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fX{fdsmth SEEDS

AGERATUM
FierdsrM,

Tycoonru

,,...,..3 ...,....4
..........6

PANSY
ColossusrM,

Mammothr\

AQUILEGIA BEGONIA
Bada@,

Deltarn,Karmaru,Mariposaa[,

Skyrm,.

...

,. ,.. ,32

....33

OrigamirM.

PENSTEMON PENTAS

Pinacoladaru

...,,U ,........35
Hunahrv, PrimeTimerl ,,
.,,..

Go-GorM
CAMPANULA

SfarlarM.
PETUNIA
FrosfrM, SformrM, Bravorn, Ultrarv,

lsabellarv

.........7 .,...,..g ...,,...g

.36

CINERARIA
Veneziarv,

Jesfer@.

PETUNIATRAILING
Plusl,'Rarhblin'ru Picobilar['

..

.....97 .....J6 ......39 ,,,,,,..40


.

CLEOME

SparklerrM

PETUN MINIATURE

CYCLAMEN
Midorirv, Miracleru, SilverHear[, Silveradoru, Cntorw,
LaserrM, , SferlrngrM., GoroerlbrM. SforarM, Siry?e SvnchrtrrMSterlingtu GonoerlbrM, SlenarM, Siera SzrcrorM, RainistMt,Wn@l@tu

PLATYCODON

MissTiilyr"
Primeratu

PRIMULAACAULIS
Orion@,

DAHLIA
FrescorM,

Harlequinr[,HellolrM

....,,..,.12 .......13
.

PRIMULA OBCONICA
Embracer, Graceru,

DIANTHUS
BarbarinP, Charms*, Dlabundarv, Dulce^, Elation^, Fandango'", Superpartai{

Librer[.

.. . .41

RANUNCULUS
Machtv,

Magicn

.....,..42

DIGITALS

CamelotrM

... .. ,14

RUDBECKIA SALVIA

TigerEye.
Picantet, Fuegoru,

........43
SalsarM ......44 .....,,.45 .,,..,,,..46

Cinderellaru,TwinklerM.. Lizzyr* PIumerM


GAZANIA
Gazootu, KrbsrM, Blg

EUSTOMA

.,. .. , ...15 .... .. . ..,16

GAILLARDIA

SCHIZANTHUS

,...,...,17
KlSsrM
M u lti bl

Atlantisru

SNAPDRAGON

Aromasr,Arrowrv...,

..,...1g
oomru, Orb itru,

GERANIUM
B u I ls Eyer M, E I

BellsrM, Ch i mesru, Little Darlingr[, Montegoru, Coronetterr, La Bellar, Liberty Classicru, Madame Butterflyt[, Ribbonr[ . . , . . .47

Tornadorv JaguarrM.
GERBERA

ter[, M av eri c kr[, P i ntor[, OrbitSynchroru, Ringo 2OOO|M.

.......,..1g ,..,...20 ........22

SNAPDRAGON CUT FLOWER


Opuslll/lWu,Overture

llt[....

....49 .....49

SUNFLOWER TORENIA

Constellationr

HELIOTROPE
Blue Wonderr

DuchessrM
VERBENA
OsessronrM,
3OOOIM,

..,....51 ,.........52 .......59


..
..

IMPATIENS

Jambalaya@,Xtremerv. SfarshlnerM
MARIGOLD LAURENTIA

Accentru, Shimmer@, Bitz

Tuscany9

Mosaicr[, Victorianr[,

..........25 .,....26 ..,,.27


., . ...29

VINCA

Cora@,SunSorm@,SunDressrM,SunGlown

VINCATRAILING
Cora@ CascaderM,

SunSower

.i4
.56

Antiguarv, Inca llru, Lu nacyrM, Moonsongtl, Moonstruclp,

Perfectionrv,

VIOLA

Medallionr\
NICOTIANA

MELAMPODIUM

PennytM,Rockyru Patiola@.
Endurio@,

.,.,..5S
........

ZINNIA
Magellanrv, Slorf SfutFM, Swizzlerv, lJproarrv, Zowielrn . . . . . . . . . . 5g

SarafogarM.
ORNAMENTAL PEPPER

..,...2g ......30 ....,,..,,91

.ANNUALS: GUIDELINES AND

SCHEDULES............

oe 63

Explosiveru .

OSTEOSPERMUM
AsirM

GLOSSARY

....

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ithseeds.com

Fie!dsrM , TycoonrM
AGERA
T U M IlOUS TO N IAN U M Minimum Germination Rafe.'Fields 90%, Tycoon 85%

GROWING ON
Transplant Ready; 5 - 6 weeks from sow in a '288'tray. Finish Bulking/Flower Initiation: Optimum conditions during the vegetative period, beginning at transplant, needed for the root to reach the edge of the containerAND to make the plant receptive to flower initiation.

Seed Product Form.'Pelleted, raw

FI-OWERING
Time frame when planb are receptive to flower initiaon; Days 10

2-4leavespresent.

14;

Flowering lype.' Facultative long-day plant - long days enhance flowering. Specific Flowering Mechanism.'Ageratum is an irradiance indifferent plant.
Maturity and daylength have the biggest influence on flowering.

Media:. pH: 5.8 - 6.2 . EC: 1 - 1.2 Leaf necrosis may indicate sodium toxicity. Light: Provide 2,500 - 3,500 foot candles (12 - 15 total mols or 25,000

PLUG CUI-TURE
Germination: Optimum conditons for seedling development that begins the day
the crop is sown until cotyledon expansion. Expect radicle emergence in 2

- 35,000 lux) to hasten flower induction. Supplemental lighting under low light conditions at 350 - 450 foot candles (35,000 - 45,000 lux) will enhance shoot and root growth. Light levels <2,500 foot candles (25,000 lux) will delay flowering. Rinse nutrients off leaves if light intensity exceeds 3,000 foot candles (30,000 lux).
Temperatare:60"

65'F (15'- 18'C) nights; 70' -75'F (21'* 24'C) days.

5 days.

Moisture: Alternate between moisture levels wet (4) and medium (2). Allow media to approach level (2) before re-saturating to level (4). Brown leaf edges
indicate excessive drying.

Coyer No covering over the seed is required. Media:. pH: 5.5 - 5.8 . EC: <0.75

Humidity:40 -70%
fertilizer.

Fertilizers: Feed weekly at 150 - 200 ppm nitrogen using a calcium-based

Ligf

Light is necessary for germination. lf utilizing a chamber, providing a light source of 10 - 100 foot candles (100 - 1,000 lux) will improve germination and reduce stretch.

Moisture: Saturated (5) from day


6

- 15, lower moisture


-

level to moist (3).

5 or until radicle emergence. On days

Growth Regulators: lf needed, I - 2 applications of B-Nine (daminozide) at 2,500 - 5,000 ppm will control growth. Also responds to A-Rest (ancymidol), Bonzi (paclobutrazol), Sumagic (uniconazol) or a B-Nine/Cycocel (chlormequat chloride) tank mix.

Humidity:100% until radicle emergence then reduce to 40%.


Temperature:72"
temperatures to 65'

TECHNIQ{JES TO ENhIANCE POST HAR\IEST SUALITY


When to Treat:
1

8' PIug Bulking/Flower lnitiation: Optimum conditions during the vegetative


70"F
(1

-75"F (22'-23'C)

until radicle emergence, then reduce 21'C) until cotyledons appear.

2 weeks prior to finish or shipping.

period, beginning at cotyledon expansion, needed for the root to reach the edge of the plug cell AND to make the plant receptive to flower initiation.

Growth Regulators: B-Nine at 2,500 - 3,000 ppm. Feilizer: Potassium nitrate at 150 ppm nitrogen
Common Diseases; Botrytis Blight, Rhizoctonia, Fusarium, Pythium Common Pesfs; Thrips, Aphids, Whitefly

Media:. pH: 5.5 . EC:


(25,000 lux
<1

5.8

PRODI..'CT

Lrghf; Ageratum is a day-neutral crop. Provide 2,500

I.JSE
containers,

GARDEN SPECIFICATIONS

30,000 lux).

3,500 foot candles

Temperature:62'- 68"F (17' -20'C) beginning day


Average Daily Temperature (ADT):67'F (19'C).

16.

Light: Parlial sun to full sun border edgings IJSDA Hardiness Zone: 10 Fields.' Packs, pots, containers, mass AHS Heat Zone: 12 - 1
plantings, add height for interest

Tycoon: Packs, pots,

Moisfure.'Alternate between moisture levels wet (4) and medium (2). Allow
media to approach level (2) before re-saturating to level (4). Brown leaf edges may indicate excessive drying.
14

Humidity:40% Dehumidify: Provide horizontal airflow to aid in drying down the media through
evapotranspiration, allowing better penetration of oxygen to the roots.

- 16" (35 - 40 cm) 6-8"(15-20cm)

12

14' (30

35 cm)

6-B"(15-20cm)

Feilizers: lnitially feed at 50

- 75 ppm nitrogen with a calcium-based fertilizer (13-2-13 ot 14-4-14). Under high light conditions, an ammonium-based feed (17-5-17) can be used. lncrease feed to 100 ppm nitrogen as seedlings mature.
Growth Regulafors.' lf needed, apply B-Nine (daminozide) at 2,500 ppm. lt can be applied after the first true leaves have developed. Asecond application can be made at 5,000 ppm once a full stand is established to hold the plugs until transplant.

AGERATUM SCHEDULING IN WEEKS


Total crop time

12-14 I

10-12

5-6,

'288'plug crop time


Transplant to finish crop time Packs

5-6,
1 week earlier

week earlier in late spring.

in late spring.

6-7

4" crop 6" crop

7-8 8-9

5-6 6-7
N/A

Alcfe: Ihese sriggesllns are only Euideltnes and may have to be allerd t meet individua! grower s lds. Check all chemical labe/s to verify reEistratian far use in
yLtr reg!n.

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0r'lgamrM
A8A'LEGIA
M in im u m Germ

CAE{1 ULEA

ination Rate : 85o/o

Finish Bulking; Optimum conditions during the vegetative period, beginning at transplant, needed for the root to reach the edge of the container.

Seed Product Form.'Raw

Media: . pH: 5.5 - 5.8

.EC:1-1.2

FLCIWER!NG
Time frame when planla are receptive to flower initiation:4

6 leaves present.

Flowering Type.' Facultative long-day plant - long days enhance flowering. Specific Flowering Mecanism; A vernalization treatment is needed to initiate flowering. Origami can be vernalized once the plugs have established root systems and are at least 6 - 8 weeks old. Light intensity enhances flowering.

Lrghf.' Provide 3,500 - 4,500 foot candles (12 - 15 total mols or 35,000 - 45,000 lux) to hasten flower induction. Supplemental lighting under low light conditions at 350 - 450 foot candles (35,000 - 45,000 lux) will enhance shoot and root growth.

Temperature: After crop has been vernalized, night temperatures may be increased to 60" - 65"F (16'- 18'C). Coolertemperatures are tolerated but will increase the final crop time. Keep day temperatures cool. High night temperatres will negate the vernalizing process and reduce uniformity to flower.

PLUG EULTURE
Germination: Optimum conditions for seedling development that begins the day the crop is sown until cotyledon expansion. Expect radicle emergence in 6 - 8 days.
Seed Handling: No special treatments are needed prior to sowing. Chilling the seed prior to sowing is not advisable. lt may be desirable to double sow larger plug trays.

Average Daily Temperature (ADT): Afler vernalization ADT is 65'

(18'-

1e'C).

67'F

Morsfure; Alternate between moisture levels wet (4) and medium (2). Allow media to approach level (2) before re-saturating to level (4).

Dehumidify: Provide horizontal airflow to aid in drying down the media through
evapotranspiration, allowing better penetration of oxygen to the roots.

Cover No cover is necessary. However, seeds may be covered with a thin layer of coarse vermiculite to maintain moisture levels.
Media: . pH: 5.5 . EC: 0.5
Lrghf; Light is necessary for germination. lf utilizing a chamber, providing a light source of 10 - 100 foot candles (100 - 1,000 lux) will improve germination and
reduce siretch.

5.8

Fertilizers: Aquilegia is a moderate feeder. Alternate between potassium and calcium-based fertilizers at 150 - 200 ppm nitrogen as needed. Under cool weather conditions, avoid ammonium-based fertilizers that may encourage root rot problems and excessive vegetative growth or stretching. Excessive phosphorus will promote stretching.

Growth Regulafors; lf necessary Origami will respond to B-Nine (daminozide) at 2,500 ppm. PGRs are more effective in the early stages of production.
Finish Flower tnitiation: Optimum conditions to make plani receptive to flower
initiation.

Temperature:70" -72"F (21'

-22'C)
(2).

Moisture:Wet(4) until radicle emergence. Then reduce moisture level to medium

Humidity:100% until radicle emergence then reduce to 70%. Dehumidify: Provide horizontal airflow to aid in drying down the media through
evapotranspiration, allowing better peneiration of oxygen to the roots.

Temperature: Locate plants in a cool area where they will not freeze for 14 - 21 days. The upper temperature threshold for proper vernalization is 40" - 50'F (5' - 10"C). Plants will grow slower at lower temperatures. lf plants turn purple, temperatures are too low. Average Daily Temperature (ADT): After vernalization ADT is 65" (18" - 1e'C).

Plug Bulking: Optimum conditions during the vegetative period, beginning at cotyledon expansion, needed for the root to reach the edge of the plug cell. Media: . pH: 5.5 5.8

67'F

. EC: 0.5 - 0.75 Temperature:65' - 68'F

TECHNIQUES TO ENHAf.CE POST HARVEST QUALITY


When to Treat:
1

(1

8"

20"C)

2 weeks prior to flnish or shipping.

Moisfure.'Alternate between moisture levels moist (3) and medium (2). Allow media to approach level (2) before re-saturating to level (3).

Feilizer: Calcium nitrate at 1 50 ppm nitrogen. A calcium chloride spray at 150 ppm
nitrogen applied one week prior to shipping may discourage flower drop in shipment. Com mon Drlseases.' Powdery Mildew

Humidity: 65 - 70%. Provide horizontal airflow to aid in drying down the media
through evapotranspiration under cool, low light conditions.

Common Pesfs.' Spider Mites, Aphids

Fertilizers: 50 fertilizer (13-2-13 or 144-14). Lighf.' Provide 3,500

100 ppm nitrogen weekly or as needed with a calcium-based

PRODUCT

USE
mass spring has

GARDEI'{ SPECIFIEATONS
Lrgtrt; Filtered shade to full sun USDA Hardiness Zone:4 I AHS Heat Zone: I - 1

Ptg Ftower Initiatbn; Optimum conditions to make plant.receptve to flower iniiiation.

- 4,500 foot candles (12 - 1 5 total mols or 35,000 - 45,000 lux) to hasten flower induction. Supplemental lighting under low light conditions at 350 - 450 foot candles (35,000 - 45,000 lux) will enhance shoot and root growth.
temperatures than otherAquilegia. This is an advantage for Southern growers.

Temperature: Maintain night temperatures within 40' - 50'F (5" - 10'C) for 14 - 21 days. Bred in Gilroy, CA, Origami is more tolerant of higher vernalization

Packs, pots, containers, plantings. Traditionally a blooming perennial, Origami been bred for an extended bloom window that will increase its value in the landscape.

Average Daly Temperature (ADT): After vernalization ADT is 65' (18'- 1e'C).
14-4-14).

67'F

Origami

14

16" (35

40 cm)

10

14'(25

35 cm)

Fertilizers: 100 ppm nitrogen as needed of a calcium-based fertilizer 13-2-13 or Growth Regulafors; lf necessary, Origami will respond to B-Nine (daminozide) at 2,500 ppm. PGRs are more effective in the early stages of production. Fungicides: Apply preventative fungicides for Botrytis prior to vernalization.

A8T,ILEGIA SCI"IEDULING IN WEEKS


Total crop time 20
9

-24

'288'plug crop time


Transplant to finish crop time Vernalization in finish
2

- 10

GRCIWING ON
Origami's unique habit easily adapts to a variety of container sizes. Suitable for packs and larger containers, Origami naturally adjusts to finish habit to flt proportionally into whatever container you choose - without the use of growth
regulators"

container 4" crop

3.

Awell established root system is required


before plants are vernalized.

9-11

Transplant Ready:

I-

10 weeks from sow in a '288' tray.

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Bada@u

varsityrM

n Eu

rekarM,

ffi

aymcr

rM,

trave*reart@o
- 1.75

vol

u rur

iaru

8 E8 A N IA S E M P ERFI OREi{S Minimum Germination Rae.'Bada, Volumia 90%, Varsity, Eureka, Bayou,
Braveheart 85% Seed Product Form.' Pelleted, raw (Bayou pelleted only)

Media: . pH: 5.5 - 5.8


. EC: 1.5
Lrgh; Provide 3,500 - 4,500 foot candles (12 - 20 total mols or 35,000 -45,000 lux) to hasten flower induction. Supplemental lighting under low light conditions at 350 - 450 foot candles (35,000 - 45,000 lux) will enhance shoot and root growth.

FLCIl&'ERNNG
Time frame when plants are receptive to flower initiation.' Days 28

4-6leavespresent. Flowering lype; Day-neutral plant - will flower regardless of daylength.


temperatures encourage
fl

35;

Temperature: 68' - 70'F (20" - 21'C) nights, 64" - 67' (1 8" - 1 9'C) days for 1 4 days or until roots have reached the bottom of the container. Then temperatures may be lowered to 62" - 65"F (16' - 18"C) day and night. Average Daily Temperature (ADT):67"F (19'C) Moisfure; Alternate between moisture levels wet (4) and medium (2). Allow soil to reach level (3) before re-saturating to (4). Humidity:4O% - 7%. Provide horizontal airflow to aid in drying down the media through evapotranspiration, allowing better penetration of oxygen to the roots.

Specific Flowering Mechanism.' Light intensity will trigger flowering. Warm


ower development.

PLUG CULTIJRE
Germination: Optimum conditions for seedling development that begins the day the crop is sown until cotyledon expansion.
Expect radicle emergence in 6

8 days.
is required.

Coyer No covering overthe seed


Media: . pH: 5.5 - 5"8
. EC:
<1

- 150 ppm nitrogen. Under high light conditions, apply an ammonium-based feed (17-5-17). Under low light conditions, apply a calcium-based feed (144-14). Under high light and long or extended days, an ammonium-based feed (20-10-20) is preferred. Watch for low calcium and magnesium levels, which may result in stunted, chlorotic plants with marginal leaf bum.
Fertilizers: Feed at 100 Growth Regulafors; lt is best to control growth through moisture, feed and temperature management. lf needed, spray Cycocel (chlormequat chloride) two weeks after transplant at 500 - 1,000 ppm. Also responds to B-Nine (daminozide), A-Rest (ancymidol), or B-Nine/Cycocel tank mix. TECT,{}IQUES TCI EilI{ANCE POST I.IARVEST AUAL'TY When to Treat: 1 - 2 weeks prior to finish or shipping. Fertilizer: Potassium nitrate drench at 100 ppm nitrogen.
Common Drbeases.' Botrytis (apply preventative fungicides when long periods of low sunshine and high humidity occur) Common Pests: Aphids, Thrips

Lighf; Light is not necessary for germination. lf utitizing a chamber, providing a


light source of 10 - 100 foot candles (100 - 1 ,000 lux) will improve germination and reduce stretch compared to seed germinated in the dark.

Temperature:72"

-78"F (22" -26'C)

day and nightfrom day 1

11.

Moisture: Level saturated (5), from days 1 - I I . Beginning day '1 2, reduce moisture level to wet (4), until day 15. Afterward, begin alternating between moisture level wet (4) and moist (3).

Humidity:100% until day 10. Dehumidify: On day 11, lower humidity level to 40%. Provide horizontal airflow
to aid in drying down the media through evapotranspiration, allowing better penetration of oxygen to the roots.

PRODUET

LISE
mass baskets
I

GARDEI{ SPECNFIEATIOT.IS
Light: Partial shade to full sun
USDA Hardiness Zone: AHS Heat Zone: 12 - 1
':.

Fertilizers: Mainiain EC at <1. Fertigation water should not be greater than an EC of 0.5. PIug Bulking/Flower lnitiation: Optimum conditions during the vegetative
period, beginning at cotyledon expansion, needed for the root to reach the edge of the plug cell AND to make the plant receptive to flower initiation.

Packs, pots, containers, plantings, beds, hanging

11

Media: . pH: 5.5 - 5.8


. EC: 1.25

Bada Varsity Eureka

8o

0" (20 0" (20

1.5

Lrgh: Provide 3,500 - 4,500 foot candles (12 - 20 total mols or 35,000 - 45,000 lux) to hasten flower induction. Supplemental lighting under low light conditions at 350 - 450 foot candles (35,000 - 45,000 lux) will enhance shoot and root growth.

25 cm) 25 cm)

6-8"(15-20cm) 6-B"(15-20cm)

Bayou
Bravehea7 Volumia

Temperature: 68'

70'F

(2O"

- 21"C) night and day.

Moisfure.'Alternate between moisture levels wet (4) and moist (3). Allow media to approach level (3) before re-saturating to level (4). Watch for excess algae growth. Using R/O (Reverse Osmosis) water will help reduce algae levels. Fertilizers: Under high light conditions, apply an ammonium-based feed (17-5-17) at 50 - 100 ppm nitrogen. Under low light conditions, apply a calcium-based feed (144-14 or 14-2-14) at 50 - 100 ppm
nitrogen.

- 12" (24 - 30 cm) 14 - 16" (35 - 40 cm) 14 - 16" (35 - 40 cm) 12 - 14" (30 - 35 cm)
9

7-9'(15-20cm)

- 12" (25 - 30 cm) - 12" (25 - 30 cm) 12 - 14" (30 - 35 cm)


10 10

BEGONIA SCHESTJLING IN WEEKS


,.'.:

Growth Reguraors.' Control growth with light, temperature, moisture and fertilizer levels. Fungicides: Scout for Botrytis in plug growth stages. lf needed, apply
fungicides according to label directions.

Total crop time '288' plug crop time

11-13
8

12-14

13 7

-15

12-14
8

12-14
7

14

7-8
4-5 5-6 5-7 7-8

-8

-8
Not

7-8 4-5 5-6 5-7 7 -8

Transplant to finish crop time Packs

GROWING Oi, Transplant Read

4-5
5-6
EA

5-6 6-7 6-B 8-9

4-5
5-6 5-7
N/A

recommended

8 weeks from a '288' plug tray.

4" crop
6" crop*

Finish Bulking/Flower Initiation: Optimum conditions during the vegetative period, beginning at transplant, needed for the root to reach the edge of the container AND to make the plant receptive io flower initiation. die. Iirese srgges{ins /e only griCernes a nd may have t* be altered t{} mer! i]'Ji{idua{ grsw+rs needs. Check eli chemicel lareis Ir verify registral.*n far use
rn

5-6 5-7
7-B

l0" Hanging basket

7-8

.Depending on the number of plugs transplanted into pot.

yolr reglbn.

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Go-CorM
BGO NIA TUE EROSA
Mi n imu m Germ i nation Rate: 85Yo Seed Product Form; Pelleted

GROWING ON
in

Transplant Ready;7 a'72' lray.

8 weeks from sow in a '288'tray. 9

-'10 weeks from sow

FI-OWERII{G
Time frame when ptants are receptive to ftower initiation.- From initial date
sowrng.

of

Finish Bulking/Flower Initiation: Optimum conditions during the vegetative period, beginning at transplant, needed for the root to reach the edge of the contaner and to make the plant receptive to flower initiation.

for flowering.

Flowering lype; Obligate long-day plant - long days >13.5 hours are necessary
Specific Flowering Mechanism.' Tuberous Begonias are light accumulators.
Supplemental lighting and daylength extension will hasten flower initiation.

Media: . pH: 5.5 - 6 . EC: 1- 1.5


Lrghf; This species of Begonia wants to form tubers and single flower when natural daylength is <12 hours. Provide interrupted nights'for a 12- 14-hour

daylo suppress tuber formation, promote double flowers and produce a higher
quality plant. Plants or plugs started under longs days than transplanted and placed under short days will exhibit uneven growth. To avoid leaf burn, do not exceed 3,000 foot candles (30,000 lux).

PLUG CIJLTURE
Germination: Optimum conditions for seedling development that begins the day the crop is sown until cotyledon expansion. Expect radicle emergence in 7 - l0 days.

Cover No covering over the seed is required.


Media: . pH: 5.5 - 5.8 . EC: 0.5 - 0.75 Lighf; Light is necessary for germination. lf utilizing a chamber, providing a light
source of 10 - 100 foot candles (100 reduce stretch.

Temperature: Grow new transplants on at 65' - 6B'F (18' - 20"C) nights. Once established, night temperatures can be reduced to 60'- 65"F (16'- 1B'C).

Moisture: Allernate between moisture levels wet (4) and medium (2). Allow
media to approach level (2) before re-saturating to level (4).

Humidity: 40 -70%. Provide horizontal airflow to aid in drying down the media
through evapotranspiration, allowing better penetration of oxygen to the roots.

- 1,000 lux) will improve

germination and

Temperature:73' - 75'F (23"C) until radicle emergence. Temperatures exceeding 80"F (27'C) will lower final germination. Reduce to 66' - 68"F (f8'- 20'C) until cotyledon expansion.
Moisture: Saturated (5) from day 1 - 1l . A saturated media and high humidity is critical to successful begonia germination. Beginning day 12, alternate between moisture levels wet (4) and moist (3). Allow media to approach level (3) before re-saturating to level (4). lt is important to start drying back the media to avoid algae growth. Seedlings are sensitive to "heavy handed" watering, which will inhibit germination and uniformity due to the roots being disturbed as the seeds are rolled around. Use a water breaker with a gentle spray and low pressure to avoid disturbing the seed.

