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Homework Text for Greek 1001 (for use with Athenaze vol.

1)
by

Prof. Naomi J. Norman


(with additional material by Prof. T. Keith Dix)

Table of Contents
Greek 1001 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 General Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Homework Assignments for Week 1, 16-17 August . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Homework Assignments for Week 2, 21-24 August (Chapter 1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Chapter 1 Vocabulary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Greek Text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Punctuation Marks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Breathing Marks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Accent Marks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 The Alphabet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Alphabet Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Pronunciation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Speech Acts and Sentence Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Exercise on Speech Acts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Tips on Translating Greek . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Identifying Forms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Adjectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Verbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Sentence Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Thematic Verbs in the Present Active Indicative, Imperative, Infinitive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Present Active Indicative, Imperative, Infinitive of eimi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Homework Assignments for Week 3, 28-31 August (Chapter 2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Chapter 2 Vocabulary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Second (o) Declension, Masculine and Neuter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Accentuation in Greek . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Enclitics and Proclitics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Homework Assignments for Week 4, 5-7 September (Chapter 3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Chapter 3 Vocabulary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Homework Exercises for Chapter 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

Table of Contractions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Homework Assignments for Week 5, 11-14 September (Chapter 4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Chapter 4 Vocabulary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Homework Exercises for Chapter 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 First Declension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 First Declension Masculine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Homework Assignments for Week 6, 18-21 September (Chapter 5) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 Chapter 5 Vocabulary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Homework Exercises for Chapter 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 Alpha Contract Verbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Adjectives: Attributive vs. Predicative . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 Homework Assignments for Week 7, 25-28 September (Chapter 6) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 Chapter 6 Vocabulary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 Homework Exercises for Chapter 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 Present Middle Indicative, Imperative, Infinitive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 Notes on the Middle Voice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 Homework Assignments for Week 8, 2-5 October (Chapter 7) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 Chapter 7 Vocabulary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 Homework Exercises for Chapter 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 Third Declension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 Homework Assignments for Week 9, 9-12 October (Chapter 8) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 Homework Exercises for Chapter 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 Third Declension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 Paradigm of pas, pasa, pan and heis, mia, hen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 Homework Assignments for Week 10, 16-19 October (Chapter 9) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 Homework Exercises for Chapter 9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 Present Active Participles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 Third Declension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70

Homework Assignments for Week 11, 23-25 October (Chapter 10) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 Homework Exercises for Chapter 10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 Formation of the Future Tense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 Homework Assignments for Week 12, 30 October-2 November (Chapter 11) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 Homework Exercises for Chapter 11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 The Aorist System in Greek . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 Personal Endings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 Second or Root Aorist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 Homework Assignments for Week 13, 6-9 November (Chapter 12) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 Homework Exercises for Chapter 12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 First Aorist Active and Middle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 Homework Assignments for Week 14, 13-16 November (Chapter 13) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 Homework Exercises for Chapter 13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 Imperfect of eimi and eimi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 Worksheet on Relative Pronouns and Clauses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 Third Declension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 Paradigm of upsilon-stem Adjectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 Homework Assignments for Week 15, 20-21 November (Chapter 14) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 Homework Exercises for Chapter 14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 Comparative and Superlative Adjectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 Homework Assignments for Week 16, 27-30 November (Chapters 14-15) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 Homework Assignments for Week 17, 4-5 December (Chapter 16) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 Homework Exercises for Chapters 15-16 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 Omicron Contract Verbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 Review Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112

Greek 1001
Dr. N. J. Norman Park Hall 227, 542-2187 COURSE TEXTS:

Fall 2000
email: nnorman@uga.edu Office Hours: M-Th 9 - 10 am

Balme and Lawall, Athenaze vol. 1 Supplementary text by N. Norman (available via the course website)

GENERAL COURSE INFORMATION: We will go through all of volume two of Athenaze this semester & the supplementary text. There will be a test approximately every two weeks, on a Monday. Each test will focus on material covered in the previous weeks, but will, of course, be cumulative. Make-up tests will only be administered for excused absences. There will be many short quizzes, usually twice a week. No make-up quizzes will be given, but your two lowest quiz grades will be dropped. There will be a final, cumulative examination on Mon, May 3, 2004, 12:00 - 3:00 pm The Classics Department provides free tutors for elementary Greek students in Park Hall 229. A schedule will be distributed as soon as possible. We will have a Vocabulary Jeopardy on the last day of class. Study hard because the winner will get an excellent prize!

COURSE REQUIREMENTS: Class attendance and participation is essential. Excessive absences (more than four unexcused) will result in your being dropped from the course; please note that it is within my prerogative to assign a grade of WF even if you drop or are dropped from the course before the withdrawal deadline, depending on the quality of work up to that point. If you enroll in this course, you have made a commitment to attend and to do the work. If you are not willing to do that, drop the course now. You are required to take all quizzes, tests and the final.

GRADING: Participation Weekly tests 5% 45% Quizzes Final Exam 15% 35%

I grade on a 100 point scale, as follows: 100-95: A 85-83: B 75-73: C 69-60: D 59-00: F 94-90: A82-80: B72-70: C-

89-86: B+ 79-76: C+

UNIVERSITY HONOR CODE AND ACADEMIC HONESTY POLICY: All academic work must meet the standards contained in A Culture of Honesty. You are responsible for informing yourself about those standards before performing academic work. See http://www.uga.edu/ovpi/honesty/acadhon.htm for more detailed information about academic honesty. SOME ADVICE FOR THE AMBITIOUS & WISE: Do not write your translation in your book. Instead, keep a special notebook to record vocabulary, difficulties, questions, and points made in class. Review your notes regularly, each time you are going to work through next day=s assignment and before a test. Do not write out a translation of the stories in Athenaze. If you do, you will probably look more closely at your English translation than at the Greek text. The more often you work through the Greek text, the better you will understand it and the more quickly you will learn the vocabulary. Furthermore, trying to correct your English translation during class will keep you from looking at the Greek, but looking at the Greek again will help you far more in developing your translation skills than will a correct written English translation. Regular study habits are crucial for successfully completing this course. In this course, I expect you to spend two hours outside of class to prepare for every hour spent in class. Study via study bursts (10-15 minute periods of intense study). Four study bursts spread over the course of the day are much more effective for learning vocabulary and memorizing paradigms than one 60-minute study hall. Work every day. Last minute cramming is a waste of time and energy. Consider using ANKI (a free open-source software) for creating flash cards for vocabulary, paradigms etc. Read and pronounce all Greek out loud as you are learning it. If you have any doubts or questions regarding the pronunciation of forms, please ask me. You dont need to be able to order a coffee in ancient Greek, but we do need to be able to understand one another in class.

General Introduction

Fifth century Greeks wrote in CAPITAL LETTERS, with NOGAPSBETWEENWORDS, with no accents and no breathing marks and virtually no punctuation. All of these conventions sprang up later, some very much later. Consequently the act of reading required a high level of concentration and a high degree of literacy. Try it in English on this fragment of Platos Apology. HOWYOUMENOFATHENSHAVEBEENAFFECTEDBY MYACCUSERSIDONOTKNOWBUTIFORMYPARTAL MOSTFORGOTMYOWNIDENTITYSOPERSUASIVEL YDIDTHEYTALKANDYETTHEREISHARDLYAWORD OFTRUTHINWHATTHEYHAVESAIDBUTIWASMOST AMAZEDBYONEOFTHEMANYLIESTHATTHEYTOLD WHENTHEYSAIDTHATYOUMUSTBEONYOURGUAR DNOTTOBEDECEIVEDBYMEBECAUSEIWASACLEV ERSPEAKER Now, look at it in Greek.

?I39+;K9+3ES!;)C+E!1/S;!3?3A+A?; 1!I+KA?IS;+9S;5!I/'?CS;?K5?3)!+ 'S)?K;5!3!KI?EKA!KIS;?73'?K+9!KI? K+A+7!1?9/;?KISA31!;SE+7+'?;5!3 I?3!7/1+EK+SE+A?E+3A+3;?K)+;+3A/5 !E3;9!73EI!)+!KIS;+;+1!K9!E!IS;A ?77S;S;+Q+KE!;I?I?KI?+;S3+7+'?; SEOC/K9!E+K7!#+3E1!3;/KA+9?K+=!A !I/1/I+SE)+3;?K?;I?E7+'+


Notice that this Greek excerpt also does not have punctuation marks, accents, or breathing marks. These were all added later when the Greek language became widespread as a universal means of communication and others needed help with pronunciation.

Homework Assignments for Week 1, 16-17 August


for Thursday: study the Greek alphabet read and study Athenaze (Ath.), pp. ix-xx quiz on the Greek alphabet read and study Ath. pp. 4-6 read and study course pack pp. 6-8 do alphabet exercise, course pack pp. 7-8

for Monday:

Homework Assignments for Week 2, 21-24 August (Chapter 1)


for Monday: quiz on the Greek alphabet read and study Ath. pp. 4-6 read and study course pack pp. 6-8 do alphabet exercise, course pack pp. 7-8 read and study course pack pg. 11-14 and do the exercises on pg. 11 read Ath. pp. 6-7 ("The Athenian Farmer") read and translate Reading 1 " (p. 3) vocabulary quiz, chapter 1 (vocabulary lists in Ath. + the addendum in course pack) read and study course pack pp.15-17 read Ath. p. 9 do exercise 1g, Ath. pg. 10 read and translate Reading 1 $ (p. 8) quiz on conjugation in the PAI (Present Active Indicative) read and digest grammar on Ath. pp. 13-15 read and translate Reading 2 " (pp. 12-13) quiz on conjugation in Pres. Act. Indicative and Imperative of em do exercise 2a (odds) and 2g (evens) read Ath. pp. 15-16 ("Slavery") read and digest grammar on Ath. pp. 20-21 and 31

for Tuesday:

for Wednesday:

for Thursday:

for Monday:

Chapter 1 Vocabulary Addendum to the Vocabulary List on Athenaze (Ath) page 2 Nouns: grw, gro : field nyrvpow, nyrpou : man, human being, person atourgw, atourgo : farmer okow, okou : house, home, dwelling pnow, pnou : toil, work stow, stou : grain, food Adjectives: kalw, kal, kaln: beautiful, good makrw, makr, makrn: long, large mikrw, mikr, mikrn: small polw, poll, pol: much, (plural) many Addendum to page 8: Nouns: liow, lou : sun xrnow, xrnou : time Adjectives: sxurw, sxur, sxurn: strong xalepw, xalep, xalepn: difficult
NOTE: The vocabulary lists in the course pack use the standard format found in Greek dictionaries. For nouns, the standard listing consists of nominative singular (grw), genitive singular (gro), gender, indicated by the appropriate form of the article ( indicates masculine, indicates feminine, t indicates neuter), and English equivalent. For adjectives, the Greek forms listed are all nominative singular, in the standard order nominative singular masculine (kalw), nominative singular feminine (kal), nominative singular neuter (kaln). For vocabulary quizzes, you need to learn the information both in Athenaze and in the course pack. 6

Greek Text
A printed page in a modern edition of a Greek text includes punctuation marks, word divisions, breathing marks, apostrophes, and accents. Punctuation Marks: C The period (.) indicates that the sentence is complete and that all syntactical expectations have been met. C The comma (,) operates as it does in English. C The question mark (;) indicates a questions and that all syntactical expectations have been met. C The semicolon (:) operates as it does in English. Breathing Marks: C The rough breathing ( ) corresponds to the English h sound. C The smooth breathing ( ) signals the absence of the h sound. C All initial vowels and diphthongs show breathing marks and so does the letter =. Accent Marks: C The acute accent (t) originally indicated ascending pitch on the accented syllable. C The circumflex accent (y) originally indicated ascending and descending pitch on the accented syllable. C The grave accent (x) originally indicated descending pitch on the accented syllable. C Today we pronounce all accents with a stress. C The apostrophe (z) signals a zero, that is the absence of a sound or sounds which have dropped out, as in the English dont.

The Alphabet: The standard Greek alphabet consists of twenty-four letters, as follows. Form Name Form Name

!" #$ '( )* +, -. /0 12 34 56 78 9:

alpha beta gamma delta epsilon zeta eta theta iota kappa lambda mu

;< => ?@ AB CD EFH IJ KL MN OP QR ST

nu xi omicron pi rho sigma tau upsilon phi chi psi omega

The alternate sigma form, H, is used only at the end of the word; elsewhere the standard form, F , is used. The ancient Greeks used only capital letters; the lower case letters came into use during the Middle Ages. Alphabet Exercises Exercise 1: Practice writing the Greek letters in this space.

