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1. neutron - is a subatomic particle with no net electric charge and a mass slightly larger than that of a proton. 2.

proton - is a subatomic particle with an electric charge of +1 elementary charge. One or more protons are present in the nucleus of each atom, along with neutrons. 3. electron - is a subatomic particle carrying a negative electric charge. It has no known components or substructure. 4. molecules - is defined as a group of at least two atoms in a definite arrangement held together by covalent chemical bonds. 5. microscopic - is a term used to describe objects smaller than those that can easily be seen by the naked eye and which require a lens or microscope to see them clearly. 6. john Dalton - (6 September 1766 27 July 1844) was an English chemist, meteorologist and physicist. He is best known for his pioneering work in the development of modern atomic theory, and his research into colour blindness (sometimes referred to as Daltonism, in his honour). 7. ernest rutheford - 1st Baron Rutherford of Nelson OM, FRS (30 August 1871 19 October 1937) was a New Zealand-born British chemist and physicist who became known as the father of nuclear physics. 8. Michael faraday - (22 September 1791 25 August 1867) was an English chemist and physicist (or natural philosopher, in the terminology of the time) who contributed to the fields of electromagnetism and electrochemistry. 9. ion - is an atom or molecule in which the total number of electrons is not equal to the total number of protons, giving it a net positive or negative electrical charge 10. atom - is a basic unit of matter that consists of a dense, central nucleus surrounded by a cloud of negatively charged electrons. 11. matter - is a general term for the substance of which all physical objects consist. Typically, matter includes atoms and other particles which have mass 12. element - is a pure chemical substance consisting of one type of atom distinguished by its atomic number, which is the number of protons in its nucleus. 13. mixture - is a material system made up by two or more different substances which are (mixed) together but are not combined chemically. Mixture refers to the physical combination of two or more substances the identities of which are retained. 14. suspension - is a heterogeneous fluid containing solid particles that are sufficiently large for sedimentation. Usually they must be larger than 1 micrometer 15. colloid - is a substance microscopically dispersed evenly throughout another substance. 16. quarks - is an elementary particle and a fundamental constituent of matter. Quarks combine to form composite particles called hadrons, the

most stable of which are protons and neutrons, the components of atomic nuclei 17. quasar - quasi-stellar radio source ("quasar") is a very energetic and distant active galactic nucleus. They are the most luminous objects in the universe. Quasars were first identified as being high redshift sources of electromagnetic energy, including radio waves and visible light, that were point-like, similar to stars, rather than extended sources similar to galaxies. 18. ductility - is a mechanical property that describes the extent in which solid materials can be plastically deformed without fracture. 19. malleability - a similar concept, refers to a material's ability to deform under compressive stress; this is often characterized by the material's ability to form a thin sheet by hammering or rolling. 20. plasticity - describes the deformation of a material undergoing nonreversible changes of shape in response to applied forces. 21. elasticity - is the physical property of a material that returns to its original shape after the stress (e.g. external forces) that made it deform is removed. 22. metalloids - is a term used in chemistry when classifying the chemical elements. The term semimetal is sometimes used synonymously, but this is sometimes defined differently. On the basis of their general physical and chemical properties, nearly every element in the periodic table can be termed either a metal or a nonmetal. 23. heterogeneous - composed of different substances or the same substance in different phases, as solid ice and liquid water. 24. coulomb - is the SI derived unit of electric charge, and is approximately equal to the charge of 6.24151 1018 protons or -6.24151 1018 electrons. It is named after Charles-Augustin de Coulomb. 25. isotopes - are nuclear configurations of atoms, with a specific number of neutrons and a specific elemental type. In a corresponding manner, isotopes of the same element differ in mass number (or total number of nucleons per atom) but never in atomic number. 26. albert Einstein - as a theoretical physicist, philosopher and author who is widely regarded as one of the most influential and iconic scientists and intellectuals of all time. A German-Swiss Nobel laureate, Einstein is often regarded as the father of modern physics. 27. plasma - a highly ionized gas containing an approximately equal number of positive ions and electrons. 28. rigidity - is a concept used to determine the effect of particular magnetic fields on the motion of the charged particles. 29. covalent bond - s a form of chemical bonding that is characterized by the sharing of pairs of electrons between atoms, and other covalent bonds. In short, the stable balance of attractive and repulsive forces between atoms when they share electrons is known as covalent bonding.

