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Molding Guide

d GRZ Zytel

nylon resin
GR Zy t el Z

Contents
SECTION 1 GENERAL INFORMATION .................................................................................................. Description ................................................................................................................................... Properties of Glass-Reinforced Zytel Nylon Resins .................................................................. Compositions: Description of Product Line ................................................................................ High-Strength 70G Series ............................................................................................................ Improved-Impact 71G Series ....................................................................................................... Improved Surface Appearance Series .......................................................................................... High-Impact 80G Series .............................................................................................................. Improved Surface High-Impact Series ........................................................................................ Low Moisture Absorption 77G Series ......................................................................................... Glass-Reinforced Compositions in Colors .................................................................................. MOLDING MACHINE REQUIREMENTS .......................................................................... Machine Melt Capacity ................................................................................................................ Barrel ........................................................................................................................................... Screw Design ............................................................................................................................... Screw Check Valves .................................................................................................................... Nozzle .......................................................................................................................................... Machine Controls ......................................................................................................................... 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 4 5 5

SECTION 2

SECTION 3

MACHINE OPERATING CONDITIONS ............................................................................. 6 Rheology and Flow Data ............................................................................................................. 6 Cylinder Temperatures ................................................................................................................ 7 Nozzle Temperature ..................................................................................................................... 7 Mold Temperature ....................................................................................................................... 7 Molding Cycle ............................................................................................................................. 8 Injection Rates ............................................................................................................................. 8 Injection Pressure ......................................................................................................................... 9 Screw Speed ................................................................................................................................. 9 Back Pressure ............................................................................................................................... 9 Mold Release ............................................................................................................................... 9 Start-Up ........................................................................................................................................ 9 Shutdown ................................................................................................................................... 10 Purging ....................................................................................................................................... 10 HANDLING GLASS-REINFORCED RESINS ................................................................... Blending ..................................................................................................................................... Rework ....................................................................................................................................... Drying ........................................................................................................................................ MOLD DESIGN ...................................................................................................................... Sprues and Runners ................................................................................................................... Gates .......................................................................................................................................... Vents .......................................................................................................................................... Undercuts and Taper .................................................................................................................. Tolerances .................................................................................................................................. Wear ........................................................................................................................................... 11 11 11 12 13 13 13 13 13 13 13

SECTION 4

SECTION 5

SECTION 6 SECTION 7 SECTION 8 SECTION 9

MOLD SHRINKAGE ............................................................................................................ 15 WARPAGE ............................................................................................................................. 17 TROUBLESHOOTING GUIDE ........................................................................................... 18 SUMMARY OF VARIABLES MINIMIZING SCREW, MOLD, AND BARREL WEAR ....................................................................... 19 SUMMARY OF PROCESSING VARIABLES AFFECTING GLASS FIBER LENGTH ......................................................................... 20

Section 1 General Information


Description
Glass-reinforced DuPont Zytel nylon resins contain uniformly dispersed short glass fibers specially treated with a coupling agent to produce an effective glass/nylon bond.

Impact properties Fatigue resistance In addition, mold shrinkage, moisture growth and thermal expansion are all reduced when compared with unreinforced nylons.

Properties of Glass-Reinforced Zytel Nylon Resins


Glass fiber reinforcement of Zytel nylon resins significantly improves: Tensile strength and stiffness; these properties are largely retained at elevated temperatures Dimensional stability, including resistance to creep under load

Compositions: Description of Product Line


As shown in Table 1, DuPont currently offers a broad product line of glass-reinforced Zytel nylons.

Table 1 Glass-Reinforced Zytel Nylons


Designation Characteristics High-Strength 70G SeriesBased on nylon 66 Zytel 70G13L General purpose with 13% glass reinforcement. Zytel 70G13HS1L Contains 13% glass reinforcement. Heat stabilized. General purpose with 33% glass reinforcement. Zytel 70G33L Contains 33% glass reinforcement. Heat stabilized. Zytel 70G33HS1L Zytel 70G33HRL Contains 33% glass reinforcement. High resistance to hot water and oxidation. Contains 43% glass reinforcement for maximum strength. Zytel 70G43L Improved-Impact 71G SeriesBased on modified nylon 66 Zytel 71G13L Zytel 71G13HS1L Zytel 71G33L Zytel 72G13L Zytel 72G33L Zytel 72G43L Zytel 73G15L Zytel 73G30L Zytel 73G30HSL Zytel 73G45L Zytel 74G13L Zytel 74G33L Zytel 74G43L Zytel 8018 Zytel 8018HS Zytel 80G33L Zytel 80G33HS1L Zytel 80G43HS1L Zytel 82G33L Zytel 84G33 Zytel 77G33L Zytel 77G33HS1L Zytel 7 7G43L Contains 13% glass reinforcement. Impact modified. Contains 13% glass reinforcement. Impact modified, heat stabilized. Contains 33% glass reinforcement. Impact modified. Contains 13% glass reinforcement. Nylon 66/6 copolymer. Contains 33% glass reinforcement. Nylon 66/6 copolymer. Contains 43% glass reinforcement. Nylon 66/6 copolymer. Contains 15% glass reinforcement. Nylon 6. Contains 30% glass reinforcement. Nylon 6. Contains 30% glass reinforcement. Nylon 6. Contains 45% glass reinforcement. Nylon 6. Contains 13% glass reinforcement. Nylon 66 and nylon 6 co-melt. Contains 33% glass reinforcement. Nylon 66 and nylon 6 co-melt. Contains 43% glass reinforcement. Nylon 66 and nylon 6 co-melt. Contains 14% glass reinforcement. Outstanding impact strength. Contains 14% glass reinforcement. Outstanding impact strength, heat stabilized. Contains 33% glass reinforcement. High impact strength. Contains 33% glass reinforcement. High impact strength, heat stabilized. Contains 43% glass reinforcement. High impact strength, heat stabilized. Contains 33% glass reinforcement. Nylon 66/6 copolymer. Contains 33% glass reinforcement. Nylon 66 and nylon 6 co-melt. Contains 33% glass reinforcement. Higher dimensional stability. Contains 33% glass reinforcement. Heat stabilized. Contains 43% glass reinforcement. Highest dimensional stability in glass-reinforced nylons.