Exercise 2: Many English words contain Greek roots which are sometimes recognizable without much difficulty. In the English words below, the segments in bold type are Greek roots. With the help of a dictionary, suggest a meaning for these Greek roots. Then copy them in Greek letters. English word 1. telegraph 2. apocrypha 3. logical 4. charitable 5. elliptical Exercise 3: Transliterate the following words into Greek. i.e., daimon = daimon 1. Kadmos 2. Hektor 3. Agamemnon 4. automatos 5. Sophocles 6. Hera 7. phenomenon (=phainomenon in Greek) 8. sphinx 9. Artemis 10. logos meaning of Greek root Greek spelling

Pronunciation:
A B G D E Z H Y I K L M N J O P R S T U F X C V top/father a/ha a/mare bible ganglion (voiced velar plosive; velar nasal, before g, y, k, x, m) decade epic double consonant [sd]; zd, z adds, zone they aspirated voiceless dental plosive (aspirated tau); fricative th. Top/atheist intrigue kind logic bilabial nasal; meter dental nasal; noon double consonant [ks]; axiom obstacle bilabial voiceless plosive; poet trilled alveolar liquid; rhinoceros voiceless fricative [s]; voiced fricative [z] before voiced consonants b, y, d, m. symbol, plasma voiceless dental plosive; topography put, boot aspirated voiceless bilabial plosive; aspirated pi. Became fricative in postclassical times: philosophy aspirated voiceless velar plosive; aspirated kappa. cat double consonant [ps]; eclipse long o. ode drma biblon ggglion dka pow znh, Aynaze dh yew pip2ptv i kairw lgow mtron nn nj p poihtw rvw sofw, plsma tpow gumnastik, Krow filosofa xorw cux nyrvpow

10

ai au ei eu hu oi ou ui

aisle how freight; also, digraph representing a single sound eh-oo; feud ei-oo toil boot u + semivocallic i [y]; in classical times iota was weakened to a glide between vowels and sometimes omitted in spelling

kairw paei lei etxei hrhka kalo otiw uw

11

Speech Acts and Sentence Types


[Adapted from Gerda M. Seligson, Greek for Reading (Michigan, 1994), 1] We speak for a variety of reasons; whenever we speak, we commit a speech act: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. to to to to to to give information, we make a statement get information, we ask a question demand an action from someone, we give a command suggest an action, we utter an exhortation wish for something, we make a wish ask for advice, we ask a deliberative question

This information about speech acts will be useful as we consider mood and aspect in Greek. Exercise on Speech Acts: Exercise 1: Label the speech acts in the sentences below. 1. Shall I wash the dog 2. Let her wash the dog 3. Is he washing the dog 4. Would that I were washing the dog, instead of studying Greek 5. Wash that dog 6. I am washing the dog

Exercise 2: Add punctuation marks to the sentences above.

12

Tips on Translating Greek


Word order is VERY important in English. For example, in English there is a profound difference between The boy hit the ball. and The ball hit the boy. And between I am strong. and Am I strong. By contrast, word order in Greek is unimportant. Whereas English uses word order to distinguish the difference between subject and object (e.g., The boy hit the ball vs. The ball hit the boy) and between statement and question (e.g., I am strong vs. Am I strong), Greek instead uses different forms to make those distinctions. Therefore you must correctly identify forms in order to translate Greek. Indeed, translating Greek into English involves a 4-step process: 1. Identify the form of all of the words in the sentence. 2. Identify what kind of sentence it is. 3. Transpose the Greek sentence into English word order. 4. Translate.

Important Note on Identifying Forms: Nouns and adjectives have three characteristics: CASE, NUMBER, GENDER. About Gender: Every noun in Greek has a gender: masculine, feminine or neuter. It is important to note that nouns can not usually change their gender; in other words, once a masculine noun, always a masculine noun. It is also important to note that it is almost impossible to predict the gender of a Greek noun; therefore it is imperative that when you memorize vocabulary you also MEMORIZE THE GENDER OF ALL NOUNS. About Number: Number is the difference between a singular noun and a plural noun; in English its the difference between man and men or between horse and horses. In English most singular 13

forms of nouns are different from their plurals. The same is true of Greek; usually the singular form of the noun is not identical to its plural form. About Case: Case tells you what syntactical function the noun fulfills in the sentence. For example in our sentence The boy hit the desk, boy is the subject and desk is the direct object; in other words, the subject, boy, is performing an action on the direct object, desk. In our second sentence, The desk hit the boy, the subject is now desk, while boy is now in the position of the direct object receiving the action. This difference is clear in the English sentence because of the word order; but note that the forms boy and desk are exactly the same in both sentences though they occupy two different syntactical positions in the 2 sentences. In a Greek sentence, the form for the subject boy would be different from the form for the direct object boy. It is this difference in form which tells you how to interpret and thus how to translate the nouns in a Greek sentence. In Greek, there are 5 cases, each of which occupies distinct syntactical positions in Greek sentences. Case Name Nominative Genitive Dative Accusative Vocative Primary Syntactical Function in a Sentence Subject of sentence To show possession; object of prepositions conveying a sense of separation or of going away from Indirect object; object of prepositions conveying the notion of place at which Direct object of sentence; object of prepositions conveying the idea of going towards To address someone directly

Each case has its own form; for example, for a certain category of nouns (called the second declension) the cases are as follows: Nominative Genitive Dative Accusative Vocative nyrvpow nyrpou nyrp nyrvpon nyrvpe

Note that the difference in both case and number is reflected in these forms.

14

Each form is composed of two parts (called morphemes) both of which convey meaning a stem (called a stem morpheme) and a case ending (called inflectional morpheme). The stem conveys the root meaning of the word, while the ending indicates case and so suggests possible syntactical functions for the word within a sentence. Important Note About Adjectives: As you all know adjectives modify nouns. Let's add some adjectives to our basic sentence: The angry boy hit the red ball. The addition of adjectives angry and red gives us additional information about the nouns in the sentence. Again, in our English sentence, we know that angry is describing the boy because of word order. In a Greek sentence, however, the sentence could be written in any of the following ways: The boy angry red the ball hit. The ball the boy hit angry red. The red boy hit the angry ball. etc. Since word order does not provide telltale clues on matching adjectives to their nouns, again Greek depends on form to do that. Thus, adjectives must mimic the case, number and gender of the nouns they modify. For example in our modified sentence, The angry boy hit the red ball. Since boy is the subject it would be in the nominative case in Greek; it is singular and the Greek word for boy is a masculine noun. Thus the adjective angry in this sentence would be a nominative, singular, masculine form. Similarly, red would be an accusative (to indicate direct object), singular masculine form to modify the accusative, singular, masculine ball. Since adjectives must be able to modify not only masculine, but also feminine and neuter nouns, adjectives have forms for all three genders.

15

Important Note on Verbs: Verbs have 6 characteristics: Person, Number, Tense, Voice, Mood and Aspect. In order to translate Greek verbs correctly, you must first identify its characteristics. About Person: The person of a verb refers to its subject. The person can be 1st singular/plural = I/ we 2nd singular/plural = you/ you 3rd singular/plural = he,she,it/ they About Number: Number is the difference between a singular verb and a plural verb, in English the difference, for example, between is and are. Each person has a singular form and a plural form, eg., I am (1st person singular) and we are (1st person plural). About Tense: Tense indicates the time of the action. Did it occur in present time, past time or future time--I eat, I ate, I will eat. About Voice: Voice indicates the relation between the subject and the verb. In active voice the subject performs the action of the verb; in passive voice, the subject receives the action of the verb. Our basic sentence is in the active voice: The boy hit the desk. (note that the subject is doing the action of the verb) Lets change our basic sentence to the passive voice: The boy is hit by the desk. (note that now the subject is receiving the action of the verb.) Greek also has a middle voice. But more about voice later.

16

About Mood: Mood indicates how the subject views/thinks about the action of the verb. It is the difference between The boy hit the desk. and The boy would like to hit the desk. and Hit the desk! In our basic sentence, we have a plain statement of fact so the verb in Greek would be in the indicative mood; in the second example, we have a wish which would be expressed in Greek by either the subjunctive or optative moods; and in the third example, we have a command which would be expressed in Greek by the imperative mood. More about mood later. About Aspect: Aspect reflects whether or not the action of the verb is completed. It is the difference between The boy hit the desk. and The boy is hitting the desk (while he . . . .) More about aspect later. An Extra Note about Verbs: Just as the three characteristics of nouns and adjectives (case, number and gender) are expressed by their form, so are the six characteristics of a verb (person, number, tense, voice, mood, aspect) expressed by their form. Thus in order to translate a Greek verb correctly, it is necessary first to identify fully its form.

17

Important Note on Identifying Sentence Types: There are several different types of sentences. The three types which we will see most often this quarter are: 1. the Transitive Active Sentence (TAS), 2. the Intransitive Active Sentence (IAS), and 3. the Linking Sentence (LS). The TAS is governed by a transitive verb, a verb which transfers action from a subject to a direct object. The English word order for a TAS is Subject + Verb 6 Direct Object. The boy + hit 6 the desk. The IAS is governed by an intransitive verb, a verb which does not transfer action to a direct object. The English word order for a IAS is Subject + Verb I + think. The LS is governed by a linking verb, a form of the verb to be which links a subject with a predicate. The English word order for a LS is Subject/Predicate Verb Predicate/Subject A = B The rose is red. or Red Another pattern I or A teacher am I. am a teacher. is the rose.

Note how a linking verb can link either a noun with an adjective (called a predicate adjective) or a noun with another noun (called a predicate noun). An Important Note about LS in Greek: When a linking verb is linking a noun with an adjective, that adjective must agree with the noun in terms of case (always nominative), number and gender; in other words, if the noun is singular and feminine, the adjective must also be singular and feminine.

18

Thematic Verbs in the Present Active Indicative, Imperative, Infinitive


Vowel verbs: Singular 1st 2nd 3rd Plural 1st 2nd 3rd lv leiw lei lomen lete lousi(n) -v -eiw -ei -omen -ete -ousi(n) -onti > -onsi > -ousi nt before final i becomes ns, which drops n; the preceding vowel undergoes compensatory lengthening, o> ou. lengthened thematic vowel Probably from lue-si > lue > luei, to which -w has been added from secondary endings The derivation of the ending is disputed.

Epsilon contract verbs: Singular 1st 2nd 3rd Plural 1st 2nd 3rd fil filew file filomen filete filosi(n) - -ew -e -omen -ete -osi < filv < fileiw < filei < filomen < filete < filousi

Contractions: e + e/ei > ei (2nd sing., 3rd sing., 2nd plu.) e + o > ou (1st plu.) e + long vowel/diphthong > e drops out (1st sing., 3rd plu.) Present active imperative of thematic verbs: 2nd singular: le 2nd plural: lete flee > filete > flei filete Present stem + thematic vowel Present stem + thematic vowel + te

Present active infinitive of thematic verbs: leen > lein fileen > filen Present stem + thematic vowel + en

19

Present Active Indicative, Imperative, Infinitive of eimi


Singular 1st 2nd 3rd Plural 1st 2nd 3rd em e st(n) smn st es(n) -mi -si -ti -men -te -nti < PG *ehenti nt before final i becomes ns, which drops n; the preceding vowel undergoes compensatory lengthening, e > ei

< *es-m, with compensatory lengthening < *si, originally s-si (truncation of sequence of two identical consonants) s-t retains the original ending ti s before m or n usually disappears with compensatory lengthening; the s is due to the influence of st

Note: The accents of the present indicative forms of em (with the exception of the second singular) are enclitic rather than recessive. Present active imperative of em: 2nd singular: syi 2nd plural: ste Present stem + yi ("syi is an enigma") Present stem + te

Present active infinitive of em: snai > enai Present stem + nai s before m or n usually disappears with compensatory lengthening; e > ei

20

Homework Assignments for Week 3, 28-31 August (Chapter 2)


for Monday: quiz on conjugation in Pres. Act. Indicative and Imperative of em do exercise 2a (odds) and 2g (evens) read Ath. pp. 15-16 ("Slavery") read and digest grammar on Ath. pp. 20-21 and 31 quiz on 2nd declension forms do exercises 2d and 2e read and translate Reading 2 $ (pp. 18-19) vocabulary quiz, chapter 2 read and digest grammar on Ath. pp. 26-27 read and translate Reading 3a, lines 1-16 (pp. 24-25) do exercise 3a (odds) read and digest grammar on Ath. pp. 31-33 read Ath. pp. 28-29 ("The Deme and the Polis") do exercises 3g and d STUDY, no class on Monday read and translate Reading 3a, lines 17-26 (p. 25) do form ID chart (all form ID charts are in this course pack)

for Tuesday:

for Wednesday:

for Thursday:

for Monday: for Tuesday:

21

Chapter 2 Vocabulary
Addendum to the Vocabulary List on page 10: Nouns:

rotron, rtrou t: plow dolow, dolou : slave


Adjectives:

rgw, rgn: lazy [a "two-ending" adjective, in which the first form is nominative
singular masculine AND feminine, the second form is nominative singular neuter. Two-ending adjectives are compound words. rgw < -ergw, "not working." Compound adjectives do not have separate feminine forms, but the masculine forms serve for feminine as well.]

Addendum to page 16: Nouns:

bow, bow : ox dndron, dndrou t: tree despthw, desptou : master


Note: In chapter 2b, Athenaze changes the vocabulary form listed for verbs from the third person singular present active indicative (lgei) to the first person singular present active indicative (gv).

22

Second (o) Declension, Masculine and Neuter

Masculine
Sing. Nom. Gen.