30. ionization - is the physical process of converting an atom or molecule into an ion by adding or removing charged particles such as electrons or other ions. This is often confused with dissociation (chemistry). 31. fusion - a thermonuclear reaction in which nuclei of light atoms join to form nuclei of heavier atoms, as the combination of deuterium atoms to form helium atoms. Compare fission ( def. 2 ) . 32. diffusion - describes the spread of particles through random motion from regions of higher concentration to regions of lower concentration. The time dependence of the statistical distribution in space is given by the diffusion equation. 33. Thomas graham - (21 December 1805 16 September 1869) was a nineteenth-century Scottish chemist who is best-remembered today for his pioneering work in dialysis and the diffusion of gases. 34. volatile - is the tendency of a substance to vaporize. Volatility is directly related to a substance's vapor pressure. At a given temperature, a substance with higher vapor pressure vaporizes more readily than a substance with a lower vapor pressure. 35. miscible - is the property of liquids to mix in all proportions, forming a homogeneous solution. In principle, the term applies also to other phases (solids and gases), but the main focus is usually on the solubility of one liquid in another. Water and ethanol, for example, are miscible since they mix in all proportions. 36. pascal - is the SI derived unit of pressure, internal pressure, stress, Young's modulus and tensile strength, named after the French mathematician, physicist, inventor, writer and Catholic philosopher Blaise Pascal. 37. molality - (mol/kg, molal, or m) denotes the number of moles of solute per kilogram of solvent (not solution). For instance: adding 1.0 mole of solute to 2.0 kilograms of solvent constitutes a solution with a molality of 0.50 mol/kg. 38. smog - is a type of air pollution; the word "smog" is a portmanteau of smoke and fog. Modern smog is a type of air pollution derived from vehicular emission from internal combustion engines and industrial fumes that react in the atmosphere with sunlight to form secondary pollutants that also combine with the primary emissions to form photochemical smog 39. exothermic - describes a process or reaction that releases energy from the system, usually in the form of heat, but also in the form of light (e.g. a spark, flame, or explosion), electricity (e.g. a battery), or sound (e.g. burning hydrogen). 40. endothermic - describes a process or reaction in which the system absorbs energy from the surroundings in the form of heat. Its etymology stems from the Greek prefix endo-, meaning inside and the Greek suffix ther, meaning heat. The opposite of an endothermic process is an exothermic process, one that releases energy in the form of heat. The term endothermic was coined by Marcellin Berthelot (25 October 1827 18 March 1907).

41. catalyst - is the change in rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of a substance called a catalyst. Unlike other reagents that participate in the chemical reaction, a catalyst is not consumed by the reaction itself. A catalyst may participate in multiple chemical transformations. 42. Stoichiometry- is a branch of chemistry that deals with the quantitative relationships that exist between the reactants and products in chemical reactions. In a balanced chemical reaction, the relations among quantities of reactants and products typically form a ratio of whole numbers 43. allotrope - are different structural modifications of an element[1]; the element's atoms are bonded together in a different manner. 44. enthalpy - is a measure of the total energy of a thermodynamic system. It includes the internal energy, which is the energy required to create a system, and the amount of energy required to make room for it by displacing its environment and establishing its volume and pressure. 45. alkynes - are hydrocarbons that have a triple bond between two carbon atoms, with the formula CnH2n-2. Alkynes are traditionally known as acetylenes, although the name acetylene also refers specifically to C2H2, known formally as ethyne using IUPAC nomenclature. Like other hydrocarbons, alkynes are generally hydrophobic but tend to be more reactive. 46. Newton - (symbol: N) is the SI derived unit of force, named after Isaac Newton in recognition of his work on classical mechanics. 47. joule - symbol J) is a derived unit of energy or work in the International System of Units. It is equal to the energy expended (or work done) in applying a force of one newton through a distance of one metre (1 newton metre or Nm), or in passing an electric current of one ampere through a resistance of one ohm for one second. It is named after the English physicist James Prescott Joule (18181889) . 48. lumens - (symbol: lm) is the SI derived unit of luminous flux, a measure of the power of light perceived by the human eye. Luminous flux differs from radiant flux in that luminous flux measurements (such as lumens) are intended to reflect the varying sensitivity of the human eye to different wavelengths of light, while radiant flux measurements (such as watts) indicate the total power of light emitted. 49. weber - the weber (symbol: Wb; pronounced /vebr/, /wbr/, or / wibr/) is the SI unit of magnetic flux. A flux density of one Wb/m2 (one weber per square meter) is one tesla. The weber is named for the German physicist Wilhelm Eduard Weber (18041891). 50. lux - (symbol: lx) is the SI unit of illuminance and luminous emittance measuring luminous power per area. It is used in photometry as a measure of the intensity, as perceived by the human eye, of light that hits or passes through a surface. 51. slug - is a common name that is normally applied to any gastropod mollusc that lacks a shell, has a very reduced shell, or has a small internal

shell. This is in contrast to the common name snail, which is applied to gastropods that have coiled shells that are big enough to retract into. 52. erg - is the unit of energy and mechanical work in the centimetregram-second (CGS) system of units, symbol "erg". Its name is derived from the Greek ergon, meaning "work". 53. dyne - the dyne (symbol "dyn", from Greek (dynamis) meaning power, force) is a unit of force specified in the centimetre-gramsecond (CGS) system of units, a predecessor of the modern SI. One dyne is equal to exactly 10 N (micronewtons). 54. quantum - (plural: quanta) is the minimum amount of any physical entity involved in an interaction. Behind this, one finds the fundamental notion that a physical property may be "quantized," referred to as "the hypothesis of quantization"[1]. This means that the magnitude can take on only certain discrete numerical values, rather than any value, at least within a range. 55. vector - a geometric entity endowed with both length and direction; an element of a Euclidean vector space. In physics, euclidean vectors are used to represent physical quantities which have both magnitude and direction, such as force, in contrast to scalar quantities, which have no direction. 56. 57. scalar - is a simple physical quantity that is not changed by coordinate system rotations or translations (in Newtonian mechanics), or by Lorentz transformations or space-time translations (in relativity). This is in contrast to a vector. 58. impulse - is defined as the integral of a force with respect to time. When a force is applied to a rigid body it changes the momentum of that body. 59. inertia - is the resistance of any physical object to a change in its state of motion or rest. It is represented numerically by an object's mass. The principle of inertia is one of the fundamental principles of classical physics which are used to describe the motion of matter and how it is affected by applied forces. 60. equilibrium - is the condition of a system in which competing influences are balanced. 61. friction - is the force resisting the relative motion of solid surfaces, fluid layers, and/or material elements sliding against each other. It may be thought of as the opposite of "slipperiness". 62. energy - (from Greek - energeia, "activity, operation", from - energos, "active, working"[1]) is a quantity that is often understood as the ability a physical system has to produce changes on another physical system. 63. law of conservation - states that a particular measurable property of an isolated physical system does not change as the system evolves.