Improved Surface Appearance Series

High-Impact 80G Series

Improved Surface, High Impact Series

Low Moisture Absorption 77G SeriesBased on nylon 612

High-Strength 70G Series


As indicated by their designation numbers, Zytel 70G13L, 70G33L, and 70G43L are nylon 66 products reinforced respectively with 13%, 33%, and 43% of short glass fibers. The heat-stabilized nylon 66 products, Zytel 70G13HS1L and 70G33HS1L, contain 13% and 33% glass, respectively. Zytel 70G33HRL has improved resistance to hot water and oxidation. These six 70G formulations offer a high level of strength, stiffness, creep resistance, fatigue endurance, and dimensional stability. Moreover, these property characteristics remain at high levels over a wide range of temperatures and humidities.

These formulations are specifically designed for applications where shock loading is encountered and maximum toughness required. The outstanding resistance to impact is obtained with only a slight reduction of the mechanical and load-carrying properties found in the 70G Series.

Improved Surface, High Impact Series


The products in this series offer outstanding impact strength combined with improved surface appearance.

Low Moisture Absorption 77G Series


Glass-reinforced compositions based on nylon 612 are Zytel 77G33L, 77G33HS1L, and 77G43L with 33% and 43% short glass fibers. These compositions in the 77G Series have considerably lower moisture absorption than those in the 70G and 71G Series and, accordingly, possess outstanding dimensional stability with excellent retention of key physical and electrical properties over a wide humidity range. Although more expensive than 70G and 71G compositions, they are finding wide use in applications requiring improved physical and electrical properties at high humidities. These compositions have higher tensile strength at 100% relative humidity than those in the 70G and 71G Series.

Improved-Impact 71G Series


The formulations in this series, Zytel 71G13L, 71G13HS1L, and 71G33L, are modified nylon 66 products reinforced with 13% or 33% of short glass fibers. As compared with the 70G formulations, those in the 71G series have improved impact properties.

Improved Surface Appearance Series


The products in this series were developed for applications requiring improved surface over typical glass-reinforced grades. The 72G series is based on nylon 66/6 copolymer. The 73G series is based on nylon 6 and the 74G series is based on co-melt of nylon 66 and nylon 6.

Glass-Reinforced Compositions in Colors


Glass-reinforced Zytel nylons are available in black and custom colors in the form of cube color blends. Specific information on what is available can be obtained from your nearest DuPont Engineering Polymers Sales Office listed on the back cover.

High-Impact 80G Series


The formulations in this series, Zytel 8018, 8018HS, 80G33L, 80G33HS1L, and 80G43HS1L offer outstanding impact strength combined with stiffness.

Section 2Molding Machine Requirements


Glass-reinforced Zytel nylon resins are best processed in screw-type thermoplastic injection molding machines. Machine requirements for molding unreinforced Zytel nylon resins are discussed in detail in the Molding DuPont Zytel Nylon Resins booklet. Some machine requirements for molding glass-reinforced Zytel nylon resins differ from those reported in that booklet, the important differences are outlined in the following sections.

Barrel
General
Three-zone heating control of the barrel (corresponding to the screws three functional zones) should be provided for close temperature control and high output rates. In all cases, the temperature of the nozzle should be independently and precisely controlled. Barrel length should be at least 20 diameters for uniform melt temperature at high outputs.

Machine Melt Capacity


The maximum melt capacity of any screw injection molding machine depends both on the machines rated shot size and the screw recovery rate for the resin being molded.

Wear
Xaloy3 100/101 or 800 types (or equivalent) bimetallic barrel liners have shown outstanding resistance to wear by glass fibers. Nitrided barrel surfaces, on the other hand, do not withstand abrasion by glass-fiber reinforced nylons and often exhibit spalling (surface flaking) and excessive diametral wear after short-term use. Nitrided barrels are not recommended for continuous molding of glass-reinforced nylons. In certain cases, worn injection cylinders can be refurbished by installing special high-wear, highhardness sleeves in the worn area, usually through the meter and transition zones of the barrel.

Shot Weight
The shot size is the volume displaced by the screw during injection. Melt densities of glass-reinforced Zytel nylon resins are approximately 12% (at 13% glass loading by weight), 25% (at 33% glass loading), and 35% (at 43% glass loading) greater than polystyrene melt at normal processing temperatures and pressures. Therefore, the maximum shot weight of any machine will be correspondingly greater than the nameplate or specified polystyrene shot weight.

Screw Design
General
The general-purpose gradual compression screws that are installed (OEM) in molding machines are usually suitable for molding glass-reinforced nylon resins. At high output rates, screw designs as shown in Table 2 will provide better uniformity of melt temperature and freedom from unmelt.

Screw Recovery Rate


Screw retraction (recovery) is influenced by cycle time, screw design, screw rpm, back pressure, cylinder temperature profile, shot size, and (of particular significance), screw and barrel wear. Screw retraction times often increase markedly as screw wear worsens. (Excessive screw flight wear and undue clearance produce leakage and a loss in melt delivery during plasticization.) Additional lubrication of glass-reinforced resins with a light surface coating of either aluminum distearate1 or Acrawax C2 can minimize barrel and screw wear, especially when high screw plasticizing capacity is necessary, requiring fast screw rpm, short cycles, and long injection stroke.
1

Aluminum distearate (5001000 ppm) product of Witco Chemical Corp. 2 Acrawax C (250 ppm) product of Glyco Products Company. 3 Registered trademark, Xaloy, Inc.