Fertilizers: Allernate between a calcium-based fertilizer (13-2-13) and an ammonium-based fertilizer (17-5-1 7) at I 00 - 1 50 ppm nitrogen every 2 - 3 waterings. Tall, stretched plants with few flowers indicate too much ammonium. Stunted, chlorotic plants with marginal leaf burn lndicate a lack of calcium and magnesium.

Growth Regulafors.'lf needed, begin Cycocel (chlormequat chloride) treatments two weeks after transplantng at 300 - 500 ppm. Cycocel will not hasien flowering, but will increase the number of flowers- A negative DIF of 2' - 3'F is also effective. lf using DIF then no additional PGRs will be necessary.
Common Diseases.'Pythium, Rhizoctonia, Botrytis Blight,Tomato Spotted WiltVirus
Com mon Pesfs.' Aphids,Thrips

Humidity:100%. Relative humidity levels need to be kept high to avoid


desiccating the exposed roots.

PRODUCT

USE

GARDEN SPECIFIEATIONS

PIug Bulking/Flower lnitiation: Optimum conditions during the vegetative


period, beginning at cotyledon expansion, needed for the root to reach the edge of the plug cell and to make the plant receptive to flower initiation.

Pots, containers, hanging mass

plantings

baskets, Light:

Partial shade to filtered sun


11

USDA Hardiness Zone:


AHS Heat Zone: 12
.::,.',

Media: . pH: 5.5 - 5.8 .EC: 0.5-1 Llghf; This species of begonia wants to form tubers and single flowers when natural daylength is <12 hours. Provide interrupted nights for a 12- 14-hour day
to suppress tuber formation, promote double flowers and produce a higher quality plant. During the early plug stages, extended days will encourage a higher quality seedling and increased growth rate. Provide 3,500 - 4,500 foot candles (12 - 15 total moles or 35,000 -45,000 lux) to hasten flower induction. Supplemental lighting under low light conditions at 350 - 450 foot candles (35,000 - 45,000 lux) greatly reduce the time to flower. Do not exceed 4,500 foot candles (45,000 lux) to avoid marginal leaf burn.

Go-Go

I-

10" (20

25 cm)

- 10" (20 - 25 cm)

BEGCINIP. SCHEDUI-NG IN WEFKS


Total crop time

15-18

'288'plug crop time


'72' plug crop time

7-8
9-10
8

Temperature: Afier radicle emergence maintain at 66" - 70'F (18'- 20'C). Leaf temperatures should not exceed 85'F (30"C) to avoid desiccation of young seedlings. After flrst true leaves emerge lower temperatures to 62' - 68'F (16" - 20"C). Temperatures below 60'F (16"C) will delay flowering. Moisfure.'Alternate between moisture levels wet (4) and moist (3). Allow media to approach level (3) before re-saturating to level (4).

Transplant to finish crop time

4" crop
6" crop

- 10 from a '288';
10

5-6 from a '72', lf grown cool at

62'F (17"C), add one week to finish

12 from a'288' i 7

-I

frcm a'72'

l0" basket

11 *

13from a'288';8-9froma'72'

Humidity: On day 14 when all seeds have germinated decrease the humidity to
40o/o.

ammonium-based feed (17-5-17) at 50 * 100 ppm nitrogen. Under low light conditions, apply a calcium-based feed (144-14) at 50 - 100 ppm nitrogen. Under high light and long or extended days, an ammonium-based feed (20-10- 20) at 50 - 100 ppm nitrogen is preferred.

Felilizers: Feed

2 times per week. Under high light conditions, apply an

Nal*: Tl':ese suEEeslrors are *nly guitisl!'tsf; ld *ay hav* t l){t }!le{d l me{it indivitlLta! graw*r s ,'ie*ds. Check al chsnita; !t*sls to v{iry reg$tralit1lor ls* il
yur regr1.

www. goldsm ithseeds.com

Gi:{dsmith SEEI'S

:ili,

lsabellarM
CAMPANULA LANQISTYLA
M i n i 1n u m Germ i n

GROWING ON
Transplant Ready: 22

ation Rate; 857o

26 weeks from sow in a '288' tray.

Seed Product Form.'Pelleted, raw

Finish Bulking.'Optimum conditions during the vegetatve period, beginning at


transplant, needed for the root to reach the edge of the container. CAUTION: lsabella is a long-day plant. To keep the crop in a vegetative phase, short days must be provided. A vegetative phase is desirable when a fuller plant is needed. Keep plants vegetative until leaves have reached the rim ofthe container for optimum sizing. Once initiated, the crop may not size up properly for larger containers. Do not expose to mum lighting.

FLOWERING
Time frame when plants are receptive to flower initiation.. Beginning from initial sow date.

Flowering lyper Obligate long-day plant. Long days are required for flowering. Specific Flowering Mechanism: Daylength >12 hours. lrradiance will hasten
flowering.

Lightng: Short days are necessary to keep lsabella vegetative so


properly.

it will size up

PLUG CULTURE
Germination: Optimum conditions for seedling development that begins the day the
crop is sown until cotyledon expansion. Expect radicle emergence in 6

Media: pH: 5.5

- 6;.EC: 1 . Campanula is sensitive to high salts. Leach occasionally to reduie EC levels if necessary.
Temperature: At transplant, grow crop on at

8 days.

58'-

60'F (f4"

Coyer.'Do not cover the seed after sowing as this will inhibit germination. Media: pH:5.5 - 5.8; EC: <0.5

70"F (1 8' - 21 "C) days. Once active root growth begins, night temperatures may be dropped to 50'- 55'F (10'- 13'C).

65'

- 16'C) nights,

Ltghf; Light is necessary for germination. lf utilzng a chamber, providing a light


source of 1 0 - 100 foot candles (100 reduce stretch.

- 1 ,000 lux) will improve germination

Moisure.'Alternate between moisture levels moist (3) and medium (2). Allow media to approach level (2) before re-saturating to level (3).

and

- 65'F (l 6' - 1 8"C). After several sets of true leaves have developed, reduce to 58' - 60'F (14' - 16'C) nights, 65'- 70'F (1 8' - 2'C).
Moisture.'Wet (4) until radicle emergence. On day g, begin alternating between moisture levels moist (3) and medium (2). Allow media to approach level (2) before re-saturating to level (3).

Temperature: 62'

Humidity:40 -70% Dehumidify: Provide horizontal airflow to aid in drying down the media through
evapotranspiration, allowing better penetration of oxygen to the roots.

Humidity:100% until radicle emergence, then reduce to 40 -

70ol0. Provide horizontal airflow to aid in drying down the media through evapotranspiration, allowing better penetration of oxygen to the roots.

Fertilizers: Feed as needed to encourage grou/th. Under high light conditions, apply an ammonium-based feed (17-5-17) at 100 - 150 ppm nitrogen. Under low light conditions, apply a calcium-based feed (14-4-14) at 100 - 150 ppm nitrogen. Under high light and long or extended days, an ammonium-based feed (20-10-20) at I 00 - I 50 ppm nitrogen is preferred. Growth Regurafors.' lsabella is responsive to B-Nine (daminozide) or Cycocel (chlormequat chloride). Finish Flower lnifiafion.'Optimum conditions to make plant receptive to flower
initiation.

Plug Bulking: Optimum conditions during the vegetative period, beginning at


cotyledon expansion, needed for the root to reach the edge of the plug cell. To avoid premature flowering, the daylength must be kept <12 hours. Medra.' pH: 5.5

5.8; EC: 0.5

- 1.0 Campanula

are sensitive to high salts.

Ligf; Provide short days. Exposing very young, immature plants to long days will cause premature flowering on small plants. lf flower initiation is induced too early, the plant will never size up properly.
Temperature: During initial root development grow at 62'- 65'F (16'- 18'C). After roots are established temperatures can be reduced to 58'- 60'F (14" - 16"C) nights and 65' - 70'F (18' - 2 l "C) days. Moisfrrre.'Alternate between moisture levels moist (3) and medium (2). Allow media to approach level (2) before re-saturating to level (3).

NOIE: Long-day treatments begin when the leaves have reached the edges of the container, otherwise the plant will be scarce on foliage. lt takes about 5 - 6 weeks tofill outa4" pot; and about 6- 7weeks to fill out a 5-6" pot.
blooms. Long days can be created with either interrupted nights or extended days. Long day treatments must continue throughout the remainder of the production schedule to promote additional flowers. Regardless of container size, it takes approximately 6 - 8 weeks from start of long-day treatments untl first flower. Keep plants actively growing and avoid stress throughout production.

Daylength and Lrghf;Adaylength of 14 - 16 hours is necessary to initiate

Common Diseases; Pythium, Rhizoctonia, Botrytis Common Pesfs,' Thrips, Spider Mites

Humidity:40 -70% Dehumidify: Provide horizontal airflow to aid in drying down the media through
evapotranspiration, allowing better penetration of oxygen to the roots.

Feftilizers:75- 150 ppm nitrogen with a calcium-based fertilizer (13-2-i3 or


144-14) as needed.

PRODUCT

USE
gardens

GARDEN SPECIFICATIONS
Light: Partial shade to full sun USDA Hardiness Zone: 1'l AHS Heat Zone:9 - 1

Pots, containers, rock

Growth Regulafors.' lsabella is responsive to B-Nine (daminozide) or Cycocel


(chlormequat chloride) sprays or drenches. Apply at a reduced rate during the plug stages.

lhese suggesiians ae ttily guce{nes and may have tc be altered t{} fieel indivdual grawers reeds. C'neck all chemical labels t{} verify rcgstrctian for us* in yor regiotl.
Arofe:

I-

10" (20

25 cm)

6-8"(15-20cm)

CAMPANU!-A SCHEDULING IN WEEKS

Transplant to finish crop time


11

14. Vegetative phase is 5 - 6 weeks followed by long day treatments for remaining 6 - 8 weeks.

13

16 weeks. Vegetrative phase is 7 - I weeks followed by long day treatments for remaining 6 - I weeks.

www. go I dsm ithseeds. com

G{dsmith '''sEEIrS

VemezirM, festex,@
CINERARI,4 SENEEIA
Minimum Germination Rafe..Jester gO%, Venezia B5% Seed Product Form.'Jester pelleted, raw; Venezia raw

GROWING

Ofr,

Transplant Ready;6

7 weeks from sow in a '288'tray.

FLOWERING
Time frame when plants are receptive to flower initiation; 8 present and roots are actively growing.

- 10 leaves are

Finish Bulking.'Optimum conditjons during the vegetative period, beginning at transplant, needed for the root to reach the edge of the container. Media: . pH: 5.9 6.2

. EC: 0.75

-I

Flowering lype.'Facultative short-day plant

short days enhance flowering.

Light: Keep under short days. Long days will promote bolting. provide 3,000 foot
candles (30,000 maximum). Supplemental lighting at 350 - 500 foot candles will enhance shoot and root growth. Excessive light levels will result in leaf burn.

Specific Flowering Mechanism: Maturity and short days trigger flowering.

PLUG CULTURE
Germination: Optimum conditions for seedling development that begins the day the crop is sown until cotyledon expansion. Expect radicle emergence in 3 4 days. Cover: Do not cover the seed after sowing, as this will inhibit germination.

Media:. pH: 6-6.2


. EC: 0.5 - 0.75
source of 10 - I 00 foot candles reduce stretch.

Temperature: After transplant, maintain cool days with 60" - 62'F (1S' - 2O.C) nights for approximately 2 weeks. Venezia does not require vernalization to induce flowering. With Jester, once plants are established it is necessary to begin a.chilling or vernalization treatment to induce flowering (refer to Flower lnitiation section). After chilling, raise temperatures to 60'- 62.F (18. - 20.C) for finishing. At this point, the crop should be about 7 - 9 weeks away from bloom. To conserve fuel costs, the crop can be finished at 55'- 60"F (13'- 16.C) nights and cool days, though flowering may be delayed.

Lrghf Light is necessary for germination. lf utilizing a chamber, providng a light


(1

Moisture: Alternate between moisture levels wet (4) and moist (3). Allow media to approach level (3) before re-saturating to level (4). Humidity:40 -70% Dehumidify: Provide horizontal airflow to aid in drying down the media through
evapotranspiration, allowing better penetration of oxygen to the roots.

00

,000 lux) will improve germination and

Temperature:68' -72"F (20' - 22'C) until cotyledon expansion. Moisture:Wet (4) until radicle emergence. Then begin alternating between
moisture levels wet (4) and moist (3). Allow media to approach level (3) before re-saturating to level (4).

Fertilizers: Fertilize at 100 fertilizer (13-2-13).

- 150 ppm nitrogen weekly

with a calcium-based

Humidity: 1 00% until radicle emergence then reduce to 40 - 70%. Dehumidify: Provide horizontal airflow to aid in drying down the media through
evapotranspiration, allowing better penetration of oxygen to the roots.

PIug Bulking: Optimum conditions during the vegetative period, beginning at


cotyledon expansion; needed for the root to reach the edge of the plug cell. Media: . pH: 5.5 - 5.8

Growth Regulators: Chemical PGRs are not necessary on Jester or Venezia. Venezia is already more compact than Jester so caution must be used to keep from over growth regulating. Howeve for toning purposes, growth can easily be controlled with B-Nine (daminozide), DIF treatments, reduced watering or minimal use of ammonium.
Finish Flower lnitiation: Optimum conditions to make plant receptive to flower
initiation.

.EC: 0.5-1 Lighf; Provide short days. Provide a maximum of 2,500 foot candles (25,000 lux)
maximum.

Temperature: Reduce temperatures to 3B'- sS"F (3' 14"C). This chilling treatment should continue for 4 - 5 weeks. Venezia does not require chilling.

Temperature:65" - 70"F (18" - 2f 'C) after radicle emergence. After first set of true leaves are developed, reduce iemperatures to 60" - 62"F (i 5" -i 7"C).
/l4oisure.'Alternate between moisture levels moist (3) and medium (2). Allow media to approach level (2) before re-saturating to level (3).

Felilizers: Ammonium-based feeds will not be beneficial when temperatures are below 45'F (8"C). Feed with a calcium-based fertilizer (13-2-13) ai 100 150 ppm nitrogen as necessary to keep plants actively growing.
Co m m o n Dr3eases.' Pythiu m, Botrytis, Powdery Spotted Wilt Virus
M
i

ldew, Verticill

iu

m, Tomato

Humidity: 40 -7O% Dehumidify: Provide horizontal airflow to aid

Common Pesfs; Aphids, Whitefly, Thrips

n drying down the media through evapotranspiration, allowing better penetration of oxygen to the roots.

PRCIALCT

TJSF
gift

Feilizers: Fertilize at 100 ppm nitrogen once a week with a calcium-based fertilizer (13-2-13).
A/ofe: Ihese suggesons are only guidelines anci may have to be altered ta Fjeet individual grwer s ?eeds. check at! chenica! labe{s ta verify regstntiar} for use in your regot't.

item

Potted plants, pots, containers.

GARDEN SPECIFICATIONS ] Liglr* partial sun

aJSDA Hardiness

Zone:

11

AHS HeatZone:4

Venezia

7-9'(18-22cm)
8

-9'(18-22cm\

Jester

- 10" (20 - 25 cm)

- 10" (20 - 25 cm)

CINERARIA SCHEEULING IN WEEKS

ll:,tltllrt:ll..
Total crop time
'288' plug crop time

14-16

16-18

6-7

6-7
+-S
1

Transplant to finish crop time

-. Vernalizationtreatment 4" crop


6" crop

I
8

Nonerequired I
-I
with some growth regulation regulation
0

growth regulation

12 with some

9 -10 with no growth

13-14withno
growth regulation

www. go Id s m ith s eed

s. co m

G:,,,ldsmith sEEtts

Spark!errM
CLA M

hI

AS SI-ER',4 AIA
7

GROWING ON
Sparkler is a genetic dwarf form of the traditional garden Cleome, yet is still a very large bedding plant. Under a culture of high feed and growth regulation, you can produce a tight, well-branched, dark-green plant with many flower spikes.

M i n im u m Germi n ation Rate :

5oA

Seed Prod u ct Form.' GoldSmartrM Primed

FLOWERING
Time frame when plants are receptive to flower initiation.. Days 25

5-Tleavespresent. Flowering lype; Facultative long-day plant


and warm temperatures trigger flowering.

35;

long days enhance flowering.

Transplant Ready:3 - 4 weeks from sow in a '288' tray.ln containers smaller than 6", expect to sell Sparkler as a small green plant. Choose the largest container your market can handle for flowering sales. Transplant plugs before they become root bound. Finish Bulking/Flower Initiation: Optimum conditions during the vegetative period, beginning at transplant, needed for the root to reach the edge ofthe containerAND to make the plant receptive to flower initiation. Media: 3 pH: 5.6

Specific Flowering Mechanism; A combination of long days, high irradiance

PLUG EULTURE
Germination: Optimum conditions for seedling development that begins the day the crop is sown untll cotyledon expansion.
Expect radicle emergence of GoldSmartrM Primed seed in 4 - 6 days. Advances in Goldsmith's seed technology have overcome dormancy issues in Cleome. Do NOT pre-soak trays with potassium nitrate prior to sowing. Treating primed seed with this solution may inhibit germination. Freezing or chilling the seed prior to sowing is not advisable and may damage the seed. Germinate Sparkler directly on the greenhouse bench. An alternating temperature environment is necessary for optimum germination rather than a constant temperature found in germination temperatures.

- 6 Cleome can tolerate lower pH levels than most other bedding plants.
. EC: 1.8

2.5

- 4,500 foot candles (12 - 15 total mols or 35,000 - 45,000 lux) to hasten flower induction. Supplemental lighting under low light conditions at 350 - 450 foot candles (35,000 - 45,000 lux) will enhance shoot and root growth.
Llghf.' Provide 3,500

Temperature:75'- 80"F (22' -27"C) days, 60'- 65'F (16" - 18'C) nights.
/t4oisfu,'e.'Alternate between moisture levels moist (3) and medium (2). Allow media to approach level (2) before re-saturating to level (3). Media saturaled for more than 12 hours may inhibit growth. FeTilizers: Cleome is a heavy feeder. Constant liquid feed at 300 ppm nitrogen with an ammonium-based fertilizer (20-10-20).lrrigate with clear water after every third feeding.

Cover.'Cover seed with a thin layer of medium-sized vermiculite to maintain moisture levels.

Media: . pH: 5.5 - 5.8 . EC: 0.75 - 1 Llghf; Light is necessary for germination. lf utilizing a chamber, providing a light source of 10 - 100 foot candles (100 - 1 ,000 lux) will improve germinatron and reduce stretch.
Temperature: Cleome needs higher than normal temperatures to germinate successfully. Fluctuating day/night temperatures are essential for optimum germination. Provide 80" - 85"F (26' - 30"C) days and 68' - 70"F (20' - 21'C) nights. Moisture: Wet (4) until radicle emergence. Then begin alternating between
moisture levels wet (4) and moist (3) until cotyledon expansion. Allow media to approach level (3) before re-saturating to level (4). Media saturated forover 12 - 14 hours can inhibit germination.

Growth Regulafors.'Sparkler responds to three applications of Bonzi (paclobutrazol) at 25 ppm applied 7 - 10 days apart. Begin applications one week after transplant. B-Nine (daminozide) is also an effective PGR. Apply B-Nine at 5,000 ppm as needed ai weekly intervals. B-Nine may delay flowering by 4 days. A crop grown with three applications of B-Nine will flower at 14 18" (30 - 36 cm); with two applications al 16 - 20" (40 - 50 cm); and with one application at24 - 30" (60 - 75 cm).

-7

Common Diseases; Pythium, Powdery Mildew Common Pesfs.' Fungus gnats

PRCIDUCT

USE
nterest
plantings,

GARDEN SPECIFICAT'ONS
rghf.'Full sun USDA Hardiness Zone: 10 AHS Heat Zone: 12 - 1

Humidity: 90

- 100%

Large containers, mass add height and

Fertilizers: Cleome is a heavy feeder. Fertilize at 100 ppm nrtrogen with a calcium-based fertilizer after germination is complete. Plug Bulking: Optimum conditions during the vegetative period, beginning at cotyledon expansion, needed for the root to reach the edge of the plug cell" Media: . pH: 5.5 5.8

, EC:1

-2
3,500 foot candles (20,000

ELEOME SCI.IEDULING IN WEEKS

Light: 2,000

35,000 tux) maximum.

Temperature: Continue fluctuating day/night temperatures at BO' (26" - 30"C) days and 68" - 70'F (20' - 21 "C) nights.

85.F

Morbfre; Alternate between moist (3) and medium (2). Allow media to approach level (2) before re-saturating to level (3). Media saturated for more than 12 hours may inhibit growth.

Transplant to finish crop time


fuofe: l$ese suggsins are anly gt:irielines and may have r alereC lo ,-"resi *Ci didual grwet" s ?eds Ch*ck al c!'emical lais verify registration for use r y*r tegon.

Humidity: 40 -

600/o

Dehumidify: Provide horizontal airflow to aid in drying down the media through
evapotranspiration, allowing better penetratron of oxygen to the roots.

Fertilizers: 100 - 150 ppm nitrogen with a calcium-based fertilizer ('13-2-13 or 14-4-14). Use the higher rate when humidity levels are lower.

Growth Regulators: Applications of growth regulators in the plug stages will


promote better basal branching and fuller plants. Sparkler responds to Bonzi (paclobutrazol) or B-Nine (daminozide).

www. gol dsm ithseeds. com

MrN'

MidorirM, tMiraclerMu 5ilvenHeartrM, SilveradorM TNTERT\IEDATF sERTES: Car"ltorM, !-aserr*, SterlingrM


sERTES: CYCLAMEN FERSICUM
of year and variety. Containers too large for the plant habit will make the final product look out of proportion with the flowers. Transplant plug with at least a third of the corm above the soil surface directly into the finish container. Staging growth in intermediate-sized containers will delay flowering.

sTANDARD sERIES:

ConcertorM, Sierr&rM, Sierra SynchrorM, RainierrM, Winter lcer

M ini m u m

Germination Rate : 85Yo

Seed Product Form.'Raw

FLOWERING
Time frame when plants are receptive to flower initiation; 8 present.

- 12 leaves

Finish Bulking/Flower Initation: Optimum conditions during the vegetative period, beginning at transplant, needed for the root to reach the edge of the co4tainerAND to make the plant receptive to flower initiation. Media; Select a porous media that drains well. This is particularly important
during the cool season when temperatures and light levels are loq and media is slow to dry. pH: 5.8 - 6.2. EC: 1, max 1.2. Cyclamen are sensitive to elevated soluble salt levels. Allow leaching to occur when fertilizing to avoid root problems due to high salt levels.

Flowering lype.' Day-neutral plant - will flower regardless of daylength. Specific Flowerng Mechanism: Maturity and irradiance in combination with
cool temperatures. High light levels are needed to increase bud count.

PLUG CI"'LTUR.E
Germination: Optimum conditions for seedling development that begins the day
the crop is sown until cotyledon expansion. Expect radicle emergence in 21 - 25 days. Successful cyclamen plug production is dependent upon darkness and high humidity. Place the plugs in a dark chamber with fog where temperature and humidity can easily be manipulated. At day 14, begin checking the seed flats daily, to see if the radicle has emerged. Take care not to expose trays to light when inspecting. Once corm has formed, darkness is no longer necessary. To avoid seedling stretch, do not wait for all corms to throw up a leaf. When the radicle has emerged the seed has geminated and needs to be removed from the chamber.

Lrghf; Provide shade to allow a maximum of 4,400 foot candles (44,000 lux).
Flowers will not be initiated if light levels drop below 2,000 foot candles (20,000 lux). Supplemental lighting at 300 - 500 foot candles (3,000 - 5,000 lux) for a 14-hour day will increase bud count.

Cover: Do not cover. Covering will make it difficult to inspect for radicle emergence. Media: pH:5.5

Temperature: After transplant, maintain cool days, with 65'F (18'C) nights. Once rooted to the sides, drop nights to 62"F (17'C) to help facilitate flowering. When roots reach bottom of pot, reduce night temperature further to 58' - 60'F (14'- 16'C) to keep the crop compact the last month of finishing. Hold finished crops at 55" - 60"F (1 3' - I 5"C) nights, and cool days. Night temperatures above 62" - 65"F (1 7' - 1 8"C) will decrease bud counts. Average day temperatures above 75'F (24' C) will delay flower initiation.
Moisure; Alternate between moisture levels wet (4) and medium (2). Allow nredia to approach level (2) before re-saturating to level (4).

5.8. EC: 0.5

Lrghf; Complete darkness is essential for germinaton. Cover the seed flats with
black plastic to ensure constant darkness and to avoid accidental light exposure.

Humidity: Minimum of 60% during the day and a maximum of 80

Temperature: 62" - 64'F (17' - 18'C). Temperatures >68"F (20'C) will inhibit germination giving non-uniform stands.

- 85% at night. Low humidity contributes to leaf yellowing and high humidity will produce elongated, weak foliage that is susceptible to fungus attack.
Fertilizers: Begin fertilization when roots push out of the plug. Feed weekly or every 2 - 3 waterings with a nitrogen:potassium (N:K) ratio of 1:2. Fertilize at an EC rate of 1.5. On young plants, alternate between potassium nitrate and calcium nitrate fertilizers. An extra solution of potassium nitrate is given with an EC of 2 - 2.4 every two weeks. lf new leaves do not expand fully, an occasional application of ammonium will promote leaf expansion. When plants reach the desired size, alternate between three applications of potassium nitrate to one application of potassium sulfate, at a fertilizer EC rate of 1.5 for finishing. Fungicides: A preventative fungicide program is encouraged. Spacing: Grow pot tight until foliage reaches the pot rim. Additional spacing is needed to allow for leaf growth but not so close that the plants touch each other. Good air circulation is necessary for quality growth. Crowding the plants will favor a climate for disease development and irreversible stretching. Common Drlseases.'Botrytis, Fusarium, Enrrrinia, Cylindrocarpon (Nectria) and Gloeosporium Common Pesfsi Aphids, Thrips and Cyclamen Mites. Shore Flies are disease vectors for Envinia; Fungus gnats are disease vectors for Fusarium.