64. oscillation - is the repetitive variation, typically in time, of some measure about a central value (often a point of equilibrium) or between two or more different states. 65. frequency - is the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit time. It is also referred to as temporal frequency. 66. torricellis theorem - is a theorem in fluid dynamics relating the speed of fluid flowing out of an opening to the height of fluid above the opening.Torricelli's law states that the speed of efflux, v, of a fluid through a sharp-edged hole at the bottom of a tank filled to a depth h is the same as the speed that a body. 67. reynolds principle 68. gravity - is a natural phenomenon in which objects with mass attract one another. In everyday life, gravitation is most familiar as the agent that gives weight to objects with mass and causes them to fall to the ground when dropped. 69. pendulum - is a weight suspended from a pivot so that it can swing freely. 70. sonic wave 71. transverse wave - is a moving wave that consists of oscillations occurring perpendicular (or right angled) to the direction of energy transfer. If a transverse wave is moving in the positive x-direction, its oscillations are in up and down directions that lie in the yz plane. 72. lenzs law - is a common way of understanding how electromagnetic circuits must always obey Newton's third law.[1] Lenz's law is named after Heinrich Lenz, and it says:"An induced current is always in such a direction as to oppose the motion or change causing it". 73. refraction - is the change in direction of a wave due to a change in its speed. This is most commonly observed when a wave passes from one medium to another at any angle other than 90 or 0. 74. maxwells law - named in honor of James Clerk Maxwell, states that if the probability distribution of a vector-valued random variable X = ( X1, ..., Xn )T is the same as the distribution of GX for every nn orthogonal matrix G and the components are independent, then the components X1, ..., Xn are normally distributed with expected value 0, all have the same variance, and all are independent. This theorem is one of many characterizations of the normal distribution. 75. dopplers effect - (or Doppler shift), named after Austrian physicist Christian Doppler who proposed it in 1842, is the change in frequency of a wave for an observer moving relative to the source of the wave. It is commonly heard when a vehicle sounding a siren or horn approaches, passes, and recedes from an observer. 76. flux - In the field of electromagnetism and mathematics, flux is usually the integral of a vector quantity, flux density, over a finite surface. It is an integral operator that acts on a vector field similarly to the gradient, divergence and curl operators found in vector analysis. The result of this integration is a scalar quantity called flux.

77. gamma ray - (denoted as ), is electromagnetic radiation of high frequency (very short wavelength). They are produced by sub-atomic particle interactions such as electron-positron annihilation, neutral pion decay, radioactive decay (including isomeric transition which involves an inhibited gamma decay), fusion, fission or inverse Compton scattering in astrophysical processes. 78. facet - are flat faces on geometric shapes. The organization of naturally occurring facets was key to early developments in crystallography, since they reflect the underlying symmetry of the crystal structure.

79. focal - the point at which initially collimated rays of light meet after passing through a convex lens, or reflecting from a concave mirror. 80. sphygmomanometer - blood pressure meter is a device used to measure blood pressure, comprising an inflatable cuff to restrict blood flow, and a mercury or mechanical manometer to measure the pressure. 81. stropomanometer

82. aperture - is a hole or an opening through which light travels. More specifically, the aperture of an optical system is the opening that determines the cone angle of a bundle of rays that come to a focus in the image plane. 83. cochlea - is the auditory portion of the inner ear. Its core component is the Organ of Corti, the sensory organ of hearing, which is distributed along the partition separating fluid chambers in the coiled tapered tube of the cochlea. 84. diffraction - refers to various phenomena which occur when a wave encounters an obstacle. 85. density - s defined as its mass per unit volume. The symbol most often used for density is (the Greek letter rho). In some cases (for instance, in the United States oil and gas industry), density is also defined as its weight per unit volume;[1] although, this quantity is more properly called specific weight. 86. aneroid - A collection of professional aneroid blood pressure monitors. These blood pressure monitors utilize a dial faceplate, and range in style from a rolling floor model, wall model, and portable models. Aneroid means, no liquid, a barometer the action of which depends on the varying pressure of the atmosphere upon the elastic top of a metallic box (shaped like a watch) from which the air has been exhausted. An index shows the variation of pressure. 87. translucent - permitting light to pass through but diffusing it so that persons, objects, etc., on the opposite side are not clearly visible. Transparent/Translucent materials appear clear, with the overall appearance of one color, or any combination leading up to a brilliant spectrum of every color. Translucent cannot be seen through clearly. 88. lucidity In common usage, intelligibility, brightness or sanity 89. huygens formula - Huygens formulated what is now known as the second law of motion of Isaac Newton in a quadratic form. Newton reformulated and generalized that law. In 1659 Huygens derived the now well-known formula for the centripetal force, exerted by an object describing a circular motion, for instance on the string to which it is attached, in modern notation: with m the mass of the object, v the velocity and r the radius. Furthermore, Huygens concluded that Descartes' laws for the elastic collision of two bodies must be wrong and formulated the correct laws. 90. formula - In science, a formula is a concise way of expressing information symbolically (as in a mathematical or chemical formula), or a general relationship between quantities. Colloquial use of the term in mathematics often refers to a similar construct. 91. spectrum - is a condition that is not limited to a specific set of values but can vary infinitely within a continuum. The word saw its first scientific use within the field of optics to describe the rainbow of colors in visible

