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Original Title: Digital Modulation Techniques

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Objectives:

1.

2.

3.

To determine the different types of digital modulation techniques To compare the performance of one digital modulation technique to another To explain the difference between probability of error and bit error rate

Digital Modulation

Objectives: To determine the different types of digital modulation 1. techniques To compare the performance of one digital modulation 2. technique to another 3. To explain the difference between probability of error and bit error rate

n n

Objectives: To determine the different types of digital modulation 1. techniques To compare the performance of one digital modulation 2. technique to another 3. To explain the difference between probability of error and bit error rate

Transmitting digital data through PSTN Modem is used to convert digital data to analog signal and vice versa

Objectives: To determine the different types of digital modulation 1. techniques To compare the performance of one digital modulation 2. technique to another 3. To explain the difference between probability of error and bit error rate

A. AMPLITUDE SHIFT KEYING (ASK) B. FREQUENCY SHIFT KEYING (FSK) * Binary FSK, MSK C. PHASE SHIFT KEYING (PSK) * BPSK, QPSK, 8-PSK, 16-PSK D. QUADRATURE AMPLITUDE MODULATION (QAM) * 8-QAM, 16-QAM

BIT RATE - rate of change at the input of the modulator BAUD RATE - rate of change at the output of the modulator

- the minimum bandwidth required to propagate a signal.

- the minimum bandwidth when modulation is used and a double-sided output spectrum is generated.

M-ary Encoding

- M is simply a digit that represents the number of conditions or combinations possible for a given number of variables. - with digital modulation, it is often advantages to encode at a level higher than binary.

- the simplest digital modulation technique - also called Digital Amplitude Modulation, On-off Keying (OOK) modulation, continuous wave (CW) - it is simply a double-sided, full carrier amplitude modulation where the input modulating signal is a binary waveform.

Where: Vask(t) amplitude shift keying waveform Vm(t) digital information (modulating signal, 1 or 0 A - amplitude of the unmodulated carrier, V c analog carrier angular frequency, rad/sec

1. BINARY FSK

- similar to FM except that the modulating signal is a binary pulse stream that varies between two discrete voltage levels rather than a continuously changing analog waveform. - has a poorer error performance than PSK and QAM - used to low performance, low cost, asynchronous data modems

FSK TRANSMITTER

Binary Digital input

F S K T R A N S M I T T E R

Analog-to-digital converter

FSK TRANSMITTER

- there is a change in the output frequency each time the logic condition of the binary input signal changes.

Binary 0 input 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0

Analog output fs fm fs fm fs fm fs fm fs fm fs

FSK MODULATOR

- Same as the FM modulators. -It is a voltage-controlled oscillators (VCO) - As the input binary signal changes from a logic 1 to a logic 0, and vice versa, the VCO output frequency shifts or deviates back and forth between the mark and space frequencies

Binary input

Objectives: To determine the different types of digital modulation 1. techniques To compare the performance of one digital modulation 2. technique to another 3. To explain the difference between probability of error and bit error rate FSK Analog Modulator Output (VCO)

Input

f=fb/2 f=fb/4 fm fs fm fs fm fs fs fm fm fs fs fs fm fs

Output

Where

time of one bit = tb = 1/fb mark frequency = fm space frequency = fs period of shortest cycle = T 1 fundamental frequency of binary square wave = 1/T 1 input bit rate = fb (bps)

FSK Baud Rate

The

rate of change of the FSK waveform is the same as the rate of change of the binary input (bps) Thus in Binary FSK, the bit rate is equal to baud rate

In

FSK, the minimum bandwidth is determine by frequency deviation () and input bit rate (fb)

Square

wave input takes a high and low to produce a cycle, the highest fundamental frequency present in the square wave equals the repetition rate of the square wave, which with a binary signal is equal to half the bit rate

The

MI = f / fa

Where MI = modulation index (unitless) f = frequency deviation (Hz) fa = modulating frequency (Hz)

(1)

Where

(2)

(fm fs ) / 2 = peak frequency deviation fb = input bit rate fb / 2 = fundamental frequency of the binary input signal