Moisture: Alternate between moisture levels saturated (5) and wet (4). Allow
media to approach level (4) before re-saturating to level (5).

Humidity:100o/o Plug Bulking: Optimum conditions during the vegetative period, beginning at
cotyledon expansion, needed for the root to reach the edge of the plug cell.

Media: . pH: 5.5 - 5.8 . EC: 0.5 - 1.0


Lrgthf.' lncrease light levels gradually during plug culture to 3,500 foot candles

(35,000 lux) maximum. Excessive light levels will burn the tender young leaves. 65"

Temperature: After radicle emergence provide 62" - 68"F (1 B' - 20"C) days.

65'F (16"

1B"C) nights;

Moisfure; Alternate between moisture levels wet (4) and medium (2). Allow
media to approach level (2) before re-saturating to level (4).

Humidity: 90%+ is essential to enable the mother leaf to throw off the seed coat.
lf the seed coat dries out, the mother leaf may not emerge. After the seed coat is

shed, gradually reduce humidity to 85

90%.

- 100 ppm nitrogen with calcium nitrate (15-5-15) every 2 - 3 waterings. After first true leaves have emerged, begin alternating ammonium (21-5-20) and calcium nitrate (15-5-15) at 75 - 100 ppm nitrogen. Ammonium will help push leaf growth. Calcium nitrate will produce a sturdier young plant. lf growth is soft, reduce frequency of ammonium applications.
F u ng icides : A preventative fungicide program is encouraged.

Fertilizers: lnitially feed at 50

PRODUCT

t,'SE

Potted crop, gift item, landscape

plant

I GARDEN SPECIFICATIONS containers, I Light: Paftial shade to filtered sun


USDA Hardiness Zone: 10 AHS Heat Zone:7 - 1

GROWING ON
For all cyclamen, strict sanitation practices will increase the quality of a cyclamen crop. Always use new pots, sanitize the benches, and discourage algae growth anywhere in the greenhouse which may encourage fungus gnats and shore fly outbreaks (carriers of disease). lmmediately rogue out diseased plants or isolate suspected diseased plants.

- 10" (15 - 25 cm) 10 - 12" (25 - 30 cm) 12 - 16" (30 - 40 cm)


6

- 10" (15 - 25 cm) 10 - 12" (25 - 30 cm) 12 - 16" (30 - 40 cm)


6

Transplant Ready: 10 - 12 weeks from sow in a '288'tray depending on time

CYC'-AMEN SCHEDI,JLING IN WEEKS

continued on next page

www. goldsm ithseeds.com

10

SEEDS

MrN

sERTES:

MidorirM, MiraclerM, SilverHeartrM, SilveradorM


cantO@, LaSerrM, Sterlingrn',t

TNTERMEDATE SERTES:

sTANDARD sERTES: ConcertorM,

Sierhtt,

Sierra SyndrrorM, RainierrM, Winter lcerM

'288

plug
1

crop time

- 12 depending

on the time of the year and series

Transplant to Finish crop times

4" crop

14-16

Laser:15-

17;

Canto, Sterling:

N/A

16-18
Siena: 16

6" crop

N/A

NiA

Concerto, Rainier, Winter lce: 18 - 20

- 18;

'60

crop time

- 72' plug

Transplant 8 - 10 week'288'plugs into '60 -72' plug tray for an additional 5 - 6 weeks. (Some growers prefer a '50' size plug tray.)

Transplanted'60 4" crop

- 72' plug crop to finish crop times Laser: 13 - 15;


12-14
Canto, Sterling: 14 -'t6 N/A

N/A Sierra: 14-16; Concerto, Rainier,

6" crop

N/A

Winter lce: 16 - 18
Nole: Ihese suggeslions are bnly guidelines and may have to be altered to meet indvidual grower's needs. Check all chemical labels lo verify registration for use in your region.

www. go ld s m ith s eed

s. co m

11

FnesecrM, h{anlequinrM, l{e!!o! rM


DAI.i!-IA X
I1

YBRIDA

GROWING ON

Minimum Germination Rae.' Hello! 80%, Fresco, Harlequin 70%


Seed Product Form.'Hello! raw; Fresco, Harlequin raw, film coated

Transplant Ready:3 - 4 weeks from sow in a '288' tray. Transplant deep so th: the cotyledons are at the soil surface. This will produce a more stable plant. Finish Bulking/Flower lnitiation: Optimum conditions during the vegetative
period, beginning at transplant, needed for the root to reach the edge of the containerAND to make the plant receptive to flower initiation.

FLOWERf\G
Time frame when plants are receptive to flower initiatiorr.' Days 28

5-Tleavespresent"
flowering.

35:

Flowering lype: Obligate long-day plant - long days are necessary for
Specific Flowering Mechanism.' Maturity and long days trigger flowering.

Meda: . pH: 5.5 - 5.8 .EC: 0.8-1 Lighf; Provide long days. lnterrupted nights may be needed to simulate long
days. Flowering is inhibited by tuber formation, which is only influenced by daylength. Days shorter than 12 hours will promote tuber formation instead of flowbring.

PI-I,,'G CULTURE
Germination: Optimum conditions for seedling development that begins the day
the crop is sown until cotyledon expansion. Expect radicle emergence in two days.

Cover: Cover seeds with a thin layer of medium-sized vermiculite to maintain moisture levels"

Media: . pH: 5.5 - 5.8 . EC: 0.5 - 0.75 Light: Provide long days starting at sow. Dahlias want to form tubers under
shod days. Provide interrupted nights for a 12 formation.

Teinperature: For early spring flowering, optimal growth is best obtained by growing plants at 65" - 70'F (18" - 20'C) nights. Temperature influences the speed of growth and the overall quality of the habit. Temperatures cooler than 62"F (17'C) will slow growth and produce more compact plants, but be sure thal interrupted nights or long days are provided to avoid tuber formation. Average Daily Temperature (AD'l):67' (19'C). ADT above 80"F (27'C) will
inhibit or abod flower initiation.

14-hour day to suppress tuber

Mosfure; Alternate between moisture levels wet (4) and medium (2). Allow media to approach level (2) before re-saturating to level (4). Watering early in
day and providing good ventilation is important to producing a strong, healthy crop. Do not let plants wilt. Too little water will produce small plants.

thr

65'-

Temperature: 68' - 72"F (20' - 22'C) until radicle emergence. Reduce to 6B"F (18'- 20"C) until cotyledon expansion. Moisture: Saturated (5) until days 2

reduce to moisture level (4). Beginning day B; start alternatrng moisture levels

3 or radicle emergence. On days 4

7,

Humidity: <50%. Dahlias prefer low humidity. Dehumidify: Provide horizontal airflow to aid in drying down the media through
evapotranspiration, allowing better penetration of oxygen to the roots.

wet (4) and medium (2). Allow media to approach level (2) before re-saturating to
level (4).

Humidity: 1 00% until radicle emergence then reduce lo 40 - 70o/o. Dehumidify: Provide horizontal airflow to aid in drying down the media through
evapotranspiration, allowing better penetration of oxygen to the roots.

Fertilizers: Constant liquid feed at 150 ppm nitrogen with a complete fertilizer containing mjcronutrients. lncreasing potassium at finish will darken the foliage
color.

Plug Bulking: Optmum conditions during the vegetatve period, beginning at cotyledon expansion, needed for the root to reach the edge of the plug cell.

Pinching: Due to the naturally branching habit of Hello!, no pinching is necessary Growth Regulators: lf necessary apply B-Nine (daminozide) at 750 - f ,500
ppm. Also responds to A-Rest (ancymidol), Bonzi (paclobutrazol), Sumagic (uniconazol), or B-Nine/Cycocel (chlormequat chloride) tank mix. Bonzi can be used at flnish to shorten peduncles and not affect the flower slze.

Media: . pH: 5.5 - 5.8 . EC: 0.5 - 0.75 Light: Keep plug trays under long days. Dahlias want to form tubers under short days. Provide interrupted nights for a 12 14-hov day to suppress tuber
formation.

Common Diseases; Botrytis, Mildew, Smut, Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus Common Pesfs; Thrips, Red Spider Mites, Whiteflies, Aphids, Leafminers

Temperature:65"

68"F (18"

20'C)

GARDEN SPECIFICATIONS
Lrght'Full sun
USDA Hardiness Zone: AHS HeatZone:12-3
11

Morbfure.'Alternate between moisture levels wet (4) and medium (2). Allow
media to approach level (2) before re-saturating to level (4).

Humidity:

<50o/o

Dehumidify: Provide horizontal airflow to aid in drying down the media through
evapotranspiration, allowing better penetration of oxygen to the roots.

Fertilizers: Feed with a calcium-based fertilizer (13-2-13 or 14-4-14) at 75


ppm nitrogen.

- 150

12 10

12" (25 -30 cm) 14" (30 -35 cm) (17

7 7
7

-9" -9"

(17 (17 (17

-23cm) -23cm) -23cm)

Growth Regulators: lf necessary B-Nine (daminozide) can be applied at


750

-9"

-23cm)

- 1,500 ppm.
DA}.{LIA SCHEDULING Ih WEEKS
sJggesfrbrs ars rly g"rldl,{es nri may h;sve t be altered

-9"

ilofe: Ihese
y*r teg;o;i"

ta me*t

r':dvidue! grov:er's needs. Check all chemical labels fc \"'eri!y eglslrat!n for us* irz

Transplant to finish crop time

www. gol dsm ithseeds. com

12

G,.,ldsmith .'SEEDS

Barharlxr$ Charms'*o Diabux"rdau*u Da!ce'*u H[atiom'", krldffiSd"r Saryer hr"fat'"


b!ANTT4AS HYBRIDA
Minimum Germination Rafe.' Barbarini, Charms, Dulce, Elation, Fandango,
Super Parfait 85%; Diabunda 90% Seed Product Form.'Pelleted, raw

GROWING O}I
Transplant Ready: 6 -7 weeks from a '2BB' plug tray. Finish Bulking/Flower lnitiation: Optimum conditions during the vegetative period, beginning at transplant, needed for the root to reach the edge of the containerAND to make the plant receptive to flower initiation. Media: pH:5.5

FLOWRIhIG
Time frame when plants are receptive to flower initiation: Days 16

3-4leavespresent.
Flowering lype.'Facultative long-day plant (minor impact)
flowering. high light levels will trigger flowering.

21;

5.8. EC:

.25

.5

Lighf: Provide 3,500 - 4,500 foot candles (12


night temperatures with a 5

- 15 total mols or 35,000 lux) to hasten flower development. Long days may enhance growth. - 10 degree negative DIF from 5 - 9 a.m.
67 " F (1 9'

45,000

long days enhance

Temperatur.e:62'- 65'F (17" - l8"C) day temperatures; 65' - 68"F (19' - 20'C)
C)

Specific Flowering Mechanism.'Dianthus is an irradiance plant. Maturity and

Average,Daily Tem peratu re (ADT) :

PI.UG CtJ!-T{JRE
Germination: Optimum conditions for seedling development that begins the day the crop is sown until cotyledon expansion. Cover.'Seeds may be covered with a thin layer of coarse vermiculite to maintain moisture levels. Media: pH:5.5
5.8. NOTE: Dianthus will show iron deficiency symptoms at a pH greater than 6.2. EC: <1

Moisfure.'Alternate between moisture levels wet (4), and medium (2). Allow media to airproach level (2) before re-saturating to level (4).

Humidity:40 -70% Dehumidify: Provide horizontal airflow to aid in drying down the media through
evapotranspiration, allowing better penetration of oxygen to the roots.

Fertilizers: Under high light conditions, apply an ammonium-based feed (17- 5-17) at'100 - 150 ppm nitrogen. Under low light conditions, apply a calcium-based feed (14-4-14) at 100 - 150 ppm nitrogen.

and reduce stretch compared to seed germinated in the dark. to 65"

Lrghf; Light is not necessary for germination. lf utilizing a chamber, providing a light source of 10 - 100 foot candles (100 - 1 ,000 lux) will improve germination Temperature: 72" -74'F (22" - 68"F (1 B' - I 9'c).

Growth Regulaors.'lf needed, apply either I - 2 sprays of Bonzi (paclobutrazol) spray at 5 - 8 ppm, Sumagic (uniconazol) at 3 - 5 ppm, or BNine (daminozide) at 2,500 - 3,000 ppm.

23'C) from day


1

3. Then lower temperature

TFCHNIQUE$ TO Er,H"AneE POST I{ARVFST QtJp.LlTY


When to Treat: 1 - 2 weeks prior to finish or shipping. Growth Regulafors.'B-Nine (daminozide) at 2,500 - 3,000 ppm. Fertilizer: Potassum nitrate drench at 100 ppm nitrogen.

Moisture: Level wet (4), from day

day 6, reduce moisture level to moist (3) and re-saturate to (4) until day 11 , or to full cotyledon expansion. Aftenrruard, begin alternating between moisture levels moist (3) to medium (2).

5 or until radicle emergence. Beginning

Humidity:100% from day I - 3. Dehumidify: On day 4, reduce to 40%. Provide horizontal airflow to aid

in

drying down the media through evapotranspiration, allowing better penetration of oxygen to the roots.

Common Diseases; Fusarium (a common disease of Dianthus, but Fandango and Dulce have a high tolerance to this pathogen), Alternaria leaf spot, Botrytis, Rust. To reduce disease pressure, provide good air circulation and maintain humidity levels at 40% - 50%. Keep foliage dry going into nighttime hours. Apply appropriate fungicides as needed according to label rates. Common Pesfs; Fungus Gnats, Shore Flies, Thrips, Aphids, Spider Mites. Scout plants on a regular basis and apply appropriate pesticides according to label rates.

Fertilizers: Maintain EC at <1. Fertigation water should not be greater than an EC of 0.5. Dianthus are sensitive to high salt levels.

- Optimum conditions during the vegetative period, beginning at cotyledon expansion, needed for the root to reach the edge of the plug cellAND to make the plant receptive to flower initiation.
Media: . pH: 5.5

Plug Bulking/Flower lnitiation

PROOUET

LgE
mass be
I

GARNEN SPEEIFICATIONS
igt
.' Ful sun USDA Hardiness Zone: 5 AHS Heat Zone: g-1

5.8. EC:

- 1.5

Containers, combinations, plantings. Fandango can also used as a home garden cut flower.

Lrghf; Provide 3,500

- 4,500 foot candles (12 - 15 total mols or 35,000 - 45,000 lux) to hasten flower induction. Supplemental lighting under low light conditions at 350 - 450 foot candles (35,000 - 45,000 lux) will enhance shoot and root growth. Extending daylength past l0 hours will hasten flowering.
Temperature: 67" - 6B'F (20'C) from day 7 1 8. Then 67'F temperature and 62"F (17'C) day temperature. Average Daily Temperature (ADT):67'F (19"C) Mosfure.'Alternate between moisture levels wet (4) and moist (3). Allow media to approach level (3) before re-saturating to level (4). Watch for excess algae
growth. Using Rl/O (Reverse Osmosis) water will help reduce algae levels.

Barbarini
Charms Diabunda Dulce

8- 10' (20 8

25 cm) 25 cm) 25 cm)

10

12" (25

30 cm)

(1

9'C) night

10" (20
'10" (20

6-8"(15-20cm)
B- 10" (20 - 25 cm)
10

B10

12" (25

30cm)

Elation
Fandango
Super Paait lr\

6-B"(15-20cm)
16

- 12'(25 - 30 cm) 8 - 10" (20 - 25 cm)


20" (45 10" (20

Feilizers: Under high light conditions, apply an ammonium-based feed


(17- 5-17) at 50 - 75 ppm nitrogen. Under low light conditions, apply a calcium-based feed (144-14) at 50 - 75 ppm ntrogen.

- 18" (40 - 45 cm) 6-8"(15-20cm)

18 8

50 cm) 25 cm)

0[qNTFIUS $Cl"lEDU l-lNG


Tohl croptime
'288' plug crop time

WEEKS
I

Growth Regulators: lf needed, apply


Cycocel (chlormequat chloride) at 750 - I,000 ppm, Bonzi (paclobutrazol) spray at 2 - 5 ppm, or Sumagic (uniconazol) 15-18

::.i:.1:.r:i::iiit:irr:::a::ii.:

15-

18

at3-5ppm.

5-6
9-11

5-6
9-11

9-11 4-5 5-7 6-8 6-9

9-11

16-

19

15-18

5-6 4-5 6-8 7-9

6-7
N/A

5-6
9-11

Transplant to finish crop time


Packs

lJrfe: Ihese suggesrbrs are only gt:ide!nes


and may have ta be altered tc rneei indvda grawer's needs. Cleck all ch*n"::a1labels fo verfjt tegstratian far use in yaur regan.

4" uop
6" op or
1

9*12
gallon

9-12
10-12

10*12

I |

9-12
10-12

9-12
10-12

www. gol dsm ithseeds.com

13

CamelotrM
DIGITAL'3 PURPUREA
Minimum Germination Rate:
Seed Prod u ct Form.. Pelleted
SSyo

GROWING ON
Transplant Ready.'4

FLOWERING
Time frame when plants are receptive to ftower initiation: g present. flowering.

containerAND to make the plant receptive to flower initiation.

period, beginning at transplant, needed for the root to reach te edge of the

- 6 weeks from sow in a'2BB'tray. Finish Bulking/Flower lnitiation: Optimum conditions during the vegetative

l2leaves are

llowering lype; Facultative long-day plant (secondary)

long days enhance

ln trials, plants grown in greenhouses with additional lights exhibited stretched habits and loose flower spikes. Crops grown cool in protected cold frames will produce compact plants with good lateral development of secondary spikes.

Specific Flowering Mechanism: High light enhances flowering.

Mqdia: . pH: 5.8 - 6.2 . EC: 0.75 1.5 ,Lrghf: Time to flower and the number of flowers produced increase proportion:
with light levels. Though classified as a shade plant, Digitalis can handle high light conditions with adequate moisture and cool tempeiatures.

PLUG CULTURE
the crop is sown until cotyledon expansion. Expect radicle emergenc in 3 days.

Germination: Optimum conditions for seedling development that begins the day

Cover: Do not cover seed. Media: . pH: 5.8 6.2

. EC: 0.5 * 0.75


Lrghf; Light is necessary for germination. lf utilizing a chamber, providing a light source of 10 - 100 foot candles (100 - 1,000 lux) wilt improve germinatin ad reduce stretch. Temperature: 65'

Temperature: 45' - 55'F (8" - 12'C) nights are optimal though crop will tolera a range of 40" - 65'F (4' - I 6'C). Under short days, cool temperatures can benefit flowering response. Camelot does not need a chilling period to set flowe however cooler temperatures will produce a higher quality plant with an increased number of flower stems. Morsfure; Alternate between moisture levels wet (4) and medium (2). Allow media to approach level (2) before re-saturating to level (4).

Humidity: 40 -70% Dehumidify: Provide horizontal airflow to aid in drying down the media throul
evapotranspiration, allowing beiter penetration of oxygen to the roots.

70'F

(1

8"

21.C) until cotyledon expansion.

Medium (2) untif radicle emergence. Then begin alternating between mo-isture levels moist (3) and medium (2). Allow media to approach level (2) before re-saturating to level (3). NorE: saturated media will discourage tir roots from penetrating into the media.

Molsturl

Humidity: Days

1 - 6 maintain g0 - 95% or until radicle emergence and initial roots penetrate the media. On day 7, reduce to 40 -70%.

- 150 ppm nitrogen with an ammonium based fertilizer (15-5-15 or 15-0-15). lncrease feed with lncreasing light intensit and temperature. Digitalis can benefit from additional iron and calium. Avoid ammonium levels >20%.
Growth Regulators: Digitalis responds to B-Nine (daminozide), A-Rest (ancymidol), Bonzi (paclobutrazol), or Sumagic (uniconazol). Apply before flow( spike begins to elongate.
Common Diseases.' Botfiis Common Pesfs; Aphids

Feilizers: Constant liquid feed at 100

evapotranspiration, allowing better penetration of oxygen to the roots.

Dehumidify: Provide horizontal airflow to aid in drying down the media through

Plug Bulking: Optimum conditions during the vegetative period, beginning at cotyledon expansion, needed for the root to reach the edge ofthe plug ce. Media: . pH: 5.8 6.2

. EC: <0.75
Lrghf.'Provide a light shade. Temperature: 60" - 65"F (1 6' - I B"C) Moisfure.'Alternate between moisture levels moist (3) and medium (2). Allow
media to approach level (2) before re-saturating to level (3).

PRODUCT USE
Large pots, containers, shade and sun plantings, mass plantings, home and commercial cut flower.

GARDEN SPECIF'ICATIONS
Light: Parlial shade to full sun USDA Hardiness Zone:5
AHS Heat Zone: 12

evapotranspiration, allowing better penetration ofoxygen to the roots. FeTilizers: Feed established seedlings at 75 1 50 ppm nitrogen every 2 _ 3 waterings with a calcium based fertilizer (13-2-13 or 14-4-14).-

Humidity: 40 -70oA Dehumidify: Provide horizontal airflow to aid in drying down the media through

24

- 30" (60 - 75 cm)

DIGITALS SCI-IEDULING IN WEEKS

Growth Regulators: PGRs applied in the plug stage will produce a more compact plant that is easier to ship. camelot will repond to B-Nine (daminozide) at 2,500 - 3,500 ppm or Sumagic (uniconazol) at 3 ppm.

Transplant to finish crop time


Aloe: Ihss $uggesbfis aie rsnly guitlelines and may have ttj lle altere{l irlclvidual grawerb reeds. check a!! chemcat labefs to verify tegistrat yur ragott.

ta trleet {or tse in

www. go I dsm ith seeds. com

14

Ci nderel larM,Twi n klerM


EUSTOMA GRANDIFLORUM

8-'Sr
M i n im
u

TH U

8)

CU TF

LOW
85o/o

ER

m Germination Rate:

Seed Product Form; Pelleted, raw

FLOWERING
Time frame when plants are receptive to ftower initiation.. 6 leaves are present.

Transplant Ready: I - 10 weeks from sow in a '288'tray. Transplant into beds when at least 2 - 3 pairs of true leaves are visible and before plugs become root bound- The plug surface should be planted slghtly above the soil surface to prevent Rhizoctonia infection. NOTE: Seedlings held too long in the plug tray will form twisted root balls that will result in delayed flowering on shorter stems. ake precautions to minimize root damage to the seedling during transplant. Stress of any kind will delay active root and stem growth and may promote rosetting.

8 sets of true

Spacing: Space on 4"-x-6" squares or 64

80 plants per square meter.

Flowering Type.' Facultative long-day plant - long days enhance flowering. Specific Flowering Mechanism: Acombination of long days and high light trigger
flowering.

Finish Bulking/Flower lnitiation: Optimum conditions during the vegetative period, beginning at transplant, needed for the root to reach the edge of the containerAND to make the plant receptive to flower initiation.
The key to growing a successful Lisianthus crop is the development of a well established root system. Good ventilation is necessary to create strong plants and reduce the incidence of disease.

PLUG CULTURE
Germination: Optimum conditions for seedling development that begins the day the crop is sown until cotyledon expansion. Expect radicle emergence in 10 - 14
days. Lisianthus prefers large, deep plug cells, which will promoie a better root system.

Media: pH:6.5 - 7 Lisianthus prefers a neutral media. EC: 0.5 - 1 . Pasteurize the beds on a regular basis between crops. Eustoma are not tolerant of non-disinfected soils. Amend soils as needed to provide good drainage and air porosity. This is particularly important during the cool season when temperatures and light levels are low, and media is slow to dry.

Cover: Do not cover.

Media: . pH: 6.8 -

Lighf: Twinkle can bloom under short days and supplemental lighting may not
Amend media with additional lime to adjust for a neutral
be necessary. Under low light conditions, supplemental lighting will promote stronger flowenng. Lisianthus need 14 - I 6-hour days to promote early flowering and active growth. High light levels (5,000+ foot candles, 50,000 lux) during the standard day will help to intensify flower color. Extreme light levels may lead to leaf edge burning on young leaves.

7.

pH. Lower pH levels may stunt plant growth.

. EC: 0.5 0.75 source of 10 - 1 00 foot candles (100 reduce stretch.

Lighf: Light is necessary for germination. lf utilizing a chamber, providing a light

- I ,000 lux) will improve germinatin

and

Temperature:70'- 75"F (20' -21'C). Throughout the germination process, Lisianthus seeds are sensitive to temperatures in excess f 75"F (24"C). lf not utilizing a germination chamber, place plug trays in a cool environment to prevent rosetting.
Average Daily Temperature (ADT):67'F (19'C). ADT in excess of ZB.F (25.C)
can trigger rosetting in the young plant stage.

Temperature: Soil temperatures should not drop below 60'F (15'C). Provide soil surface heating if necessary. Finish the crop at 60'- 65"F (1b'- 1B'C) nights; 70" -75"F (21" -24"C) days. Low temperatures will produce stronger stems, but will increase crop time. Average Daily Temperature (ADT):67"F (19'C). ADT in excess of 78'F (25"C)
can trigger rosetting in the young plant stage.

Moi?tule: Saturated (5) for days 10 - 14 until radicle emergence. Afteruvard, begin alternating between moisture levels wet (4) and medllm (2). Allow media
to approach level (2) before re-saturating to level (4).

Humidity:100% for days I

- 14 or until radicle emergence then reduce to 40 -70%. Dehumidify: Provide horizontal airflow to aid in drying down the media through
evapotranspiration, allowing better penetration of oxygen to the roots.