light when separated using a prism; it has since been applied by analogy to many fields other than optics. 92. octave - is a doubling or halving of a frequency. The term is derived from the musical octave which similarly describes such frequency ratios, but the prefix octa-, denoting eight, has no significance in physics. A frequency ratio expressed in octaves is the base-2 logarithm (binary logarithm) of the ratio. 93. fraunhofer counter 94. Edison counter 95. flask an iron container for shipping mercury, holding a standard commercial unit of 76 lb. (34 kg). 96. astigmatism - is one where rays that propagate in two perpendicular planes have different foci. If an optical system with astigmatism is used to form an image of a cross, the vertical and horizontal lines will be in sharp focus at two different distances. 97. heat - is energy transferred from one body or thermodynamic system to another due to thermal contact when the systems are at different temperatures. It is also often described as the process of transfer of energy between physical entities. 98. lord Kelvin - is widely known for developing the basis of absolute zero, and for this reason a unit of temperature measure is named after him. 99. static - is the branch of mechanics concerned with the analysis of loads (force, torque/moment) on physical systems in static equilibrium, that is, in a state where the relative positions of subsystems do not vary over time, or where components and structures are at a constant velocity. 100. thermodynamic - is the science of energy conversion involving heat and other forms of energy, most notably mechanical work. It studies and interrelates the macroscopic variables, such as temperature, volume and pressure, which describe physical, thermodynamic systems. 101. dynamic thermo 102. interface - is a point of interaction between two systems or work groups. In the manufacturing environment, the interaction and coordination between a number of work groups communicate plans and control production activity. 103. equilibrium - is the condition of a system in which competing influences are balanced. 104. nozzle - is the condition of a system in which competing influences are balanced. 105. compressor - a pump or other machine for reducing volume and increasing pressure of gases in order to condense the gases, drive pneumatically powered machinery, etc. 106. pressure - is the force per unit area applied in a direction perpendicular to the surface of an object. 107. temperature - is a physical property of matter that quantitatively expresses the common notions of hot and cold. Objects of low

temperature are cold, while various degrees of higher temperatures are referred to as warm or hot. 108. mass - commonly refers to any of three properties of matter, which have been shown experimentally to be equivalent. 109. postulate - is a proposition that is not proved or demonstrated but considered to be either self-evident, or subject to necessary decision. 110. phase - is sometimes used to refer to a set of equilibrium states demarcated in terms of state variables such as pressure and temperature by a phase boundary on a phase diagram. 111. quasi-state A process is called quasi-static when it follows a succession of equilibrium states; the surroundings may be irreversibly altered during the process so that after a return path, the system ends up in a final state which differs from its initial state. 112. quasi-equilibrium - is the quasi-balanced state of a thermodynamic system near to thermodynamic equilibrium in some sense or degree. 113. isobaric - is a thermodynamic process in which the pressure stays constant. 114. isothermal - is a change of a system, in which the temperature remains constant: T = 0. This typically occurs when a system is in contact with an outside thermal reservoir (heat bath), and the change occurs slowly enough to allow the system to continually adjust to the temperature of the reservoir through heat exchange. 115.isometric-designating a method of projection (isometricprojection) in which a three-dimensional object isrepresented by a drawing (isometric dr awing) having thehorizontal edges of the object drawn usually at a 30 an gleand all verticals projected perpendicularly from a horizontalbase, all lin es being drawn to scale. 116. isochoric-is a thermodynamic process during which the volume of the closed system undergoing such a process remains constant. In nontechnical terms, an isochoric process is exemplified by the heating or the cooling of the contents of a sealed non-deformable container: The thermodynamic process is the addition or removal of heat; the isolation of the contents of the container establishes the closed system; and the inability of the container to deform imposes the constant-volume condition. 117. transient flow- is such a flow where the velocity and pressure changes over time. Transient flows usually occurs during the starting or stopping of a pump, the opening or closing of a tank, or simple changes in tank levels. 118. translational energy-The kinetic energy of an object is the energy which it possesses due to its motion.[1] It is defined as the work needed to accelerate a body of a given mass from rest to its stated velocity. 119. Thomas young- (13 June 1773 10 May 1829) was an English polymath. He is famous for having partly deciphered Egyptian hieroglyphs (specifically the Rosetta Stone) before Jean-