Analog FSK input

FSK RECEIVER

Phase comparator

Amp

* the dc error voltage at the output of the phase comparator follows the frequency shift

fm

fs

Analog input

+V -V 0V Binary output

a form of continuous-phase frequency shift keying (CPFSK) a binary FSK except that the mark and space frequencies are synchronized with the input binary bit rate It requires synchronizing circuit and is, therefore, more expensive to implement. Mark and space frequencies are selected such that they are separated from the center frequency by an exact odd multiple of one-half of the bit rate fm and fs = n(fb/2) where n is any odd integer

Logic 1

n

A form of angle-modulated, constant-amplitude digital modulation. It is similar to PM except that with PSK the input signal is a binary digital signal and a limited number of output phases are possible.

- two output phases are possible for a single carrier frequency. - the phase of the output carrier shifts between two angles that are 1800 out of phase. - phase reversal keying (PRK) - biphase modulation

BPSK TRANSMITTER

Binary input

Balanced modulator Bandpass Filter BPF

* For the balanced modulator to operate properly, the digital input voltage must be much greater than the peak carrier voltage. This ensures that the digital input controls the on/off state of diodes D1-D4.

BPSK WAVEFORM

Binary input

Logic 0 Logic 1

Output phase

180o 0o

(+90o) cos ct

- cos ct (-90o)

cos ct

+/-180o Logic 0

0o Reference Logic 1

- cos ct

* there is one change in phase at the output for every 1 data input bit.

Output = (sin at)

fundamental frequency of the binary modulating signal

(sin ct)

unmodulated carrier

Or

= cos (c a) t cos (c + a) t

n

fN = 2 ( fb/2) = fb

n

The minimum bandwidth (fN) required to pass the worstcase BPSK output signal is equal to the input bit rate.

BPSK RECEIVER

BPSK input

+/- sin c t Balanced modulator

LPF

sin c t

The coherent carrier recovery circuit detects and regenerates a carrier signal that is both frequency and phase coherent with the original transmit carrier. the balanced modulator is a product detector the LPF separates the recovered binary data from the complex demodulated signal

BPSK RECEIVER

At positive input, sinc t:

filtered out

Output = - V = logic 0

- Quadrature PSK - four output phases are possible for a single carrier frequency - the binary input data are combined into groups of 2 called dibits

QPSK Transmitter

Binary input data fb

+/- sin c t Balanced modulator sinc t QPSK output Linear Summer 90 o phase shift BPF

Input

I Q

Buffer

QPSK Transmitter

QPSK WAVEFORM

Binary Input

Q I Phase

-135

-45

135

45

the angular separation between any two adjacent phasors is 900. the QPSK signal can undergo almost a 450 shift in phase during transmission and still retain the correct encoded information when demodulated at the receiver.

Cos ct 90

10

11

- Sin ct 180

Sin ct 0

00 -C os ct 270

01

- one cycle in the I or Q channel takes the same amount of time as four input bits (fa = fb/4) - with QPSK, a bandwidth compression is realized (the minimum bandwidth is less than the incoming bit rate).

I Input data fb 1 Q 1 I 0 Q 1 I 1 Q 0 I 1 Q 0 I 1 Q 1 I 0

* there is one change in phase at the output for every 2 data input bits baud rate = (1/2) bit rate

QPSK Receiver

I Channel -sinct + cosct

Product detector

LPF

- V (logic 0)

sinct

BPF

QPSK signal

Product splitter

cosct

Rcvd

Binary data

Product detector

(cosct)(-sinct + cosct)

LPF

+ V (logic 1)

* The outputs of the product detectors are fed to the bit combining circuit, where they are converted from parallel I and Q data channels to a single binary output data stream.