Masc. Endings

Neu. Endings

Neuter t kaln dndron to kalo dndrou

kalw grw to kalo gro

o-w

o-n

o-io > oo (with loss of i in diphthong before following vowel) > ou (with contraction) (PIE *-y>) vi > o-n e o-i o-n a (PIE *m >) vn o-iw o-nw > ouw o-i a a

Dat. Acc. Voc. Plu. Nom. Gen. Dat. Acc. Voc.

t kal gr tn kaln grn kal gr o kalo gro tn kaln grn tow kalow grow tow kalow grow kalo gro

t kal dndr t kaln dndron kaln dndron t kal dndra tn kaln dndrvn tow kalow dndroiw t kal dndra kal dndra

Notes on accent: Final -oi in nominative plural masculine counts as short for purposes of accent. Any noun of the o declension with an accented ultima has circumflex on the ultima in all genitives and datives. In , the long open vowel of v had completely overpowered the i by 100 BCE, so that i ceased to be written in antiquity. The custom of writing i under the line is as late as about the eleventh century CE.

23

Accentuation in Greek
The long vowels are h and v; diphthongs are also long except for ai and oi at the ends of words. The short vowels are e and o. Originally in Greek, accents denoted changes in pitch; in English, accent is shown by an increased stress on the accented syllable. The accent of a Greek work must be learned as a part of its spelling, just as we learn how to stress English (e.g., relative, religious, reconstruct). In Greek, the accents for nouns and adjectives are persistent, that is they try to stay on the same vowel or diphthong in all forms of the word unless forced by the rules of accentuation to move. But the accents for verbs are recessive, that is they go back from the end of the word as far as possible. No matter how many syllables a word has, the accent can appear only over one of the last three syllables: the ultima (U, the last syllable of the word), the penult (P, the next to last syllable of the word) or the antepenult (A, the third syllable from the end). The ACUTE accent: appears over U, P or A appears over short vowels, long vowels or diphthongs Restrictions: CAN appear over the U ONLY when a pause follows CANNOT appear over the P when it is accented and contains a long vowel or diphthong and the U contains a short vowel CAN appear over the A ONLY when the U contains a short vowel The GRAVE accent: appears ONLY over the U appears over short vowels, long vowels or diphthongs Restrictions: CAN ONLY replace an acute accent over the U when there is no pause The CIRCUMFLEX accent: appears ONLY over the U and P appears ONLY over long vowels or diphthongs Restrictions: MUST appear over the P when the P is accented and contains a long vowel or diphthong and the U contains a short vowel CANNOT appear over the P when the U contains a long vowel or diphthong

24

POSSIBILITIES OF ACCENTS Antepenult Penult Ultima Examples nyrvpow nyrpou nsow, lon nsou fbow lvn lelukw potamw Periklw ka mnv

3 3 y 5 3 5 . 3 . 3

2 5 5 3 5 . 3 y 5 4

- = short vowel

2 = long vowel

The "Contonation" Rule: contonation = accent + return to standard pitch short syllable = 1 mora; long syllable = 2 The rule: Contonation can be followed by no more than one mora before the end of the word (or phrase pronounced as one word unit). Accent Exercise: Given the form kndunow, put the proper accent on these forms. kindunou kindun kindunoi kindunoiw kindunouw kindunon

Given the form myow, put the proper accent on these forms. muyon muy muyoiw muyouw muyou muyvn

Given the form atrw, put the proper accent on these forms. atron atr atroiw atrouw atrou atrvn

25

Enclitics and Proclitics


Some words do not appear to have any accent. They are so closely attached to the preceding or following word as to become a part of it. Such words are called enclitics and proclitics. Compare, for example, what happens to the English word not when combined with is into isnt. Some Greek enclitics are tiw (the indefinite pronoun), mou, moi, me, sou, soi, se (personal pronouns), te (conjunction), ge (particle), pou, pvw, pot, poyn and poi (indefinite adverbs), and most forms of the present indicative of emi (sum). In Greek, an accented syllable cannot be followed by more than two unaccented syllables (the "contonation" rule); so the following changes occur when an enclitic leans onto a word: 1. When preceding a 1-syllable enclitic: a word with a circumflex on the ultima (kalo) keeps its accent and the enclitic has no accent: kalo ge. a word with an acute on the ultima (delfw) keeps its accent as acute and does not change it to a grave and the enclitic has no accent: delfw tiw. a word with an acute on the penult (flow) keeps its accent and the enclitic has no accent: flow tiw. 2. When preceding a 2-syllable enclitic: a word with an acute on the penult (flow) is followed by enclitic with accent on ultima (acute on short ultima and circumflex on long ultima): flow stn or nyrpvn tinn. 3. When preceding a 1- or 2-syllable enclitic: a word with an acute accent on the antepenult (filsofow) adds an acute (never a grave) on its ultima and the enclitic has no accent: filsofw tiw or filsofw stin. a word with a circumflex on the penult (dolow) adds an acute (never a grave) on the ultima and the enclitic has no accent: dolw te or dolw stin. If an enclitic is followed by another enclitic, all but the last adds an acute to its ultima: dunatn st so pote Some words of one syllable never have an accent of their own, but attach themselves closely to the following word; these words are called proclitics. Examples are , o, o, ok, ox, n, ew, k. If a proclitic is followed by an enclitic, the proclitic is accented: e lgei but e tiw 26

antepenult

penult

ultima

1-syllable enclitic

2-syllable enclitic

delfw

retains accent, none on enclitic delfw tiw retains accent, none on enclitic kalo ge retains accent, none on enclitic flow tiw retains accent; accent on ultima of enclitic flow stn

kalo

flow

dolow filsofow

adds acute on ultima: none on enclitic dolw te dolw stin adds acute on ultima; none on enclitic filsofw tiw filsofw stin

Mark the accents on the words below: nyrvpow tiw nyrpoiw stin nyrpvn ge pou nyrvpow stin nyrpou tinow nyrvpoi tinew nyrvpon tina nyrvpon ge nyrpouw poyen

27

Homework Assignments for Week 4, 5-7 September (Chapter 3)


for Monday: for Tuesday: STUDY, no class on Monday read and translate Reading 3a, lines 17-26 (p. 25) do form ID chart (all form ID charts are in this course pack) read and translate Reading 3 $ (pp. 30-31) vocabulary quiz, chapter 3 STUDY FOR TEST (chapters 1-3)

for Wednesday: for Thursday: for Monday:

28

Chapter 3 Vocabulary
Addendum to the Vocabulary List on page 24: Nouns: lyow, lyou : stone Adjectives: atiow, ata, ation: responsible, to blame dunatw, dunat, dunatn: possible mgaw, meglh, mga: big Addendum to page 30: Nouns: depnon, depnou t: dinner paw, paidw or : child, boy, girl patr, patrw : father Adjectives: ndreow, ndrea, ndreon: brave pollo, polla, poll: many tosotow, tosath, tosoto: so great (plural), so many

29

Homework Exercises for Chapter 3


Form Identification paidon, paidou t paidikw, paidik, paidikn paidev

Given the dictionary listings above, identify fully the forms below. LIST ALL POSSIBLE IDENTIFICATIONS (ignore the Vocative case). For each identification, first list the relevant part of speech (e.g., noun, verb, adjective) and then its characteristics (5 for a verb, 3 for a noun or adjective).
Part of Form Speech Person # Verbs Tense Voice Mood Nouns/Adjectives Case # Gender

paideeiw paidiko

paidikw paideein paid paidik

paidev paida

paidou paideousi paideete

paidikn

30

Table of Contractions

Combinations

Result

Combinations

Result

Combinations

Result

a+a a (long) + a a + a (long) a+i a + ai a (long) + i a+& a+e a+h a + ei# a + ei* a+ a+o a+v a + ou# a + oi v & a (long) & ai a (long)

e+a e + a (long) e+h e + ai e+ e+e e+i e + ei e + oi oi ei h

h+i h + ai h + ei h+ h+h h+e h + oi h

o+e

e+o e+v e+ e+u

ou v eu

o+o o + ei o + oi o+

ou

oi

o+h o+v o+ v

* = genuine diphthong with the sound of one vowel gliding into another, though in classical times the sound eventually became single # = spurious diphthong: a long vowel which occurs as the result of contraction or compensatory lengthening

31

Homework Assignments for Week 5, 11-14 September (Chapter 4)


for Monday: for Tuesday: TEST (chapters 1-3) read and digest grammar on Ath. pp. 38-42 do exercises 4b (evens), 4g (odds), 4d (evens) and 4e (odds) read Ath. pp. 43-45 ("Women") quiz on first declension read and translate Reading 4 " (pp. 37-38) read and digest grammar on Ath. pp. 47-50 do exercise 4k vocabulary quiz chapter 4 do noun-adjective agreement worksheet (all noun-adjective worksheets are in the course pack) read Ath. p. 284 on syllables and accents read and translate Reading 4 $ (pp. 46-47) quiz on mgaw, meglh, mga read and digest grammar on Ath. pg. 56-59 do exercises 5b (odds) and 5g (evens) read and translate Reading 5 " (p. 55)

for Wednesday:

for Thursday:

for Monday:

32

Chapter 4 Vocabulary
Memorize all parts of the dictionary entry; know this vocabulary list in either direction, i.e., from Greek to English and from English to Greek Addendum to page 36: Nouns: ggelow, gglou : messenger nr, ndrw : man, husband gun, gunaikw : woman, wife ort, ortw : festival yugthr, yugatrw : daughter kairw, kairo : time, right time krnh, krnhw : spring mthr, mhtrw : mother dra, draw : water jar xorw, xoro : dance, chorus

Addendum to page 46: Nouns: g, gw : land, earth, ground dw, do : road, way, journey Note: In chapter 4a, Athenaze begins to list all three nominative singular forms for adjectives; so that information will no longer appear in the course pack vocabulary lists.

33

Homework Exercises for Chapter 4


Noun/Adjective Agreement Worksheet: Nouns Adjectives despthw, desptou kalw, kal , kaln oka, okaw mgaw, meglh, mga dndron, dndrou t Given the dictionary entries listed above, identify each form listed below by case, number and gender and then write the correct form of the adjective/s to modify the noun. (Ignore the Vocative case.)

Form despthw okaw

Case

Gender

Adjective/s

okai dndra

desptou despotn dndroiw dndr okan desptaw despthn dndron

despt okaiw 34

First Declension
Table of stem vowel + case endings: Feminine Sing. Nom. Gen. Dat. Acc. Voc. Plu. Nom./Voc. Gen. Dat. Acc. a or a 2 a -w or h-w 2 a -i or h-i 2 a -n or a -n 2 a or a 2 h h-w h-i h-n h a -i 2 a -n 2 a 2 a-i (V -n/Ionic -vn > -vn > ) n 2 a-iw (a-nw >) a w 2 a -w 2 Masculine h-w a -o (< a -o(i)o) 2 2 h-i h-n a or h -

1. In East Ionic, the change from original a to h was uniform. 2 2. a did not become h in Attic: 2 a. when preceded by r, as in mra , mra w 2 2 b. when preceded by e or i, as in oka , oka w 2 2

35

First Declension Feminine


(A) art. (A) adj.
Sing. Nom. Gen. Dat. Acc. Voc. Plu. Nom. Gen. Dat. Acc. Voc.

(A) noun (B) adj. krnh krnhw krn krnhn krnh krnai krhnn krnaiw krna w 2 krnai =&da 2 =&daw 2 =&d 2 =&dan 2 =&da 2 =diai =&dvn

(B) noun oka 2 okaw 2 ok 2 okan 2 oka 2 okai okin

(C1) ylatta yaltthw yaltt ylattan ylatta ylattai yalattn yalttaiw yaltta w 2 ylattai

(C2) mxaira maxaraw 2 maxar 2 mxairan mxaira mxairai maxairn maxaraiw maxara w 2 mxairai

tw t tn a tn taw tw

kal kalw kal kaln kal kala kaln kalaw kalw kala

=&daiw okaiw =&da w 2 =diai oka w 2 okai

A. Eta in the nominative, eta throughout the singular. (= Type 1) B. Long alpha in the nominative, long alpha throughout the singular. (= Type 2) C1. Short alpha in the nominative, after s (j, c, tt, ss), z, ll, ain: -a, -hw, -hi, -an, -a. (= Type - 3) C2. Short alpha in the nominative, after e, i, r: -a, -aw, -ai, -an, -a. (= Type 4) - 2 2 - [My rule: If you know the nominative and genitive, you can predict the dative and accusative. Nominative and accusative vowel are always the same; genitive and dative vowel are always the same.] Notes on accentuation: 1. In nominative plural, final -ai is treated as short (as with -oi in 2nd decl. masc. nom. pl.) 2. Genitive plural of all first declension substantives has n. But, feminine genitive plural of adjectives and participles in -ow has the same accent and form as the masculine and neuter (as in =diow, =&da, =dion, genitive plural =&dvn). 2

36

First Declension Masculine


Sing. Nom. Gen. despthw desptou -w imported from 2 nd decl. masc. -ow 1 st decl. -a w replaced by -a o, with -o taken 2 2 nd over from 2 decl. gen. o-io, oo (Attic -ou in place of expected -v) nea na w 2 2 nea nou 2

Dat. Acc. Voc.

despt despthn dspota desptai despotn desptaiw despta w 2 desptai Nom. in a w, voc. in a ; nom. in thw, voc. in a ; 2 2 other nom. in hw, voc. in h

nea n 2 2 nea na n 2 2 nea na 2 2 nea nai 2 nea nin 2 nea naiw 2 nea na w 2 2 nea nai 2

Plu. Nom. Gen. Dat. Acc. Voc.