Franois Champollion eventually expanded on his work. He was admired by, among others,Herschel and Einstein. 120. Rudolph clausius-Rudolf Julius Emanuel Clausius (Born Rudolf Gottlieb,[1] 2 January 1822 24 August 1888), was a German physicist and mathematician and is considered one of the central founders of the science of thermodynamics. 121. latent energy-s the heat released or absorbed by a chemical substance or a thermodynamic system during a change of state that occurs without a change in temperature, meaning a phase transition such as the melting of ice or the boiling of water. [1][2] The term was introduced around 1750 by Joseph Black as derived from the Latin latere, to lie hidden. 122. zeroth law of thermodynamics-s the heat released or absorbed by a chemical substance or a thermodynamic system during a change of state that occurs without a change in temperature, meaning a phase transition such as the melting of ice or the boiling of water.[1][2] The term was introduced around 1750 by Joseph Black as derived from the Latin latere, to lie hidden. 123. bourdon tube- is a nonliquid pressure measurement device. It is widely used in applications where inexpensive static pressure measurements are needed. 124. aneroid-Aneroid means, no liquid, a barometer the action of which depends on the varying pressure of the atmosphere upon the elastic top of a metallic box (shaped like a watch) from which the air has been exhausted. An index shows the variation of pressure. 125. pitot tube-s a pressure measurement instrument used to measure fluidflow velocity. The pitot tube was invented by [1] the French engineer Henri Pitot in the early 18th century and was modified to its modern form in the mid-19th century by French scientist Henry Darcy[2]. 126. absolute pressure-is zero referenced against a perfect vacuum, so it is equal to gauge pressure plus atmospheric pressure. 127. Enthalpy-is a measure of the total energy of a thermodynamic system. It includes the internal energy, which is the energy required to create a system, and the amount of energy required to make room for it by displacing its environment and establishing its volume and pressure. 128. entropy-is a thermodynamic property that is a measure of the energy not available for useful workin a thermodynamic process, such as in energy conversion devices, engines, or machines. Such devices can only be driven by convertible energy, and have a theoretical maximum efficiency when converting energy to work. 129. hesss law-is a relationship in physical chemistry named for Germain Hess, a Swiss-born Russianchemist and physician. The law states that the enthalpy change for a reaction that is carried out in a series of steps is equal to the sum of the enthalpy changes for the individual steps.

130. dulongs law-a chemical law proposed in 1819 by French physical chemists Pierre Louis Dulong and Alexis Thrse Petit, states the classical expression for the specific heat capacity of a crystal. 131.fusion a thermonuclearreaction in which nuclei of light atoms join to fo rm nuclei ofheavier atoms, as the combination of deuterium atoms toform helium atoms. 132 inflection point-is a point on a curveat which the curvature changes sign. The curve changes from being concave upwards (positive curvature) to concave downwards (negative curvature), or vice versa. 133. sublimation- is the transition of a substance from the solid phase to the gas phase without passing through an intermediate liquid phase. Sublimation is an endothermic phase transition that occurs at temperatures and pressures below a substance's triple point in its phase diagram. 134. cryogenation-is the study of the production of very low temperature (below 150 C, 238 F or 123 K) and the behaviour of materials at those temperatures. A person who studies elements under extremely cold temperature is called a cryogenicist. 135.conductionthe transfer of heat between two parts of a stationarysyste m, caused by a temperature difference betweenthe parts. 136. radiation-describes a process in which energetic particles or waves travel through a medium or space. There are two distinct types of radiation; ionizingand non-ionizing. 137. polytropic-is a thermodynamic process that obeys the relation: where p is the pressure, V is volume, n, the polytropic index, is any real number, and C is a constant. This equation can be used to accurately characterize processes of certain systems, notably the compression or expansion of a gas and in some cases liquids and solids. 138.stefan- boltzmann law-also known as Stefan's law, states that the totalenergy radiated per unit surface area of a black body per unit time (known variously as the black-body irradiance, energy flux density, radiant flux, or the emissive power), j*, is directly proportional to the fourth power of the black body'sthermodynamic temperature T (also called absolute temperature): 139. sadi carnot-Nicolas Lonard Sadi Carnot (1 June 1796 24 August 1832) was a Frenchphysicist and military engineer who, in his 1824 Reflections on the Motive Power of Fire, gave the first successful theoretical account of heat engines, now known as theCarnot cycle, thereby laying the foundations of the second law of thermodynamics. 140. cryogenics- is the study of the production of very low temperature (below 150 C, 238 F or 123 K) and the behaviour of materials at those temperatures.