QPSK Receiver

- sometimes called OKQPSK (offset-keyed QPSK) - the bit waveforms on the I and Q channels are offset or shifted in phase from each other by one-half of a bit time. - advantage: limited phase shift that must be imparted during modulation. - disadvantage: changes in the output phase occur at twice the data rate in either the I or Q channels. (baud and minimum bandwidth are twice that of conventional QPSK)

OQPSK Transmitter

- there are eight possible output phases - to encode eight different phases, the incoming bits are considered in groups of 3 bits, called tribits. (23 = 8)

8-PSK transmitter

I (in phase channel)

I-Channel

2-to-4 level converter

C PAM

Product modulator

fb/3

sinct

Input data fb

fb/3

Reference oscillator

cosct

8-PSK output

fb/3

_ C

Q-Channel

PAM

Product modulator

8-PSK transmitter

- the bit rate in each of the three channels is fb/3. - the I or Q bit determines the polarity of the output analog signal (logic 1 = +V and logic 0 = -V). - the C or bit determines the magnitude of the output analog signal (logic 1 = 1.307 V and logic 0 = 0.541 V). - the output of the 2-to-4 level converter is an M-ary, pulse amplitude modulated (PAM) signal where M = 4.

I and Q truth tables

PAM levels

Example:

For a tribit input of Q=0, I=0, and C=0 (0,0,0), determine the output phase for the 8-PSK modulator.

8-PSK WAVEFORM

Binary Input

GRAY CODE

C 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 Phase -112.5 -157.5 -67.5 -22.5 112.5 157.5 67.5 22.5 Q 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 I 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1

- sometimes called the maximum distance code - the tribit code between any two adjacent phases changes by only one bit. - this code is used to reduce the number of transmission errors.

The angular separation between two adjacent phasors is 450. an 8-PSK can undergo almost a 22.50 phase shift during transmission and still retain its integrity.

Cos ct 90 100

110

111 Sin ct 0

001

011

000

-C os ct 270

010

One cycle in the I, Q or C channel takes the same amount of time as six input bits. fa = fb/6 There is one change in phase at the output for every 3 data input bits. baud rate = (1/3) bit rate

8-PSK RECEIVER

I-channel

Product detector

4-level PAM

Analog-todigital converter

I C

8-PSK in

Power splitter

Carrier recovery

Parallel-to-serial converter 90 o

cosct _ C 4-level PAM

Q-channel

Product detector

- there are 16 possible output phases possible - a 16-PSK modulator acts on the incoming data in groups of 4 bits (24 = 16). - the output phase does not change until 4 bits have been inputted into the modulator. baud rate = (1/4) bit rate - the output rate of change (baud) and the minimum bandwidth are equal to one-fourth of the incoming bit rate (fb/4).

Bandwidth consideration

Q 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Q 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1

Binary Input I 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 I 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 Out put

P hase

11.25 33.75 56.25 78.75 101.25 123.75 146.25 168.75 191.25 213.75 236.25 258.75 281.25 303.75 326.25 348.75

Cos ct 90

0100 0101 0011 0010

0001

0110

- Sin ct 180

0111 0000

Sin ct 0

a 16-PSK signal can undergo almost a 11.250 phase shift during transmission and still retain its integrity

1000

1111

1001

1010

-C os ct 270

- type of digital modulation where the digital information is contained in both the amplitude and phase of the transmitted carrier.

- unlike 8-PSK, the output signal from an 8-QAM modulator is not a constant-amplitude signal.

8-QAM TRANSMITTER

- the incoming data are divided into groups of three bits (tribits): the I, Q and C bit streams, each with a bit rate equal to one-third of the incoming data rate. - the I and Q bits determine the polarity of the PAM signal at the output of the 2-to-4 level converters, and the C channel determines the magnitude. - the magnitudes of the I and Q PAM signals are always equal.

I-Channel

8-QAM TRANSMITTER

2-to-4 level converter

fb/3 fb/3 Input data fb sinct - PAM

Product modulator

Q I

Reference oscillator

Linear summer

fb/3 PAM

cosct

Q-Channel

Product modulator

Example:

For a tribit input of Q=0, I=0, and C=0(0,0,0), determine the output amplitude and phase for the 8-QAM modulator.

8-QAM WAVEFORM

Cos ct 90 101 111

000

010

001

-C os ct 270

011

- the bit rate in the I and Q channels is one-third of the input bit rate, the same as in 8-PSK. - the highest fundamental modulating frequency and fastest output rate of change in 8-QAM are the same as with 8-PSK. - the minimum bandwidth required for 8-QAM is fb/3, the same as in 8-PSK.