37

Homework Assignments for Week 6, 18-21 September (Chapter 5)


for Monday: quiz on mgaw, meglh, mga read and digest grammar on Ath. pg. 56-59 do exercises 5b (odds) and 5g (evens) read and translate Reading 5 " (p. 55) quiz on -av contract verbs do form identification worksheet do noun-adjective agreement worksheet read and digest grammar on Ath. pp. 64-69 vocabulary quiz chapter 5 read and translate Reading 5 $ (pp. 62-64) read Ath. pp. 59-61 ("Gods and Men") STUDY FOR TEST (chapters 1-5)

for Tuesday:

for Wednesday:

for Thursday:

for Monday:

38

Chapter 5 Vocabulary
Addendum to the Vocabulary List on page 54: Nouns: kvn, kunw or : dog lagw, lag : hare lkow, lkou : wolf oka, okaw : house row, rouw t: mountain, hill pppow, pppou : grandfather Adjectives: krow, kra, kron: top (of) =yumow, =yumon: careless Addendum to page 62: Nouns: myow, myou : story Adjectives: gayw, gay, gayn: good griow, gra, grion: savage, wild, fierce prtow, prth, prton: first atw, at, at: -self, -selves; him, her, it, them

39

Homework Exercises for Chapter 5


Form Identification: timv tim, timw
Part of Form timw timhtaw Speech Person #

timhtw, timht, timhtn timhtw, timhto (note, this will decline like despthw)
Verbs Tense Voice Mood Nouns/Adjectives Case # Gender

tma 2 tim timhtn

timhtw timmen timn timhtw

timw timte

timn timhtow tim tim timhtn

40

Noun/Adjective Agreement Worksheet: Nouns despthw, desptou dw, do krnh, krnhw Adjectives/Pronouns atw, at, at polw, poll, pol

Given the dictionary entries listed above, identify each form listed below by case, number and gender and then write the correct form of the adjective/s to modify the noun. (Ignore the Vocative case.) Form despotn dow despthn despt dn dw krnaw krhnn dow desptaiw despthw krnhn krnh do d desptaw krn dn Case # Gender
Adjective/s

41

Alpha Contract Verbs


Present Active Indicative: Singular 1 st 2 nd 3 rd Plural 1 st 2 nd 3 rd tim timw tim timmen timte timsi(n) - -w - -men -te -si < timv < timeiw < timei < timomen < timete < timousi

Present Active Imperative: 2 nd singular: 2 nd plural: tma 2 timte -a 2 -te < tmae < timete Present stem + thematic vowel Present stem + thematic vowel + te

Present Active Infinitive: timn -n timeen > tima en > timn 2 Present stem + thematic vowel + en

Contractions: a + v/ o/ ou > v (1 st singular, 1 st plural, 3 rd plural indicative) a + ei > & (2 nd singular, 3 rd singular indicative) a + e > a (2 nd plural indicative, 2 nd singular and 2 nd plural imperative, 2 present active infinitive)

42

Adjectives: Attributive vs. Predicative


ATTRIBUTIVE t kron row the lofty mountain msh gor the central market sxth nsow the farthest island mnow paw the only son atw nr the same man o pntew poltai the whole body of citizens psa Sikela the whole of Sicily PREDICATIVE kron t row the top of the mountain t row kron msh gor the center of the market gor msh sxth nsow the edge of the island nsow sxth mnow paw pazei the boy plays alone paw mnow pazei atw nr the man himself nr atw o poltai pntew all the citizens pntew o poltai

43

Homework Assignments for Week 7, 25-28 September (Chapter 6)


for Monday: for Tuesday: TEST (chapters 1-5) read and digest grammar on Ath. pp. 74-78 read course pack pages 47-49 read and translate Reading 6 " (pp. 73-74) quiz on present middle verb forms do form ID chart do exercises 6g, 6d, 6e (evens), 6z (odds) read Ath. pp. 81-83 ("Myth") read and digest grammar on Ath. pp. 86-89 read and translate Reading 6 $ (pp.84-86) do exercise 6n (1-6) read and digest grammar on Ath. pp. 96-101 do exercise 7b read and translate Reading 7 " (pp. 95-96) vocabulary quiz chapter 6

for Wednesday:

for Thursday:

for Monday:

44

Chapter 6 Vocabulary
Addendum to the Vocabulary List on page 72: Nouns: basilew, basilvw : king tarow, tarou : comrade, companion mra, mraw : day naw, new : ship nsow, nsou : island nj, nuktw : night pppaw, pppou : father parynow, parynou : maiden, girl

Addendum to the Vocabulary List on page 84: Nouns: plai, puln a: gates English derivatives: phobia, labyrinth, parthenogenesis, basil, hegemony, nautical, pylon, ephemeral, tympanum, nyctophobia, genesis

45

Homework Exercises for Chapter 6


Form Identification: boulev boulhtw, boulht, boulhtn boul, boulw bolomai

Given the dictionary listings above, identify fully the forms below. LIST ALL POSSIBLE IDENTIFICATIONS (excluding the Vocative case). For each identification, first list the relevant part of speech (e.g., noun, verb, adjective) and then its characteristics.
Part of Form boulev boulw bol bolesyai boulhto boulaw bouleete Speech Person # Verbs Tense Voice Mood Nouns/Adjectives Case # Gender

boulmeya boula boulhtow

bolesye

bouleein boulhtn

bouln boulht bouleei

boulht

46

Present Middle Indicative, Imperative, Infinitive


lv Indicative mai sai tai meya sye ntai l-o-mai l-e-sai l-e-tai lu--meya l-e-sye l-o-ntai lomai l, lei letai lumeya lesye lontai fil-o-mai fil-e-sai fil-e-tai file--meya fil-e-sye fil-o-ntai filomai fil, file filetai filomeya filesye filontai tim-o-mai tim-e-sai tim-e-tai tima--meya tim-e-sye tim-o-ntai timmai tim timtai timmeya timsye timntai filv timv

Imperative so sye l-e-so l-e-sye lou lesye fil-e-so fil-e-sye filo filesye tim-e-so tim-e-sye tim timsye

Infinitive syai l-e-syai lesyai fil-e-syai filesyai tim-e-syai timsyai

Second person singular indicative: e-(s)ai yields long ei (written EI in the Old Attic alphabet, before 403 BCE, and HI in other dialects); is usually given as the proper spelling in the texts of the tragic poets, whereas ei is printed in the texts of prose and comedy. ei was often written for hi () after 400 BCE, since both had the sound of a close long e. -ei is sometimes called Attic and Ionic in contrast to - of the other dialects, including the Koine. (Smyth 628) N OTE: Final -ai is counted short (-mai, -sai, -tai, -ntai, -syai).

47

Notes on the Middle Voice


From Smyth, Greek Grammar: Middle usually denotes that subject acts on himself or for himself, as loomai wash myself , mnomai defend myself (lit. ward off for myself). The passive borrows all its forms, except in the future and aorist tenses, from the middle. Deponent verbs have an active meaning but only middle (or middle and passive) forms. The middle represents the subject as doing something in which he is interested. He may do something to himself, for himself, or he may act with something belonging to himself. The object of the middle (1) may belong in the sphere of the subject, as his property, etc: I wash my hands, or (2) it may be brought into the sphere of the subject: they sent for the hoplites, or (3) it may be removed from the sphere of the subject: I sell my house (lit. give away). Direct Reflexive Middle: subject acting directly on himself. Self is here the direct object. Verbs expressing external and natural acts: anoint oneself, wash oneself, adorn oneself, crown oneself, exercise oneself. Indirect Reflexive Middle: subject as acting for himself, with reference to himself, with something belonging to himself. Self often the indirect object: provide for oneself, guard against, choose (take for oneself), furnish. Causative Middle: subject has something done by another for himself: for I had you taught this; to have food served up. Reciprocal Middle: With dual or plural subject middle may indicate reciprocal relation. Verbs of contending, conversing (questioning, replying), greeting, embracing, etc. Middle lays stress on conscious activity, bodily or mental participation, of agent. In verbs that possess both active and middle: bouleesyai deliberate, bouleein plan staymn measure, staymsyai calculate skopen look at, skopesyai consider xesyai cling to paesyai cease Active is often transitive, middle intransitive. Passive voice represents subject as acted on. Passive voice has been developed from the middle. With the exception of some futures and the aorist, middle forms do duty as passives: aretai, takes for himself, ie chooses, and so is chosen.

48

From Seligson, Greek for Reading: Subject of active verb = agent Direct object of active verb = patient Subject of passive verb = patient Subject of middle verb = agent and beneficiary, or = agent and patient Agent and beneficiary: subject both acts and benefits by action: frei, carries; fretai, wins (for his own) fulttei, guards; fulttetai, guards against Agent and patient: may seem simply reflexive kosme, adorns; kosmetai, adorns himself fanei, shows; fanetai, shows himself, seems

49

Homework Assignments for Week 8, 2-5 October (Chapter 7)


for Monday: read and digest grammar on Ath. pp. 96-99 do exercise 7b read and translate Reading 7" (pp. 95-96) vocabulary quiz chapter 6 quiz on 3rd declension forms do form ID chart read and digest grammar on Ath. pp. 100-101 do exercise 7d vocabulary quiz chapter 7 read and digest grammar on Ath. pp. 106-109 do noun-adjective agreement chart do exercises 7z (evens) and 7h (odds) quiz on 3rd declension forms read and translate Reading 7$ (pp. 104-106) read Ath. pp. 102-103 ("Homer") STUDY FOR TEST (chapters 1-7)

for Tuesday:

for Wednesday:

for Thursday:

for Monday:

English derivatives: dialogue, erg, ergonomics, theater, vespers, theology, poet, cathedral, agora, politics

50

Chapter 7 Vocabulary
Addendum to the Vocabulary List on page 94: Nouns: a j, a gw, or : goat ylatta, yaltthw, : sea noma, nmatow, t: name pliw, plevw : city NOTE: Beginning with chapter 7b, Athenaze lists nominative, genitive, and gender for each new noun; so there will no longer be an addendum for each chapter here in the course pack. English derivatives: xenophobia, ophthalmologist, pyromaniac, ballistic, eureka, thalassocracy, politics, eponymous, anonymous, oenophile = enophile, oenology = enology, panorama

51

Homework Exercises for Chapter 7


Form Identification: pr, purw t pur, purw Part of Form pr Speech Person # pursw, purs, pursn prow, prou Verbs Tense Voice Mood purv

Nouns/Adjectives Case # Gender

pur prow purs

purw puromen pur prou pursn

purs purosi(n) purs(n) purso

pursn

purw pur

52

Noun/Adjective Agreement: Nouns xeimn, xeimnow pr, purw t paw, paidw Adjectives mgaw, meglh, mga tw, t sfrvn, sfron (3rd declension adj.)

Given the dictionary entries listed above, identify each form listed below by case, number and gender and then write the correct form of the adjective/s to modify the noun. (Ignore Vocative.) Form xeimnow purn paid pais pada xeimn xeimna purw pr Case # Gen. Adjective/s

pur padew paidw purs xeimsi xeimni

53

Third Declension
Stems in the 3rd declension end either in consonants (hence the alternate name, "consonant declension"), or in the vowels -i and -u. The third declension shows much more variety than the 1st and 2nd declensions because some of its nouns have variable stems, with different forms of the stem appearing in different sets of cases, and some feature contraction of vowels in the endings. I. Case Endings: Masc./Fem. Singular Nom. or -w Neuter -ow -i -a -vn -si(n) -a -

Gen. -ow i Dat. -Acc. -a or -n -

Voc. or -w Plural Nom./Voc. -ew Gen. -vn Dat. -si(n) Acc. II. Accentuation: -aw -

Stems of one syllable (monosyllabic stems) accent the case ending in genitive and dative of all numbers; -vn takes the circumflex accent. The gen. plu. of paw is an exception to this rule. Singular Nom. aj Gen. agw Dat. ag Acc. aga paw paidw paid pada pa padew padvn paid-s(n) > pais(n) padaw 54

Voc. aj Plural Nom./Voc. agew Gen. agn Dat. ag-s(n) > aj(n) Acc. agaw

III.