Moisture: Drip irrigation is the preferred method of irrigation. lmmediately after transplant, keep the media moist (3) to the touch until bud set. Once flowers have initiated, begin alternating between moisture levels wet (4) and medium (2). Allow media to approach level (2) before re-saturating to level (4). lt is important to water early in the day and provide good ventilation to produce a strong, healthy crop. Rapid drying of the foliage will discourage disease outbreaks. Do not let plants wilt. Drought stress can promote premature flowering.
1 0 - 14 days after transplant. Maintain low humidity conditions after transplants are established to prevent disease outbreaks. High humidity and overwatering will promote disease outbreaks. Drought stress in combination with low humidity levels may promote marginal leaf burn. Stem breakage can be attributed to sudden fluctuations in temperature and humidity.

Humidity: High daytime humidity, low nighttime humidity is necessary the first

Plug Bulking: Optimum conditions during the vegetative period, beginning at


cotyledon expansion, needed for the root to reach the edge of the plug celi. Lisianthus has a sensitive root system that needs to keep actively growing. Development of a good root system is critical for the success of [isianthus crop. Seedlings are slow to grow. Do not over-water.

Dehumidify: Provide horizontal airflow to aid in drying down the media through
evapotranspiration, allowing better penetration of oxygen to the roots.

Media: pH:6.8

7. EC: 0.75

-'t

!ig-t! Under (3,000


-

low light conditions, supplemental lighting at 300 - 400 foot candles 4,000 lux) for a 16-hour day will promote earlier flowering.

Temperature: 60" - 65'F (15' - 1 8'C) nights; 70. - 7 S.F (21. - 24.C) days. Days should not exceed 75'F (24"C) and nights shoutd noi drop below 60F (15'C) to avoid inducing rosetting. Average Daily Temperature (ADT):67'F (19"C). ADT in excess of 7B.F (25.C)
can trigger rosetting in the young plant stage. media.to approach level (2) before re-saturating to level (4). Do noi ver-water. Algae is indicative of a too-wet environment. provide airfiow over the trays to encourage evapotranspiration to pull excessive water from the media.

Fgrtilizerg: lnitially start fertilization with a nitrogen:potassium (N:K) ratio of l:1 at 100 - 150 ppm nitrogen with a calcium-based fertilizer (13-2-13 or 144'14). Once flower buds are visible, change the N:K ratio to 1:2 al 100 - 150 ppm nitrogen with
a near neutral ammonium-based fertilizer (15-10-30) to keep plant compaCt. Mildew, Thielaviopsis, Pythium, Phytophthora,Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus, lmpatiens Necryrtic Spot Virus,Tobacco Mosaic Virus. Viruses are commonly transmitted by Thrips.

peronospora, powdery Q9mmo2 Diseases.' Botrytis, Fusarium, Rhizoctonia and

Moisfure: Alternate between moisture levels wet (4) and medium (2). Allow

Common P.ests.'Aphids,Thrips and Leafminer. Fungus gnats are a major pest of young seedlings. The larvae feed on roots causing many problems froni delayed stem growth, flowering and stunted stems.

Dehumidify:. Lisianthus is native to arid regions. Excessive humidity will encourage disease. Provide horizontal airflow to aid in drying down'the media through evapotranspiration, allowing better penetration ofoxygen to the roots. Fedr?2ers.'Lisianthus are light to moderate feeders during the early plug stages.
Fertilize at 50 - 150 ppm nitrogen twice a week with a calium-bas tetzei (13-2-'13 or 14-4-14) to promote siong shoot and root growth.

PRODUCT USE
Commercial cut flower; vase life: 9

13 days

EUSTOMA SCHEDULING IN WEEKS


Total crop time

GROWING ON
Twinkle and Cinderella are considered early season varieties and will flower under short days. Cut flower Eustoma is typically transplanted direcfly into the ground. Raised beds are preferred. Provide support to the growing stems to produce high-quality stems. Good ventilation is necessary to creaie strong plants and reduce the incidence of disease.

'288'plug crop time


Transplant to finish crop time

22-26 B-10
Low light conditions: 14 - 16 High light conditions: 12 - 14

tlofe: Iese soggesfit]s are anly gudelines and nay have fo he

altered

meet indvitlLral growerb needs Cheok all chemical labels tt: verfy registra!an {or use in your reglon.

www.gol dsm ithseeds.com

15

0:.ldsmith Xt::.,.:fLlX SEEDS


:.t:::r:.ii::tl:.:ii,::::.i::.t:_rr.i:::.
::

LvzzyrM
EUSTOMA GRANN!FLARUM

{LtstAJVrf{usj nwARF
Minimum Germination Rate:
BSYo

Seed Product Form; Pelleted, raw

become root bound. The plug surface should be planted slightly above the soil surface to prevent Rhizoctonia infection. NOTE: Seedlings held too long in the plug tray will form twisted root balls that will result in delayed flowering on shorter stems. Take precautions to minimize root damage to the seedling during transplant. Stress of any kind will delay active root and stem growth and may promote rosetting.

FLOWERI{G
Time frame when plants are receptive to flower initiation; 6 leaves are present.

B sets of true

Finish BulkinglFlower lnitiation: Optimum conditions during the vegetative period, beginning at transplant, needed for the root to reach the edge of the containerAND to make the plant receptive to flower initiation.
The key to growing a successful Lisianthus crop is the development of a well established root system. Good ventilation is necessary to create strong plants and reduce the incidence of disease.

Flowering lype.'Facultative long-day plant - long days enhance flowering. Specific Flowering Mechanism: Acombination of long days and high light
trigger flowering.

PL.'G EULTIJRE
Germination: Optimum conditions for seedling development that begins the day the crop is sown until cotyledon expansion.
Expect radicle emergence in 10 - '14 days. Lisianthus prefers large deep plug cells which will promote a better root system.

Medra.'Select a porous media that drains well. Lisianthus requires a soil rich in organic material to promote active root growth. Lisianthus root systems have higt oxygen requirements" Provide good air porosity. Soils with high calcium and rich phosphate content are prefened by Lisianthus.

. pH: 6.5 - 7 Lisianthus prefers a neutral media. .EC: 0.5-1


Lgh; Lisianthus need 14 - 16-hour days to promote early flowering and active growth. lnterrupted nights i.e. Iighting from 10 p.m. -2a.m. undershortdays at 30 - 45 foot candles (300 - 450 lux) will promote earlier flowering. Begin treatments after six sets of true leaves are present. High light levels (5,000+ foot candles, 50,000 lux) during the standard day will help to intensify flower color.

Cover: Do not cover seed.

Media: . pH: 6.8

- 7. Amend media with additional lime to adjust for a neutral pH. Lower pH levels may stunt plant growth.
. EC: 0.5 - 0.75

Temperature:60"

65'F (15"

- 18'C) nights; 70' -75"F (21" - 24"C)

days.

Lrghf; Light is necessary for germination. lf utilizing a chamber, providing a light source of I 0 - 1 00 foot candles (100 - 1 ,000 lux) will improve germination and
reduce stretch.

Average Daily Temperature (ADT):67'F (19'C) Morbfure.'Alternate between moisture levels wet (4) and medium (2). Allow media to approach level (2) before re-saturating to level (4). After flowers have
initiated, alternate between wet (4) and dry (1.5). Allow media to approach level (1.5) before re-saturating to level (4). Watering early in the day and providing good ventilation is important to producing a strong, healthy crop. Rapid drying of the foliage will discourage disease outbreaks. Do not let plants wilt.

Temperature:70" -75'F (2O" -21'C) until cotyledon expansion. Throughout the germination process, Lisianthus seeds are sensitive to temperatures in excess of 75"F (24'C). lf not utilizing a germination chamber, place plug trays in a cool environment to prevent rosettrng.
Average DailyTemperature (ADT):67"F (19'C). ADT in excess of 78'F (2S'C)
can trigger rosetting in the young plant stage.

- '14 days after transplant.

Humidity: High daytime humidity, low nighttime humidity is necessary the first

10

Moisture: Saturated (5) fordays 10- 14 until radicleemergence.Aftenward, begin alternating between moisture levels wet (4) and medium (2). Allow media to approach level (2) before re-saturating to level (4).
40 ,700/,.

Humidity: 100% for days

Maintain low humidity conditions after transplants are established to prevent disease outbreaks. High humidity and ovenr,uatering will promote disease outbreaks. Drought stress in combination wiih low humidity levels may promote marginal leaf burn. Stem breakage can be attributed to sudden fluctuations in temperature and humidity"

14 or until radicle emergence then reduce to

Dehumidify: Provide horizontal airflow to aid in drying down the media through
evapotranspiration, allowing better penetration of oxygen to the roots.

Dehumidify: Provide horizontal airflow to aid in drying down the media through
evapotranspiration, allowing better penetration of oxygen to the roots.

Plug Bulking: Optimum conditions during the vegetative period, beginning at cotyledon expansion, needed for the root to reach the edge of the plug celi.
Lisianthus has a sensitive root system that needs to keep actively growing. Development of a good root system is critical for the success of a [isianthus crop. Seedlings are very slow to grow. Do not ovenvater.

flower buds are visible, change the N:K ratio to 1:2 at 100 - 150 ppm nitrogen with a near neutral ammonium-based fertilizer (15-10-30) to keep plant compact.

Fertilizers: lnitially start fertilization with a nitrogen:potassium (N:K) ratio of 1:'1 at 100 - 1 50 ppm nitrogen with a calcium-based fertilizer (13-2-13 or 144-14). Once Growth Regulafors.' PGRs may be necessary during periods of high heat >85'F (30'c).

Media: pH:6.8-7
EC: 0.75

,C9mmo1 Diseases; Botrytis, Fusarium, Rhizoctonia and Peronospora, Powdery Mildew, Thielaviopsis, Pythium, Phytophthora,Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus, lmpatiens Necrotic Spot Virus,Tobacco Mosaic Virus. Viruses are commonly transmitted by Thrips.

Lr'ghf; Under low light conditions, supplemental lighting at 300 - 400 foot candles (3,000 - 4,000 lux) for a 16-hour day will promote earlir flowering.

Temperature:60'- 65'F (15'- 18'C) nights; 70' -75"F (21" - 24'C) days. To avoid rosglting, days should not exceed 75"F (24'C) and nights shoutd noi drop below 60'F (15"C).
Average Daily Temperature (ADT): 67'F (19'C). ADT in excess of 7B.F (25"C)
can trigger rosetting in the young pant stage.

Common Pesfs: Aphids, Thrips and Leafminer. Fungus gnats are a major pest of young seedlings. The larvae feed on roots causing many problems from delayed stem growth, flowering and stunted stems.

GARPEf{ SPECIFICAT!ON$
Lrghf.'Full sun USDA Hardiness Zone: AHS Heat Zone: 12 - 1
B

Moisfure.'Alternate between moisture levels wet (4) and medium (2). Allow media to approach level (2) before re-saturating to level (4). Algae is indicative of a too-wet environment. Provide airflow over the trays to encourage evapotranspiration to pull excessive water from the media.

Dehumidify: Lisianthus is native to arid regions. Excessive humidity will encourage disease. Fertilizers: Lisianthus are light to moderate feeders during the early plug stages.
Fertilize at 50 - 150 ppm nitrogen twice a week with a caicium-based fertlzei (13-2-13 or 14-4-14) to promote strong shoot and root growth.

Lizzy

10

- 12" (25 - 30 cm)


Ih.

- 10" (20 - 25 cm)

FUSTCIMIA SCI.IEPU LIt',G


Total crop time
'288' plug crop time

WEEKS

Growth Regulators: Not necessary during plug production.


GROWNT.G CIN Transplant Ready.'
8

22-26

8-10
Green packs: 8 for

ish container when at least 2

10 weeks from sow in a '2BB'tray. Transplant in the fin- 3 pairs of true leaves are visible and before plugs
!1lV

Transplant to finish crop time


.fil,/}r i}

- 10
r*g,on

llofg: llrf-'se stggeslJor?s a{e

guitleliti#s i::ril ;"il*y aue k

** *lf*eJ lo *?o{ Ji?{iridi*j

]*eds C]*o&

;]/ chr?Jal J*bet! to y*rf-t'{risfrsJirt

Lts* :n y<>ur

www. goldsm ithseeds.com

16

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...:L".',,'
f:::r::rfr:::i:::::.:.:r":::

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F!.merM
GAILLARD'A PULCHELLA
M i ni m
u

Light: Provtde 4,750


of light.

7,500 foot candles (47,500

75,000 lux) or 17

28 mols

m Germ i nation Rate :

7 Oo/o

Seed Product Form.'Raw

Temperature: 60"F ( 15"C)

Fertilizer: 14-4-14 ot 17-5-17 aI 125

FLOIA'ERING
Specific Flowering Mechanism: fhe first 7 - 6 weeks supply short days
(10

the soil of 1.25

1.75.

150 ppm nitrogen, as needed for an EC in

Fu ngicides: None needed.

12 hours) to develop a full plant then supply 14+ hours to initiate flowering.

Flowering lype: Facultative long-day plant -14 hours or more needed to have a
uniform flowering crop.

GROWING ON
The timing approximations are based on optimal culture recommendations below:

PLIJG EIJLTIJRE
The timing approximations are based on optimal culture recommendations below: (approximately day 14 - 21): From the time a seed is sown until radicle emergence takes place; usually with the root penetrating the media and some cotyledon development. Humidity in the air is 95 - 98% (humidification); media moisture wet (4 - 4.5). Expect radicle emergence in 4 - 5 days.

Transplant to Frnish (approximately day 36 - 84): Optimize plant shoot and root growth, which is usually a 1:1 ratio. Flower buds are usually present and developing.

Media: . pH: 6-6.2

Germination

.EC:1.5-2
Lrgh: Provide 5,000

7,500 foot candles (50,000

75,000) or

'18

28 mols.

Temperature: 55

60'F (13.5" -1 5'C)

Cover: Do not cover seeds, as light will assist in germination. Media: Use a well-drained growing media. Avoid media compaction to allow for
root penetration.

Moisure.'Alternate between moisture levels wet (4) and medium (2). Allow media to approach level (2) before re-saturating to wet (4).

.pH: 6-6.2. . EC: 0.5 - 0.75 Lighf; Light will assist in germination.
Moisture: Wet (4+), keep soil uniformly moist during stage Temperature: 68'
1
.

Humidity:40% Feriilizers: 14-4-14 or 17-5-17 al 175


of 1.5

2.

225 ppm, as needed for an EC in the soil

Growth Regulafors.'B-Nine (daminozide) at 2,500 cool PGRs should not be required. Fungicides: None should be required.

5,000 ppm. lf plants grown

Humidity: 100% until radicles emerge, then begin lowering.

74'F (20"

23'C) until day 14 -

21

TECI-INISUE$ TO ENI-IANEE POST HARVEST QU.AI.ITY


0.75.

Fertilizers: Maintain electrical conductivity (EC) of 0.5

When to Treat:

2 weeks prior to finish or shipping.

Germination 2 (approximately day 14 - 21): From the time cotyledon is observed until it is fully expanded. The roots have expanded throughout the

Growth Regulators: B-Nine (daminozide) at 2,500

3,000 ppm.

media. Dehumidify from g8% to 50 % in the air. Media moisture during the wet cycle is usually 4 - 5, and 3 -4 during the dry cycle; this wet-dry cycle should take place within 12 - 24 hours.

Fertilizer: Potassium nitrate drench at 150 ppm nitrogen.


Common Diseases; INSV White Smut, Powdery Mildew. Monitor moisture and
humidity levels.

Media:. pH: 6-6.2


. EC: 0.5 - 0.75 Light: 2,000

Common Pesfs.'Fungus Gnats and Thrips. Use pesticides according to label


directions.

3,000 foot candles (20,000

30,000 lux); 6 - 10 mols of light.

PRODUCT

Moisture: Dry back media to wet (4) and alternation to moist (3) within 18 hours
at radicle emergence.

USE
plantings

GARDFN SFECIF'ICATIONS
Lrglr; Full sun USDA Hardiness Zone:8 AHS Heat Zone: 10

Pots, containers, mass

Dehumidify: Lower relative humidity to 40%. Provide horizontal airflow to aid

in

drying down the media through evapotranspiration, allowing better penetration of oxygen to the roots.

(20'-22"C).

Temperature: Once cotyledons are observed, reduce temperature to 68"

72"F

PIume
in

12

14" (30

35 cm)

12

14' (30

35 cm)

the soil of 0.5


Fu

Fertilizers: 14-4-14 or 17-5-17 at 50 - 75 ppm nitrogen as needed for an EC

0.75.

GAILLARBIA SCFIEDUI-ING

If'

WEEKS

ngicides: None required


Total crop time

PIug Bulking/Flower lnitiation:fhe time it takes for the shoots to proportionately fill the plug cell and for roots to develop throughout the media. lnduction and initiation may occur. lf buds are present, they should be few in number and small in size.

12-15

Media:. pH: 6-6.2


. EC:0.7 Light: 2,500

'128'plug crop time '200'plug crop time '288'plug crop time


Transplant to finish crop time

8-9
AQ EA

- 1.2

3,000 foot candles.

Temperature: 65' - 68'F (1 5 - 20'C) Moisture: Alternate between moisture level wet (4) to medium (2). Allow the soil
to approach medium (2), before re-saturating to wet (4). lf media is allowed to dry back further than (2), root damage may occur.

4" crop 6" crop 8" crop

7 8 9

8, depending on number of plugs transplanted 9, depending on number of plugs transplanted


1

Fertilizers: 14-4-14 or 17-5-17 al 100


in the soil of 0.7
G

- 1.2.

175 ppm nitrogen, as needed for an EC

0, depending on number of plugs transplanted

rowth Reg u lafors.' None required.

Fungicides : None needed.


and flower bud development.

The shortest crops times may be achieved when following recommended optimal culture. Deviation in environmental conditions will result in longer crop times.
afe: Ihese sugrgesllons are only guideiines and mey ha'te i be altercd to tneet individual grxwer s needs. Check ali cltenlcal iabe ls to verify regisu alian for use in your region.

lntiated Bulking: 7 - 8 weeks after sowing seedlings are receptive to initiation

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17

GazoorM, Kisst*u KiS KissrM


GAZAV'A SPLEAIDF,l,S
Minimum Germination Rate.'Kiss, Big Kiss 90%, Gazoo 80% Seed Product Form.' Raw FN-OWERING
Time frame when plants are receptive to flower initiation; Days 16 6 - B true leaves present.

Temperature: After transplants are established, reduce night temperatures to

55'

60'F (12"

16'C), with moderate day temperatures.


(1 .5)

Moisfure.'Alternate between moisture levels wet (4) and dry


approach level (1.5) before re-saturating to level (4).

Allow media to

20;

Humidity:40 -70o/o Dehumidify: Provide horizontal airflow to aid in drying down the media through
evapotranspiration, allowing better penetration of oxygen to the roots.

Flowering Type.' Facultative long-day plant - long days enhance for flowering. Specific Flowering Mechanism: Maturity and warm temperatures trigger
flowering. lrradiance will improve bud counts.

Fertilizers:150 - 200 ppm nitrogen as needed with a fertilizer containing low amounts of ammonium and phosphorus.

PLUG CUI-TURE
Germination: Optimum conditions for seedling development that begins the day the crop is sown until cotyledon expansion.
Expect radicle emergence in 4

Growth Regulators: Kiss has been bred for a naturally bushy compact habit. Growth regulators are not required under normal growing regimes. lf needed, Gazania responds to Cycocel (chlormequat chloride) or B-Nne (daminozide). When temperatures exceed 80'F (26"C), a tank mix of B-nine/Cycocel may prove more effective.
Com mo n Dr:seases.' Botrytis,
Rh izocton

6 days.

ia, Sclerotinia

Cover.'Cover seeds with a thin layer of medium-sized vermiculite to maintain moisture levels.

Common Pesfs.'Thrips, Spider Mite, Aphids

Meda: . pH: 5.8 - 6.2 . EC: 0.5 - 0.75 Lighf; Light has no effeci on germination of Kiss Gazania. lf utilizing a chambe
providing a light source of 10 - 100 foot candles (100 germination and reduce stretch.

GARDEN SPEEIFICATONS
Lrghf: Full sun
USDAHardiness Zone:8 AHS Heat Zone: 12 - 3

- I ,000 lux) will improve


10

Moisture: Moist (3) for days 1 - 3 or until radicle emergence. On days 4 - 14, reduce moisture to medium (2). Beginning day 15, alternate between moisture levels moist (3) and medium (2) until cotyledon expansion. Allow media to approach level (2) before re-saturating to level (3).

Humidity: 100% until radicle emergence then reduce to 40%. Dehumidify: Provide horizontal airflow to aid in drying down the media through
evapotranspiration, allowing better penetration of oxygen to the roots.

- 12" (25 - 30 cm) I - 10" (20 - 25 cm) 10 - 12" (25 - 30 cm)


GAZANIA SChIEDUI-ING N WEEKS

- 12" (25 - 30 cm) 8 - 10" (20 - 25 cm) 10 - 12" (25 - 30 cm)


10

Temperature:70" -75"F (21' -24'C) until radicle emergence, then lowerto 65' - 68"F (1 8" - 20'C) until cotyledon expansion. Plug Bulking: Optimum conditions during the vegetative period, beginning at cotyledon expansion, needed for the root to reach the edge of the plug cell. Media: . pH: 5.8 6.2

Transplant to finish crop time

. EC: 0.75

Lrglt.' Under low light conditions, supplemental light for a 14

be necessary to produce a compact, sturdy seedling. 62"

6-hour day may

Temperature:65" - 68"F (18'- 20'C). Gradually reduce temperatures to - 65"F (16' - 18'C) as the seedlings mature.

Moisfure.'Alternate between moisture levels moist (3) and medium (2). Allow
media to approach level (2) before re-saturating to level (3).

Ajofe: Ihese suggesflons are arly guidelines and nay have ta be ate{ed ta meet individual grawer's needs. Check all chemica! labels to verify regstratfi far use it yout {egiar!.

Humidity:40 -70o/o Dehumidify: Provide horizontal airflow to aid in drying down the media through
evapotranspiration, allowing better penetration of oxygen to the roots.

Fertilizers: Feed 1 - 2 times per week at 100 - 200 ppm nitrogen. Under high light conditions, apply an ammonium-based feed (17-5-17). Under low light conditions, apply a calcium-based feed (14-4-14). Under high light and long or extended days, an ammonium-based feed (20-10-20) is preferred.

Growth Regulators: Kiss has been bred for a naturally bushy compact habit. Growth regulators are not required under normal growing regimes. lf desired, apply B-Nine (daminozide) at 2,500 ppm.

GROWING ON
Transplant Ready; 5 - 6 weeks from sow in a '288'iray. Finish Bulking/Flower Initiation: Optimum conditions during the vegetative period, beginning at transplant, needed for the root to reach the edge of the containerAND to make the plant receptive to flower initiation.

Media: . pH: 5.8 - 6.2 . EC: 1- 1.5 Lighf; Provide full sun.

www. gol dsm ithseeds. com

1B

Bu

IsEyt*,

El

iternn,
11

Maverickt*, FintorM, Mu ltibloornrMo CIrbito*,


200CIrM
from sowing, therefore, it is necessary to keep Muliibloom actively growing. Do not stress Multibloom by withholding water or fertilizer. Otherwise, the culture remains the same for all Geraniums.

Orbit Synchrort, Ringo


GERANIUM PELARGOAJ'UM X
Minimum Germination Rate: 90Vo Seed Product Form; Coated

ARTORUf

Transplant Ready:4

5 weeks from sow in a '288'tray.

FLOWERING 4-6leavespresent. F I owe ri n g lype.' Geran


Time frame when plants are receptive to flower initiation.' Days 18
iu

24:

Finish Bulking/Flower lnitiation: Optimum conditions during the vegetative period, beginning at transplant, needed for the root to reach the edge of the containerAND to make the plant receptive to flower initiation.

ms are day-neutral plants.

Mdia: pH:6.2and necrosisl'EC:

Specfic Flowering Mechanism: Light and temperature trigger flowering. Geraniums are light accumulators, the more light received, the faster the growth and eariier the flowering. DIF treatments may negate flowering.

6.5. Low pH symptoms include yellowing of leaves, interveinal chlorosis 1 .2 - 1 .5 High salts may enmurage roots to become very brittle.

Lighf; Provide 3,500 - 4,500 foot candles (15 - 20 total mols or 35,000 - 45,000

PLUG CULTURE
Germination: Optimum conditions for seedling development that begins the day the
crop is sown until cotyledon expansion. Expect radicle emergence in
1

lux) to hqsten flower induction. Supplemental lighting under low-light conditions at 350 - 450 foot candles (35,000 - 45,000 lux) will enhance shoot and root growth. Lighting after transplant for 2 - 3 weeks, at 300 - 500 foot candles (3,000 - 5,000 lux) for 14 - 1B hours a day will induce early flowering.

3 days.

Cover.'Cover seeds with a thin layer of medium-sized vermiculite to maintain moisiure levels.

Temperature: 60' - 65'F (1 6" - I 8"C) nights and 70' - 75'F (21' - 24'C) days. Manipulation of night temperatures after buds are visible can speed up or slow down flower development to meet a sales date. Average Daily Temperature (ADT):67"F (19"C)
(3). Allow media to aF proach level (3) before resaturating to level (4). Excessive drying of the media moisture level will concentrate salts around the rcot system and bum the root hairs. Symptoms of excessive drying include lower leaves tuming reddish to yellow, and root tip die-back.

Media: . pH: 6.4 - 6.5 pH levels <6 may promote shoot tip abortion and allow
. EC: 0.75

sodium, iron and manganese to becoming toxic. Symptoms of nutrient toxicity will exhibit itself on the lower leaves.