Table 2 Suggested General-Purpose Screw* Design


Glass-Reinforced Zytel Nylon Resins
Length Feed Section 10 Transition Section 4 Metering Section 6

DS

hF

e Land Width

hM

Screw Diameter (DS) cm (in) 3.8 (1.5) 5.1 (2.0) 6.3 (2.5) 8.9 (3.5) 11.4 (4.5)

Feed Depth (hF) cm (in) 0.72 (0.30) 0.81 (0.32) 0.96 (0.38) 1.12 (0.44) 1.27 (0.50)

Metering Depth (hM) cm (in) 0.1780.203 (0.0700.080) 0.2030.254 (0.0800.100) 0.2540.305 (0.1000.120) 0.3050.356 (0.1200.140) 0.3560.381 (0.1400.150)

General practice in the industry is to have the land width e = 1/10 the distance between the flight, and the radial clearance = 1/1000 the diameter of the screw. *20L/D; square pitch; 10/4/6 turns for feed, transition, and metering zones, respectively.

Wear
Abrasive wear of injection screws occurs primarily on the lands and edges of the screw flights. In time, the root diameter will wear somewhat in the transition and metering zones. (Wear in the feed zone is usually the result of too low a rear zone temperature for the throughput involved). Flight lands hard-surfaced with an alloy such as Stellite4 (Alloy #6) have been found to resist wear better than either flame-hardened or nitrided flights. Thus, Stellite-surfaced flights are recommended for screws used for continuous molding of glassreinforced resins. Hard chrome plating of the other surfaces of the screw is also recommended. (It is even possible to apply abrasion-resistant coatings to the entire surface area of the screw for ultimate wear protection.) See Section 9 for more information on wear.

With the latter, flow passages must be carefully streamlined to prevent holdup. Check valves are necessary during injection to ensure constant cavity pressure and part weight uniformity from shot to shot. In this regard, vinyl-type (smear head) injection screws are not recommended for precision molding glass-reinforced Zytel nylons.

Wear
Sliding-type ring check valves (nonreturn valves) undergo rapid and appreciable wear when used with glass-reinforced nylon resins especially when not hardened. Even when properly hard-surfaced, these valves should be considered expendable after three to four months of use. Prior to that, worn seats and ring sleeves should be reground or replaced because it is important to maintain a pad (cushion) during injection of melt. Nitriding has been found useful for extending the life of check rings. A typical material of construction is Nitralloy 135M. The seat is usually hardened higher than the sleeve (e.g., seat Rc62); sleeve Rc55 is typical. Experience has shown that when the nonreturn valve fails to function correctly, additional screw wear occurs; as the performance (wear) of the check valve worsens, so does the condition of the screw.

Screw Check Valves


General
Hardened check (nonreturn) valves should be used for processing glass-reinforced Zytel nylon reins. Either ring check or ball check valves may be used.
4

Stellite Division, Cabot Corporation

Nozzle
Heated, reverse-tapered nozzles (see Figure 1) are recommended for use in molding glass-reinforced Zytel nylon resins. Because of the higher melt viscosity of glass-reinforced nylons, the nozzle bore diameter should be about 25% larger than used for unreinforced nylons. A complete explanation of the function of reverse-taper nozzles is given in the molding booklet mentioned earlier. While not recommended, positive shut-off nozzles can also be used when proper temperature control is provided.

Machine Controls
No special equipment features are required to process glass-reinforced Zytel nylons. Recommendations for temperature control and hydraulic functions are identical to those given for unreinforced Zytel nylon resins. Glass-reinforced Zytel nylon has been run using either electric or hydraulic screw drives in both toggle and hydraulic clamp machines. A minimum clamp pressure of 1786 km/cm2 (5 tons/in2) of projected shot area should be available when molding glass-reinforced Zytel nylon.

Figure 1.

Nozzle (with Reverse Taper) Recommended for Molding


Thermocouple Well

0.010" (0.025 cm) Radius

,,,,,,,, ,,,,,,,, ,,,,,,,,


4 D 1/8" (0.32 cm) 3D 10D

Taper to Suit Diameter to Suit

D Minimum = 1/8" (0.32 cm), D Typical = 3/16" (0.48 cm) 1/4" (0.64 cm)

Do Not Scale

Section 3Machine Operating Conditions


Careful control of machine processing conditions is necessary to ensure optimum properties of glassreinforced Zytel nylon resins. The melt flow characteristics of these resins are important to their molding performance. Also, it is important to note that processing variables influence the length of glass fibers in the molded part. During mold-open time, the higher melt viscosity of glass-reinforced Zytel nylon resins reduces problems of nozzle drool. The effects of pressure on the flow length of several glass-reinforced Zytel nylon resins for two part thicknesses are shown in Figures 4 and 5. An adjustable-thickness snake flow mold was used to determine effects: Effect of Pressure on FlowIncreasing the injection pressure by 1000 psi (6895 kPa) will result in about 5% increase in flow. Effect of Thickness on FlowIncreasing part thickness from 0.10 to 0.25 cm (0.040 to 0.100 in) results in a four to five times improvement in flow. Effect of Percent Glass and Type Resin on FlowIncreasing the percent glass in the resin significantly increases the pressure required to fill a given cavity. Also, the Zytel 71G Series will require about 25% more pressure than the Zytel 70G Series. (at equivalent glass loadings) for the same length of flow.
Figure 3. Apparent Melt Viscosity versus Shear Rate
104
Apparent Melt Viscosity (poise) = (dyne-sec/cm2)

Rheology and Flow Data


Figures 2 and 3 show the apparent melt viscosity of various glass-reinforced Zytel nylon resins as a function of shear rate at melt temperatures of 291C and 310C (555F and 590F). The melt flow behavior depends on the glass loading and the type of nylon base resin. At shear rates in the low end of the injection molding range (1 102 to 5 103 sec1), the melt viscosities of the Zytel 70G Series and Zytel 71G Series are higher than for the unreinforced Zytel 101 and Zytel 408. However, at higher shear rates (104 sec1), the mold-filling characteristics of glass-reinforced Zytel nylon resins approach the flow behavior of unreinforced Zytel 101 and Zytel 408 regardless of glass content.
Figure 2.
104
Apparent Melt Viscosity (poise) = (dyne-sec/cm2)

Apparent Melt Viscosity versus Shear Rate

7 5 4 3 2

7 5 4 3 2

103 7 5 4 3 2
Zytel 70G33 Zytel 70G13 Zytel 70G33 Zytel 70G13

103 7
Zytel 70G33

555F (291C) 590F (310C)