General Rules: A. for nouns ending in -p, -b, -f (labials) or -k, -g, -x (velars/palatals) These nouns use -w in the nom. and voc. singular and -a in the acc. Note that the presence of -w in the endings will result in double consonants in the nom. and voc. singular and dat. plural. Singular Nom. klc Gen. klvpw Dat. klvp Acc. klpa flaj flakow flaki flaka flaj flakew fulkvn flaji(n) flakaw

Voc. klc Plural Nom./Voc. klpew Gen. klvpn Dat. klvc(n) Acc. klpaw

B. for nouns ending in -d, -y, -t (dentals) All dentals are lost before sigma: note the forms of the dative plural. Neuter nouns use no ending in nom. and voc. singular, and either the final tau is dropped (in accordance with the law that says a noun can end only in a vowel, -r, -n, or -w) or an alternative stem is used in nom. and voc. singular. The nom. acc. voc. plural form of the neuter has short a, like all neuter forms. Singular Nom. paw Gen. paidw Dat. paid Acc. pada prgma prgmatow prgmati prgma prgma prgmata pragmtvn prgmasi(n) prgmata fw fvtw fvt fw fw fta fvtn fvs(n) fta

Voc. pa Plural Nom./Voc. padew Gen. padvn Dat. paid-s(n) > pais(n) Acc. padaw

55

C. for nouns with stem ending in -l, -r (liquids) or -n (nasal) These nouns either: (1) use no ending in the nom. singular with strong-vowel form of stem, or (2) use -w in the nom. singular. Nouns with final -n- do not have the -n- in the dat. plural, but there is no compensatory lengthening. Singular Nom. xeimn Gen. xeimnow Dat. xeimni Acc. xeimna damvn damonow damoni damona damon damonew daimnvn damosi(n) damonaw lw lw l la lew ln ls(n) law

Voc. xeimn Plural Nom./Voc. xeimnew Gen. xeimnvn Dat. xeimsi(n) Acc. xeimnaw

Note the accents in xeimn: acute in nom. and voc. sing, circumflex in most other forms, because an accented long penult followed by short ultima must have a circumflex. The adjective sfrvn, sfron follows the same pattern as the nouns above: Masculine/Feminine Singular Nom. sfrvn Gen. Dat. Acc. Voc. Plural Nom./Voc. sfronew Gen. Dat. Acc. sfronaw sfrona Neuter sfron sfronow sfroni sfron sfron sfrona svfrnvn sfrosi(n) sfrona

56

Homework Assignments for Week 9, 9-12 October (Chapter 8)


for Monday: for Tuesday: TEST (chapters 1-7) read and digest grammar on Ath. pp. 114-116 do exercise 8b read and translate Reading 8" (pp. 112-114) quiz on present middle participle forms (with correct accents!) read and digest grammar on Ath. pp. 124-129, course pack pp. 61-63 do noun/adjective agreement chart do form ID chart quiz on BH, BF", B< and ,H, :\", < do noun/adjective agreement chart study the place words on Ath. pg. 124 (Word Building) read and translate Reading 8$ (pp. 122-124) vocabulary quiz chapter 8 read Ath. pp. 117-120 ("Athens: A Historical Outline") read and digest grammar on Ath. pp. 135-137 do exercises 9b (evens) and 9g (odds) read and translate Reading 9" (pp. 133-135)

for Wednesday:

for Thursday:

for Monday:

57

Homework Exercises for Chapter 8


Noun/Adjective Agreement: Nouns pr, purw, t yew, yeo, ylatta, yaltthw, poihtw, poihto Form pr Case # Gen. Adjectives sfrvn, sfron lumenow, luomnh, lumenon

Adjective/s

yaltthw pur yeo poihto yeow ylattan poihtn yen ye yalttaw yeo purn yew purw yalattn

58

Form Identification: jnow, jnou jena, jenaw jenzv jniow, jena, jnion

Given the dictionary listings above, identify fully the forms below. LIST ALL POSSIBLE IDENTIFICATIONS. For each identification, first list the relevant part of speech (e.g., noun, verb, adjective, participle) and then its characteristics (5 for a verb, 3 for a noun or adjective, 5 for a participle [tense, voice; case, number, gender]).
Part of Form jnouw jenaw Speech Person # Verbs Tense Voice Mood Nouns/Adjectives Case # Gender

jenzein jenzv jnou jenaiw

jnon jenizmenoi jnvn jenizomn jenizomnoiw

jena

jnia

jenizmeya jn jnoiw jenzousi(n)

59

Noun/Adjective Agreement: Nouns nr, ndrw mthr, mhtrw dndron, dndrou t Form nr dndron Case # Gen. Adjectives ew, ma, n or do (as appropriate) pw, psa, pn

Adjective/s

mhtrw dndr mhtra mhtr ndrw dndroiw mhtrew ndra dndra

mhtrsi ndrn mhtrvn ndrew dndrou ndrsi

60

Third Declension
D. for nouns with irregular stem ending in -r The nouns patr, mthr, and yugthr have three visible stems: a strong-vowel stem ending in -thr, a short-vowel stem ending in -ter, and a weak grade (no vowel) ending in -tr (or -tra in dative plural, where -r- between consonants becomes -ra-). The strong-vowel appears in nom. sing.; the weak grade in gen. sing., dat. sing., and dat. pl; the short-vowel in acc. sing. and all plural cases except dat. Accentuation on these nouns in the nom. and voc. sing. is irregular: the voc. sing. of patr has recessive accentuation (pter), as do the nom. and voc. sing. of mthr (mthr, voc. mter) and of yugthr (yugthr, voc. ygater). Elsewhere the accent of these three words falls on the stem-ending -er- (or -ra- in dat. pl.) or on the case ending. For patr and mthr, the monosyllabic stem rule applies, while yugthr is treated similarly by analogy. The noun nr is similar: the strong-vowel stem appears in the nominative (nr), the short-vowel in the voc. sing. (ner), and the weak form in -r- in the other cases, where -d- is developed between -n- and -r-. The monosyllabic stem rule applies to nr, except that the nom. sing. and dat. plur. (based on disyllabic stems) are accented on the second syllable and the voc. sing. has recessive accent.

Singular

Nom. patr Gen. patrw Dat. patr Acc. patra

mthr mhtrw mhtr mhtra mter mhtrew mhtrvn mhtrsi(n) mhtraw

yugthr yugatrw yugatr yugatra ygater yugatrew yugatrvn yugatrsi(n) yugatraw

nr ndrw ndr ndra ner ndrew ndrn ndrsi(n) ndraw

Voc. pter Plural Nom./Voc. patrew Gen. patrvn Dat. patrsi(n) Acc. patraw

61

E. for nouns with stem ending in -ntThese nouns either: (1) use -w in the nom. and voc. singular, in which case the -nt drops out and the preceding vowel exhibits compensatory lengthening; or (2) use a strong-vowel (i.e., long vowel/diphthong) form of the stem without the tau (dropped for phonetic reasons) and with no ending in the nom. singular. The voc. sing. is either like the nom. (dow, voc. dow) or has the weak-vowel form of the stem with no ending (and final -t- is simply dropped) (ggaw, voc. ggan; grvn, voc. 2 gron). In the dat. plur., the ending -si causes elimination of -nt- and compensatory lengthening of the preceding vowel: dnt-si(n) > dosi(n), ggant-si(n) > ggasi(n), gront-si(n) 2 > grousi(n). Singular Nom. dow Gen. dntow Dat. dnti Acc. dnta ggaw 2 ggantow gganti gganta ggan ggantew gigntvn ggasi(n) 2 ggantaw grvn grontow gronti gronta gron grontew gerntvn grousi(n) grontaw

Voc. dow Plural Nom./Voc. dntew Gen. dntvn Dat. dosi(n) Acc. dntaw

62

Paradigm of pas, pasa, pan and heis, mia, hen


Adjectives of the consonant declension with a separate set of forms for the feminine inflect the feminine like a noun of the first declension ending in -a. The feminine is made from the stem of the masculine/neuter by adding the suffix -= ia (semivocalic i), which is combined with the preceding syllable in different ways. Singular Nom./Voc. pw Gen. pantw Dat. pant Acc. Plural pnta psa pshw ps psan psai pasn psaiw psaw pn pantw pant pn pnta pntvn psi(n) pnta

Nom./Voc. pntew Gen. pntvn Dat. Acc. psi(n) pntaw

psa stands for pantsa from pant-= ia. a 2 of pn (for pan(t)-) is irregular and borrowed from pw. The accents of pantw and pant follow the monosyllabic stem rule; pntvn and psi(n) don't. psi(n) is from pnt-si(n). pasn follows the usual pattern for first declension nouns (-n from -vn). Singular Nom. ew Gen. nw Dat. n Acc. na ma miw mi man n nw n n

The stem for ew, ma, n is sm (m with zero-grade vowel). The stem n is from sem- . Initial s before a vowel becomes the rough breathing. Original final m preceded by a vowel becomes n. ma stands for sm-a. ew is from n-w. The accent of nw and n follows the monosyllabic stem rule. Note the accent of the feminine genitive and dative, miw and mi. 63

Homework Assignments for Week 10, 16-19 October (Chapter 9)


for Monday: vocabulary quiz chapter 8 read Ath. pp. 117-120 ("Athens: A Historical Outline") read and digest grammar on Ath. pp. 135-137 do exercises 9b (evens) and 9g (odds) read and translate Reading 9 " (pp. 133-135) quiz on present active participle forms do exercise 9d do noun/adjective agreement chart do exercise on personal pronouns, reflexive pronouns, possessive adjectives in course pack read and digest grammar on Ath. pp. 145-148 quiz on declensions of basilew, pliw, stu do exercise 9z (2, 4, 6) and 9h (2, 4, 6) do form ID chart read and translate Reading 9 $ (pp.142-144) vocabulary quiz chapter 9 read Ath. pp. 139-140 ("The City of Athens") STUDY FOR TEST (chapters 1-9)

for Tuesday:

for Wednesday:

for Thursday:

for Monday:

English derivatives: sarcophagus, panegyric, stoa, aristocracy, ambidextrous, theology, hieroglyphics, Nike, parthenogenesis, gerontology, democracy, Uranus, pomp, and Mesolithic

64

Homework Exercises for Chapter 9


For practice with personal pronouns, reflexive pronouns, and possessive adjectives, translate the following: 1. tn dn atw r. 2. ato tn okan at r. 3. atw r atow. 4. at r tn sn okan. 5. at r t at dndron. 6. atw r atn tn kna. 7. s rw me. 8. s lgeiw atow tn myon. 9. s rw tn sn pada. 10. r mautn, ll ox r mw. 11. paw r tn auto kna. 12. paw r tn kna atw. 13. mew gr ok ylomen mw atow szein. 14. s lgeiw seaut. 15. s lgeiw seaut. 16. s lgeiw mo. 17. gv t mtera prbata prw tn mn okan. 18. kayzv p t mteron dndron. 19. ok ylomen mw atow parein. 20. t mla met atn fegei. 21. t mla aut file. 22. paw autn file. 23. paw atn file. 24. paw tn kna atw file. 25. paw autn file. 26. paw tn kna ato file. 65

Noun/Adjective (Participle) Agreement: Nouns rister, risterw ern, ero t patr, patrw Adjectives timn, timsa, timn lvn, lousa, lon

Given the dictionary entries listed above, identify each form listed below by case, number and gender and then write the correct form of the adjective/s to modify the noun. (Ignore the Vocative case.) Form patr ern Case # Gen. Adjective/s

ristern risterw risterw erow patrew patrsi(n) risteraw rister er

ern patra patraw rister er patr

66

Form Identification: basilew, basilvw basilea, basileaw basilw, basildow basilev, basilesv, basleusa basleiow, basilea, basleion

Given these dictionary listings, identify fully the forms below. LIST ALL POSSIBLE IDENTIFICATIONS.
Part of Form Speech Person # Verbs Tense Voice Mood Nouns/Adjectives Case # Gender

basilvw basileaw

basileomen basileumenow basleia

basilda basilesi basilevn basile basileontew basileousai basilean

basildew basileuomnvn

basleiow basila

67

Present Active Participles


Participles of the active voice have stems in nt. The masculine and neuter follow the third declension, the feminine follows the first declension. Most stems in ont make the nominative singular masculine without w, like the noun gervn, dropping the t and lengthening o to v. But stems in ont in the present and second aorist of mi-verbs (didow, dow), and all stems in ant, ent, unt add w, lose nt, and lengthen the preceding vowel (-ouw, -aw, -eiw, -uw). 2 2 The nominative neuter singular of all participles drops final t of the stem. The feminine singular is made by adding -= (semivocalic i) to the stem: ia lousa < luont-= osa < nt-= ia, ia. The accent of monosyllabic participles is an exception to the monosyllabic stem rule.

