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Simplified Aircraft Design Spreadsheet for Homebuilders


Version 1.0
LEGAL NOTICE !

Copyright C 2003 by Daniel P. Raymer. All Rights Reserved. See legal notice for further restrictions.
Better to save this spreadsheet as a renamed copy before changing it for your airplane, in case it gets messed up!

Wing Loading

Stall speed Takeoff air density Wing CLmax power loading

Inputs (kts) (slugs/ft^3) (lb/hp)

Calculated Values 60 Stall speed (ft/sec) 0.00238 Dynamic pressure (psf) 1.6 Wing loading (W/S) (psf) 8.3333

Other Factors Used 101.3 (OK to change these if you know what 12.2 you are doing) 19.55

Equatio

q!

1 2 VVStall 2

Wo -known engine

If sizing to a range requirement, ignore this input for now but enter it later when Wo is calculated and engine is selected Engine Power Number of Engines Swet/Sref Cfe Aspect ratio (A) Cruise air density Cruise velocity (hp -each)

You cannot enter Wo! Engine power and power loading are multiplied to calculate Wo. If sizing to a range requirement, do calculation below, read Wo from graph, and select an engine that gives the desired Wo=P*P/W (lb) (sq ft) 2000.0 102.3 0.0223 0.0424 e (Oswald) 19.2 Wcruise/Wo 304.0 81.3 9.57

W ! qC L S

120 Wo 2 Wing Area 4.2 0.0053 10 0.00176 180 Cdo K (=1/piAe) W/S cruise Cruise velocity Dynamic pressure L/D cruise

C D 0 ! C fe

Wo Sizing to a range requirement (engine is not yet selected)

S wet S ref

(slugs/ft^3) (kts)

(ft/sec) (psf)

1 0.424 0.75 K! ! 0.98 A 0.75T A

(lb/hour /bhp) Engine SFC Prop Efficiency (cruise) Range (nmi)

Fuel allowance (%) Empty Weight constant "a" Weight - crew (lbs) Weight - Passengers (lbs) Weight - payload (lbs) Wing taper ratio

(lb/sec /bhp) 0.45 Engine SFC 0.000125 0.75 800 Range (ft) 4860800 Breguet Exponent 0.1539 Wf/Wo 0.1641 Non-cruise weight allowance 6 Wf/Wo with allow. 0.1739 1.2438 Empty Weight exponent 180 180 20 See Sizing Graph sheet for Wo Results 0.5 Wing Span Root Chord Tip Chord Mean Chord (ft) (ft) (ft) (ft) (sq ft) (sq ft) 31.98 4.26 2.13 3.32

1 L ! D qC D 0  / S K W W /S q

0.975 -0.09

W f W0 ! 1  0.97
WE W0 ! aW0
0.09

Wing Geometry

W0 !

W people  W payload

1  WE W0  WF W

Horizontal tail arm Cht (volume coeff) Vertical tail arm Cvt (volume coeff)

Tail Sizing

(ft) (ft)

10 Tail areas: 0.6 Sht (horizontal) 10 0.04 Svt (vertical)

20.35 Preliminary tail sizing using these methods does not guarantee that the aircraft will be stable, 13.08 controllable, or safe. You must perform stability calculations after doing your design layout!

Enter items in blue and purple. Come back and re-enter purple items after the drawing is analyzed. Send problems & questions to SADFH@aircraftdesign.com Misc Useful Calcs

q!

1 2 VVStall 2

C D 0 ! C fe

S wet S ref

K!

1 0.424 ! A 0.75T A

CL-cruise

0.2356

1 L ! qC D 0 K D  / S W W /S q
 R cbhp 500L p L / D

W f W0 ! 1  0.975 e
WE W0 ! aW0
0.09

Fuel Weight Fuel Vol

347.8 (lbs) 58.0 (gal)

W0 !