141. ergonomics- is the science of designing the workplace environment to fit the user. Proper ergonomic design is necessary to prevent repetitive strain injuries, which can develop over time and can lead to long-term disability. 142. laminar flow-ometimes known as streamline flow, occurs when a fluid flows in parallel layers, with no disruption between the layers. At low velocities the fluid tends to flow without lateral mixing, and adjacent layers slide past one another like playing cards. 143. viscosity-is a measure of the resistance of a fluid which is being deformed by either shear stress or tensile stress. In everyday terms (and for fluids only), viscosity is "thickness" or "internal friction". 144. hydrostatic pressure- is the pressure exerted by a fluid at equilibrium due to the force of gravity.[1] A fluid in this condition is known as a hydrostatic fluid. 145.fluidity-a measure of this ability, the reciprocal of the coefficientof visc osity. 146. Capillary action, or capillarity, is a phenomenon where liquid spontaneously rises in a narrow space such as a thin tube, or in porous materials such as paper or in some non-porous materials such as liquified carbon fibre. 147. pseudoplastic fluid-or shear-thinning fluids have a lower apparent viscosity at higher shear rates, and are usually solutions of large, polymericmolecules in a solvent with smaller molecules. It is generally supposed that the large molecular chains tumble at random and affect large volumes of fluid under low shear, but that they gradually align themselves in the direction of increasing shear and produce less resistance. 148. rheopectic fluid-Rheopecty or rheopexy is the rare property of some non-Newtonian fluids to show a time-dependent change in viscosity; the longer the fluid undergoes shearing force, the higher its viscosity. Rheopectic fluids, such as some lubricants, thicken or solidify when shaken. The opposite type of behaviour, in which fluids become less viscous the longer they undergo shear, is called thixotropy and is much more common. 149. THIXOTROPIC FLUID-is a fluid which takes a finite time to attain equilibrium viscosity when introduced to a step change in shear rate. However, this is not a universal definition; the term is sometimes applied to pseudoplastic fluids without a viscosity/time component 150. buoyancy-s an upward acting force exerted by a fluid , that opposes an object's weight. If the object is either less dense than the liquid or is shaped appropriately (as in a boat), the force can keep the object afloat. 151.surge tank- (or surge drum) is a standpipe or storage reservoir at the downstream end of a closed aqueduct or feeder pipe to absorb sudden rises of pressure as well as to quickly provide extra water during a brief drop in pressure.

152. float-(also pontoons) are small hulls used in trimarans, small open catamarans and floatplanes (a kind of seaplanes). [1] Their main purpose is to supply buoyancy, not storage space. 153. hydraulic power-water power is power that is derived from the force or energy of moving water, which may be harnessed for useful purposes. 154. orifice-s any opening, mouth, hole or vent, as of a pipe, plate, or a body. 155. venture-Venturi effect is the reduction in fluid pressure that results when a fluid flows through a constricted section of pipe. The Venturi effect is named after Giovanni Battista Venturi (17461822), an Italian physicist. 156. ptolemys theorem-is a relation in Euclidean geometry between the four sides and two diagonals of a cyclic quadrilateral (a quadrilateral whose vertices lie on a common circle). 157. Archimedes theorem-is named after Archimedes of Syracuse, who first discovered this law.[2] His treatise, On floating bodies, proposition 5 states: Any floating object displaces its own weight of fluid. Any object, wholly or partially immersed in a fluid, is buoyed up by a force equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the object. 158. torricellis theorem- is a theorem in fluid dynamics relating the speed of fluid flowing out of an opening to the height of fluid above the opening. 159. throttling calorimeter160. odometer-(mileometer, milometer) indicates distance travelled by a car or other vehicle. The device may be electronic, mechanical, or a combination of the two. 161. stagnation energy162. boyles law-(sometimes referred to as the Boyle-Mariotte law) is one of many gas laws and a special case of the ideal gas law. 163. charles law- (also known as the law of volumes) is an experimental gas law which describes how gases tend to expand when heated. It was first published by French natural philosopherJoseph Louis Gay-Lussac in 1802,[1] although he credited the discovery to unpublished work from the 1780s by Jacques Charles. 164. siphon-sometimes refers to a wide variety of devices that allow the flow of liquids through tubes. 165. centrifugalmoving or directed outward from the center ( opposed tocentrip etal). represents the effects of inertia that arise in connection with rotation and which are experienced as an outward force away from the center of rotation. 166. culvert-is a device used to channel water. It may be used to allow water to pass underneath a road, railway, or embankment for example. 167. pneumatic relay-

168. plunger-s a common device that is used to release stoppages in plumbing. The tool consists of a rubber cup with an attached stick "shaft", usually made of wood or bronze. 169. kinematic-is the branch of classical mechanics that describes themotion of bodies (objects) and systems (groups of objects) without consideration of the forces that cause the motion. 170. torque-also called moment or moment of force (see the terminology below), is the tendency of aforce to rotate an object about an axis,[1] fulcrum, or pivot. Just as a force is a push or a pull, a torque can be thought of as a twist. 171. moment-is the tendency of a force to twist or rotate an object; see the article torque for details. 172. varignons theorem-is a statement in Euclidean geometry by Pierre Varignon that was first published in 1731. It deals with the construction of a particularparallelogram (Varignon parallelogram) from an arbitrary quadrangle. 173. pappus proposition-states that given one set of collinear points A, B, C, and another set of collinear points a, b, c, then the intersection points X, Y, Z of line pairs Ab and aB, Ac andaC, Bc and bC are collinear. 174. cantilever beam-is a beam supported on only one end. The beam carries the load to the support where it is resisted by moment and shear stress. 175. acceleration-is the rate of change of velocity over time.[1] In one dimension, acceleration is the rate at which something speeds up or slows down. 176. force-is any influence that causes a free body to undergo a change in speed, a change in direction, or a change in shape. 177. poissons ratio-named after Simon Poisson, is the ratio, when a sample object is stretched, of the contraction or transverse strain (perpendicular to the applied load), to the extension or axial strain (in the direction of the applied load). 178. tension- is the magnitude of the pulling force exerted by a string, cable, chain, or similar object on another object. It is the opposite of compression. 179. compression- is the result of the subjection of a material to compressive stress, resulting in reduction of volume. 180. elongation-is the transformation of a body from a reference configuration to a current configuration. 181. torsion-is the twisting of an object due to an applied torque. In circular sections, the resultant shearing stress is perpendicular to the radius. 182. arch- is a structure that spans a space while supporting weight (e.g. a doorway in a stonewall). 183. strut-s a structural component designed to resist longitudinal compression. Struts provide outwards-facing support in their