8-QAM RECEIVER

- The differences are the PAM levels at the output of the product detectors and the binary signals at the output of the ADC.

- there are 16 different output phases possible - the input data are acted on groups of four (24 = 16)

I I fb/4 fb/4

16-QAM TRANSMITTER

2-to-4 level converter

PAM

Balanced modulator

Q Q

Linear summer

fb/4 fb/4 Q Q

cosct

Balanced modulator

EXAMPLE:

For a quad bit input of I=0, I=0, Q=0, and Q=0 (0,0,0,0), determine the output amplitude and phase for the 16QAM modulator.

Cos ct 90

1101

1100

1110

1111

- Sin ct 180

1001

1000

1010

1011

Sin ct 0

0001

0000

0010

0011

0101

0100

0110

0111

-C os ct 270

Input data fb I 1 I 0 Q Q I 1 I 0 Q Q 1 0 1 0

Objectives: To determine the different types of digital modulation 1. techniques To compare the performance of one digital modulation 2. technique to another 3. To explain the difference between probability of error and bit error rate

I 1 I 0 Q 1 Q 0

Highest fundament al frequency I-channel data fb/4

I-channel data fb/4 I-channel PAM out + 0.821 V + 0.22 V - 0.22 V - 0.22 V

One cycle in the I, Q or C channel takes the same amount of time as eight input bits. There is one change in the output signal (either its phase or amplitude) for every 4 data input bits.

I-channel balanced modulator out - 0.821 sinct + 0.22 sinct - 0.821 sinct

Bandwidth Efficiency

n n

sometimes called information density Used to compare the performance of one digital modulation technique to the other. It is the ratio of the transmission bit rate to the minimum bandwidth required for a particular modulation scheme

Mathematically

n

Carrier Recovery

The process of extracting a phase-coherent reference carrier from a received signal. sometimes called phase referencing Its function is to produce a carrier at the receiver that is phase coherent with the transmit reference oscillator

n n

Carrier Recovery

1. 2. 3.

1. Squaring loop

Carrier Recovery

- The received BPSK waveform is filtered and then squared. - The filtering reduces the spectral width of the received noise. - The squaring circuit removes the modulation and generates the second harmonic of the carrier frequency. - The VCO output frequency from the PLL is then divided by 2 and used as the phase reference for the product detectors.

Carrier Recovery

and

2. Costas Loop

Carrier Recovery

- also called quadrature loop - produces the same as a squaring circuit - uses two parallel tracking loops (I and Q) simultaneously to derive the product of the I and Q components of the signal that drives the VCO - once the frequency of the VCO is equal to the suppressed carrier frequency, the product of the I and Q signals will produce an error voltage proportional to any phase error in the VCO

3. Remodulator

Carrier Recovery

- produces a loop error voltage that is proportional to twice the phase error between the incoming signal and the VCO signal - has a faster acquisition time than either the squaring or the Costas loop

Differential PSK

Differential phase shift keying n an alternative form of digital modulation where the binary input information is contained in the difference between two successive signaling elements rather than the absolute phase. n a received signaling element is delayed by one signaling element time slot and then compared to the next received signaling element. n the difference in the phase of the two signaling elements determine the logic condition of the data.

Differential PSK

Differential phase shift keying - advantages: simplicity no carrier recovery circuit is needed - disadvantage: it requires 1 and 3 dB more S/N ratio to achieve the same bit error rate as that of absolute PSK

Data input

DBPSK Transmitter

Balanced modulator

sinct DPSK output

1-bit delay

Input data

0 reference bit

0 180 o

1 0o

1 0o

1 0o

1 0o

1 0o

DBPSK Receiver

DBPSK input

Balanced modulator

Recovered data

1-bit delay

(+sinct) (+sinct) = + - cos 2ct (-sinct) (-sinct) = + - cos2ct (-sinct) (+sinct) = - + cos2ct

0o

0o

0o

180 o

0o

180 o

180 o

180 o

0o

0o

Clock Recovery

- to regenerate precise timing or clock synchronization between the transmitter and the receiver.

The recovered data are delayed by one-half a bit time and then compared with the original data in an XOR circuit.