Moisfure;Altemate between moisture levels wet (4) and moist

- '1 High EC discourages

rooting into the media.

Lght is not necessary for germination. lf utilizing a chamber, providing a light source of 10 - 100 foot candles (100 - 1 ,000 lux) will improve germination and reduce stretch. 3. On days 4 - 8 reduce to moist (3). Beginning day 9, reduce moisture further to medium (2). Geraniums have a high oxygen requirement at the root level.
1

Lighf

Dehumidify: Provide horizontal airflow to aid in drying down the media through
evapotranspiration under cool, low-light conditions.

Fertilizers: Constant liquid feed at 200 ppm nitrogen with a calcium-based


fertilizer
(1

Moisture: Saturated (5) for day

3-2-1 3 or 14-4-14).

Humidity:100% until radicle emergence then reduce to 40%. Dehumidify: Provide horizontal airflow to aid in drying down the media through
evapotranspiration, allowing better penetration of oxygen to the roots.

Temperature:73'F (23'C). Thermodormancy, which causes erratic germination, is induced when temperatures exceed 76'F (25'C). Temperatures below 71'F (22'C) decrease the speed and uniformity of germination.
PIug Bulking: Optimum conditions during the vegetative period, beginning at cotyledon expansion, needed for the root to reach the edge of the plug cell. Media: pH:6.4 - 6.5. EC:1 -2 Lighf:Supplemental lighting at 350
16

- 5 applications of Cycocel (chlormequat chloride) at 750 ppm beginning when 3 - 5 true leaves are present will control growth. NOTE: Do not apply Cycocel afterthe buds have emerged above the foliage. Small and/or malformed flowers rl.uill result from late applications of Cycocel. Also responds to A-Rest (ancymidol), Bonzi (paclobutrazol), Sumagic (uniconazol) or B-Nine/Cycocel (chlormequat chloride) tank mix.
Common Dlseases.' Botrytis, Pythium, Alternaria, Pseudomonas, Rust Common Pesfs.'Thrips

Growth Regulafors.' A total of 4

PA6MUET

USE
be

] GARI}EN SPEGIFCATIONS
11

- 450 foot candtes (3,500 - 4,500 tux) for a 8-hour day will promote earlier flowering. Supplemental lighting may not be necessary with Multibloom.

Pots, containers, mass plantings. I Lighf; Full sun Multibloom and Elite can also I USDAHardiness Zone: used in I AHS Heat Zone: 12 - 1

packs.

(16'-

Temperature:65" - 70'F (18' 18"C) to hold plugs.

20'C). Gradually reduce to 62"

65.F
10

Moisture: Alternate between moisture levels wet (4) and medium (2). Allow
media to approach level (2) before re-saturating to level (4).

12" (25

30 cm)

10 10

- 12'(25 - 30 cm)

Humidity: 40 -70o/o Dehumidify: Provide horizontal airflow to aid in drying down the media through
evapotranspiration, allowing better penetration of oxygen to the roots. FeTilizers: Nlemate between calcium-based fertillzers (13-2-13 or 144-14) and polassum nitrate (15-5-15) at 50 75 ppm nitrogen. Phosphorus should not exceed 10 ppm. Geraniums are sensitive to ammonium. Ammonium levels should not exceed 5 ppm to prevent

stretch'

- 14" (30 - 35 cm) - 15" (33 - 38 cm) 14 - 16'(35 - 40 cm) 14 - 16" (35 - 40 cm) 12 - 14" (30 - 35 cm)
12 13

- 12'(25 - 30 cm) 11 - 13" (28 - 33 cm) 12 - 14" (30 - 35 cm) 12 - 14" (30 - 35 cm) 10 - 12" (25 - 30 cm)

Gases.' Supplemental carbon dioxide can be applied at 1,000 ppm to enhance flowering under high light conditions.

GERANTUM SCHEDULTNG rN

wEEKs

Growth Regu lafors; Begin applications of Cycocel (chlormequat chloride) at 750 ppm when 3 - 5 true leaves are present.

Total crop time '288' plug crop time

13-15

13-14

12-

15

12-14

11

12

13-14

11 -13

4-5
N/A

4-5
11

4-5
N/A

4-5
N/A

4-5
N/A

4-5

Transplant to finish crop time Packs

GROWING ON
NOTE: Multibloom culture is slightly dfferent than typical Geraniums. Multibloom will set bud in 6 - 7 weeks

-12

6-7

4'crop
6" crop

7-10
10-12

7-10
10-12

7-10
10-12

7-10
1012

6-B
N/A

7-10
10-12

7-8 6-8
N/A

www.go I dsm ithseeds.com

19

0r,,ldsmith ti::ix S E E D s
:i-r,l'i::::,:::.il::riiai.

TornadorM
GER

AN I U M

M i ni m u m Germi

E LARGO'V' U M P E LTAT U M nation Rate : 80o/o


P

applications of Cycocel (chlormequat chloride) at 300 ppm when 3 - 5 true leaves are present. Fungicides: Preventative fungicide may be applied for Pythium, Rhizoctonia anc
Thielaviopsis.

Seed Product Form.' Film coated

FLOWERING
Flowering Mechanism.. lrradiance (primary); plants initiate on approximately days 20 - 24,4 * 6 leaves present with HID light for 16-18 hours OR total 12 16 moti (3,500

Plug Bulking/Flower lnitiation (approximately day 15 - 24): The time it takes for the shoots to proportionately fill the plug cell and for roots to develop
throughout the media. lnduction and initiation may occur; if buds are present, they should be few in number and small in size.

4,500 ft. candles) for 3


i

4 weeks at 6b"

7O'F

(1

B'

20.C).

F l ow eri n g lype.' Geran

ms are day-neutral plants.

Specific Flowering Mechanism: Light and temperature trigger flowering. Geraniums are light accumulators, the more light received, the faster the growth and earlier the flowering. DIF treatments may negate flowering. PN-UG EULTURE
The timing approximations are based on optimal culture recommendations below: radicle emergence takes place; usually with the root penetrating the media and some cotyledon development. Humidity in the air is 95 - 98% (humidification); media moisture (4+ - 5). Expect radicle emergence in 4 days.

Media: . pH: 6-6.2 ' . EC: 1 - 1.5 Lrghi: Provide


350
3,OOO

lux) to hasten flower induction. Supplemental lighting under low light conditions a.

3,500 foot candles (10

12total mols or 30,000

35,000

450 foot candles (35,000

45,000 lux) will enhance shoot and root growth, 20"C). Gradually reduce to 62"

Temperature: 65' - 70"F (18' (16'- 18'C) to hold plugs.

6S"F

Germination I (approximately day 1 - 4): From the time a seed is sown until

Mor:sfufe.'Alternate between moisture levels wet (4) and medium (2). Allow media to approach level (2) before re-saturating to level (4).

Humidity:40 -70o/o
FerTilizers: Alternate between calcium-based fertilizers (13-2-15 or 14-4-14) and
potassium nitrate (15-5-15) at 75

Cover.'Cover seeds with a thin layer of medium-sized vermiculite to majntain moisture levels.

exceed 10 ppm.

- 100 ppm nitrogen.

Phosphorus should not

Media:. pH: 6 - 6.2 lvy Geraniums are not as sensitive to a lower pH as other
Geraniums and can show signs of iron and magnesium deficiencies at a pH above 6.3; these are expressed as inter-veinal chlorosis on the new growth.

Growth Regulators: lf needed, spray Cycocel (chlormequat chloride) at 300 ppm.


Thielaviopsis.

Fungicides: Preventative fungicide may be applied for pythium, Rhizoctonia and

. EC: 0.75

1 High EC discourages rooting into the media.

Lrgh; Lighi is not necessary for germination. lf utilizing a chamber, providing a light source of 10 - 100 foot candles (100 - 1,000 lux) will improve germination and reduce stretch. Saturated (5) for day 1 - 4. On days 5 - 8 reduce to moist (3). Beginning day 9, reduce moisture further to medium (2). Geraniums have a high oxygen requirement at the root level.

Initiated Bulking (approximately day 25 -34): Seedlings develop from juvenile Lrghf: Provide 3,500
of light.

to mature, usually determined by the number of leaves present (cultivar specific). Seedlings are receptive to initiation and flower bud development.

loisture:

4,500 foot candtes (35,000 - 45,000 lux) or 12

6 mols

Humidity: 100% until radicle emergence then reduce to 40%. Dehumidirv: provide horizontar airnow to aid in dryins down the-me-dia
evapotranspiration, allowing better penetration of oxygen to the

through :::XHll l$ilirfi;? Slilit ;i,sn?,l:T ilj:?8:l tj,i,:ji:H "ultllft roots. ieach wth fresh water every third watering. Temperature:73'F (23'C). Thermodormancy, which causes,erratic germination , Fungicides.. preventative fungicide may be applied for pythium, Rhizoctonia and is induced when temperatures exceed 76'F (25'C). Temperatures bow 71"F iietaviopsis. (22"C)
decrease the speed and uniformity of germination.

Temperature:62'- 68'F (17' -20'C) Fertilizer: Alle.nate between calcium-based fertilizers (13-2-13 or 14-4-14) and

until it is fully expanded. The roots have expanded throughoui the media. Dehumidify from 98% to 50% moisture in the air. Media moisture during the wet cycle is usually 4 - 5, and 2 - 3 during the dry cycle; this wet-dry cycleihould take place within 12 - 24 hours for most plants.

Germination 2 (approximately day 5 - l4): From the time coiyledon is observed

GROWING ON
The timing approximations are based on optimal culture recommendations below:

Transplant to Frnish (approximately day 35 - 9B): Optimize plant shoot and root growth; which is usually a 1:1 ratio. Flower buds are usually present and developing.

Media:. pH: 6-6.2 .EC: 1-1.5


Lighf;-Supplemental lighting at 350 - 4S0 foot candtes (3,500
16

Media:. pH: 6-6.2

- 18-hour day will promote


20"C).

earlier flowering.

4,500 tux) for a

(18'-

Temperature: 68"

70'F (20'

21'C). Gradually reduce to 6b"

70.F

Moisfure.'Alternate between moisture levels wet (4) and medium (2). Allow
media to approach level (2) before re-saturating to level (4).

lux) to hasten flower induction. Supplemental lighting under low light conditions at 350 - 450 foot candles (35,000 - 45,000 lux) will enhance shoot and root growth. Lighting after transplant for 2 - 3 weeks, at 300 - 500 foot candles (3,000 5,000 lux) for 14 - 18 hours a day will induce early flowering.

. EC: 1.2 - 1 .5 High salts may encourage roois to become very britfle. Lrght'Provide 3,500 - 4,500 foot candles (1S - 20 total mols or 35,000 - 4S,OOO

Temperature:60'- 65'F (16" - 18"C) nights and 70. -75.F (21. -24"C) days
Morbfure; Alternate between moisture levels wet (4) and moist (3). Allow media to approach level (3) before re-saturating to level (4). Excessive drying of the media moisture level will concentrate salts around the root system and burn the root hairs. Symptoms of excessive drying include lower leaves turning reddish to yellow, and root tip die-back.

Humidity:40 -70% Dehumidify: Lower relative humidity to 40% (approximately day g). provide
horizontal airflow to aid in drying down the meda through evapotranspiration, allowing better penetration of oxygen to the roots.

and potassium nitrate (15-5-15) at 50 - 75 ppm nitrogen. phosphorus shoul.d not exceed 10 ppm. Geraniums are sensitive to ammonium. Ammonium levels
should not exceed 5 ppm to prevent stretch. Gases.' Supplemental carbon dioxide can be applied at 1,000 ppm to enhance flowering under high light conditions.

FeTilizers: Alternate between calcium-based fertilizers (13-2-13 or 144-14)

Dehumidify: Provide horizontal airflow to aid in drying down the media through
evapotranspiration under cool, lowJight conditions.

Humidity:40o/o

Growth Regulators: Tornado Geraniums are naturally self branching and compact growing. lf growth regulators are applied, use lower rates. Begin

Fertilizers: Constant liquid feed at 150 - 200 ppm nitrogen with a calcium-based fertilizer (13-2-13 or 14-4-14). Under high tight conditions, a20-10-20 fertitizer can be used. Leach with fresh water every third watering.

continued on next page

www. go ldsm ithseeds.com

20

TornadorM (continued)
Growth Regulators: lf needed, spray Cycocel (chlormequat chloride) at

- 500 ppm. NOTE: Do not apply Cycocel after the buds have emerged above the foliage. Small and/or malformed flowers will result from late applications of Cycocel.
300

Fungicides: Preventative fungicide may be applied for Pythium, Rhizoctonia and


Thielaviopsis.

TECHNIQUES TO ENHANCE POST HARVEST QUALITY


When to Treat: 1 - 2weeks prior to finish or shipping. Fertilizer: Potassium nitrate drench at 150 ppm nitrogen. Common Diseases,' Pythium, Rhizoctonia and Thielaviopsis. Monitor moisture and humidity levels and use preventative fungicide drenches.

Common Pesls Fungus Gnats, Shore Flies and Thrips. Use pesticides according to label directions.

PRODUCT

USE

I EIROEru SPECIFICATIONS
Part to full sun
1Q
1

Pots, contaners, mass

plantngs j Llght:
AHS

USDAHardiness Zone:

HeatZone:12-

Tornado

- 10" (20 - 25 cm) '

12-

14" (30

35 cm)

GERANIUM SCHEDULING IN WEEKS:

Transplant to finish crop time from a'288' plug

- 10, depending - 10, depending 10 - 11, depending


9 9

on number of plugs transplanted on number of plugs transplanted on number of plugs transplanted

The shortest crops times may be achieved when following recommended optimal culture. Deviation in environmental conditions will result in longer crop times.
Nofe.' Iftese saggestions are anly guidelnes and may have to be altered ta meet individual grower's needs" Check all chemica! labels to verify registraton for use in yaur region.

www. go l ds m ith seeds. com

21

&S{dsmitl "-SEEDls

f aguarrM GERBERA JAMESANII


M i n imu

Fertilizers: 17-5-17 or 20-10-20 depending on light levels, at j25


nitrogen and to maintain an EC of 1.25 - 1.5 in the soil. Supply 8 phosphorus, supply 1.5 ppm iron and 0.5 ppm boron.

m Germ inatio n Rafe.' 90%

- 50 ppm - 12 ppm
1

Seed Product Form.'Raw

Growth Regurafofs.' At ths stage, no growih regulators should be needed.

FI*OWERING
Flowering Mechanism: lrradiance (primary); plants initiate at the 4 - b leaf stage on approximately day 28 with HID light for'l 6 hours OR total I 4 24 mols (4,050 - 6,500 foot candles) for 3 - 4 weeks. Flowering lype.'Facultative long-day plant - high irradiance, temperatures higher than 68'F (20"C) will enhance flowering.

Fungicides: Preventative fungicide may be applied for Rhizoctonia, Pythium and


Phytophthora.

lnitiated Bulking (approximately day 29 - 48): Seedlings develop from juvenile to mature, usually determined by the number of leaves present (cultivar specific). Seedlings are receptive to initiation and flower bud development.

Lighf; Provide 3,500


of light.

5,500 foot candles (35,000

55,000 tux) or 12

20 mots

PI.UG CULTURE:
The timing approximations are based on optimal culture recommendations below:

Temperature:68" -72"F (20' -22"C)with a 5" - 10"F (2" - 5'C) DtF or drop in the inorning two hours before sunrise to approximately g a.m.
Mcjbfure.'Alternate between moisture levels wet (4) and medium (2). Allow plants to dry back completely between watering. Too much water and fertilizer will cause deformed plants with a thick leaf. Drying back the plants should take place within an l8-hour period.

Germination I (approximately day 1 - 4): From the time a seed is sown until radicle emergence takes place; usually with the root penetrating the media and some cotyledon development. Humidity in the air is 95 - 98% (humidification); media moisture saturated (5). Expect radicle emergence in 3 - 4 days"
Cover.' No cover is needed. Seeds require light for germination.

Media: Avoid media compaction to allow for root penetration. . pH: 5.3 5.5; higher pH will promote iron and manganese deficiency. -

Feilizers: 17-5-17 or 20-10-20 depending on light levels, at 125 - I 50 ppm nitrogen and to maintain an EC of 1.25 - 1.5 in the soil. Supply 8 -12 ppm
phosphorus, supply 1.5 ppm iron.

.EC:1-1.2

Fungicides: Preventative fungicide may be applied for Rhizoctonia, Pythium, and Phytophthora.

I-rghf; lf using a germination chamber, providing a Iight source of 10 - 100 foot


c_andles (100

Germination: 16 hours.

- 1 ,000 lux) will improve germination.

Optimum daylength during

GROWING ON
The timing approximations are based on optimal culture recommendations below: Use care not to plant too deep, slightly higher than the soil line from the plug tray. Place plants pot to pot to be final spaced in approximately three weeks.

Moisture: Saturated (5), from day 1 - 3 or until radical emergence (approximately day 4). lf you are unable to dehumidify on day 4, decrease the starting moisture level from saturated (5) to a wet (4+).

Humidity:95

98% from day

4 or until seed coats are shed.

Transplant to Frnrbh (approximately day 49 to finish): Optimize plant shoot and root growth, which is usually a 1:1 ratio. Flower buds are usually present and
developing.

Temperatu re: 76'F (24' C) until radical emergence.

Fertilizers: 144-14 or 17-117 at60 -70 ppm nitrogen to maintain an EC of 1 1.2. Germination 2 (approximately day 5 - 7): From the time cotyledon is observed until it is fully expanded. The roots have expanded throughout the media.
Dehumidify from 98% lo 40% moisture in the air.

Media: . pH: 5.5 - 5.8 . EC: 1.5 - 1.75 Lighf; Provide 4,000
Provide 11

Media: . pH: 5.3 - 5.5 . EC:. 1.2 - 1 .5 Light:2,000 -2,500 foot candles (20,000

13-hourdaylength.

6,000 foot candles (40,000

60,000 tux); 14

22 mots.

25,000 tux); 6

B mots of light.

Temperature: Start at 70" - 72"F (21' - 22"C) for the first two weeks and then lower the temperature to 65' - 6B'F (19' - 20"C); using a 5' 1O.F (2. 5.C) negative DIF or drop in the moming two hours before sunrise to approximately 9 a.m.

Moisture: Media moisture should alternate between a saturated (5) to moist (3) within '18 hours at radical emergence. Approximately day 5: Begin alternating
between a wet (4) and a moist (3).
SOok (approximately day 5). provide horizontal airflow to aid in drying down the media through evapotranipiiation, allowing better penetration of oxygen to the roots.

Moisfure.'Alternate between moisture levels wet (4) and medium (2). Allow
media to approach level (2) before re-saturating to wet (4).

Humidity: 40 - 50%
Fertilizers: Constant feeding with a 1 7-5-17 fertilizer at I 50 - 200 ppm to maintain an EC in the soil of 1.75 - 2.5. Under high light conditions a 20-10-20 fertilizer can be used. Supply 8 - 12 ppm phosphorus, supply 1.5 ppm iron.

Dehumidify: Lower relative humidity to 40 -

Temperature: Once cotyledons are observed, reduce temperature to 74.F (23'C) and gradually reduce further to 72"F (22.C) in the next 2 3 days. -

Fertilizers: 17-5-17 at 60 - 75 ppm nitrogen as needed to maintain an EC in the soil of 1.2 -1.5. Fungicides: Preventative fungicide may be applied for soilborne diseases between day 5 and 7.
PIug Bulking/Flower tnitiation (approximately day I - 2B): The time it takes for the shoots to proportionately fill the plug cell and for roots to develop throughout the media. lnduction and initiation may occur; if buds are present, they should be few in number and small in size.

Growth Regulators: Jaguar normally does not need growth regulators. Under long day conditions >'16 hours they can help reduce leaf size and tone the crop. For smaller containers and 4" (10 cm) pots, apply B-Nine (daminozide) at 2,500 7 - 10 days after potting.
Fungicides: Preventative fungicide may be applied for Rhizoctonia, pythium and
Phytophthora.

TECHNIQUES TO ENHANCE POST HARVEST QUALITY


When to Treat: I - 2 weeks prior to finish or shipping. Fertilizer: Potassium ntrate drench at 150 ppm nitrogen.

Media: . pH: 5.5 - 5.8


. EC: 1.20

1.5

5O,0OO tux); 12

Ltghf; 3,500

- Altermaria, Botrytis and powdery Mildew; soilborne Phytophthora, Rhizoctonia and Pythium. Monitor moisture and humidity levels and use preventative fungicide drenches.
Common Drbeases.' Foliar Common Pesfs.' Aphids, Fungus Gnats, Shore Flies, Broad Mites, Cyclamen Mites, Spider Mites, Thrips, Whitefly and Leafminers. Use pesticides according to label directions.

5,000 foot candles (35,000

- i 8 mots of tight.
in

Temperature: 68"

70"F (20"

the morning two hours before sunrise to approximately g a.m.

21'C) with a 5 - B"F (2" - 4" C) DtF or drop

Moisture: lt is critical to allow adequate dry back between watering. Alternate between moisture level wei (4) to medium (2). Allow the soil to approach medium (2), before re-saturating to wet (4). lf media is allowed to dry back further than (2), root damage may occur resulting in a lack of iron uptake.

continued on next page

www. goldsm ithseeds.com

ldsmir G SEEDS

faguarrM (continued)
PRODUCT

pofi

USE

I GARDEN SpECtFtcATtONS
10

containers, mass

plantings I lglc, errt to tutt .rn I USDAHardiness Zone:


AHS

HeatZone:12-1

Jquar

- 10" (20 - 25 cm)

6-8"(15-20cm)

GERBERA SCHEDULING IN WEEKS:


q\
Winter and Spring 17

Summer 16

- l8

19

Tnnsplant to fin16h crop time from a '288' plug

6" crcp,'72'plug

- 12; Summer 9 - 10 - 12; Summer9- 10 Winter and Spring 12 - 13; Summer 10 - l1 Winter and Spring 12 - 14, Summer 10 - 12
Winter and Spring 11

Winterand Spring

11

Nofej lhese suggestions are only guidelines and may have to be altered to meet ndividual grower's needs- Check all chemical labets to ver| registration for use in
your region.

www. go ld s m ith seed

s. co m

23

ENue Wo"derrM
HELIA T
R,

A PI U M

AR tsORFS CENS
650/o

also be controlled by withholding phosphorus and ammonium nitrate.

Mi n imu m Germ i nation Rate: Seed Product Form.'Raw

Fungicides: Preventative fungicide may be applied for Rhizoctonia and

lnitiated Bulking: Seedlings develop from juvenile to mature, usually determi


by the number of leaves present (cultivar specific). Seedlings are receptive to initiation and flower bud development.

FLCIWERING
Flowering Mechanisrn.' Facultative long-day - long days enhance flowering. Flowering lype.'Facultative long-day - high irradiance will enhance flowering. Specific Flowering Mechanism: Heliotrope is a light accumulator; supplemental
lighting and daylength extension will hasten flower initiation.

Ligh; Provide 1,500 Temperature:64"


the soil of 0.5

2,000 foot candles.

68"F (18'

20'C)

Fertilizer: 14-4-14 ot 17-5-17 at 50

0.75.

75 ppm nitrogen, as needed for an EC in

PLT.'G CUUTURE
The timing approximations are based on optimal culture recommendations below:

Fungicides: Preventative fungicide may be applied for Rhizoctonia and

GROWING ON
Tlie timng approximations are based on optimal culture recommendations Transplant to Frnish: Optimize plant shoot and root growth, which is usually
1:1 ratio. Flower buds are usually present and developing.
a

- 10): From the time a seed is sown until radicle emergence takes place, usually with the root penetrating the media and some cotyledon development. Humidity in the air is 95 - 98% (humidification); media moisture 4+ - 5. Expect radicle emergence in 4 - 8 days.
1

Germination I (approximately day

Cover.' Seeds may be mvered with a light layer of coarse vermiculite or growing medium to mantain optimum mosture levels and so roots will penetrate growing media.

Media: . pH: 5.5 - 5.8 . EC: 0.75 - 1 Light: Provide 4,500


Temperature: 66"
get stretchy and soft.

Media: Avoid media compaction to allow for root penetration. . pH: 5.5 - 5.8 . EC: <.5

7,000 foot candles.

72"F (18.5"

22'C). When grown too warm, Heliotrope

0.75

Lrghf; Light not required for germination.


4

Moisture: Moist (4), for 7 - 10 days or until radicle emergence (approximately day

Moisfure.'Alternate between moisture levels wet (4) and moist (3). Allow media to approach level moist (3) before re-saturating to wet (4). Avoid overuatering water stress with Heliotrope as this will cause leaf damage. Humidity:40o/o

8). Then start decreasing the moisture level from moist (4) to a medium (3).

Humidity: 100% from day 4 - 8 or until radicle emerges then reduce to 40% -70%. Tem peratu re : 7 0' - 7 2' F (21' - 22" C) for T - 1 0 days.
Fetilizers: Maintain EC of 0.5

Fertilizers: 14-4-14 or
of

- 1.1. Heliotrope

17 -5-17 at I 00 - 1 50 ppm, as needed for an EC in the can be sensitive to salts.

0.75.
11

Growth Regulators: Cycocel at 500

- 1,000 ppm, 2 - 3 times

if needed.

Germination 2 (approximately day

until t is fully expanded and the roots have expanded throughout the media. Dehumidify from 98% to 50 % moisture in the air. Media moisture level should be maintained at medium (2) - moist (3). This wet-dry cycle should take place within 12 - 24 hours for most plants. Heliotrope has a fine root hair system that can easily be damaged by excessive moisture or heavy media.

- 18): From the time cotyledon

is observed

Fungicides: Preventative fungcide may be applied for Rhizoctonia and Pythium. Pinching: When plants are established
in finish coniainer they should be pinched the fifth or sixth leaves to produce a well branched plant with multiple flower heads.