lengthwise direction, which can be used to keep two other components separate, performing the opposite function of a tie. 184. yield stress- is defined in engineering and materials science as the stress at which a material begins to deform plastically. 185. ultimate stress- is the maximum stress that a material can withstand while being stretched or pulled before necking, which is when the specimen's cross-section starts to significantly contract. Tensile strength is the opposite of compressive strength and the values can be quite different. 186. bulk modulus-It is defined as the pressure increase needed to cause a given relative decrease in volume. Its base unit is the pascal. 187. mohrs theorem-states that any geometric construction that can be performed by a compass and straightedge can be performed by a compass alone. 189. steiners theorem- can be used to determine the moment of inertia of a rigid body about any axis, given the moment of inertia of the object about the parallel axis through the object's centre of mass and the perpendicular distance(r) between the axes. 190. metalloid-is a term used in chemistry when classifying the chemical elements. The termsemimetal is sometimes used synonymously, but this is sometimes defined differently. 191. polymers-is a large molecule (macromolecule) composed of repeating structural units. These subunits are typically connected by covalent chemical bonds. 192. refractive index- or index of refraction of a substance is a measure of the speed of light in that substance. It is expressed as a ratio of the speed of light in vacuum relative to that in the considered medium. 193. hardness-is the measure of how resistant solid matter is to various kinds of permanent shape change when a force is applied. 194. creep strength- is the tendency of a solid material to slowly move or deform permanently under the influence of stresses. It occurs as a result of long term exposure to high levels of stress that are below the yield strength of the material. 195. curie temperature-(Tc), or Curie point, is the temperature at which a ferromagnetic or aferrimagnetic material becomes paramagnetic on heating; the effect is reversible. 196. endurancethe ability or strength to continue or last, esp. despite fatigue, stress, or other adverse conditions; stamina: 197. stiffness-is the resistance of an elastic body to deformation by an applied force along a given degree of freedom (DOF) when a set of loading points and boundary conditions are prescribed on the elastic body. 198. rigidity-Stiffness, the property of a solid body to resist deformation.

199. creepagethe act or process of creeping.slow, imperceptible movement. 200. tendons- is a tough band of fibrous connective tissue that usually connectsmuscle to bone[1] and is capable of withstanding tension. 201. copolymerization- refers to methods used to chemically synthesize a copolymer. 202. alloying-is a partial or complete solid solution of one or more elements in a metallic matrix. 203. cellulose-is an organic compound with the formula (C6H10O5)n, a polysaccharide consisting of a linear chain of several hundred to over ten thousand (14) linked D-glucose units. 204. stereospecifity-is the property of a reaction mechanism that leads to different stereoisomeric reaction products from differentstereoisomeric reactants, or which operates on only one (or a subset) of the stereoisomers. 205. corrosion resistance-The materials most resistant to corrosion are those for which corrosion is thermodynamically unfavorable. Any corrosion products of gold or platinum tend to decompose spontaneously into pure metal, which is why these elements can be found in metallic form on Earth, and is a large part of their intrinsic value. More common "base" metals can only be protected by more temporary means. 206. spatial configuration-is the spatial arrangement of the atomsof a chiral molecular entity (or group) and its stereochemical description e.g. R or S. 207. metallography- is the study of the physical structure and components of metals, typically usingmicroscopy. 208. metallurgy-is a domain of materials science that studies the physical and chemical behavior ofmetallic elements, their intermetallic compounds, and their mixtures, which are called alloys. 209. eutectoid-is a mixture of chemical compounds or elements that has a single chemical composition that solidifies at a lower temperature than any other composition. 210. austenite-also known as gamma phase iron is a metallic nonmagnetic allotrope of iron or a solid solution of iron, with an alloying element. 211. flexural strength-also known as modulus of rupture, bend strength, or fracture strength,[dubious discuss] a mechanical parameter for brittle material, is defined as a material's ability to resist deformation under load. 212. jominy end-quench test-a round metal bar of standard size is transformed to 100% austenite through heat treatment, and is then quenched on one end with room-temperature water. The cooling rate will be highest at the end being quenched, and will decrease as distance from the end increases. The hardenability is then found by measuring the hardness along the bar: the farther away from the quenched end that the hardness extends, the higher the hardenability.