Clock Recovery

- notice that as long as the receive data contains a substantial number of transitions (1/0 sequences), the recovered clock is maintained. - but if the receive data were to undergo an extended period of successive 1s or 0s, the recovered clock would be lost. - to prevent this from occurring, the data are scrambled at the transmit end and descrambled at the receive end. - Scrambling introduces transitions (pulses) into the binary signal using a prescribed algorithm, and the descrambler uses the same algorithm to remove the transitions.

Probability of error P(e) - a theoretical (mathematical) expectation of the bit error rate for a given system. Bit error rate (BER) - an empirical (historical) record of a systems actual bit error performance.

Example n if a system has a P(e) = 10-5: - mathematically, you can expect one bit error in every 100,000 bits transmitted. (1/100,000) n if a system has a BER = 10-5: - in the past, there was one bit error for every 100,000 bits transmitted. - A BER is measured, then compared with the expected P(e) to evaluate a systems performance.

P(e) is a function of: - carrier-to-noise power ratio (C/N) or more specifically the average energy per bit-to-noise power density ratio (Eb/No) - the number of possible encoding conditions used (Mary)

Carrier-to-noise power ratio C/N = C/KTB

where

(unitless ratio)

C = carrier power (W) N = noise power (W) K = Boltzmanns proportionality constant (1.38 x 10-23 J/K) T = Temperature (Kelvin: 0 Kelvein = -273oC, room temperature = 290 K) B = Bandwidth (Hz)

In dB,

Energy per bit

Eb = CTb (J/bit)

Where: Eb = energy of a single bit (J/bit) T b = time of a single bit (s) C = carrier power (W) In dBJ Eb = 10 log Eb Since T b= 1/fb Eb = C/fb In dBJ Eb = 10 log (C/fb)

Eb = 10 log C 10 log fb

Noise power density

No = (N/B) where: No = noise power density (watts per hertz) N = thermal noise power (watts) B = bandwidth (hertz) No(dBm) = 10 log N(dBm) 10 log B No = (KTB)/B = KT No(dBm) = 10 log (K/0.001) + 10 log T

Energy per bit-to-noise power density (Eb/No) - used to compare two or more digital modulation systems that use different transmission rates (bit rates), modulation schemes (FSK, PSK, QAM), or encoding techniques (M-ary). Eb/No = (C/fb)/(N/B) = (C/N)(B/fb) Eb/No (dB) = 10 log (C/N) + 10 log (B/fb)

The P(e) for the various multiphase digital modulation is directly related to the distance between points on a signal state-space diagram.

Where: d = maximum separation D = power level VS = signal vector VN = noise vector VSE = signaling element

Threshold point (for PSK):

The higher the level of modulation, the smaller the angular separation signal points and the smaller the error distance.

Error rates of PSK modulation scheme

For a large numbers of signal points (M>4), QAM outperforms PSK. This is because the distance between signaling points (d) in a PSK is smaller than the distance points in a comparable QAM system. Maximum distance between signaling points:

Bit error probability of l-level QAM:

Error rates of QAM modulation scheme

Probability of error for noncoherent FSK

Error rates of FSK modulation scheme

n

n n

Encoding technique used to achieved data transmission rates in excess of 56 kbps over standard telephone channels. developed by Dr. Ungerboeck at IBM Zuerich Research Laboratory. It is thought of a coding scheme that improves on standard QAM.

n

it combines encoding and modulation to reduce the probability of error, thus improving the bit error performance. fundamental idea is introducing controlled redundancy which reduces the likelihood of transmission errors. can improve error performance by restricting the manner in which signals are allowed to transition.

Trellis Encoding

32-Point QAM TCM constellation n The first TCM system used a five-bit code which include four QAM bits and a fifth bit used to help decode the quadbit. n It uses four amplitudes and eight phases to produce the 32 discrete signal states.

Trellis Encoding

One-fourth of a 960-point QAM TCM constellation A 3200 baud signal using nine bit TCM encoding produces 512 different codes. The nine data bits plus a redundant bit for TCM encoding requires a 960-point constellation. The full superconstellation can be obtained by rotating the 240 point shown by 00, 900, 1800, and 2700.

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