TEEHNQUES TO ENI{ANCE POST HARVEST QT,'A!-ITY


When to Treat: 1 - 2 weeks prior to finish or shipping. Fertilizer: Potassium nitrate drench at 100 ppm nitrogen. Common Diseases; Rhizoctonia, Pythium and Botrytis. Monitor moisture and humidity levels and use preventative fungicide drenches. Common Pess; Aphids, Thrips, White fly and Spider Mites. Use pesticides according to label directions-

Media: . pH: 5.5 - 5.8 . EC: 0.5 * 0.75 Light: 500 - 1,000 foot candles light levels above 1,000 may stress plants. Moisture: Dry back media to wet (4) and alternation to moist (3) within 18 hours
at radicle emergence (approximately day 8).

Dehumidify: Lower relative humidity to 40% (approximately day 8). Provide


horizontal airflow to aid in drying down the meda through evapotranspiration, allowing better penetration of oxygen to the roots.

PRODUCT USE
Pots, containers, mass plantings

GARDEN SPECIFCATONS
Light: Full sun to partial shade
USDAHardiness Zone: 10 AHS Heat Zone:7 - B

Temperature: Once cotyledons are observed, reduce temperature to 68' (20" -21'c).

70"F

Fertilizers: 144-14 or 17-5-17 at60


the soil of 1

- 1.25.

- 100 ppm nitrogen as needed for an EC in


Blue Wonder
12

Fungicides: Preventative fungicide may be applied for Pythium and Rhizoctonia between day 11 and 18. Plug Bulking/Flower Initiation (approximately day 19 - 26): The time it takes for the shoots to proportionately fill the plug cell and for roots to develop
throughout the media. lnduction and initiation may occur. lf buds are present, they should be few in number and small in size.

15" (30

37.5 cm)

12

15" (30

37.5 cm)

St-{nm{J_t&t tf{ btrKKs:

''.{K{_$*TR*pn
Total crop time '128' plug crop time '200'

Media: . pH: 5.5 - 5.8 . EC: 0.5 0.75 Light: 500 - 1,000 foot candles.
Temperature: Gradually lower to 64'

127

14

-8

plug crop time

6-7
AE

68'F (18" - 20"C)

'288'plug crop time 4" crop


6" crop

Moisfure; Alternate between moisture level wet (4) to moist (3). Allow the soil to approach moist (3), before re-saturating to wet (4). lf media is allowed to dry back further than 2.5, root damage may occur resulting in leaf burning.

Transplant to finish crop time from a '288' plug

Fertilizers: 14-4-14 or 17-5-17 at 50 the soil of 0.50 - 0.75.

75 ppm niirogen, as needed for an EC in

97

9, depending on number of plugs transplanted


1

0, depending on number of plugs transplanted

Growth Regulafors.' lf needed, spray Cycocel at 500

- 1,000 ppm. Height can

The shortest crops times may be achieved when following recommended optima culture. Deviation in environmental conditions will result in longer crop times.

www. go ld s m ith seed

s. c o m

24

AecesrtrM, Shimmletr@, ffiltz 3&8re{u fu{osacrM, Victorianrmu lax'mbafaya@, XtremaerM


I
II4

PAT I E N

Kl/A

CRA trA

Minimum Germination Rafe.'Accent, Jambalaya, Shimmer and Xtreme 95%;


Blitz 3000, Mosaic 90%; Victorian 85%

Seed Product Form.' Raw

in check. Downward cupping or twisting of immature leaves may be caused by over use of PGRs. Xtreme has a different PGR regime than other impatiens. On Xtreme, it is recommended to use PGRs in the plug stages and control growth later through water and fedilizer management in the finishing stages. Under high temperature and humidity conditions, PGRs may help tone the crop.

FLOWERING
Time frame when plants are receptive to flower initiation.' Days 12

GRCIWING ON

2-4leavespresent.

14,

Transplant Ready: 4

5 weeks from sow in a '2BB'tray.

Flowering lype.' Day-neutral plant - will flower regardless of daylength. Specific Flowering Mechanism.'lrradiance has no effect. Drought stress will
induce early flowering.

Finish Bulking/Flower Initiation: Optimum conditions during the vegetative period, beginning at transplant, needed for the root to reach the edge of the containerAND to make the plant receptive to flower initiation.

Media: pH:6.2 - 6.5. EC: 0.75


Llghr Provide a light shade.

PLUG ELLTI"'RF
Germination: Optimum conditions for seedling development that begins the day the
crop is sown until cotyledon expansion. Expect radicle emergence in 3 maintain moisture levels.

Temperatilre: 60'

65'F

(1

6"

9"C) nights; 70"

5"F (21'

24' C) days.

5 days.

Average Daily Temperature (ADT): 67"F (19'C) Moisfure; Alternate between moisture levels wet (4) and medium (2). Allow
media to approach level (2) before re-saturating to level (4).

Cover Seeds may be covered with a light layer of medium vermiculite to


Media: pH'.6.2 - 6.5 Low pH (<5.5) may promote shoot tip abortion and allow sodium to become toxic. EC: 0.5 - 0.75 Lrghf; Light is necessary for germination. lf utilizing a chamber, providing a light source of 10 - 1 00 foot candles (100 - 1 ,000 lux) will improve germination and reduce stretch.

Humidity:40 -70% Dehumidify: Provide horizontal airflow to aid in drying down the media through
evapotranspiration, allowing better penetration of oxygen to the roots.

- 2 or until radicle emergence. On days 3 - 7 reduce moisture to wet (4). On days 4 10 reduce moisture further to moist (3). After day 11, reduce again to medium (2) until cotyledon expansion. Do not allow seedlings to go into nighttime hours with wet foliage, as this may enmurage tip abortion.

Morbfure.'Saturated (5)for days I

Fertilizers: 75 - 100 ppm nitrogen every 2 - 3 waterings with a calcium-based fertilizer (13-2-13 or 14-4-14). Minimal fertilizer will keep plants compact and promote flowering. Tall, lush, dark-green plants with flowers beneath the foliage, or late flowering indicates too much fertilizer.

Growth Regulators: lmpatiens is responsive to B-Nine (daminozide), Bonzi


(paclobutrazol) or Sumagic (uniconazol). However, careful monitoring of water, light and fertilizer applications can keep growth in check.

Humidity:100% until radcle emergence then reduce Io 40 -70o/o. Dehumidify: Provide horizontal airflow to aid in drying down the media through
evapotranspiration, allowing better penetration of oxygen to the roots.
Te m pe ratu re : 7 2' - 7 5' F (22' - 24' C). Temperatu res exceed n g 77" F (25"C) may induce thermodormancy, which inhibits germination of lmpatiens. Temperature below 71'F (21 "C) will decrease the speed and uniformity of germination. Temperatures below 65"F (18'C) may cause tip abortion and leaf malformation.
i

TEEHNIQUES TO N{,qNCF POST HARVEST QI..'ALITY


When to Treat:
1

2 weeks prior to shipping

Growth Regulators; Spray application of B-Nine (daminozide) at 2,500

3,500 ppm

Fertilizer: Potassium nitrate at 150 ppm.


Common Diseases: Pythium Root Rot, Botrytis Blight, Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus,
lmpatiens Necrotic Virus, Alternaria Leaf Spot, Pseudomonas and Rhlzoctonia.

PIug Bulking/Flower lnitiation: Optimum conditions during the vegetative period, beginning at cotyledon expansion, needed for the root to reach the edge of the plug cellAND to make the plant receptive to flower initiation. Media: pH:6.2 - 6.5. EC: 0.75: The total nutrients from the water and fertilizer should not exceed 1 EC to avoid leaf malformations. lf media EC is >1.25, shoot
tip abortion may occur.

Common Pests.' Fungus Gnats, Thrips, Aphids and Spider Mites

PRCIBUCT

I.'SE
plantings
hanging

Packs, containers, baskets, mass

GARPEh SPECIFICATICITdS Light: Partial shade to filtered sun


USDA Hardiness Zone: AHS Heat Zone:9 - 1
11

Lighf; Provide 2,500 foot candles (25,000 lux). Supplemental lighting at


350 - 450 foot candles (3,500 - 4,500 lux) for two weeks will help to produce vigorous, strong-stemmed seedlings in regions where light levels are low. Lighting for more than two weeks during early plug stages can result in bleaching or yellowing of leaves (photo-oxdation).

Xtreme

Temperature: 66' - 68'F (1 B' - 20"C) until first set of true leaves. Reduce to 62" 65'F (1 6' - 1 8'C) to tone and hold.

Accent, Vtctorian
Mosaic

/l,loisfure; Alternate between moisture levels wet (4) and medium (2). Allow media to approach level (2) before re-saturating to level (4).

Shimmer Blitz 3000


Jambalaya

Humidity: 40 - 50% and higher. Fertilizers: Fertilize from day 2 through day 9 at 25 - 50 ppm nttrogen with a
every 2- 4 waterings with a fertilizer containing both potassium and calcium nitrate. Minimal use of fertilizer will keep seedlings compact and promote flowering. Avoid phosphorus, which may stretch lmpatiens seedlings. lnjection of phosphoric acid to water lines may also affect plug
quality.

- 10' (20 - 25 cm) 10 - 12'(25 - 30 cm) 12 - 14" (30 - 35 cm) 10 - 12" (25 - 30 cm) 12 - 14" (30 - 35 cm)
B

- 10" (20 - 25 cm) 10 - 12" (25 - 30 cm) 12 - 14" (30 - 35 cm) 10 - 12'(25 - 30 cm) 12 - 14" (30 - 35 cm)
8
B

:3i1lT;i:::'"'#:1; i-#

iil!:l

-10" (20

25 cm)

-10" (20

25 cm)

M pAnnrrs

seFN

Esu

LrN{

G IN WEEKS

Total crop time

10

'288'crop time

- 11 4-5

10-11

11

12

10-11
AE

10-11

10-11

I - l0
4-5

4-5 5-6 6-7


aa

4-5
6-7
ao

4-5 5-6 6-7


10

4-5

Transplant to finish crop time Packs

Growth Regulators: lmpatiens is


responsive to B-Nine (daminozide), Bonzi (paclobutrazol) or Sumagic (uniconazol). However, careful monitoring of water, lighi and fertilizer applications can keep growth

4" crop
6" crop

l0" hanging basket

5-6 6-7 7-8 I - 10

5-6 6-7
7

5-6
6-7

8-9
10

-8
10

7-8
I10

5-6 6-7 7 -8
9-10

I-

10-11

9-

10-11

www. go I dsm ithseeds.com


!.

25

StarshinerM
LAURENTIA AXILLARIS F1
Minimum Germination Rate:
g0o/o

Light: Provide 3,500 of light.

5,500 foot candtes (35,000

SS,000 lux) or 12 _ 20 mt

Seed Product Form; Raw, Multipellets

FI-OWERING
Time frame when prants are receptive to flower initiation.. 6 present

the soil of 1 .25

Temperature:64' - 68'F (1 B. - 20.C) Fertilizer:14-4-14or 17-5-i7 al75- 150 ppm nitrogen, as needed foran EC

1.75.

l0

reaves are

Fungicides: Preventative fungicide may be applied for Rhizoctonia, pythium,


and Phytophthora.

Flowering lype; Facultative long-day plant long days enhance flowering. Flowering Mechanrbrn.' Daylength greater than 13 hours. lrradiance will hasten
and enhance flowering and branching.

GROWING ON
The timing approximations are based on optimal culture recommendations belol Transplant Ready:6 -7 weeks from a ,2gg'plug tray

PLUG EULTURE
The timing approxrmations are based on optimal culture recommendations below:

'Transplant to Finbh (approximately day 42 - 7g): Flower buds are usually


present and developing.

Germination (approximately day 1 14): From the time a seed is sown until radicle emergence takes place; usually with the root penetrating the media and some cotyledon development. Expect radicle emergence in 10 _ 14 days.

Media: pH:5.5

5.8. EC: 1.25

1.S0

Coyer.'No covering is required over the seed.

Lrghf: continue long days (greater than 13 hours) untir flower buds are visible Su.pplemental lighting under low light conditions ai 3S0 4SO foot candles (3,5 - 4,500 lux) will enhance shoot and root growth. Temperature: 62'

Media:
EC: <.5

Avoid media compaction to allow for root penetration; pH: 5.S _ 6.


1

- 64'F (1 7. -

B.C)

Moisture: Alternate between moisture levels wet (4) and medium (2). Allow
media to approach level (2) before re-saturating to wet (4).

and reduce stretch.

Llghf: Light is not necessary for germination. lf utilizing a chambe providing a light source of 10 - 100 fooicandles (l0o 1,000 rux)lirt improve jerminati"on 1

Moisture: Saturated (5), from day (approximately day 10).

14 or until radicle emergence

of 1.25-1.5.

Humidity:40% Fertilizers: 144-14 or 17-5-17 at 100

- i75 ppm, as needed for an EC in the

Humidity: 100% from day 1 - 14


Temperature: 65" - 6B.F (1 B. FeTilizers: Maintain EC of 0.5 Plug Bulking (approximately
d

growth Regulators: B-Nine (daminozide) spray at 2,b00 ppm; A_Rest (ancymidol) spray at 2 - 4 ppm; Bonzi (paclobuirazol) drenin at i _ 2 ppm.
Fungicides: Preventatve fungicide may be applied for Botrytis, Rhizoctonia, Pythium, and Phytophthora.

2O.C) untit day 14.


1.

ay 14 - 2g): From the time cotyledon is observed until it is fully expanded. The roots have expanded throughouithe media. Dehumidify from 100% to 50 % moisture in the air

TECHNIQUES TO ENHANCE POST HARVEST QUALITY


When to Treat: 1 - 2 weeks prior to finish or shipping. Growth Regulators: B-Nine (daminozide) at 2,b00 - 3,000 ppm. Fertilizer: Potassium nitrate drench at 150 ppm nitrogen. Common Drbeases.' Botrytis, Rhizoctonia, pythium. Monitor moisture and humidity levels and use preventative fungicid drenches.
Comm.on Pesfs.'Aphids, Fungus Gnats, Shore Flies and Thrips. Use pesticid according to label directions.

Media: pH:5.5

5.8. EC:

- 1.25

3,000 foot candtes (20,000 - 30,000 tux); 6 _ I O mots of tight. Begin long days (greater than 1 3 hours of light) on Oay 2A _ aS. Moisure; Alternate between moisture revers wet (4) and moist (3). Ailow media to approach levet (3) before re-saturating to tevet (+ j lapproximdtty Oay 8 _ 1S).

Light: 2,000

horizontal airflow to aid in drying down the media through evapotranspiration, allowing better penetration oi oiygen to tfle rooti.

Dehumidify: Lower relative humidity to 50% (approximately day 14). provide

PRODUCT USE
Pots, containers and hanging baskets

GARDEN SPECIFICATIONS

(18'- 20"c).
the soil of 1

T,g?p"!?!yr:t Once cotyledons are observed, reduce temperature to 64" _ 6g"F


Fertilizers: 144-14 or 17-i-17 at 60

Lighf

Full sun
11

USDAHardiness Zone:
AHS Heat Zone: 12

1.25.

0o ppm nitrogen as needed for an EC in

they should be few in number and small in size. Media: pH: 5.5 - 5.8. EC: 1.25 - 1.75

shoots.to filt the k:: lgitfthe media. proportionatetyinitiation pug eil and for roots to devetop throughout lnduction and my occur; if buds are present,

Plug Bulking/Flower tnitiation (approximately day 28 _ 35): The time it

12" (20

30 cm)

LAURENTIA SCHEDUI-NG IN WEFKS

Light: 3,500

5,500 foot candles (35,000

55,000 lux): 12 _ 20 mols of tight.

Temperature:64"

68"F (1S.

2O.C)

/Lloisfure.'Alternate between moisture level wet (4) to medium (2). Allow the soil to approach medium (2), before re-saturating to t 1+. rf media s arrowe1o ry back further than (2), root damage may occur.

'128'plug crop time

Fertilizers: 144-14 or 17-E-17 atTs


the soil of 1 .25

1.75.

12s ppm niirogen, as needed for an EC in

Transplant to finish crop time

Growth Regulators: lf needed, spray B-Nine (daminozide) at i,500 _ 2,500 ppm. Fungicides: Preventative fungicide may be appried for Botrytis, Rhizoctonia, pythium.
to mature (cultivar specific). seedlings are receptive to initation and flower bud
development.

Initiated Bulking (approximatery day 35 49): Seedrings deverop from juvenire -

- I 4, depending

on number of plugs transplanted

The shortest crops times may be achieved when following recommended optimr culture. Deviation in environmental conditions will result i longer crop time.

www. go I dsm ith seeds. com

26

O.:ldsmith S E E DS

irX
:ii..i1ii..i...::.:i,

Antiga;arM,

Xmcag[""{Mr

Lumaryu*, fo{&omsCIv?gt*, fVt&enstruelP, Fer{ectionrM


GROWING
CIf,

TAGETES ER.ECTA
Minimum Germination Rate: B5o/o Seed Product Form.' Detailed, coated

Transplant Readp 4

5 weeks from sow in a '288'tray.

FLOWERING
Time frame when plants are receptive to flower initiation.' Perfection is receptive from day of sow.

Finish Bulking/Flower lnitiation: Optimum conditions during the vegetative period, beginning at transplant, needed for the root to reach the edge of the containerAND to make the plant receptive to flower initiation.

Media: . pH: 6.2 * 6.5African Marigolds can be used as an indicator plant for
low pH conditions. Typical symptoms of low pH (<6) include yellowing

Flowering Type: Lunacy, Moonstruck, Perfection are obligate short-day plants.


Short days enhance flowering. Antigua and lnca ll are not as sensitive to daylength.

of lower leaves, or browning/burning of leaf edges.

.EC:l
- 4,500 foot candles (12 - 1 5 total mols or 35,000 - 45,000 lux) to hasten flower induction. Supplemental lighting under low light conditions at 350 - 450 foot candles (35,000 - 45,000 lux) will enhance shoot and root growth.
Lrghf; Provide 3,500 Tempera(ure:55" - 65"F (13'- 18"C) nights, 65'- 70'F (18" - 23"C) days. Heat stress will encourage flower heads to be reduced in size. Antigua Primrose tends to be cool{emperature sensitive. New growth will appear "bleached" when temperatures are too cool in early spring. Plants will "green up" once night temperatures are increased. Average Daily Temperature (ADT):67"F (19"C) Moisure.'Alternate between moisture levels wet (4) and moist (3). Allow media to approach level (3) before re-saturating to level (4).

Flowering Mechanism: Short day treatments must begin the moment of sowing.

PLUG CULTt-IRE
Germination: Optimum conditions for seedling development that begins the day the crop is sown until cotyledon expansion. Expect radicle emergence in 3 - 5 days. Cover.'Seeds may be covered with a thin layer of medium vermiculite to maintain moisture levels.

Media: . pH: 6.2 - 6.5. pH levels <6 may induce iron, manganese or sodium
toxicity in Marigolds. Symptoms are exhibited on the lower leaves. Marigolds can be used as an indicator plant for low pH.

. EC: <0.75 Lrghf; Light is not necessary for germination. lf utilizing a chamber, providing a light source of 10 - 100 foot candles (100 - 1 ,000 lux) will improve germination
dramatically compared to seed germinated in the dark.

Humidi$: 40 -70Yo Dehumidify: Provide horizontal airflow to aid in drying down the media through
evapotranspiration, allowing better penetration of oxygen to the roots.

Moisture: Saturated (5) for days I - 3 or until radicle emergence. On days 4 - 7 reduce moisture to moist (3). Once actively growing, begin alternating between
moisture levels wet (4) and medium (2). Allow media to approach level (2) before re-saturating to level (4).

Fertilizers: Allernate between a calcium-based fertilizer (15-0-1 5) and an ammonium-based fertilizer (20-10-20) at 150 - 200 ppm nitrogen. Excessive ammonium applications will encourage vegetative growth.

Humidity: 100% until radicle emergence then reduce to 40%. Dehumidify: Provide horizontal airflow to aid in drying down the media through
evapotranspiration, allowing better penetration of oxygen to the roots.

Growth Regulafors.' lf needed, I - 2 applications of B-Nine (daminozide) at 5,000 ppm will control growth. Also responds to A-Rest (ancymidol), Bonzi (paclobutrazol), Sumagic (uniconazol) or B-Nine/Cycocel (chlormequat chloride) tank mix. Antigua is a dwarf variety and may not need any PGRs.
Common Diseases.'Alternaria Leaf Spot, Botrytis Blight, Pythium Root Rot Common Pesfs.' Spider mite, Thrips, Leafminer, Aphids, Whitefly

Temperature:72" -75'F (22" -24'C) Average Daily Temperature (ADT):67"F (19'C) PIug Bulking: Optimum conditions during the vegetative period, beginning at
cotyledon expansion, needed for the root to reach the edge of the plug cell. Avoid premature flowering in the plug stages. Plants will not size up properly after transplanted if budded in the plug tray.

pRotrUCT

USE

I GARDEnI SpECIFICATIONS

Media: . pH: 6.2 - 6.5 .EC: 0.5-1


Lrgh; Maintain light levels below 2,500 foot candles (25,000 lux). Higher light levels may promote premature flowering in the plug. Shorts days will ensure blooms on a short compact plant.

Packs and larger pots, containers, ] Lighf; Full sun mass I USDA Hardiness Zonei 10 AHS Heat Zone: 12 - 1

plantngs

Antigua
Inca

Il

(17'-

Temperature:68'

- 70'F (20' - 21'C). Gradually reduce io 62' 18'C) as seedlings mature.

65'F

Perfection Lunacy

Average Daily Temperature (ADT):67'F (19"C)

Moonsong Moisure; Alternate between moisture levels wet (4) and moist (3). Allow media to approach level (3) before re-saturating to level (4). Avoid drought stress in Moonstruck plug stages to prevent premature flowering in the plug. Repeated drying down of plug may eventually promote bud abortion. However, saturated media M&Rg&t* $t_*l_,jru& $ru encourage the development of a weak root system.

- 12" (25 - 30 cm) - 14" (30 - 35 cm) 14 - 16" (35 - 40 cm) 10 - 12" (25 - 30 cm) 12 - 15" (30 - 38 cm) 12 * 14" (30 - 35 cm)
10 12

- 12" (25 - 30 cm) - 14" (30 - 35 cm) 12 - 14" (30 - 35 cm) I - 12" (20 - 30 cm) 11 - 14'(29 - 35 cm) 12 - 14' (30 - 35 cm)
10 12

witt

WnK$ 12-13 10-12


4

Humidity:40 -70% Dehumidify: Provide horizontal airflow to aid in drying down the media
through evapotranspiration under cool, low light conditions.

Total crop time

10-12
AE

12-13

12AE

13

13-14

Fertilizers: Feed

1 - 2 times per week at 100 - 1 50 ppm nitrogen with a calcium-based ferlilizer (14-2-14). Boron levels in media should be at least 0.5 ppm.

'288'plug crop
time

4-5

4-5
7

4-5
9

Flower lnitiation' Optimum conditions to make plant receptive to flower initiation.

Transplant to finish crop time ao Packs 6-7

-B

6-7
6-B

Lrghf; Perfection

s daylength sensitive, but can be tricked into blooming on

short compact plants by giving them short days (9-hour days) for 2 weeks beginning at the time of initial sowing. Short days are recommended on crops sown after Feb. l5 in southern regions and March 15 in northern regions. Antigua and lnca ll are not as sensitive to daylength and need not be induced in the plug stages.

4" crop
AJore:

-8

B-9

8-9

7 -8 8-9

I - l0

E,"o,ners

Ihesc s$ggeslcns are anly gtidelit'ses a*d rnay hav* t{} be eft.e{{i ta rneet i{sdvid*ai n*cds. Checr, all {he,njcal labei$ tc veriry regSislratitsn {ar us* in your regir;n.

www.gol dsm ithseeds.com

27

VledallionrM
MELA
{ttl

PODIU

AL UD 0
7

Utl{

Mi n imu m Germ i nation Rae: Seed Product Fom.'Raw

5o/o

to mature, usually determined by the number of leave present (cultivar specific). Seedlings are receptive to initiation and flower bud development.

Light: Provide 4,750


of light.

7,500 foot candles (47,500

75,000 lux) or 17

28 mols

FI-OWERING
Flowering Mechansm: Day-neutral plant - will flower regardless of daylength. Flowering Type: Day neutral - high irradiance will enhance flowering.
PLTJG CI,JLTURE
The timing approximations are based on optimal culture recommendations below:

Temperatu re: 60"F ( I 6"C) the soil of 1 .25

Fertilizer: 14-4-14 or 17-5-17 at 75 - 150 ppm nitrogen, as needed for an EC

in

- 1.75.

Fungicides: Preventative fungicide may be applied for Rhizoctonia, Pythium, and Phytophthora.

Germination I (approximately day

GROWING OT{
The timing approximations are based on optimal culture recommendations below:

radicle emergence takes place; usually with the root penetrating the media and some cotyledon development. Humidity in the air is 95 - 98% (humidification). Expect radicle emergence in 6 - 8 days.

-10): From the time a seed is sown until

Transplant to Finish (approximately day 36 -70): Optimize plant shoot and root growth; usually 1:1 ratio. Flower buds are usually present and developing. Media: pH:5.8

Cover Seeds may be covered lightly with coarse vermiculite to maintain optimum moisture levels during germination.
Media: . pH: 5.8 - 6.2 . EC: 0.5 - 0.75
Lrglrf; Light is not necessary for germination.
1 - B or until radicle emergence (approximately day 8). lf you are unable to dehumidify on day 8, decrease the starting moisture level from saturated (5) to a wet (4+).