5 4 3 2

Zytel 70G13 Zytel 101 Zytel 70G33 Zytel 70G13

555F (291C) 590F (310C)

102

101

102

103

104

105

Shear Rate (sec-1) 1 lb-sec/in2 = 69,000 poise (dyne-sec/cm2) 102 101 102 103 104 105

Shear Rate (sec-1) 1 lb-sec/in2 = 69,000 poise (dyne-sec/cm2)

Figure 4. Flow versus Pressure at 0.025 cm (0.100 in) Thickness


Melt Temperature, 555F (290C) Mold Temperature, 210F (99C) Part Thickness, 0.100 in (0.25 cm) Injection Pressure (Kg/cm2) 350 700 1050
Zytel

Figure 5. Flow Pressure versus 0.4 cm (0.040 in) Thickness


Melt Temperature, 555F (290C) Mold Temperature, 210F (99C) Part Thickness, 0.040 in (0.100 cm) Injection Pressure (kg/cm2) 350 700 1050 1400
Zytel 101

1400
101

10
Zytel 70G13

25.4 20.3
Flow, cm

40
Zytel 70G13

101.6
Flow, in

8 6 4 2

Zytel 71G13 Zytel 70G33

15.2 10.1 5.1

Flow, cm

Flow, in

Zytel 71G13

Zytel 71G33

30
Zytel 70G33 Zytel 71G33

76.2

20

50.8

5,000 10,000 15,000 20,000 Injection Pressure (psi)

10

5,000 10,000 15,000 20,000 Injection Pressure (psi)

25.4

Mold Temperature
Glass-reinforced nylons can be molded over a wide range of mold temperatures. However, for best part surface, the mold should be hot: usually 99121C (210250F). Figure 6 shows the effect of processing conditions on surface appearance. High mold temperatures significantly improve surface finish and mold filling and reduce surface blemishes (frosting) and small internal voids in thick sections. Oil heaters are sometimes necessary. Higher mold temperatures do not markedly increase the overall cycle because glass-reinforced Zytel nylons solidify rapidly. Also, because of their high temperature stiffness, glass-reinforced nylon parts can be ejected easily without deformation from hot molds. Uniform cavity surface temperature is a prerequisite, especially in multicavity molds, for good dimensional control of molded parts.

Cylinder Temperatures
Typical temperature profiles for the various glassreinforced Zytel nylon resins are given in Table 3. Rear cylinder temperatures as high as 299C (570F) should be used to: Improve screw recovery rates. Reduce damage to glass fibers. Reduce potential wear problems due to abrasion between unmelted particles and the screw or barrel. High rear cylinder temperatures will not cause any bridging problems. The higher temperatures also reduce torque loads on the screw, thus reducing screw stalling or damage at fast cycles.

Nozzle Temperature
When molding glass-reinforced Zytel nylon resins, the temperature of the recommended reverse-taper nozzle should be set between 275295C (530 560F). At times, however, nozzle temperatures must be increased to compensate for extremely cold molds in order to prevent premature freeze-off.

Table 3 Typical Melt and Cylinder Temperatures for Molding


Typical Cylinder Temperatures* GRZ Series 70G, 71G, 74G, 80G, 84G 72G 73G 77G 82G Rear 290300C (550570F) 270280C (520540F) 260275C (500530F) 280295C (540560F) 280295C (540560F) Center 275280C (530540F) 260265C (500510F) 250260C (480500F) 270275C (520530F) 270280C (520540F) Front 270275C (520530F) 260265C (500510F) 250260C (480500F) 265270C (510520F) 270280C (520540F) Typical Melt Temperatures 290305C (550580F) 270285C (520545F) 260280C (500540F) 280305C (540580F) 280295C (540560F)

*Rounded numbers are shown for both English and SI temperature ranges.

Figure 6.

Glass-Reinforced Zytel 70G Nylon Resins: Effect of Processing Conditions on Part Surface

Molding Cycle
The overall molding cycle of glass-reinforced Zytel nylon resins is often 1030% faster than cycles for unreinforced nylons because of the more rapid setup. An estimate of typical overall cycles for glass-reinforced Zytel nylon resins based on part thickness is given in Table 4.

Injection Rates
For placement onlyclient needs to supply photos For placement onlyclient needs to supply photos Fast fill rates (injection speeds) must be used because glass-reinforced Zytel nylon resins freeze more rapidly than unreinforced nylons. Poor surface finish (frosting) usually results from premature solidification. Too-slow fill rates usually produce a surface appearance (see Figure 6) that is frequently mistaken for either poor glass fiber dispersion or set resin (splay). Table 5 lists the minimum fill time before various sections freeze at the indicated conditions.

Table 4 Estimate of Overall Cycle Based on Part Thickness


Melt Temperature = 290C (550F); Mold Temperature = 100C (210F) Overall Cycle, sec Part Thickness, cm (in) 0.08 (1/32) 0.16 (1/16) 0.32 (1/8) 0.66 (1/4) 1.27 (1/2) Zytel 70G33/43 Zytel 71G33 68 1012 1520 3040 6075 Zytel 70G13 Zytel 71G13 810 1215 2025 3545 7590 Zytel 77G33/43 1012 1520 2530 4050 85100

Table 5 Recommended Maximum Fill Time for Optimum Surface


Melt Temperature = 290C (550F); Mold Temperature = 100C (210F) Part Thickness, cm (in) 0.08 (1/32) 0.16 (1/16) 0.32 (1/8) Recommended Fill Time, sec 0.5 2.0 3.0

Limited studies in a test mold have shown that the Zytel 71G resins exhibit easier mold release than the Zytel 70G resins.