68

Present active participles of contract verbs


Singular Nom./Voc. Gen. Dat. Acc. Plural Nom./Voc. Gen. Dat. Acc.

fil-vn > fil-ontow > fil-onti > fil-onta > fil-ontew > file-ntvn > fil-ontsi > fil-onta w > -

filn filontow filonti filonta filontew filontvn filosi filontaw

fil-ousa > file-oshw > file-os > fil-ousa n > fil-ousai > file-ousn > file-osaiw > file-osa w > 2

filosa filoshw filos filosa n filosai filousn filosaiw filosa w 2

fil-on > fil-ontow > fil-onti > fil-on > fil-onta > file-ntvn > fil-ontsi > fil-onta >

filon filontow filonti filon filonta filontvn filosi filonta

Singular Nom./Voc. Gen. Dat. Acc. Plural Nom./Voc. Gen. Dat. Acc.

tim-vn > tim-ontow > tim-onti > tim-onta > tim-ontew > tima-ntvn > tim-ontsi > tim-ontaw >

timn timntow timnti timnta timntew timntvn timsi timntaw

tim-ousa> tima-oshw > tima-ous > tim-ousan > tim-ousai > tima-ousn > tima-osaiw > tima-osa w > 2

timsa timshw tims timsan timsai timvsn timsaiw timsaw

tim-on > tim-ontow > tim-onti > tim-on > tim-onta > tima-ntvn > tim-ontsi > tim-onta >

timn timntow timnti timn timnta timntvn timsi timnta

69

Third Declension
F. for nouns with stems in i and u Stems in i and u vary with stronger stems, of which e in the cases other than nom., acc., and voc. sing. is a survival. ei and eu before vowels lost their i and u. i and u of diphthongs often disappear before a following vowel; they become semivowels, = and = , which are not written. i u So pole(= i)-i, pole(= i)-ew, which contract to plei and pleiw. There is also a stem in h, as in Homeric plh-ow, whence ple-vw, by transfer of quantity (quantitative metathesis). Dat. pl. ple-si for pli-si is due to the analogy of forms from stems in ei, eu. Final -vw of the genitive singular does not prevent the acute from standing on the antepenult: plevw retains the accent of the earlier plh-ow, which became plevw by transfer of quantity. The accent of the gen. pl. follows that of the gen. sing. Acc. pl. pleiw is probably borrowed from the nom. pl.

Singular Nom. pliw Gen. plevw Dat. plei Acc. plin

(< pli-w) (< plh-ow) (< plei-i) (< pli-n)

stu stevw stei stu stu (< sth -ow) (< steu-i)

Voc. pli Plural Nom./Voc. pleiw Gen. plevn Dat. plesi(n) Acc. pleiw (< plei-ew) (< plei-vn)

sth stevn stesi(n) sth

(< ste -a) (< steu -vn)

(< ste -a)

70

G. for nouns with stems in eu, au, ou: Stems in eu show pure form only in vocative; other forms are derived from the stronger stem hu. hu and 2 u before a consonant become eu, au, as in basilew, basilesi, from a basilhuw, basilhusi. Stems lose u before case endings beginning with a vowel, = (semivocallic u) passing into u W (vau, "digamma"). basilvw, basile, basila, basilaw come from basil(W)-ow, basil(W)-i, 2 2 basil(W)-a, basil(W)-aw, by transfer of quantity ("quantitative metathesis"). In basilvn, e is shortened from the h of basilvn (a long vowel may be shortened before another long vowel). Nominative plural of eu nouns in older Attic ended in -w (basilw), derived either from -ew by contraction or from -hw by transfer of quantity.
Singular Nom. Gen. Dat. Acc. Voc. Plural Nom./Voc. Gen. Dat. Acc.

basilew basilvw basile basila 2 basile basilw basilvn basilesi(n) basila w 2

< basilhuw < basil(W)-ow < basil(W)-i < basil(W)-a

naw new nh nan na new

< na uw 2 < nh(W)-w < nh(W)-

bow bow bo bon bo bew < bo(W)-w

< basilvn < basilhusi < basil(W)-aw

nen naus(n) naw

< nhn < na usi 2

bon bous(n) bow

71

Homework Assignments for Week 11, 23-25 October (Chapter 10)


for Monday: for Tuesday: TEST (chapters 1-9) vocabulary quiz chapter 10 read and digest grammar on Ath. pg. 152-155, 158-160 read and translate Reading 10 " (pp. 156-157) do noun/adjective agreement worksheet Quiz on future forms read and digest the grammar on Ath. pp. 166-170 read and translate Reading 10 $ (pp. 165-166) do exercise 10b (odds) and 10g (evens) do form ID charts quiz on future forms read Ath. 162-163 ("Festivals") read and digest grammar on pp. 176-181

for Wednesday:

for Monday:

Chapter 10 Vocabulary
Beginning with Chapter 10, Athenaze lists three principal parts for every verb. English derivatives: Nike, encephalitis, hydraulic, sophomore

72

Homework Exercises for Chapter 10


Noun/Adjective Agreement: Nouns pliw plevw stu, stevw t basilew, basilvw Form pliw stu Case # Gen. Adjectives sfrvn, sfron lvn, lousa, lon

Adjective/s

stei basilew plin pleiw

stevn basile basila basilw plevn plesi stesi sth

basilesi basilaw

73

Form Identification: polteuma, politematow t politev, politesv, polteusa


Part of Form politeeiw politemata Speech Person #

polthw, poltou pliw, plevw


Verbs Tense Voice Mood

poliw,poli, polin
Nouns/Adjectives Case # Gender

plevw poliw

pleiw

politeontow

plesi polt politematow plin politeousi

politeuomnoiw

polthn politemasi plei polin

poltaiw polin

74

Formation of the Future Tense


1. The future stem is formed by adding the tense-suffix -s o/e to the verb-stem: lsv, lsomai; ysv from tyhmi; dejv from deknumi. 2. In verbs showing strong and weak grades, the ending is added to the strong stem: lepv lecv, tkv tjv, pnv pnesomai, ddvmi dsv. 3. Verb stems ending in a short vowel lengthen the vowel before the tense suffix (a to h except after e, i, r): timv timsv, filv filsv. 4. Verb stems ending in liquids (l, r) or nasals (m, n) add -es o/e-; then s drops and e contracts with the following vowel: fanv (fan-), fan from fan-sv. 5. Labial (p, b, f) and palatal (k, g, x) stops at the end of the verb-stem unite with s to form c or j. Dentals (t, d, y) are lost before s. kp-t-v (kop-), kcv, kcomai; blp-t-v (blab-), blcv, blcomai; grfv, grcv, grcomai; plkv, pljv, pljomai; lgv, ljv, ljomai; tarttv (tarax-), tarjv, tarjomai; frzv (frad-), frsv; peyv (piy-, peiy-), pesv, pesomai. 6. When e or o is added to the verb stem, it is lengthened to h or v: bolomai (boul-e-), boulsomai; lskomai (l-o-), lsomai. 7. So-called "Attic futures" occur when s is preceded by a or e and these vowels are not preceded by a syllable long by nature or position. s is dropped and -av and -ev are contracted to -. When i precedes s, the ending is -i-(s)v which contracts to -i. kalv, kal, kalomai; lanv (la-), l; kayzomai (kayed-), kayedomai; mxomai (maxe-), maxomai; llumi (l-e-), l. a. All verbs in -annumi have futures in -(s)v, -: skednnumi (skeda-), sked. Similarly some verbs in -ennumi: mfinnumi (mfie-), mfi; strnumi (store), stor. b. Verbs in -izv of more than two syllables drop s and insert e, thus making i(s)v, -i(s)omai, which contract to -i and -iomai: nomzv (nomid-) makes nomisv, nomi-v, nomi. nomi etc. are due to the analogy of the liquid verbs.

75

Homework Assignments for Week 12, 30 October-2 November (Chapter 11)


for Monday: quiz on future forms read Ath. 162-163 ("Festivals") read and digest grammar on pp. 176-181 vocabulary quiz chapter 11 read and translate Reading 11 " (pp. 175-176) read and digest grammar on Ath. pp. 189-191 do exercises 11k (odds), 11m (evens), and 11n (odds) read Ath. pp. 184-184 ("Greek Science and Medicine") read and translate Reading 11 $ (pp. 187-188) quiz on 2 nd aorist forms do noun/participle agreement sheet do form ID chart quiz on 2 nd aorist participle forms, active and middle read and digest grammar on Ath. pp. 196-199 read and translate Reading 12 " (pp. 194-196)

for Tuesday:

for Wednesday:

for Thursday:

for Monday:

PLEASE NOTE: It is expected that all of you will do the Word Building Exercises in each chapter on your own. These are very useful for building vocabulary. English derivatives: genesis, paschal, scope, Philadelphia, psychiatrist and all the other -iatrist words, anthropology and all the other -ology words

76

Homework Exercises for Chapter 11


Noun/Adjective Agreement: Nouns delfw, delfo rgrion, rgurou t draxm, draxmw Modifiers labn, labosa, labn genmenow, genomnh, genmenon dvn, dion

Form rgrion

Case

Gen .

Modifiers

draxmw delfow rgria

draxm draxmw delfw rgurou draxmn rguroiw delfow delfo draxma rgur draxmn delfn delfn 77

Form Identification: manynv, maysomai, mayon myhma, maymatow t


Part of Form mayon Speech Person # Verbs Tense Voice Mood

mayhtw, mayhto mayhtw, mayht, mayhtn


Nouns/Adjectives Case # Gender

mayhtn

manynvn manyanomnhw maynti

myomen manynein maymasi mayhtow

mayew mayosa manynousa mayht

mye manyanosaiw mayhtaw

mayn

78

The Aorist System in Greek


In the indicative mood, aorist is used to refer to simple, unique occurrences in the past: C Dikaiopolis brother opened the door. C The god Asklepios healed Philip. You have already noticed that the temporal augment for the aorist occurs only in the indicative mood. This is because, in the aorist, only the indicative mood emphasizes time. All other forms of the aorist usually emphasize, instead, aspect.

Aspect refers to how one views the action of the verb Sthat is, whether the action is viewed as completed vs. incomplete, customary vs. a single occurrence, a general truth vs. a specific occurrence. Present tense has an incomplete, customary, or habitual aspect; aorist tense conveys a completed or simple (i.e., one time occurrence) aspect. Note the difference between these two indicative sentences. C Mother takes her medication every day. (present time, customary aspect = present tense = lambnei) C I took a present to the party. (past time, simple aspect = aorist = labon) Outside of the indicative, aorist emphasizes aspect and does not refer to time. Note, for example, the difference between these two imperatives: C Mother, take your pill every day! (customary aspect = present imperative = lmbane) C Take the money and run! (simple aspect = aorist imperative = lbe) Note, lmbane and lbe are each translated into English by take! but that two different aspects are conveyed. Also, note that certain verbs denote a state of being or an action which by its nature is continuous; these verbs may require a somewhat different translation in the aorist to denote simple aspect (i.e., the action at a single moment in time). Often the aorist of such verbs refers to the single moment in time at which the subject enters in the state of being or begins the continuous action; these are called ingressive aorists.

C
C C

xv = I have basilev = I am king dakrv = I am crying

skon = I came to have, I got basleusa = I became king dkrusa = I began to cry

79

In progress, mere occurrence, completed 1 st principal part: Progressive (imperfect) aspect stem Aorist: merely names action aorist or neutral aspect a-oristow = unlimited, indefinite, undefined time. Doesn't show limitation of continuance (expressed by imperfect) or of completion with permanent result (expressed by perfect) Perfect: completed action Progressive Past Present Future was teaching is teaching will be teaching Aorist-Neutral taught teaches will teach Perfective had taught has taught will have taught

Aorist = mere occurrence of action in past. Action regarded as event or single fact without reference to length of time it occupied. Uses of aorist may be explained by figure of point in time: 1. The starting point (ingressive aorist): "become ruler," "fell in love," "become silent" 2. The end point (resultative aorist) "I brought" 3. The whole action, concentrated to a point (complexive aorist) Aorist enumerates and reports past events. It may be employed in brief continuous narration. As a narrative tense it is often used to state the chief events and facts, while the other past tenses set forth subordinate actions and attendant circumstances. Greek aorists active and middle have no future Exist only as past tense Outside of the indicative, aorist emphasizes aspect and does not refer to time.

80

Personal Endings
Primary/Secondary = Non-past/Past ACTIVE PRIMARY SINGULAR 1 st 2 nd 3 rd PLURAL 1 st 2 nd 3 rd , -mi -w (for -si), -ya (-sya) -si (for -ti) -men -te -nsi (for -nti) MIDDLE -mai -sai -tai -meya -sye -ntai

SECONDARY

SINGULAR 1 st 2 nd 3 rd PLURAL 1 st 2 nd 3 rd

-n -w, -sya -men -te -n, -san

-mhn -so -to -meya -sye -nto

81

Second or Root Aorist


Active Indicative Singular 1st 2nd 3rd Plural 1st 2nd 3rd lipon lipew lipe (n) lpomen lpete lipon Middle lipmhn lpou lpeto lipmeya lpesye lponto

Imperative 2nd Singular 2nd Plural

lpe lpete

lipo lpesye

Infinitive

lipen

lipsyai

Participle

lipn, liposa, lipn (gen. lipntow, liposhw, lipntow)

lipmenow, lipomnh, lipmenon

Most 2nd aorists belong to a type which has the weak vowel grade in the root and the accent originally on the thematic vowel. The accent on the thematic vowel has been regularized in the indicative, partially regularized in the imperative, and preserved in the infinitive and participle. 1. Indicative: temporal augment + aorist stem + thematic vowel + secondary personal endings. Accent is regular: that is, recessive. Note loss of intervocalic sigma in 2nd sing middle: lpeso > lpou 2. Imperative: aorist stem + thematic vowel + secondary personal endings. Accent is regular: that is, recessive; EXCEPT 2nd sing middle, lipso > lipo, where accent shifted to thematic vowel. NOTE: the accent of 2nd sing active imperative lab, ep, ly, er, d, has the accent shifted to thematic vowel; but this shift only applies to these five verbs. 3. Infinitive: note that the accent has shifted to the thematic vowel; this is the regular pattern in the second aorist. lipen > lipen 4. Participle: note that the accent has shifted to the thematic vowel; this is the regular pattern in the second aorist. As an adjective, the participle's accent is persistent.