W people  W payload 1  WE W0  WF W0

Sizing Calculations
Wo guess 1000 1500 2000 2500 We/Wo 0.6680 0.6440 0.6276 0.6151 We Wo calculated 668.0 2403.2 966.0 2087.3 1255.1 1914.2 1537.7 1801.0

Sizing Graph
3000.0

Wo Calculated

2500.0 2000.0 1500.0 1000.0

Pick Wo from graph, where the two lines cross. Enter this value below to find the minimum horsepower engine for your power loading.

If sizing graph lines do not cross, change Wo-guess values above. Enter Wo from graph (lbs) Pick engine with horsepower of at least: 2000 120

Now find a suitable engine of at least this horsepower and enter its power below:

500.0
Power of Selected Engine: Calculated Power Loading: 120 8.33

Now go to sheet 1 and enter the power of your selected engine and the power loading calculated above in the boxes this color.

0.0 0 500 1000 1500 2000

2500

3000

Wo Guess

As-Drawn Performance Calculations for Simplified Aircraft Design for Homebuilders


Use this sheet for performance calculations after you have drawn your design and measured its geometry.

Values from Sheet 1 - OK to change these here, but then link from Sheet 1 is lost Wo (lb) 2000 Engine Power (hp) 120 Number of Engines 2 Engine SFC (lb/hour /bhp) 0.45 Wing Area (sq ft) 102.3 Cdo 0.0223 K (=1/piAe) 0.0424 Wing CLmax 1.6 Takeoff air density (slugs/ft^3) 0.00238 e (Oswald) 0.75 Wcruise/Wo 0.98 Non-cruise weight allowance 0.975 Fuel allowance (%) 6 Weight - crew (lbs) 180 Weight - passengers (lbs) 180 Weight - payload (lbs) 20 Empty Weight (lbs) 1255.1 Other Inputs Propeller Diameter (ft) Engine RPM (rev/min) Cooling Power Loss (%) Cruise Power Setting (% of SL hp) Cruise air density (slug/ft^3)

Calculated Values wing loading (W/S) (psf) stall speed (ft/sec) stall speed (kts) power loading (lb/hp) Takeoff Parameter Takeoff Groundroll (ft) Takeoff to 50 ft (ft)

Equations (from book) 19.55 101.34 60.00 8.33 123.2 874.2 1159.1

W W S hp T .O.P. ! 1.21 C L max

Cruise Weight

(lb)

1959.9922

5 2700 6 62 0.00176 Power Coefficient Cp

0.1317

Go to next sheet for climb, cruise, and maximum speed calculations then return here Cruise speed Cruise Prop efficiency (kts) 180 Cruise speed (ft/sec) Cruise Advance Ratio J 0.85 Cruise q (psf) Cruise W/S (psf) Cruise L/D Wfuel (total) (lbs) Wfuel (usable) (lbs) Wfuel (cruise) (lbs) log term Range (ft) 304.02 1.3512 81.3 19.2 9.6 365 344 294 1.1776909 5854552

1 L ! D qC D 0  / S K W W /S q R! 550L p L 0.975W0 ln Cbhp D W0  W f ( usable)

Range

(nmi)

964

Climb, Cruise, & Max Speed Calculations for Simplified Aircraft Design for Homebuilders
Use this sheet for performance calculations after you have drawn your design and measured its geometry.

Input adjusted values Advance Propeller Ratio J Efficiency 0.375333 0.59 0.750667 0.8 1.126 0.85 1.501333 0.82 1.651467 0.8 Total Thrust lbs 866.8703 587.7087 416.2937 301.2007 267.1403 Cruise Thrust lbs 537.4596 364.3794 258.1021 186.7444 165.627 Dynamic pressure q 6.2759862 25.103945 56.483876 100.41578 121.50309

Equations (from book)

D ! qS (C D 0  KC L )
CL 3.115636 0.778909 0.346182 0.194727 0.160932 CD 0.434233 0.048008 0.027346 0.023869 0.023359 Drag lbs 278.7433 123.2702 157.9862 245.1549 290.2979 Climb (fps) 1520.4345 2401.3464 2003.3404 579.56153 -263.4165

V kts V ft/sec 50 84.45 100 168.9 150 253.35 200 337.8 220 371.58

W C L cruise !

