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Chapter No.

01 Distribution Systems
Dr. Intesar Ahmed, Engr. Kashif Imran, Engr. Muhammad Shuja Khan

Department of Electrical Engineering COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Lahore


Contents To Be Covered:

Primary & Secondary Distribution Design Considerations Distribution System Losses Classification Of Distribution System Radial Distribution System Ring Or Loop Distribution System Interconnected Distribution System DC Distribution Ring Distribution Stepped Distributor AC Distribution AC Three-Phase Distribution

Distribution system is a part of power system, existing

between distribution substations and consumers.

It is further classified on the basis of voltage as primary

and secondary.

Primary & Secondary Distribution: Primary Distribution:

It exists between distribution substations and

distribution transformers.

It is made of circuits, known as primary feeders or

primary distribution feeders.

Secondary Distribution:
It receives power from the secondary side of

distribution transformers at low voltage and supplies power to loads via service lines. It is the final sub-system of the power system. Secondary distribution systems are generally radial type except specific areas which require highly reliable service. Primary distribution transformer receives power from primary laterals via a fuse cut-out or a fuse switch. Secondary side supplies power through secondary mains, service conductor to service meter.

Design Considerations In A Distribution System:

Voltage Regulation

Design Of Feeders(Conductors that connect

substations to consumer ports)

Design Of Distributors(Conductors which run along

streets to supply power to consumers)

Service Main & Sub Main

Distribution System Losses:

70% of the total losses occur in the primary and

secondary distribution system.

30% occur in transmission and sub-transmission lines.

Distribution losses amount to 15.5% of the generation


Factors Affecting DistributionSystem Losses:

Inadequate Size of Conductor. Feeder Length.

Location of Distribution Transformers.

Low Voltage. Use of Over-Rated Distribution Transformers.

Low Power Factor.

Methods For The Reduction Of Line Losses:


3. 4.


HV Distribution System. Feeder Reconfiguration. Reinforcement Of The Feeder. Grading Of Conductor. Construction Of New Substation. Reactive Power Compensation.

1.HV Distribution System:

The feasible solution is to eliminate or minimize LV

lines by switching over to single phase high voltage distribution.

By adopting HV distribution, the losses in the LV

distribution can be minimized.


2.Feeder Reconfiguration:
It is the process of altering the topological structure of

distribution feeders by changing the open/closed status of sectionalizing and tie switches.

It allows transfer of loads from heavy loaded feeders to

moderately loaded feeders.


3.Reinforcement Of The Feeder:

Losses in distribution system are more because

conductor size used at the erection time is not optimal with reference to the increased load.

This method is considered necessary as the smaller

sized conductors encounter high losses due to unplanned use.


4.Grading Of Conductor:
Use of larger conductors of different cross sectional

areas will result in increased costs.

Best choice can be made in selecting the size of cross

sectional area for optimal design.

Tie lines are the most economical method to reduce



5.Construction Of New Substation:

By constructing a new substation at the load centres,

line losses will be reduced due to an improvement in the voltage profile and reduction in the length of the lines.
For an excess small quantum of load, the decision for

constructing new substations can not be made.


6.Reactive Power Compensation:

The problem of reactive power can be compensated by

using static capacitors. The method used to compensate the reactive power component is to increase the reactive power by increasing the terminal voltage of generator or increasing the field current.
Two methods of capacitor compensation are.

Series Compensation. 2. Shunt Compensation.



Classification Of Distribution System:

It can be classified as; 1. Type Of Current: a) AC Distribution System b) DC Distribution System
2. Type Of Construction:
a) Overhead System b) Underground System


3. Type Of Service: a) General Lighting & Power b) Industrial Power c) Railway d) Streetlight etc 4. Number Of Wires: a) Two Wire b) Three Wire c) Four Wire 5. Scheme Of Connection: a) Radial Distribution System b) Ring or Loop Distribution System c) Interconnected Distribution System

Radial Distribution System:

Most distribution systems are radial. Only one path is connected between each customer and

substation. Electrical power flows along a single path. If interrupted, results in complete loss of power to the customer. Advantages: Low cost . Simple planning.

Disadvantages : Low reliability factor. Distributor nearer to feeding end is heavily loaded. Consumers at far end of feeder would be subjected to series voltage fluctuations. 18

Ring or Loop Distribution System:

It consists of two or more paths between power sources and

the customer. It is selected to carry its normal load plus the load of the other half of the loop also. The size of the feeder conductor in a loop is same. Advantages: Less conductor material is required. Less voltage fluctuations. More reliable. Disadvantages: It is difficult to design as compared to the design of radial system.


Interconnected Distribution System:

It is supplied by a number of feeders. Radial primary feeders can be tapped off from the

interconnecting tie feeders. They can also serve directly from the substation. Advantages: Increases the reliability of supply Losses are less and efficiency is more. Quality of service is improved. Disadvantages: Its initial cost is more. Difficult in planning, design and operation.

DC Distribution:
Voltage drop along distributor is considered as a main

factor while designing a distributor. It depends upon the nature of load and also ob feeding, whether it is fed at one or both ends. According to loading, a distributor can be classified as: i. Distributor with connected loading. ii. Uniformly-loaded distributor. According to loading, a distributor can be classified as: i. Feed at one end. ii. Feed at both ends. a) With equal voltages. b) With unequal voltages.

Ring Distribution:
It is a distributor which is arranged in the form of a

closed circuit. Can be fed at one or more points. In a ring distributor any two load points are joined by means of a connector also called interconnector. Purpose of connector is to reduce voltage drop in various sections. Advantages Of Using Interconnector : Increased security of service. Reduction in number of standby plants. Total capital cost and running cost can be reduced by dividing the total load.


Stepped Distributor:
It is also known as tapered distributor. It is necessary to design distributor with minimum

volume of conductor material. Load when tapped from any distributor changes the current along the length of the distributor.


AC Distribution:
All methods used for solution of DC distributors will apply

equally for AC. The resistances have to replaced by impedances. Current and voltage in various sections is the vector sum and not simply arithmetic sum. The phase angles at the load points may be referred to the supply or it may be referred to the voltage which is taken as a reference vector. AC distribution is considered with two concentrated loads. 1. Power factor is specified with respect to receiving end voltage. 2. Power factor refers to the respective load points.

AC Three-Phase Distribution:
In three-phase systems, all calculations should be

carried out on a single-phase basis and final results can be given in line values. Further, in three phase four wire distribution systems 1. Motor loads and three phase balance loads are connected to the three-phase lines. 2. Single phase loads are distributed between each phase end to neutral.


Thank you