Start-Up
Because glass-reinforced Zytel nylon is an excellent purge material, no special purging resins need be used prior to molding, provided the machine is relatively clean of previous material.6 The following start-up procedure is recommended: 1. Set the cylinder temperature to 27.8C (50F) below the minimum molding temperature and the nozzle at operating temperatures. Allow heat to soak in for at least 20 minutes. Raise cylinder temperature to the operating temperature (use Table 3 as a guide). 2. Check to see if nozzle is at temperature. 3. Jog screw. If screw will not rotate, allow longer soak time for cylinder temperatures. 4. When the screw begins to rotate, open feed slot briefly and then close. Check the load on the screw drive. If it is excessive, increase rear zone temperature. The nozzle must be open at this time. 5. Open feed slide and keep screw in forward position. Extrude melt and increase the front zone temperature if unmelted particles are seen. 6. Adjust stroke to approximate shot weight; take several air shots at the approximate overall cycle. The melt temperature should now be checked with a needle probe pyrometer. Make any adjustments to the cylinder temperatures necessary to get the recommended melt temperature. (This procedure should be repeated when a significant cycle change occurs.) 7. Bring injection cylinder forward. Start at low injection pressure (except where short shots will interfere with part ejection) and adjust molding variables for best part appearance (maximum shot weight). A fast fill will usually be required.

It is essential that adequate mold venting be provided to prevent burning.

Injection Pressure
The injection pressures necessary for glass-reinforced Zytel nylon resins will be higher than those used with unreinforced nylons. This is due to their higher melt viscosities.

Screw Speed
During the molding of glass-reinforced Zytel nylon resins, the screw speed (rpm) should be adjusted so that screw retraction is at least 75% of the available time for melting. Do not use higher speeds than necessary because excessive glass fiber breakage may occur.

Back Pressure
Unless the screw augers (i.e., does not pick up resin), no back pressure should be used in molding glass-reinforced Zytel nylon resins. Back pressure produces additional screw working, which can cause fiber breakage with some accompanying reduction in physical properties of the molded part.

Mold Release
Glass-reinforced Zytel nylon resins exhibit better mold release characteristics than do unreinforced nylons. The lubricant present in glass-reinforced Zytel nylon resins is normally adequate for part ejectability even in difficult cavities (as in helical gear cavities). When reinforced regrind is used with virgin material and, in a few instances, when greater ejectability seems indicated for a difficult part, 0.05 to 0.10% aluminum distearate5 (surfacecoated) has been found effective.

5 6

Product of Witco Chemical Corporation When purging thermally sensitive resins (acetals, PVC, etc.), a polystyrene or high-density polyethylene purge at lower temperatures is suggested to minimize gassing before glass-reinforced nylon is added.

Shutdown
The machine should be shut down with polystyrene or polyethylene, which cuts the time required for subsequent start-up and reduces problems of contamination. A suggested procedure: 1. Shut hopper feed slide while continuing to mold on cycle. 2. Empty hopper. Add a quantity of polystyrene or polyethylene. Extrude until the screw pumps itself dry. 3. Leave screw in forward position. 4. Shut down power supply.

Purging
Common purging materials that effectively remove glass-reinforced Zytel nylons are polystyrene, cast acrylic (the nozzle must be removed during purging), and high-density polyethylene (or glassreinforced PE, followed by HDPE). Glass-reinforced nylons can be purged effectively at temperature using the following procedure: 1. Retract screw injection unit from sprue bushing and keep the screw in the forward position. 2. Run the screw at high rpm and pump out as much of the material as possible. Add and extrude purge compound until it comes out clean. Cylinder temperatures may have to be adjusted depending on purge material used. 3. It is good practice to shoot several air shots at a fast injection rate to scrub walls of cylinder before switching to another resin. Take care not to splatter molten resin when you do this.

10

Section 4Handling Glass-Reinforced Resins


The precautions in handling glass-reinforced Zytel nylon are generally the same as for unreinforced nylon. Precautions for the latter are discussed in detail in Section 5 (Handling of Molding Resin) of the molding manual titled Molding DuPont Zytel Nylon Resins. A copy of this manual is available from your DuPont Plastics representative. Standard granular mixing equipment is suitable for cube-blending glass-reinforced Zytel nylon. For example, blending can be accomplished in tumble or roll blenders, cement mixers, etc. The use of proportional feeders (as would be used to add regrind) is also a convenient way to blend resins. When blending resins, keep atmospheric exposure to a minimum to avoid moisture pickup. Figure 8 is a guide for molding cube blends of Zytel 70G33 and Zytel 101. The figure illustrates how to vary the melt temperature at different glass loadings to maintain the same flow behavior for any blend. For example, a 20% glass cube blend of Zytel 70G33 and Zytel 101 could be molded at a lower melt temperature 293C (560F) than Zytel 70G33 302C (575F) and have the same melt flow.

Blending
The physical properties of cube blends have slightly lower values than the properties of the commercially available melt-blended products at the same glass loadings. For example, cube blends as compared to melt blends at a 13% glass content have 5 to 10% lower dry-as-molded values for such properties as tensile strength and flexural modulus. Similarly, cube blends have 15 to 20% lower values for these properties when measured at 100% RH. When blending is feasible, the glass content of the Zytel 70G series resins should be reduced with the appropriate unreinforced resins (see Table 1). A convenient guide for blending the 43% glassreinforced Zytel 70G series nylon resins to lower glass contents is given in Figure 7.

Figure 8.

Injection Molding of Blends

Zytel 101

Zytel 70G33

600
Melt Temperature, F

316
Melt Temperature, C

Figure 7.
100 90

Blending Guide

580 560 540 520 500 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 % Glass

304 293 282 271 260

Weight*, lb (kg) per 100 lb (kg) of Blend

80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

*43% Glass-Reinforced Zytel Nylon Resin in 100 lbs of Blend

Rework
(Note: Use compatible resins. See Table 1)

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

% Glass in Blend Example: For 66 nylon with 30% glass, blend 70 lb of ZYTEL 70G-43 with 30 lb of ZYTEL 101.

Figures 9 and 10 show how the maximum recommended level (25%) of rework will affect the dry tensile strength and notched izod properties of Zytel 70G33, as related to the number of passes through an injection-molding machine. The drop in properties is almost negligible. Higher rework loadings (particularly 100%) will reduce the glass fiber length in the molding, which results in a severe loss of strength. Thus, to prevent fiber damage and to retain maximum physical properties, it is essential that the addition of rework be kept as low as possible, preferably less than 25%. Rework
11

Figure 9.