82

Homework Assignments for Week 13, 6-9 November (Chapter 12)


for Monday: quiz on 2 nd aorist participle forms, active and middle read and digest grammar on Ath. pp. 196-199 read and translate Reading 12 " (pp. 194-196) quiz on 1st aorist forms do form ID chart do exercises 12g, 12h (evens) vocabulary quiz chapter 12 read and digest grammar on pp. 207-209 read and translate Reading12 $ (pp. 204-206) read Ath. pp. 200-203 ("Trade and Travel") quiz, 1 st aorist participle STUDY FOR TEST (chapters 1-12)

for Tuesday:

for Wednesday:

for Thursday:

for Monday:

83

Homework Exercises for Chapter 12


Form Identification: frontzv, fronti, frntisa frontw, frontdow
Part of Form frontzvn frontzontow Speech Person #

frontistw, frontisto frontistikw, frontistik, frontistikn


Verbs Tense Voice Mood Nouns/Adjectives Case # Gender

frontsamen frontsv frontsasyai frontistikn

frontda frontista frontzein frontizmeya frontsate frontsasa frontistiko frontistn frntise(n) frntisaw frntison frontsanto frontzousi

84

Form Identification: lv, lsv, lusa


Part of Form lsete lsia Speech Person #

lsiw, lsevw,
Verbs Tense Voice

lsiow, lusa, lsion


Nouns/Adjectives Mood Case # Gender

lontow

lsei

lsevw lsousi

luse luomnhn lsetai lusoshw lsesyai lein lsin lsai

lusoiw

lsv lsesi lson

85

First Aorist Active and Middle

Athematic formation Indicative Sing. 1st 2nd 3rd Plural 1st 2nd 3rd lus-m lus-w lus-t lus-men lus-te lus-n(t)

Active lusa lusaw luse lsamen lsate lusan


From perfect, no personal ending

Middle lusmhn lsaso > lsv lsato lusmeya lsasye lsanto

Imperative 2nd Sing. 2nd Plu.

lson lsate

Endings obscure in origin

lsai lsasye

Infinitive

lsai

Old dative ending

lsasyai

Participle lusantw, lusant= ia, lusant >

lsaw, lsasa, lsan

lusmenow, lusamnh, lusmenon

The secondary endings of the 1st aorist active were originally added to the stem ending in -s- (athematic formation). From lus-m came lusa (a vowel may take the place of an original liquid or nasal after a consonant). The alpha spread to the other forms of the indicative (except 3rd singular active), imperative (except 2nd singular active and middle), infinitive, and participle.

86

Homework Assignments for Week 14, 13-16 November (Chapter 13)


for Monday: for Tuesday: TEST (chapters 1-12) quiz on vocabulary chapter 13 read and digest grammar on Ath. pp. 213-217 do exercise 13d (1-10) read Ath. pp. 218-221 ("The Rise of Persia") quiz on imperfect indicative forms read and translate Reading 13 " (pp. 212-213) do form ID chart read and digest grammar on Ath. pp. 224-225 quiz on relative pronoun do worksheet on relative pronouns and clauses in course pack read and translate Reading 13 $ (pp. 223-224) read and digest grammar on Ath. pp. 226-228 do exercises 13h (odds) read and digest grammar on Ath. pp. 234-238 read and translate Reading 14 " (pp. 233-234)

for Wednesday:

for Thursday:

for Monday:

English derivatives for chapters 12 and 13: gerontology, cacophony, orthodontics, taxometer, emporium, nautical, euphony, megalopolis, barbarian

87

Homework Exercises for Chapter 13


Form Identification chart: suxzv, suxsv, sxasa
Part of Form suxzvn suxaw Speech Person #

suxa, suxaw
Verbs Tense Voice

sxiow, sxion
Nouns/Adjectives Mood Case # Gender

sxion

sxazon

suxzon

suxoiw

sxasan suxsan

suxazmenow suxazmeya

suxin suxvn

suxan sxaze

88

Imperfect of eimi and eimi


Imperfect of em sum (the verb "to be"):
Singular 1st , n Old Attic is from a (Hom.) = sm < s- augmented + the secondary ending m, which becomes a (as in the first aorist). n was formed by analogy to men ste. -ya is a perfect ending The 3rd plural was originally n, contracted from en (Hom.); this n came to be used as 3rd singular.

2nd 3rd

sya n

Plural 1st 2nd 3rd

men te, ste san -san is imported from the sigmatic aorist.

Imperfect of emi ibo (the verb "to go"):


Singular 1st 2nd 3rd a, ein eisya, eiw ein, ei is the stem ei augmented (hi with the iota "gone subscript")

Plural 1st 2nd 3rd

men te san, esan

89

Worksheet on Relative Pronouns and Clauses


In the following English sentences, underline the relative clause, circle the relative pronoun, and place a box around its antecedent (when one is expressed). 1. The poet who wrote the book is good. 2. The poet whose book we sent to the publisher is good. 3. The poet to whom we dedicated the book is good. 4. The poet whom we educated is good. 5. The girl who helped the children will get the reward. 6. Who(ever) helped the children will get the reward. 7. Who steals my purse steals trash. 8. Many people dislike what they dont understand. 9. Whoever wins will be praised.

Rewrite these sentences to include a relative clause. 1. I love hot coffee. 2. A biting dog is a nuisance. 3. The big book is a bad thing. 4. A small book is a better thing.

In the following Greek sentences, the relative pronoun has been omitted, and its antecedent has been underlined. Give the number, gender, and case for each underlined noun; supply the missing relative pronoun; and identify it by number, gender, and case. Then translate the sentence.

90

1. naw, 2. nyrvpow

frtia fere, n meglh. r n kalw. t pny r. non xei.

3. stin dkhw fyalmw, 4. makriow nyrvpow, 5. 6. nr, 7. naw, n 8. gun, 9. neanaw,


dik: justice poynskv: die now, -h, -on: young yerapev: help, heal

o yeo filosin, atw poynskei now. Atssa yerapeei, Darew stin. Atssa plei, n meglh. nr n basilew, Atss stin. tn Mousn pilanynetai, tn bon diafyerei.
pilanynomai: forget something (+gen. case) diafyerv: destroy

Transform the two simple sentences into a single complex sentence by replacing the personal pronoun with a relative pronoun and then translate into Greek. The boy was blind. The man led him onto the ship. paw tufln n n nr ew tn nan gagen. 1. They prayed to Asklepios. His temple was at Epidauros. 2. The boat was big. It was in the harbor. 3. The boat was big. On it Dikaiopolis and Philip were sailing.

91

Third Declension
H. for nouns with stems in -sStems in sigma are contracted where -s- falls out between the vowel of the stem and the vowel of the ending. So, gnow (stem genes-), gen. gene(s)-ow gnouw, dat. gene(s)-i gnei. In a large group of neuter nouns the -es- ending appears in the o-grade form -ow in nom., acc., voc. sing., as in gnow. Neuters with stems in -as- (t graw) have -aw in these cases. Masc. and fem. acc. plu., when contracted, borrow the form of the contracted nom. plu. The acc. plu. -eiw is not derived from -eaw. In dat. plu., union of s of the stem and s of the ending produces ss, which is reduced to s without lengthening the preceding vowel. Masculine stems in es with nominative in -hw are proper names ( Svkrthw, Dhmosynhw); the feminine trirhw is an adjective used substantively ("triply fitted:" trirhw (naw), "ship with three banks of oars"). Proper nouns in -hw have recessive accent in the vocative. trirvn ( from trihr-vn) has irregular accent by analogy to the other forms.
Singular Nom. Gen. Dat. Acc. Voc. Plural Nom./Voc. Gen. Dat. Acc.

t gnow gnouw gnei gnow gnow gnh genn gnesi(n) gnh < gnes-a < gens-vn < gnes-si < gnes-ow < gnes-i

trirhw trirouw trirei trirh trirew trireiw trirvn triresi(n) trireiw < trires-ew < trihr-vn < trires-si < trires-ow < trires-i < trires-a

Svkrthw Svkrtouw Svkrtei Svkrth Skratew

t graw grvw grai graw graw gra grn grasi(n) gra < gras-a < gers-vn < gras-si(n) < gras-a < gras-ow < gras-i

92

When -es- of the stem is preceded by e, the forms are inflected as follows: Singular Nom. Yemistoklw Gen. Yemistoklouw Dat. Yemistokle Acc. Yemistokla 2 < Yemistoklhw < Yemistokle(s)ow < Yemistokle(s)i < Yemistokle(s)a < Yemistkleew After e, ea contracts to a. 2

Voc. Yemistkleiw

The adjective lhyw, lhyw also has its stem in -es- and shows contraction. Masc./Fem. Singular Nom. Gen. Dat. Acc. Voc. Plural Nom./Voc. Gen. Dat. Acc. lhyw lhyow lhye lhy lhyw lhyew lhyn lhysi(n) lhyew < lhys-ew < lhys-vn > < lhys-si > < lhys-ow > < lhys-i > < lhys-a Neut. lhyw lhyow lhye lhyw lhyw lhy lhyn lhysi(n) lhy < lhy-a

93

Paradigm of upsilon-stem Adjectives

Like BH, BF", B<, adjectives with u-stems have masculine and neuter forms of the 3 rd declension, with a separate set of forms for the feminine which inflect like a noun of the first declension ending in -a . The feminine is made from the stem of the masculine/neuter by adding the suffix -=a i (semivocalic i) to the e-grade stem, taxe = --=a. The masculine and neuter forms follow the u i pattern of nouns with stems in i and u. Masc. Singular Nom. Gen. Dat. Acc. Voc Plural Nom./Voc. Gen. Dat. Acc. taxw taxow taxe taxn tax taxew taxvn taxsi(n) taxew Fem. taxea taxeaw taxe& taxean taxea taxeai taxein taxeaiw taxeaw Neu. tax taxow taxe tax tax taxa taxvn taxsi(n) taxa Masc. acc. is from the nominative < taxe = -ow u < taxe = -i u

94

Homework Assignments for Week 15, 20-21 November (Chapter 14)


for Monday: read and digest grammar on Ath. pp. 234-238 read and translate Reading 14 " (pp. 233-234) quiz on comparative and superlative adjectives and adverbs do exercise 14b (all) do first noun-agreement chart for Chapter 14 read and digest grammar on Ath. pp. 244-246 quiz on demonstrative adjectives do second agreement chart for Chapter 14 do exercise 14d read and translate Reading 14 $ (pp. 243-244)

for Tuesday:

for Monday:

During the Thanksgiving break, you should STUDY, STUDY, STUDYmake good use of this time to review and master your forms and vocabulary.

English derivatives for chapter 14: oligarchy, praxis, hoplite soldier, polemic, metaphor, strategic, monarchy, agonistic

95

Homework Exercises for Chapter 14


Nouns mxh, mxhw, plyow, plyouw, t stratithw, stratitou Adjectives menvn, meinon lhystatow, lhyestth, lhystaton

Given the dictionary entries listed above, identify each form listed below by case, number and gender and then write the correct form of the adjective/s to modify the noun. (Ignore the Vocative case.)

Form mxhw plyow

Case

Gen.

Adjective/s

plyei stratithn stratit plyesi plyh

maxn stratitaiw mxaw plyouw mxhn stratitai stratitaw mxh mxai stratithw

96

Nouns mxh, mxhw, plyow, plyouw, t basilew, basilvw,

Adjectives de, de, tde (gen. tode, tsde, tode) otow, ath, toto (gen. totou, tathw, totou)

Given the dictionary entries listed above, identify each form listed below by case, number and gender and then write the correct form of the adjective/s to modify the noun. (Ignore the Vocative case.)

Form mxhw plyow

Case

Gen

Adjective/s

plyei basila basile plyesi plyh

maxn basilesi mxaw plyouw mxhn basilw basilaw mxh mxai basilew

97

Comparative and Superlative Adjectives


I. Comparative in -terow, -tera , -teron 2 Masculine Sing. Nom. Gen. Dat. Acc. Voc. lhysterow lhyestrou lhyestr lhysteron lhystere Feminine lhyestra lhyestraw lhyestr& lhyestran lhyestra Neuter lhysteron lhyestrou lhyestr lhysteron lhysteron

Plu. Nom./Voc. Gen. Dat. Acc.

lhysteroi lhyestrvn lhyestroiw lhyestrouw

lhysterai lhyestrvn lhyestraiw lhyestraw

lhystera lhyestrvn lhyestroiw lhystera

II. Superlative in -tatow, -tath, -taton Masculine Sing. Nom. Gen. Dat. Acc. Voc. lhystatow lhyesttou lhyestt lhystaton lhystate Feminine lhyestth lhyestthw lhyestt lhyestthn lhyestth Neuter lhystaton lhyesttou lhyestt lhystaton lhystaton

Plu. Nom./ Voc. Gen. Dat. Acc.

lhystatoi lhyesttvn lhyesttoiw lhyesttouw

lhystatai lhyesttvn lhyesttaiw lhyesttaw

lhystata lhyesttvn lhyesttoiw lhystata

98

III. Comparative in -ivn, -ion Masculine/Feminine Sing. Nom. Gen. Dat. Acc. Voc. kallona/kallv kllion kallvn kallonow kalloni kllion Neuter kllion

Plu. Nom. Voc. Gen. Dat. Acc.

kallonew/kallouw kallinvn

kallona/kallv

kallosi(n) (< kallon-si) kallonaw/kallouw kallona/kallv

The accusative plural masculine/feminine form kallouw is borrowed from the nominative plural.