S q

q!

1 VV 2 2

1 T Vv ! V  W L / D

Read Cruise speed where cruise thrust line crosses drag line and enter in cruise speed box (this color) on previous

Maximum & Cruise Speed


1000 Thrust or Drag -lbs

Rate of Climb - Sea Lev


3000

Total Thrust Cruise Thrust Drag

800

600

400

200

Climb - fpm

2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0

0 0 50 100 150 200 250 Velocity - kts

50

100

150

evel

50

200

250

Velocity - kts

Weight Reporting Format for Simplified Aircraft Design for Homebuilders Use this sheet for reporting weights calculations & estimating center of gravity. (Sorry, no weights estimation methods here, just the form to enter your estimates. Moments & cg are calculated)
Weight lbs STRUCTURES Wing Horizontal Tail Vertical Tail Ventral Tail Fuselage Canopy Nacelle on wing Nacelle/cowling Motor Mount Main Landing Gear Nose Landing Gear PROPULSION Engine Air Induction Cooling Exhaust Engine Controls Misc. Engine Inst Propeller Starter Fuel System 661.0 276 6.5 24 21.0 18 19.0 8 17.0 155 15 50 30 10 56 19 411.0 340 3 3 8 2 5 30 10 10 7.0 7.0 7.0 7.0 7.0 7.0 7.0 7.0 7.0 9.0 8.0 9.0 7.5 7.5 9.0 2.9 Loc ft Moment ft-lbs 5600 1794 504 342 136 1395 120 450 225 75 504 55 (% We Allowance) Empty Weight Allowance 10 114.1 1255.1 744.9 180.0 358.9 6 180 8.0 7.5 5.0 8.0 1440 2692 30 1440 200 15598 12907 12707 11267 13958 7.8 7.8 891 9797 EQUIPMENT Flight Controls Instruments Hydraulics Electrical Avionics Air Conditioning Anti-Icing Furnishings & Equipment 20 8.0 Weight lbs 69.0 10 10 2 12 15 5.5 5.5 6.0 6.0 5.0 Loc ft Moment ft-lbs 429 55 55 12 72 75 0 0 160

Input only items in blue

enter % dont enter these

2877 TOTAL WEIGHT EMPTY 2380 21 USEFUL LOAD 21 56 14 35 210 70 70 TAKEOFF GROSS WEIGHT Crew+Pass+Pld, No Fuel
Possible Loading Conditions

Calculated Empty Weight constant "a". Go to Initial Sizing Inputs sheet and revise value in purple box:

1.2438

Crew Fuel Oil Passengers Payload

Don't enter this! It is calculated from Wo, We, and other Useful Load Group items

20 10.0 2000.0 1641.1 1621.1 1441.1 1800.0 7.8 7.9 7.8 7.8 7.8

Crew+Pass,No Pld,No Fuel Crew only, No Fuel Crew only, Full Fuel

ASPECT RATIO OPTIMIZATION: DR-4


A-baseline Wo Wwing-base We-base 10
2000.0 276 1255.1

Read performance results and enter here Range 1165 964 760 Max Speed 212 220 221 Cruise Speed 175 180 181 ROC 2200 2400 2500 max*10 cruise*10 2120 1750 2200 1800 2210 1810

Wwing/ A A/Abase Ww-base Delta We We-new 6 0.60 0.74 -73 1182 10 1.00 1.00 0 1255 14 1.40 1.22 62 1317 Enter delta on Weight sheet (I stuck it in the unused Anti-Ice entry), and change aspect ratio and empty weight "a" factor on Initial Sizing Sheet

Aspect Ratio Trade Study


2500 nmi, kts, or fpm 2000 1500 1000 500 0 6 8 10 12 14 Aspect Ratio
Range Max Speed *10 Cruise Speed *10 Rate of Climb