6.2, EC: 1.25

- 1.75
75,000) or 18

Lighf; Provide 5,000


Temperature: 55'

7,500 foot candles (50,000


(1

28 mols.

59"F

2'

5.6"C)

Moisfure.'Alternate between moisture levels wet (4) and moist (3). Allow media
to approach level (3) before re-saturating to wet (4).

Moisture: Saturated (5), from day


day I *

Humidity:40o/o

Fertilizers: 14-4-14 or 17-5-17 al 100


of 1.7

Humidity: 100% from B or until seed coats are shed. Temperature:65'F (18'C) until day 10. Fertilizers: Matntain EC of 0.5 - 0.75.
Germination 2 (approximately day 11 - 18): From the time cotyledon is observed until it is fully expanded. The roots have expanded throughout the media.
Dehumidify from 98% to 50% in the air. Media moisture during the wet cycle rs usually 4 and 3 during the dry cycle; this wet-dry cycle should take place within 12 - 24 hours for most plants. Melampodium has a faidy high water demand. Don't let plants dry out too often or too severely, or leaf edges can burn.

2.

175 ppm, as needed for an EC in the soil

Growth Regulators: B-Nine (daminozide) at 1,500


and Phytophthora.

2,500 ppm.

Fungicides: Preventative fungicide may be applied for Rhizoctonia, Pythium,

TECHNIQUES TO ENHANCE POST HARVEST QUAL'TY


When to Treat:

I-

2 weeks prior to finish or shipping.

Growth Regulators: B-Nine (daminozide) at 1,500

2,500 ppm.

Media: pH:5.8

6.2. EC: 0.75

-I

Fertilizer: Potassium nitrate drench at 150 ppm nitrogen. Common Diseases; Pythium, Rhizoctonia and Phytophthora. Monitor moisture
and humidity levels and use preventative fungicide drenches.

Light: 2,000 - 3,000 foot candles (20,000 - 30,000 lux); 6 - 1 0 mots of tight. Moisture: Dry back media to wet (4) and alternation to moist (3) within 18 hours
at radicle emergence (approximately day 8).

Common Pesfs; Aphids, White Flies and Thrips. Use pesticides according to
label directions.

Dehumidify: Lower relative humidity to 40% (approximately day 8). Provide


horizontal airflow to aid in drying down the media through evapotranspiration, allowing better penetration of oxygen to the roots.

GARDEN SPECIFICATIONS
Lrghf.'Full sun USDA Hardiness Zone.' NA
AHS HeatZone: NA

Temperature: Once cotyledons are observed, reduce temperature to 60'F


(16"C).

Fertilizers: 14-4-14 or 17-5-17 al 60 the soil of 0.75 - 1.


Rhizoctonia between day 7 and 10.

- 100 ppm nitrogen as needed for an EC in


fsXLAIWpOPLru SeF{

Fungicides: Preventative fungicide may be applied for Thielaviopsis and


Plug Bulking/Flower Initiation (approximately d ay 19 - 28): The time it takes for the shoots to proportionately fill the plug cell and for roots to develop
throughout the media.

gp{.i-&l&

l$d

wcKs
8-10

Media: pH:5.8

6.2, EC: 1 - 1.50

Total crop time

Ltghfi 3500

5500 foot candles (35,000

55,000 tux); 12

20 mols of tight.

'128'plug crop time


'200' plug crop time '288' plug crop time

Temperature: 60'F (1 6"C) Moisture: Alternate between moisture level wet (4) to moist (3). Allow the soil to
approach moist (3), before re-saturating to wet (4). lf media is allowed to dry back further than (3), root damage may occur resulting in leaf edge burn.

5-6 4-5 3-4


1

Transplant to finish crop time

Fertilizers: 14-4-14 or 17-5-17 at75 the soil of 1 - 1.5.

125 ppm nitrogen, as needed for an EC in

6" crop 8" crop

11

- I I , depending - 12, depending

on number of plugs transplanted on number of plugs transplanted

Growth Regulafors.' lf needed, spray B-Nine (daminozide) at 1,500


rates higher than 2,500 ppm may cause distortion of the foliage. and Phytophthora.

2,500 ppm

Fungicides: Preventative fungicide may be applied for Rhizoctonia, Pythium,


lnitiated Bulking (approximately day 29

The shortest crops times may be achieved when following recommended optimal culture. Deviation in environmental conditions will result in longer crop times. Altle: iis srggeso]s 16 oniy guidelines and may have t be aitere{1 to meet lt;rlirtidua! grawers needs. C'neck eli chemical lale/s o veri{y regislraltn fr use in
]raLt

35): Seedlings develop from juvenile

t*gia*.

www. go ldsm ithseeds.com

28

SaratogarM
NICATIANA X AI-ATA
Minimu m Germination Rate: 85ok Seed Product Form; Pelleted, raw

GRCIWING ON
Transplant Ready: 4

5 weeks from sow in a '288' tray.

FLOWERING
Time frame when plants are receptive to flower initiation.' Days 26

Finish Bulking/Flower Initiation: Optimum conditions during the vegetative period, beginning at transplant, needed for the root to reach the edge of the container AND to make the plant receptive to flower initiation.

4-6leavespresent. Flowering lype; Day-neutral plant - will flower regardless of daylength.


triggers flowering.

30;

Media: . pH: 5.8 - 6.2 . EC: 1- 1.5


ighf.' Under low light conditions, supplemental lighting at 300 - 400 foot candles (3,000 - 4,000 lux) for an 1B-hour day will induce early flowering. Temperature: 65' flowering..

Specific Flowering Mechanism.'Nicotiana is an irradiance plant. High light

68"F (18"

20"C). Warmer temperatures will speed up

PLUG E.,'LTURE
Germination: Optimum conditions for seedling development that begins the day the
crop is sown until cotyledon expansion. Expect radicle emergence in 3

Average Dily Temperature (ADT): 67'F (19'C) Moisfure; Alternate between wet (4) and dry (1.5)Allow media to approach level (1.5) before re-saturating to level (4). Nicotiana prefers to be grown on the dry
side without wilting. Cabbage-like leaves are indicative of overuvatering.

5 days.

Cover No covering over the seed is required.


Media: . pH: 5.5 - 5.8
. EC: 0.75

Humidity:40 -70% Dehumidify: Provide horizontal airflow to aid in drying down the media through
evapotranspiration, allowing better penetration of oxygen to the roots.

Lrghf; Light is necessary for germination. lf utilizing a chamber, providing a light source of 10 - 100 foot candles (100 - 1 ,000 lux) will improve germination and
reduce stretch. Reduce to 65"

Temperature: 70"

- 75'F (21" - 24'C) days '! - 5 or until radicle emergence. 68'F (1 8' - 20'C) until cotyledon expansion.

Average Daly Temperature (ADT): 67'F (19"C) Moisture: Saturated (5) for days 1 - 5 or until radicle emergence. On days - 10 reduce moisture to moist (3). Beginning day 11 begin alternating between moisture levels moist (3) and medium (2) until cotyledon expansion. Allow media to approach level (2) before re-saturating to level (3).
6

Fertilizers: Ncotiana is a moderate to heavy feeder. Feed at 100 - 1 50 ppm nitrogen. Under high light conditions, apply an ammonium-based feed (17-5-17). Under low light conditions, apply a calcium-based feed (14-4-14). Under high light and long or extended days, an ammonium-based feed (20-10-20) is preferred. Additional potash applications can be applied until first flower color appears.

Humidity:100% until radicle emergence then reduce to 40% Dehumidify: Provide horizontal airflow to aid in drying down the media through
evapotranspiration, allowing better penetration of oxygen to the roots.

Growth Regulafors.'Established transplants can be treated initially with B-Nine (daminozide) at 5,000 ppm. Subsequent applications can be made every 3 - 4 weeks at 2,500 ppm until buds are visible. Also responds to A-Rest (ancymidol), Bonzi (paclobutrazol), Sumagic (uniconazol) or B-Nine/Cycocel (chlormequat chloride) tank mix or negative DIF treatments.
Com mon Drbeases.' Downy Mildew

Common Pesfs; Aphids, Whitefly, Thrips, Cutworms

Plug Bulking/Flower Initiation: Optimum conditions during the vegetative period, beginning at cotyledon expansion, needed for the root to reach the edge
of the plug cell AND to make the plant receptive to flower initiation.
'

PRODUCT

IJSE
mass
]

GAR.DET,

SPECIFICATIONS

Media: . pH: 5.5 - 5.8 . EC:1.5-2


Lrghf; Provide 3,500

Packs, pots, containers,

plantings

I Light: Parlial shade to full sun


USDA Hardiness Zone.'9 AHS Heat Zone: 12 - 1

- 4,500 foot candles (15 - 20 total mols or 35,000 - 45,000 lux) to hasten flower induction. Supplemental lighting under low light conditions al 350 - 450 foot candles (35,000 - 45,000 lux) will enhance shoot and root growth.
Temperature: 65"

* 68'F (1 B" - 20"C)


F{

Mo1sfure.'Alternate between moisture levels wet (4) and dry (1 ) Allow media to approach level (1) before re-saturating to level (4). Do not lt seedlings wilt.

le*Tlp"f!,& S*&{
Total crop time

ffi

SIJ ;-i ft*G hl Wffi


?

KS

Humidity:40 -70o/o Dehumidify: Provide horizontal airflow to aid in drying down the media through
evapotranspiration, allowing better penetration of oxygen to the roots. 150 ppm nitrogen. Under high light conditions, apply an ammonium-based feed (17-5-17). Under low light conditions, apply a calcium-based feed (14-4-14). Under high light and long or extended days, an ammonium-based feed (20 - 1 0-20) is preferred.

9-11

'288'plug crop time


Transplant to finish crop time Packs

4-5 5-6 6-7 7-8

Fertilizers: Nicotiana is a moderate to heavy feeder. Feed at 100

4" crop 6" crop

Growth Regulators: Established plug trays respond to B-Nine (daminozide)


Bonzi (paclobutrazol), Sumagic (uniconazol) or Cycocel (chlormequat chloride).

1/ole: Ihese suggestins are anly guicleines and may have f be a/lered to roef individual gro*,rer's ned,s. Check al! therical labels tt> \,et'ify registralin far use in yaur regk:n.

www. goldsm ithseeds.com

29

O:,{dsmith .,.SEEDS

ffixplosiverM
CAPSICAM ANNAUM
Minimum Germination Rate: Seed Product Form.'Raw
BSYo

Light: Provide 4,500 - 6,000 foot candles (45,000 - 60,000


Temperature:68"

tux) or 16

22 mols of light

72"F (20' -22'C); with a 5 - 8"F (2' - 4"C) negative DIF or drop in the morning from 2 hours before sunrise until approximately 9 a.m.

FLOWERING
Flowering Mechansm: Maturity and irradiance, high light and long days will
shorten time to flower.

Fertilizer: 14-4-14 or 17-5-17 at 75


the soil of

I-

1.25.

- 100 ppm nitrogen,

as needed for an EC in

Fungicides: Preventative fungicide may be applied for Rhizoctonia, Pythium,


and Phytophthora.

Flowering lype; Day-neutral plant

will flower regardless of daylength.

GROWING ON
The timing approximations are based on optimal culture recommendations below:

PLI,'G CIJI-T[JRE
The timing approximations are based on optimal culture recommendations below: radicle emergence takes place; usually with the root penetrating the media and some cotyledon development. Humidity in the air is 95 - 98% (humidification); media moisture 4+. Expect radicle emergence in l0 - 20 days. Cover.' Cover seeds with a thin layer of coarse vermiculite.
Medrb.'Avoid media mmpaction to allow for root penetration. pH: 5.5

Germination I (approximately day 1 -7): From the time a seed is sown until

Transplnt to Frnrbh (approximately day 29 - 9B): Optimize plant shoot and root growth, which is usually a 1:1 ratio. Flower buds are usually present and developing. Media: pH:5,5

5.8. EC:

.25

- 1 .5
75,000) or 18

Lighf; Provide 5,000

7,500 foot candles (50,000

28 mols.

5.8. EC: 0.5

1.

from 2 hours before sunrise until approximately 9 a.m.

Temperature: Days 72" - 75"F (22" - 23'C); Night 62' - 65"F (1 7' - 1 9'C); ADT 70'F (21 "C); using a 5" - 10'F (2' - 5"C) negative DIFF or drop in the morning Morbfure.'Alternate between moisture levels wet (4) and medium (2). Allow

Lrghf: Light is not necessary for germination. Moisture: Wet (4+), from day
1

day 10). lt is important not to avoid overwatering. Dehumidify on day'10 orwhen the radicle has emerged.

7 or until radicle emergence (approximately

media to approach level (2) before re-saturating to wet (4). Avoid oveni,uatering; a slight wilt between watering is accepiable.

Humidity: 95

98% from day 1 - 10 or until seed coats are shed.

Humidity:40% Fertilizers: Fertilize weekly with a 14-4-14 or 17-5-17 at


needed for an EC in the soil of 1.25

150 ppm, as

Temperature:72"

-76'F

(24"

-24'C)

until day 10.

- 1.5.

Fertilizers: Maintain EC of 0.5

- 1.

Germination 2 (approximately day 8 - 14): From the time cotyledon is observed until it is fully expanded. The roots have expanded throughout the media. Dehumidifu from 98% to 50 % in the air. Media moisture during the wet cycle is usually 4+ - 3, and 2 - 3 during the dry cycle; this wet-dry cycle should take place within 12 - 24 hours for most plants. Media: pH:5.5

Growth Regulafors; B-Nine (daminozide) at 2,500 ppm. Avoid late applications of growth regulators since it can reduce the fruit size. Plant growth is best regulated by moisture management, watering when plants are thoroughly dry. Fungicides: Preventative fungicide may be applied for Rhizoctonia, Pythium,
and Phytophthora.

5.8. EC:1

- 1.25

TEEHNIQUES TO ENhIANEE PCIST HARVEST QUALITY


When to Treat:

Light: 2,000 - 3,000 foot candles (20,000 - 30,000 lux); 6 - 1 0 mots of tight. Moisture: Dry back media to moist (3) and alternation to medium (2) within 18
hours at radicle emergence (approximately day 10).

I-

2 weeks prior to finish or shipping.

Growth Regulafors.'B-Nine (daminozide) at 2,500 ppm. Felilizer: Potassium nitrate drench at 150 ppm nitrogen.
Common Diseases.' Botrytis, Rhizoctonia, Phytopthora and Pythium. Monitor moisture and humidity levels and use preventative fungicide drenches. Common Pesfs.' Aphids, Fungus Gnats, Shore Flies, Spider Mites, Thrips and Whitefly. Use pesticides according to label directions.

Dehumidify: Lower relative humidity to 40% (approximately day 10). Provide horizontal aillow to aid in drying down the media through evapotranspiration,
allowing better penetration of oxygen to the roots.

Temperature: Once cotyledons are observed, reduce temperature to 68' (20' - 22'C). Fertilzerc: 144-14 or 17-5-17 at 60
the soil of

72"F

I-

1.25.

75 ppm nitrogen as needed for an EC in

GARDEN SPECIFCATIONS
Lrghf.'Full sun USDA Hardiness Zone: AHS Heat Zone: 12 - 1
11

Fungicides: Preventative fungicide may be applied for Pythium and Rhizoctonia


between day 10 and 14.

Plug Bulking/Flower Initiation (approximately day 15 - 21): The time it takes for the shoots to proportionately fill the plug cell and for roots to develop throughout the media. lnduction and initiation may occur; if buds are present, they should be few in number and small in size. Media: pH:5.5 Ligh;3,500

Blast
Ember

5-6"(12-15cm)
10

6-8"(15-20cm)
10 12

5.8. EC: 1.25

- 1.5
55,000 tux); 12

5,500 foot candles (35,000

20 mots of light.

lgnite

- 12" (25 - 30 cm) 3-5"(8-12cm\


Rs*
r"{

12'(25
14" (30
m

- 30 cm) - 35 cm)

Temperature: 68'

-72'F

(20'

22"C)

R nAl]!

TAL

pgpp

{., {_ &

ru

wm

Ks

(2). Allow the soil to approach medium (2), before re-saturating to wet (4). lf media is allowed to dry back further than (2), root damage may occur resulting in a lack of iron uptake. Watering or fertilizing late in the day may increase the susceptibility to airlcorne disease.

Moisfure; Altemate between moisture level wet (4) to medium

Total crop time '128' plug crop time '200' plug crop time

17

-20

Feilizers: High fertilizer levels will have a negative affect resulting in vegetative growth with long internodes. Use a 14-4-14 or 17-5-17 fertilizer at 75 100 ppm nitrogen, as needed for an EC in the soil of 1 - 1.25.

'288'plug crop time


Transplant to finish crop time

Growth Regulafors; lf needed, spray B-Nine (daminozide) at 1,500 - 2,500 ppm. Fungicides: Preventative fungicide may be applied for Rhizoctonia, Pythium,
and Phytophthora.

5-6 4-5 3-4


13

Jumbo packs 4" crop 6" crop

lnitiated Bulking (approximately day 22 - 28): Seedlings develop from juvenile to mature, usually determined by the number of leaves present (cultivar specific). Seedlings are receptive to initiation and flower bud development.

13

- 14 from a '288' plug - 16 from at'288'plug


and three plants per pot

l3

- 16 from a'288'plug

www. go I dsm ithseeds. com

30

G,,!{sfdt! r

AstirM
M i n im

OS TE O S P E R M U M E CK OIV'S u m Germi n ation Rate: 85Yo


Seed Product Form.'Raw

GRCIWIR{G CIN
Transplan Ready: 3 - 4 weeks from a '288' plug tray; 5 weeks in a '128' tay. Finish Bulking/Flower Initiation: Optimum conditions during the vegetative period, beginning at transplant, needed for the root to reach the edge of the container AND to make the plant receptive to flower initiation.

FLOWERING
Time frame when plants are receptive to flower initiation; Days 21

4-6leavespresent.

28 days;

Flowering Type.'Day-neutral plant - will flower regardless of daylength.


Specific Flowertng Mechanism.'Maturity of plants, cool nights and high irradiance will promote more flowers per plant.

Media: . pH: 5.8 - 6.2 . EC: 1.5 - 1.75 Lrghf; Provide 3,500 - 4,500 foot candles (12
lux) to hasten flower development.

- 15 total mols or 35,000 - 45,000


52'

Temperature: Days 61'

68"F

(1

6"

21' C); nights

61'F (l 1 " - 1 6"C).

PLUG CUUTURE
Germination: Optimum conditions for seedling development that begins the day the crop is sown until cotyledon expansion. Expect radicle emergence in 8 - 12 days.

Average Daily Temperature (ADT):60"F (16"C) Moisfure; Alternate between moisture levels wet (4), and medium (2). Allow media to approach level (2) before re-saturating to level (4). Humdity: 40

Cover Cover seeds with a thin layer of medium sized vermiculite to maintain moisture levels. Media: . pH: 5.8 - 6"2 . EC: <1 Llghf; Light is not necessary for germination. lf utilizing a chamber, providing a
light source of 10 - 100 foot candles (100 - 1 ,000 lux) will improve germination and reduce stretch compared to seed germinated in the dark. 70"F (21' or when cotyledons appear.

70%

Dehumidify: Provide horizontal airflow to aid in drying down the media through
evapotranspiration, allowing better penetration of oxygen to the roots.

Felilizers: Under high light conditions, apply an ammonium-based feed a|125 - 175 ppm nitrogen. Under low light conditions, apply a calcium-based feed (14-4-14) at 125 - 175 ppm nitrogen.
(17 -5-17)

Temperature: 68"

22") day and night from day 1 until day

I-

12

Moisture: Begin with a saturated (5), days I - 4 days. On day 5, drop to moisture level wet (4) until day 8. Afterward, begin alternating between moisture levels wet (4) to medium (2).

Growth Regulafors; An application of B-Nine at low rates to plugs will help avoid hypocotyl stretch. lf grown cool, PGRs should not be necessary after transplant. B-Nine (daminozide) at 2,500 - 5,000 ppm may be applied if desired. Cycocel (chlormequat chloride) at 750 - 1,000 ppm may also be applied.
Prnch; No pinch is necessary during spring production under cool low light conditions since this will delay flowering. For fall production under high light and
high temperature a pinch can be beneficial to increase branching. ln areas with high night temperature, consider finishing later in the fall.

Humidity: 100% util day g. Dehumidify: On day 10, lower humidity level to 40%. Provide horizontal airflow
to aid in drying down the media through evapotranspiration, allowing better penetration of oxygen to the roots.

TECHNIQUES TO ENHANCE POST }.IARVEST QUAI-ITY


When to Treat:
1

2 weeks prior to finish or shipping.

Ferfilizers; None Plug Bulking/Flower lnitiation: Optimum conditions during the vegetative
period, beginning at cotyledon expansion, needed for the root to reach the edge of the plug cellAND to make the plant receptive to flower initiation.

Growth Regulafors; B-Nine (daminozide) at 2,500 - 3,000 ppm if needed. Felilizer: Potassium nitrate drench at 150 ppm nitrogen.
Com mo n Drlseases.' Pyth iu m, Rh izoctonia, Phytophthora, Botrytis- To red u ce disease pressure, provide good air circulation and keep humidity levels at 40 - 50%. Keep foliage dry going into night-time hours. Apply appropriate fungicides as needed according to label rates.

Media: . pH: 5.8 - 6.2 . EC:1- 1.2 Llghf; Supplemental light at 350 - 500 foot candles (3,500 - 5,000 lux) for a daily total of 3,500 foot candles (35,000 lux) will enhance root and shoot growth.
(18"

Common Pesfs.' Fungus Gnats, Shore Flies, Thrips, Aphids. Scout plants on a regular basis and apply appropriate pesticides according to label rates.

Temperature: 65' - 68'F (18' - 20"C) from day 13 - 21. Then 65" - 67'F - 19'C) night temperature and 62'- 64"F (17'- 18"C) day temperature.

PRODUCT

U$E

GARPEN SPECIFTCATIONS
Lrghf; Full sun USDA Hardiness Zone: 10 AHS Heat Zone:6 - 1

Average Daily Temperature (ADT): 65'F (18'C) Moisfure.'Alternate between moisture levels wet (a) and (2) moist. Allow media to approach level (3) before re-saturating to level (4). Watch for excess algae growth. Using R/O (Reverse Osmosis) water will help reduce algae levels. Fetilizers: Under high light conditions, apply an ammonium-based feed (17-5-17) at 75 - 100 ppm nitrogen. Under low light conditions, apply a calciumbased feed (14-4-14) at 75 - 100 ppm nitrogen.

Containers, blooming potted

combinations, plant

Growth Regulafors.'Control growth with light, temperature, moisture and


fertilizer levels.

*$TK*SpmRMJM SeH g*Lll*f\'&


Total crop time
1

WCK$

8 weeks depending on the time of year 4


4

'288'plug crop time

'128'plug crop time


Transplant to finish ctop time N*ie; lfiese
sr.rggeso,'ls are only

guidelines and may have o ild alferd fo mel

4" crop 6" crop

10

inCividuel grawer's ntrer}s. Check af! ehenlicai lbefs f your regian.

veify rlrgistratn for use

- 14 (9 - 10 from a'128'size
12-15

plug

in

l-.-

**w.goldsmithseeds.com

31

ColossusrM
M i ni m u m Germ i

vIot_A wITTRACKIAt,4
nation Rate:
90"/o

fu{amxmot&?rM
L,ghf.' Provide 4,250 of light. Temperature:64"
morning drop.

5,500 foot candles (42,500

55,000 lux) or 15

20 mols

Seed Product Form.' Raw, GoldSmartrM Primed

- 67"F (17.5' - 19.5"C); -5 to -10'F (-3 to -6'C) DIF or

FLOWERING
day 15 with HID light for 16-18 hours OR total - 20 mols (4'250 - 5'500 foot candles or 42,500 - 55,000 lux) for 2 - 4 weeks at 67"F ( 1 9.5"C). Bud/ flower initiation at approximately 3 - 5 leaves, days 12 - 28. An average daily temperature of 67 - 70"F (19.5 - 21'C) will enhance flowering.
'15

Fertilizer: 14-4-14 or 17-5-17 al 100 - 125 ppm, 8 - 12 ppm phosphorus.


Maintain a boron conentration of 0.5 ppm in the soil. Growth Regulafors.'B-Nine spray at 2,500 - 7,500 ppm; A-Rest 2

Flowering Mechanism: lrradiance (primary); plants initiate on approximately

3 ppm'

GR0W|{G 0N
The timing approximations are based on optimal culture recommendations below:

PI-T'G CULTIJRE
The timing approximations are based on optimal culture recommendations below: 5): Humidity in the air 100% (humidification) from the time the crop is sown until radicle emergence takes place; root initial has penetrated media; some cotyledon development. Expect radicle emergence in 2 - 5 days; 3 - 5 days for non-primed seed.
1

Transplant to Finisfi (approximately day 36 - 82) Media: pH:5.5 - 5.8. EC: Avoid EC above 1.5 Light:4,000

Germination I (approximately day

6,000 foot candles (40,000

60,000 lux);

'14

22 mols

Temperat.lre:64' -67'F (17.5"


morning drop.

19.5"C); -5 to -10'F (-3

-6"C) DIF or

Cover.'Cover seeds lightly with coarse vermiculite to maintain moisture levels.


Medra.'Avoid media compaction to allow for root penetration' pH: 5'5 - 5.8; higher pH levels will encourage Thielaviopsis outbreak and boron deficiency wich may cause tip abortion and stunied growth. lnitial pH of presow medium should be on the low side of pH range because media pH tends to increase under saturated conditions. EC: <0.5

Moisfure; Alternate between moisture levels wet (4) and medium (2). Allow media to dry back to level (2) within in 18 hours before re-saturating to level (4)' Humidity:40ok FeTilizers:14-4-14 or 17-5-17 at100 125 ppm nitrogen, 8 - 12 ppm phosphorus. During cool weather production, ammonium-based feeds may encourage root rot problems. High nitrogen concentrations may promote stretching' Nutrition: Atan average daily temperature of 80"F (30'C) a calcium spray at a boron 1 50 ppm per week may be necessary to prevent upward cupped leaves; spray at 1 ppm per week may be necessary to prevent tip abortion.