99

Homework Assignments for Week 16, 27-30 November (Chapters 14-15)


for Monday: quiz on demonstrative adjectives do second agreement chart for Chapter 14 do exercise 14d read and translate Reading 14 $ (pp. 243-244) read Ath. pp. 238-240 ("The Rise of Athens") quiz on vocab. for chap. 14, including adjectives and adverbs on pp. 234-236 vocabulary quiz chapter 15 read and digest grammar on Ath. pp. 252-254 read and translate Reading 15 " (p. 251) quiz on athematic second aorist forms read and digest grammar on Ath. pp. 261-263 do exercise 15b (evens) and 15g (3, 6, and 7) read and translate Reading 15 $ (pp. 259-261) quiz on o-contract verbs read and digest grammar on Ath. pp. 269, 276-277 read and translate Reading 16a (pp. 267-268) read Ath. pp. 255-256 ("Aeschylus's Persae") do verb synopsis chart in course pack

for Tuesday:

for Wednesday:

for Thursday:

for Monday:

English derivatives for chapter 15: cosmology, necrophiliac, Nike shoes, patriotic, progeny, ambidextrous

100

Homework Assignments for Week 17, 4-5 December (Chapter 16)


for Monday: quiz on o-contract verbs read and digest grammar on Ath. pp. 269, 276-277 read and translate Reading 16a (pp. 267-268) read Ath. pp. 255-256 ("Aeschylus's Persae") do verb synopsis chart in course pack quiz on verbs with athematic presents and imperfects read and translate Reading 16b (pp. 275-276) do exercise 16b do form ID, noun-adjective agreement worksheets read Ath. pp. 271-273 ("The Athenian Empire")

for Tuesday:

Students in the morning section: Your final is scheduled for Monday, 11 December, noon-3 pm. Students in the afternoon section: Your final is scheduled for Monday, 11 December, 3:30-6:30. THE FORMAT WILL BE LIKE YOUR WEEKLY TESTS, ONLY LONGER. ESTIMATED TIME FOR COMPLETION: 2 HOURS. PLEASE CONSULT THE TUTORS IN PARK HALL 246 FOR EXTRA HELP. Grading: Participation Tests Quizzes Final exam 15% 35% 15% 35%

101

Homework Exercises for Chapters 15-16


Give a synopsis in the 2nd person singular of the verb leuyerv, leuyersv, leuyrvsa (Note: you do not yet know the forms in the shaded boxes.)

A C T IV E IN D IC . SU BJ.

V O IC E O PT. PR ES. IM PF. FU T. AO R . PE R F. PPF. IN D IC .

M ID D L E SU BJ.

V O IC E O PT. PR ES. IM PF. FU T. AO R . PE R F. PPF. IN D IC .

P A SSIV E SU BJ.

V O IC E O PT.

IN FIN ITIV E

PA R TIC IPLE PR ES. FU T. AO R . PE R F.

IN FIN ITIV E

PA R TIC IPLE PR ES. FU T. AO R . PE R F.

IN FIN ITIV E

PA R TIC IPLE

For participles, give the nominative singular masculine form. Write out here the: 2nd person singular present active imperative: 2nd person singular present middle imperative: 2nd person singular aorist active imperative: 2nd person singular aorist middle imperative: 102

Noun/Adjective Agreement: Nouns now, no mrow, mrouw t nathw, natou, Adjectives lhyw, lhyw dhlomenow, dhloumnh, dhlomenon

Given the dictionary entries listed above, identify each form listed below by case, number and gender and then write the correct form of the adjective/s to modify the noun. (Ignore the Vocative case.)

Form nathw mrvn mresi now

Case

Gender

Adjective/s

natou nautn no mrh

now nataw mrow

103

Form ID: dnamai, dunsomai, dunhsmhn dunatw, dunat, dunatn


Part of Form dunmeya dunatn Speech Person #

dnamiw, dunmevw
Verbs Tense Voice Mood Nouns/Adjectives Case # Gender

dnasyai dnamin dnasye

dunato dunmenoi dunataw dnaso dunmevn dunmesi dnasye dunmenow dunmeiw

dnato dunatn dunatow

dunatn

dnantai

104

Noun/Adjective Agreement: Nouns naw, new, bow, bow, tow, touw, t Form th Case # Adjectives jiow, ja, jion (gen.jou, jaw, jou) sfrvn, sfron (gen. sfronow) lhyw, lhyw (gen. lhyow) Gen. Adjective/s

new bon touw tn naw

bow tesi new bo nausn bow

bous tow

nh

105

Omicron Contract Verbs


Present Active Indicative: Singular 1 st 2 nd 3 rd Plural 1 st 2 nd 3 rd dhl dhlow dhlo dhlomen dhlote dhlosi(n) < dhlv < dhleiw < dhlei < dhlomen < dhlete < dhlousi(n)

Present Active Imperative: 2 nd singular: 2 nd plural: dlou dhlote < dloe < dhlete Present stem + thematic vowel Present stem + thematic vowel + te

Present Active Infinitive: dhlon < dhleen Present stem + thematic vowel + en

Present active participles:


Sing. Nom./Voc. Gen. Dat. dhlvn > dhlontow > dhlonti > Etc. dhln dhlontow dhlonti dhlousa > dhlooshw > dhloos > Etc. dhlosa dhloshw dhlos dhlon > dhlontow > dhlonti > Etc. dhlon dhlontow dhlonti

Contractions: o + e/ee/o/ou > ou o + ei/oi/ > oi o + h/v > v

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Present Middle Indicative: Singular 1 st 2 nd 3 rd Plural 1 st 2 nd 3 rd dhlomai dhlo dhlotai dhlomeya dhlosye dhlontai < dhlomai < dhlesai < dhletai < dhlomeya < dhlesye < dhlontai

Present Middle Imperative: 2 nd singular: 2 nd plural: dhlo dhlosye < dhleso < dhlesye Present stem + thematic vowel + so Present stem + thematic vowel + sye

Present Middle Infinitive: dhlosyai < dhlesyai Present stem + thematic vowel + syai

Present middle participles: dhlomenow > Etc. Imperfect: Imperfect Active Singular 1 st 2 nd 3 rd Plural 1 st 2 nd 3 rd dloun dlouw dlou dhlomen dhlote dloun < dloon < dloew < dloe < dhlomen < dhlete < dloon Imperfect Middle dhlomhn dhlo dhloto dhlomeya dhlosye dhlonto < dhlomhn < dhleso < dhleto < dhlomeya < dhlesye < dhlonto dhlomenow dhloomnh > Etc. dhloumnh dhlomenon > Etc. dhlomenon

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Review
For the final exam, you need to know: FORMS: 1. how to decline 1st declension nouns and adjectives (including those that end in a instead of h) 2. how to decline 2nd declension nouns and adjectives 3. how to decline 3rd declension nouns 4. how to decline 3rd declension adjectives 5. how to conjugate regular verbs and -v , -v, and -v contract verbs in the present, imperfect, and aorist active indicative and imperative moods, the present, imperfect, and aorist middle indicative and imperative, and the future active and middle indicative. 6. how to form the present, future, and aorist active infinitive and the present, future, and aorist middle infinitive 7. how to form and decline the active and middle participles in the present, future, and aorist 8. how to decline the adjectives for one and all 9. how to decline reflexive, interrogative, and relative pronouns 10. how to decline the definite and indefinite articles (, , t and tiw, ti) CONCEPTS: 1. transitive, intransitive and linking sentence structure and word order 2. the complementary infinitive 3. agreement between nouns and adjectives or participles 4. use of dative as indirect object, object of preposition, in expressions of time, to show means or instrument, to show respect, and to show possession 5. use of genitive to show possession, as object of preposition, and in expressions of amount (partitive genitive) 6. use of accusative as direct object, object of preposition and in expression of time 7. aspect 8. relative clauses 9. comparison of adjectives and comparative constructions 10. substantive 11. appositive 12. attributive vs. predicate position VOCABULARY: 1. all the vocabulary presented on vocabulary lists + addenda for volume I 2. verbs which take dative direct object 3. verbs which take genitive direct object

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Review Exercises
Noun/Adjective Agreement: Nouns nr, ndrw, mthr, mhtrw, dndron, dndrou, t Adjectives lvn, lousa, lon pw, psa, pn

Form nr dndron

Case

Gen

Adjective/s

mhtrw dndr mhtra mhtr ndrw dndroiw mhtrew ndra dndra

mhtrsi ndrn mhtrvn ndrew dndrou ndrsi

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Noun/Adjective Agreement: Nouns pr, purw, t yew, yeo, ylatta, yaltthw, poihtw, poihto, Adjectives dvn, dion (gen. donow) timn, timsa, timn (gen. timntow, timshw, timntow) polmiow, polema, polmion

Form pr

Case

Gen.

Adjective/s

yaltthw pur yeo poihto yeow yalttan poihtn yen ye yalttaw yeo purn yew purw yalattn

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Form Identification: erew, ervw erw, er, ern ereon, ereou, t erev era, eraw,

Part of Form ervw ern Speech Person #

Verbs Tense Voice Mood

Nouns/Adjectives Case # Gender

ereonti

eran ereon

era ern

ereuomn

erin eresi ereousi

ereuoshw erw 111

Part of Form er Speech Person #

Verbs Tense Voice Mood

Nouns/Adjectives Case # Gender

ereeiw ere ereuomnhw ereonta

er& ern

eraw er

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Verb Review: Synopsis Chart


Give a synopsis in the 3rd person singular of the verb filv, filsv, flhsa (Note: you do not yet know the forms in the shaded boxes.)

A C T IV E IN D IC . SU BJ.

V O IC E O PT. PR ES. IM PF. FU T. AO R . PE R F. PPF. IN D IC .

M ID D L E SU BJ.

V O IC E O PT. PR ES. IM PF. FU T. AO R . PE R F. PPF. IN D IC .

P A SSIV E SU BJ.

V O IC E O PT.

IN FIN ITIV E

PA R TIC IPLE PR ES. FU T. AO R . PE R F.

IN FIN ITIV E

PA R TIC IPLE PR ES. FU T. AO R . PE R F.

IN FIN ITIV E

PA R TIC IPLE

For participles, give the nominative singular masculine form. Write out here the 2nd person singular present active imperative: 2nd person singular present middle imperative: 2nd person singular aorist active imperative: 2nd person singular aorist middle imperative:

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Verb Review: Synopsis Chart

Give a synopsis in the 3rd person plural of the verb fegv, fejomai, fugon (Note: you do not yet know the forms in the shaded boxes.)

A C T IV E IN D IC . SU BJ.

V O IC E O PT. PR ES. IM PF. FU T. AO R . PE R F. PPF. IN D IC .

M ID D L E SU BJ.

V O IC E O PT. PR ES. IM PF. FU T. AO R . PE R F. PPF. IN D IC .

P A SSIV E SU BJ.

V O IC E O PT.

IN FIN ITIV E

PA R TIC IPLE PR ES. FU T. AO R . PE R F.

IN FIN ITIV E

PA R TIC IPLE PR ES. FU T. AO R . PE R F.

IN FIN ITIV E

PA R TIC IPLE

For participles, give the nominative singular masculine form. Write out here: 2nd person singular present active imperative: 2nd person singular present middle imperative: 2nd person singular aorist active imperative: 2nd person singular aorist middle imperative:

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Verb Review: Synopsis Chart

Give a synopsis in the 2nd person singular of the verb timv, timsv, tmhsa (Note: you do not yet know the forms in the shaded boxes.)

A C T IV E IN D IC . SU BJ.

V O IC E O PT. PR ES. IM PF. FU T. AO R . PE R F. PPF. IN D IC .

M ID D L E SU BJ.

V O IC E O PT. PR ES. IM PF. FU T. AO R . PE R F. PPF. IN D IC .

P A SSIV E SU BJ.

V O IC E O PT.

IN FIN ITIV E

PA R TIC IPLE PR ES. FU T. AO R . PE R F.

IN FIN ITIV E

PA R TIC IPLE PR ES. FU T. AO R . PE R F.

IN FIN ITIV E

PA R TIC IPLE

For participles, give the nominative singular masculine form. Write out here the 2nd person singular present active imperative: 2nd person singular present middle imperative: 2nd person singular aorist active imperative: 2nd person singular aorist middle imperative:

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