Decrease in Tensile Strength versus Number of Passes through Machine

100
Initial Tensile Strength, %

98 96 94 92 90
Zytel 70G33 25% Rework 75% Virgin

should always be ground hot to minimize glass fiber breakage. In addition, grinder screens should have a hole size of at least 0.794 cm (516 in) or greater, and the cutting blades be kept sharp to reduce fines. Limited experience has shown that carbide-tipped blades exhibit good performance and durability.

Drying
Drying nylon rework is described in detail in the bulletins previously mentioned. The same precautions apply to glass-reinforced Zytel nylon resins. Thus, reground glass-reinforced Zytel nylon should be dried to less than 0.2% water prior to molding, especially if the resin is exposed to ambient conditions greater than 50% RH for more than two hours.

1 2 3 4 5 Number of Passes Through Machine

Figure 10. Decrease in Notched Izod versus Number of Passes Through Machine
100 98 96
Zytel 70G33 25% Rework 75% Virgin

Initial Notched Izod, %

94 92 90

1 2 3 4 5 Number of Passes Through Machine

12

Section 5Mold Design


Glass-reinforced Zytel nylon resins have been molded in a variety of molds. Insulated and hot runner molds are well suited to these materials. Stainless steel (.400 series) and flash chromed tool steel cavity inserts are effective (when part surface is important) in slowing the rapid freezing of the glass-reinforced Zytel nylon resins and often produce less frosting. Polished cavities improve the gloss and luster of molded parts. To facilitate the high injection rates necessary for good part surface, the channels within any mold should not restrict melt flow. deep (and as wide as feasible). These vents should have a short land, about 0.76 mm (0.03 in) and then be relieved to a depth of at least 0.76 mm (0.03 in) to the edge of the mold. Generous venting will also improve mold filling and weld strength. Mold flashing is seldom a problem because of the rapid freezing and higher melt viscosity of reinforced nylons.

Undercuts and Taper


Because of the low elongation of glass-reinforced nylons, undercuts greater than 3% should be avoided. A taper (draft) of 14 of 1 on ribs, bosses, sides, and sprues will be satisfactory.

Sprues and Runners


Sprues should be large: 0.714 to 0.873 cm (9321132 in diameter). Runners should be either full round or trapezoidal, with a minimum dimension of 0.794 cm (516 in). Length should be as short as possible to minimize rework. Runner layout should be balanced whenever possible and generously radiused for smooth and uniform melt flow.

Tolerances
Tolerances for parts molded of glass-reinforced Zytel nylon resins vary according to the complexity and wall thickness of the design. Although mold shrinkage of glass-reinforced Zytel nylon resins is significantly lower than for unreinforced nylon, predicting dimensional uniformity (see Section 6) can be more difficult. This will depend to a large degree on the glass fiber orientation in the part. Molded tolerances in glass-reinforced Zytel nylon resins tend to be a compromise between commercial tolerances and fine tolerances specified by the Society of the Plastics Industry for unreinforced nylon. Due to limited experience to date, Figure 11 (based on the SPI format) should be considered as a guide only.

Gates
All types of gates have been used successfully with glass-reinforced Zytel nylon resins. The location, size, and number of gates are important considerations. Tunnel gates can be used if the gate diameter is greater than 0.05 cm (0.020 in).7 Gate lands should be short; gate thickness should be at least 12 part thickness (23 is preferred). Gate location is extremely critical to minimize part distortion after molding because the fibers tend to orient in the direction of melt flow. Multiple gating can be used effectively to minimize glass fiber orientation in molded parts as well as reduce flow distance. Weld strength of glassreinforced Zytel nylon poses no particular problem when fast injection rates are used.

Wear
Experience to date indicates that wear can be minimized by properly hardened tool steel cavities, cores, runner systems, and sprue bushings. Cavities must be vented at welds to minimize heat-checking effects and possible pitting from high-temperature gas entrapment. Also, gates (blocks) are subject to considerable heat buildup and loss of hardness as a result of the fast injection rates used in processing glass-reinforced nylons. Tunnel gates can show evidence of weakness and should be checked periodically for erosion that can lead to undesirable projections and faulty subsprue ejection. Wear of softer materials of mold construction, e.g., beryllium copper, magnesium, or aluminum-based alloys (metals used for temporary tooling) appear to be adequate to withstand short prototype runs. A hard chrome plate of 0.0030.005 cm (0.0010.002 in) will usually improve wear characteristics of most mold steels and also prevent rusting.
13

Vents
Molds must be adequately vented to prevent localized burning and scorching of the molded part. Due to the fast fill rates required for good surfaces, cavity vents should be 0.0030.005 cm (12 mil)
7

Tunnel gates larger than 0.23 cm (0.090 in) diameter in three-plate molds will be difficult to break automatically due to high strength properties of glass-reinforced Zytel nylon.

Figure 11. A Guide to Tolerances of Glass-Reinforced Zytel Nylon Resins (As Molded)
Drawing Code Dimensions (Inches) 0.000 0.500 1.000 2.000 B = Depth (see Note #3) C = Height (see Note #3) 3.000 4.000 5.000 6.000 6.000 to 12.000 for each additional inch, add: D = Bottom Wall (see Note #3) E = Side Wall (see Note #4) 0.000 to 0.125 F = Hole Size Diameter (see Note #1) 0.125 to 0.250 0.250 to 0.500 0.500 & Over 0.000 & 0.250 G = Hole Size Depth 0.250 to 0.500 0.500 to 1.000 Draft Allowance per side (see Note #5) Flatness (see Note #4) 0.000 to 3.000 3.000 to 6.000 Internal External (T.I.R.) Plus or Minus in Thousands of an Inch 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28

A = Diameter (see Note #1 & #2)

A 0.003 0.004 P 0.004 0.002 0.003 0.003 0.004 0.003 Reference Notes 0.004 0.005 L F G D B J F C

1. These tolerances do not include allowance for aging characteristics of material. 2. Tolerances based on 1/8" wall section.

