, 93 constituent s t m a , 163
crest, 102

HnOMlU, 20,21,25 Ha'ntffSl4ln"0,42 sn~~un7u1.173 0 ' l ~ l l Z .25, 29, 35, 43, 44, 71, 87, 89, 101, 1% 0~UIUSIYBU, #JZUl, 1, 126 0930ffI'CIBl$, 6, 121 o i u ? e i l ~ f i u moonri5u.j. i g - ~ r o'au'CIfZ,74
QRU ? ~ I R ~ & 67.78.97.198 ~ U ~ A ~

cricoid, 23

D r i . Charles R., 10 awn


deep structure, 150, 167
deletion, 168

~ d ' C I f f l l ~118 ~ , 0~ ion?& or

onla, 54.55

fdters, 52
finite state grammar, 157
fin&state language. 156

Abramson, Arthur S., 54, 6 ,66, 79, 197 0 Adam, 10

Francis, W. Nelson, 91
I

metath sis, 124


minimal pair, a 7

French, Deborah P., 67.78

Pries, Charles C., 86, 87


fundamental, 50, 51
L
1

marpheme, 117

narrbw-bwd, 53
Nida, Eugene, 121 Noss, &hard B., 77. 197 octave, 47 Ohio State University, 15
onset, 102

Gamer, R. L.,. 10
generate, 152
, Haas, Mary R., 65, 66, 77, 95, 197

leaso on, Hemy A., Jr, 73

Qalle, Morris, 97, 193 harmonics, 50, 51, 52 Hiuris, Zellig, 136 Hill, Archibald A., 11, 91, 100, 115 Hockett, Charles F., 33, 85, 91, 92, 143 Indiana University* 15 inhexent features, 203 interlude, 103 .Internatid Phonetic Alphabet, 19, 79, 225-227 Jakobsoh, Roman, 19.3 Jones, Daniel, 82, 84 level tone, 93 lexical meaning, 3 lexicon, 167 linguists, 14
'

Wiograph, 5 ovwtone, 50 palatalization, 123 Pavlov, Ivan P., 12 peak, 102

f Phonological Granwar o Thai,


A, 206 p h o n d c s , 102 Phrase Structw, 167 Pike, Kenneth L., 15, 39, 73, 87, 88.99 polyglat, 14 prominent feature, 203 redundancy, 151
I

=ondary verb, 169


semitom, 47

Linguistic Institute, 15 logarithmic scale, 47 loss o phonemes, 123 f Marlcov, 157


\
r ,

Sledd, James, 91. 100


'
+
1

Smitb, Henry Let,84,88,89,91,92


h muad apectmgrarn,

29,57, 61

242

LI 210

sound spectrograph, 5, 53
speech synthesizer, 59 stmctud meaning, 3, 11 style, 134 substiMe, 13 substitution, 167 Summer Institute uf L i i s t i c s , 15
surface structute, 150

trandonnations, 167
UCLA, 15

unique morpheme, 127


University uf Illinois, 15 University uf Oklahoma, 15

University of Texas at Austin, 15

f University o Washington, 15
unreleased. 4, 1% 87 voiced conson~t, voiceless consonaat, 87 vowel lengthening, 124

Syntactic Structures, 11 thyroid, 23, 24


tonal features, 203

Trager, George L., 84, 85.88, 89, 91.92.198

zero--

124