213. gibbs phase test-was proposed by Josiah Willard Gibbs in the 1870s as the equality F=C-P+2, where P ( alternatively or ) is the number of phases in thermodynamic equilibrium with each other and C is the number of components. Typical phases are solids, liquids and gases. 214. economic analysis215. commodities-is a good for which there is demand, but which is supplied without qualitative differentiation across a market. Commodities are often substances that come out of the earth and maintain roughly a universal price. 216. luxury-s a good for which demand increases more than proportionally as income rises, and is a contrast to a "necessity good", for which demand is not related to income. 217. necessity-is a type of normal good. Like any other normal good, when income rises, demand increases. 218. consumer-is a broad label for any individuals or households that use goods and services generated within the economy. 219. monopoly-exists when a specific individual or an enterprise has sufficient control over a particular product or service to determine significantly the terms on which other individuals shall have access to it. 220. oligopsony-is a market form in which the number of buyers is small while the number of sellers in theory could be large. 221. demand-is the desire to own anything, the ability to pay for it, and the willingness to pay[1] (see also supply and demand). The term demand signifies the ability or the willingness to buy a particular commodity at a given point of time. 222. stock-of a business entity represents the original capital paid into or invested in the business by its founders. It serves as a security for the creditors of a business since it cannot be withdrawn to the detriment of the creditors. 223. compound interest- arises when interest is added to the principal, so that from that moment on, the interest that has been added also itself earns interest. This addition of interest to the principal is called compounding. 224. simple interest- calculated only on the principal amount, or on that portion of the principal amount that remains unpaid. 225. nominal rate of interest- refers to the rate of interest before adjustment for inflation (in contrast with the real interest rate); or, for interest rates "as stated" without adjustment for the full effect of compounding (also referred to as the nominal annual rate). An interest rate is called nominal if the frequency of compounding (e.g. a month) is not identical to the basic time unit (normally a year). 226. principal227. amortization-is the process of decreasing, or accounting for, an amount over a period. The word comes from Middle English amortisen to kill, alienate in mortmain, from Anglo-French amorteser, alteration

of amortir, from Vulgar Latin admortire to kill, from Latin ad- + mort-, mors death. 228. depreciation-decline in value of assets, and allocation of the cost of assets to periods in which the assets are used. 229. perpetuity- is an annuity that has no definite end, or a stream of cash payments that continues forever. 230. annuity- is used in finance theory to refer to any terminating stream of fixed payments over a specified period of time. This usage is most commonly seen in discussions of finance, usually in connection with the valuation of the stream of payments, taking into account time value of money concepts such as interest rate and future value. 231. bond-is a debt security, in which the authorized issuer owes the holders a debt and, depending on the terms of the bond, is obliged to pay interest (the coupon) and/or to repay the principal at a later date, termed maturity. 232. deffered annuity234. depletion-is an accounting concept used most often in mining, timber, petroleum, or other similar industries. 235. T-bills-Treasury bills (or T-Bills) mature in one year or less. Like zero-coupon bonds, they do not pay interest prior to maturity; instead they are sold at a discount of the par value to create a positive yield to maturity. Many regard Treasury bills as the least risky investment available to U.S. investors. 236. collateral-is a borrower's pledge of specific property to a lender, to secure repayment of a loan.[1][2] The collateral serves as protection for a lender against a borrower's default - that is, any borrower failing to pay the principal and interest under the terms of a loan obligation. 237. debenture bond-is a document that either creates a debt or acknowledges it. In corporate finance, the term is used for a medium- to long-term debt instrument used by large companies to borrow money. In some countries the term is used interchangeably with bond, loan stock or note. 238. mortgage- a security interest on real property granted to a lender, as in mortgage law. 239. deflation-is a decrease in the general price level of goods and services.[1] Deflation occurs when the annual inflation rate falls below 0% (a negative inflation rate). 240. scrap value241. franchise-a business method that involves licensing of trademarks and methods of doing business. 242. valuation-is the process of estimating the potential market value of a financial assetor liability. Valuations can be done on assets (for example, investments in marketable securities such as stocks, options, business enterprises, or intangible assets such as patents andtrademarks) or on liabilities .

243. sinking fund-is a fund established by a government agency or business for the purpose of reducing debt by repaying or purchasing outstanding loans and securities held against the entity. 244. null cost245. enterprise-the practice of starting new organizations, particularly new businesses. 246. partnership-is an arrangement where entities and/or individuals agree to cooperate to advance their interests. In the most frequent instance, a partnership is formed between one or more businesses in which partners (owners) co-labor to achieve and share profits or losses. 247. sole proprietorship- also known as a sole trader or simply a proprietorship, is a type of business entity that is owned and run by one individual and in which there is no legal distinction between the owner and the business. 248. corporation- is a formal business association with a publicly registered charter recognizing it as a separate legal entity having its own privileges, and liabilities distinct from those of its members.[1] There are many different forms of corporations, most of which are used to conduct business. 249. stockholder-s an individual or institution (including a corporation) that legally owns one or more shares of stock in a public or private corporation. Shareholders own the stock, but not the corporation itself (Fama 1980). 250. dividend-are payments made by a corporation to its shareholder members. It is the portion of corporate profits paid out to stockholders. 251. liability- can mean something that is a hindrance or puts an individual or group at a disadvantage, or something that someone is responsible for, or something that increases the chance of something occurring (i.e. it is a cause).

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