1/41

3. Parting line must be taken into consideration. 4. Part design should maintain a wall thickness as nearly constant as possible. Complete uniformity in this dimension is impossible to achieve. 5. These values should be increased whenever compatible with desired design and good molding technique. 6. Customer-Molder understanding necessary prior to tooling.

0.007 0.011 1 1 0.008

Thread Size (class) Concentricity (see Note #4) Fillets, Ribs, Corners (see Note #5) Surface Finish (see Note #6) Color Stability (see Note #6)

14

Section 6Mold Shrinkage


Mold shrinkage depends on the following factors: percent glass in the composition glass fiber orientation part thickness processing conditions be effective in producing more uniform shrinkage. Alternatively, by careful choice of gate location, it is possible to use the flow orientation effects of glass to advantage in controlling dimensions. Glass fiber orientation produces less shrinkage in the direction of flow than in the transverse (across the flow) direction. This is just the opposite of the anisotropic condition for unreinforced nucleated nylon resins. Shrinkages listed in Table 6 are intended as approximate guides for estimating mold shrinkage in the specified directions. The effects of part thickness and mold temperature on mold shrinkage are shown in Figure 12, 13, 14, and 15. For complicated precision parts, prototype molds (cavities) should be used to obtain more accurate dimensional data.

In general, linear mold shrinkage of glassreinforced Zytel ranges from 5090% less than that of unreinforced Zytel 101. Shrinkages of commercial glass-reinforced Zytel nylons are shown in Table 6. Tests show that mold shrinkage of these resins is affected by the same processing variables that influence unreinforced nylon, except that more anisotropic differences often occur: i.e., nonuniform volume changes due to specific orientation of the glass fibers. Multiple gating usually results in more random fiber orientation, which can

Table 6 Mold Shrinkage, %


Bar End-Gated 127 13 3.2 mm (5 12 18) Composition Zytel 70G13L Zytel 70G33L Zytel 70G43L Zytel 71G13L Zytel 71G33L Zytel 72G33L Zytel 72G43L Zytel 73G15L Zytel 73G30L Zytel 73G33L Zytel 73G45L Zytel 74G33L Zytel 77G33L Zytel 77G43L Zytel 8018 Zytel 80G33L Zytel 82G33L Zytel 84G33 Zytel 101L Length 0.40.5 0.10.2 0.10.2 0.50.6 0.20.3 0.10.2 <0.1 1.5 Disc Center-Gated 51 3.2 mm (2 18) Diameter 0.8 0.4 0.3 1.1 0.6 0.3 0.2 1.7 Plaque End-Gated 152 76 3.2 mm (6 3 18) Flow Length 0.6 0.4 0.3 0.7 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.4 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.9 0.4 0.2 0.3 1.7 Transverse Width 1.3 1.1 0.8 1.4 1.2 1.0 0.8 1.2 1.0 1.0 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.1 1.3 1.2 0.9 1.1 1.8

15

Figure 12. Mold Shrinkage versus Glass Content Thickness3.2 mm (0.125 in)
Melt Temperature, 555F (290C) Mold Temperature, 210F (100C) Mold, 3" 6" 0.125" Plaque (76 152 3.2 mm) 1.4
Zyte l 71 G

Figure 14. Mold Shrinkage versus Glass Content Thickness1.9 mm (0.075 in)
Melt Temperature, 555F (290C) Mold Temperature, 80F (27C) Mold, 3" 6" 0.075" Plaque (76 152 1.9 mm) 0.7 0.6

1.2
Mold Shrinkage, %

Transverse Direction

ZYy

tel

Zytel 71G

70G

1.0
Transverse Direction

Mold Shrinkage, %

0.5 0.4

Zytel 70G

0.8
Zy

Zyt

el

77G

tel

Zyte

l 7

0.6
Zyte

71

0.3 0.2 0.1

1G

Flow Direction

Zyte

l 70

0.4 0.2

l 70

Flow Direction

Zyte

l7

7G

10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 % Glass in Resin

10

15 20 25 30 % Glass in Resin

35

Figure 13. Mold Shrinkage versus Glass Content Thickness1.9 mm (0.075 in)
Melt Temperature, 555F (290C) Mold Temperature, 210F (100C) Mold, 3" 6" 0.075" Plaque (76 152 1.9 mm) 1.4 1.2
Mold Shrinkage, %
Zytel 71G

Figure 15. Mold Shrinkage versus Glass Content Thickness0.64 mm (0.025 in)
Melt Temperature, 555F (290C) Mold Temperature, 210F (100C) Mold, 3" 6" 0.025" Plaque (76 152 0.64 mm) 1.4 1.2

Zytel 71G

Transverse Direction

Transverse Direction

Zytel 70G

Mold Shrinkage, %

1.0 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2


Zyt

1.0
Zytel 70G

0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2


Zyte l 71 G

el

71G

Flow Direction

Zytel

Flow Direction

70G

Zytel 70G

10

15 20 25 30 % Glass in Resin

35

10

15 20 25 30 % Glass in Resin

35

16

Section 7Warpage
Warpage of parts molded from glass-reinforced Zytel nylon resins is usually caused by nonuniform shrinkage from changes in section thickness and from glass fiber orientation. The former can occur with unreinforced nylon. The latter results from the tendency of the glass fibers to align in the principal direction of melt flow. This fiber orientation results in anisotropic shrinkage: i.e., shrinkage differences in the flow and transverse directions, which can induce warpage of the part on cooling. Mold shrinkages, as shown in Table 6, are always lower in the flow direction and nearly the same as unreinforced nylons transverse to the direction of flow. Abrupt changes of melt flow that occur on filling the mold cavity will often randomize the distribution of fibers sufficiently to reduce any tendency to warp. For situations where this is not possible, multiple gating to break up the flow pattern along with selective placement (to impinge melt on cores), will often prove to be a simple and effective corrective action. Processing variables to reduce warping are listed in the Troubleshooting Guide in Section 8. Control of mold temperature and cavity heat balance are most important to minimize uneven cooling of any part prior to ejection. Careful design of part geometry is also essential, especially with regard to uniformity of wall thickness. Complicated shapes must be able to shrink without restraint; ribs on projections as well as coring of thick sections should always be considered to minimize local deformation. Optimum mold design should include center gating of round parts, full edge gating of thin rectangular or square shapes (less than 0.16 cm [116 in] thick), and end gating long flow parts. Use larger gates (approximately 50% larger) than for unreinforced nylons. In extremely difficult warpage cases, consult your local DuPont Engineering Polymers technical sales representative for assistance or alternate resin selection. In many situations, cubeblending to lower glass loadings (when possible from an end-use/design standpoint) will reduce warpage tendencies.

17

Section 8Troubleshooting Guide


Problem Suggested Remedies* Increase Injection Pressure Decrease Injection Pressure Increase Stock Temperature Decrease Stock Temperature Increase Holding Pressure and Time Increase Injection Speed Decrease Injection Speed Enlarge Nozzle Orifice Increase Mold Temperature Balance Mold Temperature Decrease Mold Temperature Increase Size of Gates Enlarge Mold Vents Dry Material Increase Feed Balance Mold Filling Starve Feed Use Multiple Gating Polish Mold Short Shots 2 6 4 2 3 6 5 3 5 2 4 2** 8 7 1 7 6 1 6 4 1 5 4 7 1 3 6 1 2 4 6 4 1 5 5 5 Burning Poor Surface Finish 3 Warpage 3 Voids in Part 3 Poor Weld Strength 2

*Suggested remedies should be tried in the numerical order indicated. **Surface appearance will worsen.

18

Section 9Summary of Variables Minimizing Screw, Mold, and Barrel Wear


To reduce equipment wear when processing glass-reinforced nylons, use the following recommendations.

Mold
Abrasion-resistant steels are recommended: AISI Types A-2, D-2, etc. For tunnel gates, inserts of these materials are recommended if the cavity is Type H13, L6, etc. All steel must be properly hardened and may be nitrided or chrome-plated to maintain a high-quality finish.

Barrel
Bimetallic liner necessary: e.g., Xaloy8 101 or equivalent (Xaloys 100 and 900 are satisfactory). Refurbished barrels should have full abrasionresistant lining.

Processing
1. Use suggested (high) rear zone temperatures to reduce resin drag in cylinder. 2. Use minimum screw rpm consistent with overall cycle. 3. Do not use back pressure. 4. Inspect check valve performance frequently. If unable to maintain pad (cushion) during injection, repair or replace ring sleeve and seat immediately. Severe screw wear usually follows a leaking check valve condition. 5. To reduce wear on tunnel gates or small edge gates, use gate inserts of abrasion-resistant materials.

Screw and Tip


Stress-relieved AISI 4140 steel. Hard-surface flight lands with Stellite9 (Alloy #6) or equivalent. Hard chrome-plate entire screw and tip after machining 0.0030.004 cm (0.0010.0015 in).

Check Valve
Nitralloy 135M 0.040.51 cm (0.0150.20 in) case for ring sleeve and seat to extend life.

8 9

Registerd trademark, Xaloy, Inc. Stellite Division, Cabot Corporation

Summary of Processing Variables Affecting Glass Fiber Length


To retain maximum glass fiber length and optimum physical properties in a molded part, the following molding conditions are recommended: high rear cylinder temperature minimum screw speed consistent with operating cycle little or no back pressure rework kept to less than 25% Note: For a more complete review, see Reinforced 66 NylonMolding Variables vs. Fiber Length vs. Physical Properties, SPE Journal, January 1969, Volume 25, pp. 6569.

19

Molding Data Record


Machine Setup Instructions Safety Check Nozzle # Temperatures, F Pressures, psi Cycle Times, sec Weights, g Special Instrumentation

Job

Mold Description

Operators

Screw Used

Engineers

Press No.

Run Number

Mold
Center Front Nozzle Fixed Movable Melt Injection 1st Stage Injection 2nd Stage Clamp, Tons Back Injection Hold Open Overall Booster Ram in Motion Screw Retraction Pad, in RPM Full Shot Part Only

Resin

Lot Number

Rear

Date Time

Remarks

20

Comments on Molding Operation, Startup, etc.

Page No.

Identity and Trademark Standards Guidelines for Customer UseJoint ventures and authorized resellers
Only joint ventures and resellers who have signed special agreements with DuPont to resell DuPont products in their original form and/or packaging are authorized to use the Oval trademark, subject to the approval of an External Affairs representative.

Guidelines for Customer UseAll other customers


All other customer usage is limited to a product signature arrangement, using Times Roman typography, that allows mention of DuPont products that serve as ingredients in the customers products. In this signature, the phrase, Only by DuPont follows the product name. Zytel only by DuPont or Zytel Only by DuPont

A registration notice or an asterisk referencing the registration is required. In text, Only by DuPont may follow the product name on the same line, separated by two letter-spaces (see above example). When a DuPont product name is used in text, a or a reference by use of an asterisk must follow the product name. For example, This device is made of quality DuPont Zytel nylon resin for durability and corrosion resistance.

*Zytel is a DuPont registered trademark.

Rev. August. 1995

d Zytel
nylon resin

Start with DuPont


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The data listed here fall within the normal range of properties, but they should not be used to establish specification limits nor used alone as the basis of design. The DuPont Company assumes no obligations or liability for any advice furnished or for any results obtained with respect to this information. All such advice is given and accepted at the buyers risk. The disclosure of information herein is not a license to operate under, or a recommendation to infringe, any patent of DuPont or others. DuPont warrants that the use or sale of any material that is described herein and is offered for sale by DuPont does not infringe any patent covering the material itself, but does not warrant against infringement by reason of the use thereof in combination with other materials or in the operation of any process. CAUTION: Do not use in medical applications involving permanent implantation in the human body. For other medical applications, see DuPont Medical Caution Statement, H-50102.

Printed in U.S.A. (Replaces: H-58631) Reorder No.: H-74550

(R 99.1)

DuPont Engineering Polymers