Lighf.' lf utilizing a chambe providing a light source of I 0 - 100 foot candles


(100

- 1,000 lux) will improve


-

germination.
1

Moisture: Saturated (5) for days


Temperature:65" 68"F (18

5 or until radicle emergence.

Humidity: 100% until radicle emergence.

20"C) until radicle emergence.

is genetically more compact, requiring less growth .regulators. B-nine (daminozide) at 2,500 - 5,000 ppm Also responds to negative DIF treatments, A-Rest (ancymidol), or B-Nine/Cycocel (chlormequat chloride) tank mix.

Growth Regulators: Colossus

- 14): Change the humidity in the air (dehumidification) to 40%. The result is better root expansion; cotyledons fully expanded; roots are expanding throughout the growing substrate.
Germination 2 (approximately day 6 Media: pH:5.5

TEC}.INIQUE$ TO EilHANEE PCIST I{ARVEST QUALITY


When to Treat:
1

2weeks prior to finish or shipping

5.8. EC: 0.5

0.75

Growth Regulafors.'Spray B-Nine (daminozide) at 2,500

3,500 ppm

Light:2,000

2,500 foot candles (20,000

25,000 lux); 6

B mols of light.

Moisture: Dry back media to wet (4) and alternate to moist (3) within 1B hours at radicle emergence (approximately day 6).

Fertilizer: Potassium nitrate at 1 50 ppm nitrogen Temperature: ADIF of as much as -15'F may be applied for spring production
Common Drseases.'Alternaria Leaf Spot, Downy Mildew, Thielaviopsis Root
Rot, Cercospora Leaf SPot

Dehumidify: Lower relative humidity to 40% (approximately day 6). Provide


horizontal airflow to aid in drying down the media through evapotranspiration, allowing better penetration of oxygen to the roots.

Common Pesfs.'Aphids

Temperature: Once cotyledons are observed, reduce temperature to 64"

(17.5'-

19.5C); -2 to -3'F (-1.5 to -2'C) DIF or morning drop.

67'F

PRCIDUET

US
mass
I

Packs, pots, containers,

Fertilizers: 14-4-14 o 17-5-17 at 60


the soil of

0.5-0.75. Maintain a boron concentration of 0.5 ppm

75 ppm niirogen as needed for an EC in in the soil.

plantings

GAREN SPECIFIEA'TIO\S Lighf Full sun


IJSDA Hardiness Zone: 4 AHS Heat Zone:9 - 1

Growth Regulafors; B-Nine spray at 2,500 ppm if stem stretch is observed Ptug Bulking/Flower Initiation (approximately day 15 - 21-): Length of vegetative period - time necessary for roots to reach the edge of the plug, for shoots to fill out container, and for plants to become receptive to flower initiation. Before initiation starts, the plants should be a proper size, which includes
optimum shoot development, large number of auxiliary shoots and good presentation from pot size to plant size. *An additional week may be necessary to ensure sufficient shoot growth when the ADT is 80F (26.5C) and irradiance is greater than 1B mols.

''l.'.i::l

Colossus
Mammoth

4-5"

(10 -12cm\ 6-8"(15-20cm)

6-8"(15-20cm)
6

8" ('15

20 cm)

PI\hISY SEHEBULITSG IN WEEKS


Total crop
11
'13

Media: pH'.5.5 Lrghf; 3,500


(-2

5.8. EC: 0.75

5,000 foot candles (35,000

50,000 lux); 12

18 mols

time

- 12 forfall market; - 14 for spring market


5 for fall market; 7 for spring market

1 1

- 12 for fall market;


-

14 for spring market

Temperature:64" - 67"F (17.5" - -3'C) can be used.

- 19.5C); DIF or morning drop of -3 - 5"F

'288'plug
crop time
5

5 for fall market; 7 for spring market

Moisfure; Alternate between moisture levels wet (4) and medium (2). Allow media to dry back to level (2) within in 18 hours before re-saturating to level (4).
100 ppm nitrogen, 8 - '12 ppm phosphorus. Maintain a boron concentration of 0.5 ppm in the soil-

Transplant to finish crop time Pack

Fertilizers: 14-4-14 or'15-5-15 at 75

Growth Regulafors.'A-Rest (ancymidol) at 5 ppm. lncreased concentrations may


be necessary when the average daily temperature is greater than 75'F (24"C)

4" crop

- 5 for fall market; -7 for spring market 5 - 6 for fall market; 6 - 7 for spring market
4
5

4 - 5 for fall market; 5- 7 for spring market 5 6

6 for fall market: 7 for spnng market

Fungicide: Apply fungicide drench for Thielaviopsis. Initiated Butking (approximately day 22

35): Plants are receptive to flowering.

The shortest crop times may be achieved when following recorrented optimal rc-;:' r'tr: :mes culture. Deviation in environmental conditions will result in

www. gol dsm ithseeds.com

32

ldsmidt G SEEDS

Deltarnn Kanrnt*, futariposuMo $kyrn't


VIOLA, WITTRACK'ANA
Minimum Germinalion Rafe..Mariposa B5%; Delta, Karma, Sky g0% Seed Product Form.'Raw, GoldSmartrM Primed Temperature:68'F (20'C) days or as cool as possible during warm weather conditions. During the cool season, a night temperature of 59'F (15"C) will promote early flowering. Temperatures below 59'F (15'C) will promote a hardier plant, but will increase crop time and delay flowering.
Average Daily Temperature (ADT):67"F (19'C)

FLCIWERING 3-5leavespresent. Flowering lype; Day-neutral plant - will flower regardless of daylength. PLUG Ct.'LTURE
Germination: Optimum mnditions for seedling development that begins the day the
crop is sown until cotyledon expansion. Expect radicle emergence in 2 Time frame when plants are receptive to flower initiation.' Days 12

28;

Moisture: Alternate between moisture levels wet (4) and medium (2). Allow
media to approach level (2) before re-saturating to level (4)"

Humidity: 40 -70% Dehumidify: Provide horizontal airflow to aid in drying down the media through
evapotranspirtion, allowing better penetration of oxygen to the roots.

Specific Flowering Mechanism: High light and long days shorten time to flower.

Feilizers: Feed as needed at 100 - 1 50 ppm nitrogen with a calcium-based ferlilizer (1*4-14). During cool weather production, ammonium-based feeds may
encourage ropt rot problems. High nitrogen mncentrations may promote stretching.

4 days.

Cover.'Cover seeds lightly with coarse vermiculite to maintain moisture levels. Media: pH'.5-5 - 5.8 Higher pH levels will encourage Thielaviopsis outbreaks and
boron deficiencies which may cause tip abortion and stunted growth. EC: <0.5

Nutrition: Malformed and puckered leaves indicate calcium deficiencies. To


prevent this, fertilize with calcium nitrate or add calcium sulfate to the growing media before transplant. Boron deficiencjes can be distinguished by tip abortion, upper leaf stunting, puckering and thickening of leaves, along with shortened internodes andlot a gnarled mass of lateral shoots_ Boron deficiency is more prevalent during warm weather with frequent watering. pH levels below 6 will ensure boron is more readily available to the plant. A one{ime applicaton of Solubor will help overcome these problems. NOTE: An overdose of Bonzi (paclobutrazol) may also produce symptoms similar to boron or calcium deficiencies.

dramaticafly compared to seed germinated in the dark.

Lrghf; Light is not necessary for germination. lf utilizing a chamber, providing a light source of 1 0 - 100 foot candles (1 00 - 1 ,000 lux) will improve germination

Moisture: Saturated (5) for days 1 - 4 or until radicle emergence. On days 5 - 9


reduce moisture to moist (3). Reduce further beginning day 10 to medium (2).

Humidity: 100% until radicle emergence then reduce to 40 - 70%. Dehumidify: Provide horizontal airflow to aid in drying down the media through
evapotranspiration, allowing better penetration of oxygen to the roots.

Growth Regulators: Apply B-nine (daminozide) at 2,500 - 5,000 ppm. Also responds to negative DIF treatments, A-Rest (ancymidol), Bonzi (paclobutrazol), Sumagic (uniconazol) or B-Nine/Cycocel (chlormequat chloride) tank mix.

Temperature:65"
gradually to 62"

- 65'F (17'- 18"C) as seedlings mature. Plug Bulking/Flower tnitiation: Optimum conditions during the vegetative
Media: pH:5.5

68"F (18

20"C) until radicle emergence. Then reduce

TEEHNIQUES TCI ENI-IANEE POST HARVEST QI,'ALTY


When to Treat:
1

2 weeks prior to finish or shipping

period, beginning at cotyledon expansion, needed for the root to reach the edge of the plug cell AND to make the plant receptive to flower initiation.

Growth Regulators: Spray B-Nine (daminozide) at 2,500 Fertilizer: Potassium nitrate at 150 ppm nitrogen

3,500 ppm

5.8. EC: 0.5

Common Diseases: Alternaria Leaf Spot, Downy Mildew, Thielaviopsis Root Rot, Cercospora Leaf Spot Common Pesfs: Aphids

Light:2,500

3,500 foot candtes (25,000

35,000 tux).

70"F (18" - 21'C) days. On estabtished seedlings, reduce night temperatures to 59'F (15"C) to initiate early flowering.

Temperature:65'F (18'C) nights; 65'

PRCIDIJET

L'SE
mass

Average Daily Temperature (ADT):67"F (19"C) Moisure.'Alternate between moisture levels wet (4) and medium (2). Allow meda to approach level (2) before re-saturating to level (4).

plantings

Packs, pots, containers,

] GARDEN SPECIFICATIONS I Lrghf; Full sun USDA Hardiness Zone:4


AHS Heat Zone:9

Humidity:40 -70%
Dehumidifu: Provide horizontal air.flow to aid in drying down the media through evapotranspration under cool, low light conditions.

Fertilizers: Feed established seedlings with a calcium-based fertilizer (14-414) at 50 - 150 ppm nitrogen. Use the lower rates on younger seedlings. An ammonium concentration >5 ppm nitrogen will cause seedling stretch.

il

Growth Regulators: Panses can be treated when the first true leaves are fully developed. Apply B-Nine (daminozide) at 2,500 5,000 ppm. pansy also responds to negative DIF treatments, A-Rest (ancymidol) or Bonzi PANSY SEHFDIJLIT"G IN WEEKS (paclobutrazol).

4-6"(10-15cm) 6-8"(15-20cm) 6-8"(15-20cm) 5-6" (12 - 15 cm)

6-B"(15-20cm) 6-B"(15-20cm) 6-8.(15-20cm)


6

- 8'(r5 -

20 cm)

GROWII{G

CIN

til:lirn

rrt
10 - '12 for fall market; 11 - 13 for spring market 10 12

sow in a'288'tray.

Transplant Read 5 - 7 weeks from

Total crop time

- 12 forfall market; - 14 for spring


market

10 - 12 for fall market; 12 - 14for spring market

11

11

13 for fall market;

-l3forspring
market

Fi n ish Bu I ki ng/Flower In iti ation :

Optimum conditions during the vegetative period, beginning at transplant, needed for the root to reach the edge of the containerAND to make the plant receptive to flower initiation.

'288'plug crop time


Transplant to finish crop time Packs

5-6 4-5 5-6

5-6 4-5 5-6

5-6
,E

5-6

4" crop

5-6

5-6 6-7

Media: pH:5.5 - 5.8; EC: Avoid EC above 1.5. Pansy roots are sensitive to ammonium salts.
lux) to hasten flower induction. Supplemental lighting under low light conditions at 350 - 450 foot candles (35,000 - 45,000 lux) will enhance shoot and root growth.

Light: Provide 3,500 - 4,500 foot candles (12 - I 5 total mols or 35,000 - 45,000

lolr.: Ih*s* $LrEii'*sltrs aft: tlly ltLttietlrl*s ann rnay *;:r* t i]* alteft(l t {**l tldi\!idu.:l gr*wer',e ne*ds. {k*r:k all thenirl lahels La'erily r*g!$trnt!n far *se in yaur reglttn"

www. go I dsm ithseeds.com

33

G,

ldsmith SEEDS

I-

PEVSTEMAiv BARSATUS
Minimu m Germi n ation Rate :
Seed Product Form.'Raw
7 5o/o

FinacoladarM

Initiated Bulking (approximately day 32 - 49): Seedlings develop from juvenile to mature, usually determined by the number of |eaves present. Seedlings are receptive to initiation and flower bud development.
Lrghf; Provide 3,500

4,500 foot candles (35,000 - 45,000 lux) or 12

16 mols of ligl

FLOWERING Sp*ific Flowering M*hanism:

Temperature: 60'

64'F

(1

6' - 1 8'C)

Daylength and inadiance have no effect" Maturity of plants and cool nigt temperatures will promote more flowers per plant. No vemalization is required. However, long days or vemalization will improve flowering uniformity.

Alternate between calcium-based fertilizers (13-2-13 or 14-4-14) and potassium nitrate (15-5-15) at 100 150 ppm nitrogen. Under high light.condition a 17-5-17 fertilizer can be used; leach with fresh water every third watering.

Fetizer:

Flowering Iype.' Day-neutral plant.

Fungicides: Preventative fungicide may be applied for Pythium, Rhizoctonia at Thielaviopsis, Botrytis and/or Powdery Mildew.

PLUG EULTURF
The timing approximations are based on optimal culture recommendations below:

GROWING ON
The timing approximations are based on optimal culture recommendations below

Germination I (approximately day 1 - 21): From the time a seed is sown until radicle emergence takes place; usually with the root penetrating !h9 ryedi9 and some cotyledon development. Expect radicle emergence in 14 - 21 days. Recommend 2 - 3 seeds per cell. Cover A very thin layer of medium sized vermiculite may be applied to maintain
moisture levls if desired, but light is required for germination

Transplant to Finsh (approximately day 49 - 98): Optimize plant shoot.and.root growiti; which is usually a 1 :1 ratio. Flower buds are usually present and developinl Media: pH 5.5

6. EC: 1.2

- 1.5 High salts may result in root loss.


20 total mols or 35'000

Lrghf; Provide 3,500

- 4,500 foot candles (15 lux) to enhance shoot and root growth.

45'0(

- 6. EC: <.75 High EC discourages rooting into the media and could decrease final count of useable seedlings.
Media: pH'.5.5 Lrghf; Light is necessary for germination. Provide a lght source of 10 - 100 foot
candles if utilizing a chamber.

Temperature:65" - 70"F (18" - 21'C) days; 55" - 60'F (13'- '15'C) nights' /ltoisure.'Alternate between moisture levels wet (4) and medium (2)' Allow media to approach level (2) before re-saturating to level (4). Excessive drying

Moisture: Saturated (5) for day 1 - 14 or when radicles have emerged and penetrated the soil. Then reduce moisture level to wet (4).

the media moisture level will concentrate salts around the root system and may burn the root hairs. evapotranspiration under cool, low light conditions.

Dehumidify: Provide horizontal airflow to aid in drying down the media througt Humidity:40%
Fertilizers: Constant liquid feed at 1 50 - 200 ppm nitrogen with a calcium-basr fertilizer (13-2-13 or 14-4-14). Under high light conditions a 17-5-17 fertilizer ca be used. Leach with fresh water every third watering. Growth Regulators: lf needed, spray B-Nine at 1,500 - 3,500 ppm, or drench

Humidty:100% until radicle emergence then reduce to 40%. Dehumidify: Provide horizontal airflow to aid in drying down the media through
evapotranspiration, allowing better penetration of oxygen to the roots.

Temperature:64'

68"F

(1

B"

20"C).

- 24): From the time cotyledon is observed until it is fully expanded. The roots have expanded throughout the media. Dehumidify from 100% to 40% in the air.
Germination 2 (approximately day 15 Media; pH: 5.5

Bonziatl-2ppm"

6. EC: 1 - 1.5

Fungicides: Preventative fungicide may be applied for Pythium, Rhizoctonia

Lighf; Supplemental lighting at 350 - 450 foot candles (3,500 a 10 - 12-hour day will enhance plant growth.
Temperature: 60'

4'500 lux) during

Thielaviopsis, Botrytis and/or Powdery Mildew.

TECI{NIQUES TO E}IHANCE PCIST HARVEST QUALITY


When to Treat: 1 - 2 weeks prior to finish or shipping. Felilizer: Potassium nitrate drench at 150 ppm nitrogen.

64"F (16'

- 18'C).

Moisure.'Altemate between moisture levels wet (4) and moist (3). Allow media to
approach level (3) before re-saturating to level (4). Do not allow seedlings to dry down.

Humidity:40

50o/o

Dehumidify: Lower relative humidity to 40% (approximately day 15). Provide


horizontal airflow to aid in drying down the media through evapotranspiration, allowing better penetration of oxygen to the roots.

Common Diseases; Pythium, Rhizoctonia, Thielaviopsis, Botrytis, Powdery Milde Monitor moisture and humidiiy levels and use preventative fungicide drenches. Common Pesfs.'Fungus Gnats, Shore Flies, Aphids and Thrips. Use pesticidt according to label directions.

Fertilizers: Alternate between calcium-based fertilizers (13'2'13 or 14-4-14) and potassium nitrate ('15-5-15) at 50 - 75 ppm nitrogen. Phosphorus should not exceed 10 ppm.

GARDEN SPECIFICATIONS
Lrghf.' Part to full sun USDA Hardiness Zone:3 AHS Heat Zone:8

Growth Regutafors.'Penstemon Pinacolada has a compact growth habit and should not require PGR applications. lf needed in the plug stages, a 1,500 - 2,500 B-Nine application may be supplied as a spray.
Fungicides: Preventative fungicide may be applied for Pythium, Rhizoctonia and Thielaviopsis, Botrytis and/or Powdery Mildew.
32): The time it takes for the shots to proportionately fill the plug cell and for roots to develop throughout the media.

- 10" (20 - 30 cm)

PIug Bulking/Flower lnitiation (approximately day 24

Media:pH'.5.5-6. EC: I -1.5


Lrghf; Supplemental lighting under low light conditions at 350
(35,000

PENSTEMCIN SCHED[JI-ING IN WEEKS

45,000 lux) will enhance shoot and root growth.

450 foot candles

Temperature: 60"

64"F

(1

6"

8"C).

Moisfure.'Alternate between moisture levels wet (4) and medium (2). Allow media to approach level (2) before re-saturating to level (4). Do not allow plants to wilt.

Humidity:40 -70o/o
Felitizers: Alternate betvveen calcium-based fertilizers (13-2-13 or 14-4'14) and potassium nitrate (15-5-15) at 75 - 100 ppm nitrogen. Growth Regutators: lf needed, spray B-Nine at 1,500 - 2'500 ppm. B-Nine can be used to tone the plants. Fungicides: Preventative fungicide may be applied for Pythium, Rhizoctonia and Thielaviopsis, Botrytis and/or Powdery Mildew.

Transplant to finish crop time

www. gol dsm ithseeds. com

34

StarlarM
PENTAS Ai\'CEALATA
M

GROWNG ON
Transplant Ready:
B

inim u m Germ ination Rafe.' 85%

10 weeks from a '288' plug tray-

Seed Product Form; Pelleted, raw FLQWERING


3

Time frame when plants are receptive to flower intiation.' Days 16 - 5 leaves.

21;

Finish Bulking/Flower lnitiation: Optimum conditions during the vegetative period, beginning at transplant, needed for the root to reach the edge of the containerAND to make the plant receptive to flower initiation. Media: . pH: 6.4 6.6

Flowering lype.' Facultative long-day plant - long days enhance flowering.


Specific Flowering Mechanism; Maturity in combination with high light and
warm temperatures.

. EC:1

- 1.2 -

Liglrf; Provide 3,500 - 4,500 foot candles (12

PLUG CU'-TURE
Germination: Optimum conditions for seedling development that begins the day
the crop is sown until cotyledon expansion. Expect radicle emergence in 7 days.

15 total mols or 35,000 - 45,000 lux) to hasten flower induction. Supplemental lighting under low light conditions at 350 - 450 foot.candles (35,000 - 45,000 lux) will enhance shoot and root growth. Extending the daylength to 13 '14 hours (1 2 I 5 total mols of light) will hasten

- 10

flower development. High light intensity, 3,500 - 5,000 foot candles (35,000 - 50,000 lux) will promote compact growth.

Cover No coverng overthe seed


Pentas show iron toxicity.
<1

is required.

Tempenture:66'- 6B"F (19'- 20'C) day temperatures; 68'- 72"F (20" night temperatures with a 0 - 5 degree negative DIF from 5 - 7:30 a.m.
Average Daily Temperature (ADT):68"F (20"C)

-22'C)

Media: . pH: 6.4 - 6.6 Watch for decreases of pH; below 6, . EC:

Moisture.'Alternate between level (4) moist and medium (2). Allow soil to reach level (2) before re-saturating to level (4).

Lrghf: Light is not necessary for germination. lf utilizing a chamber, providing a light source of 10 - 100 foot candles (100 - I ,000 lux) will improve germination
and reduce stretch compared to seed germinated in the dark.

Humidity:40 -70o/o Dehumidify: Provide horizontal airflow to aid in drying down the media through
evapotmnspration, allowing better penetration of oxygen to the roots.

Temperature: 73"

76"F (22"

24"C) day and night from day 1 - 9.

Moisture: Begin with a saturated (5), from days 1 - 10. Beginning day 11 , reduce moisture level to wet (4), until day 14. Afterward, begin alternating between moisture level wet (4) and moist (3). Humidity:'100% until day 10.

Ferlilizers: Alternate with calcium and nitrate based fertilizers (17-5-17 at 60 - 75 ppm nitrogen, 14-4-14 at 60 - 75 ppm nitrogen). Watch for low calcium and magnesium levels which may result in stunted, chlorotic plants with marginal leaf burn.

Dehumidify: On day 9, lower humidity level to 40%. Maintain air flow over trays
in order to dry back media moisture and allow good oxygen penetration.

Growth Regulators: lf needed, spray either B-Nine (daminozide) at 2,500 - 5,000 ppm, Bonzi (paclobutrazol) spray at 2 - 3 ppm, orA-Rest (ancymidol) spray at 2- 4 ppm.

Fertilizers: Maintain EC at <1. Fertigation water should not be greater than an


EC of 0.5. On day g, drench a nitrate based, low-phosphorous feed ('14-2-14) at 50 - 60 ppm nitrogen.

TECHNIQUES TO ENI{ANEE POST I-IARVEST QUALITY


When to Treat:
1

2weeks prior to finish or shipping.

Growth Regulafors.' B-Nne (daminozide) at 2,500

Plug Bulking/Flower lnitiation: Optimum conditions during the vegetative period, beginning at cotyledon expansion, needed for the root to reach the edge of the plug cellAND to make the plant receptive to flower initiation.

3,000 ppm.

Fertilizer: Potassium nitrate drench at 100 ppm nitrogen.


Common Diseases.' Pythium, Rhizoctonia, Botrytis. Avoid over-saturated conditions, drench and/or spray appropriate fungicides as needed. Common Pesfs: Thrips, Whitefly, Aphids, Spider Mites. Scout crops on a regular basis; apply appropriaie insecticides as needed.

Media: . pH: 6.4 - 6.6

.EC:1-1.2

Lrghf.' Provide 3,500 - 4,500 foot candles (12 - 15 total mols or 35,000 - 45,000 lux) over a 13 - 14 hour period to hasten flower induction. Supplemental lighting under low light conditions at 350 - 450 foot candles (35,000 - 45,000 lux) will enhance shoot and root growth.

PRODI,JCT

USE

GARDEN SPECFIEATIONS
sun USDA Hardiness Zone: AHS Heat Zone: 12 - 1
11

Beds, mass plantings, mixed

Temperature: 68"

72"F (20"

22"C) night and day temperatures.

combinations

containers, Lrghf.'Full

Average Daily Temperature (ADT):70"F (21"C) Moisure.'Alternate behveen moisture levels wet (4) and medium (2). Allow media to approach level (2) before re-saturating to level (4). Watch for excess
algae growth. Using R/O (Reverse Osmosis) water will help reduce algae levels.

Fertilizers: Under high light conditions, apply an ammonium-based feed (17-5-17) at 50 - 100 ppm nitrogen. Under low light conditions, apply a calcium-based feed (14-4-14 or 14-2-14) at 50 - 100 ppm nitrogen.

PENTAS SChiET}ULNG IN WEEKS

Growth Regulafors.' lf needed, spray B-Nine (daminozide) at 2,500 ppm.


7

9 early spring, 6

7 late spring

Transplant to finish crop time

{o: Tes s,gEesflcrs are anly guidelines anrl nay have t b altrect to ffieet '.c reeJs. Ch*ck ali chenlcl /]b/s lo verify regstreton for use in yLu r*gian.

!fidvidual grc\Ner

www. gol dsm ithseeds.com

35

FrostrM, StornnrM, Eravor*, UltrarM, l-lunrahrM, PrlmefimerM


ET U N IA G RAN D t F LA RA/ p ET U t'l lA M U LT I F LO RA Minimum Germination Rafe.'Storm, Ultra: 90%; Frost, Bravo, Hurrah,
P PrimeTime: 85% Seed Product Form: Pelleted, raw

GRCIWING

Ot\N

Transplant Ready;4

5 weeks from sow in a '2BB'tray.

Finish BulkinglFtower Initiation: Optimum conditions during the vegetative period, beginning at transplant, needed for the root to reach the edge of the containerAND to make the plant receptive to flower initiation.

FLOWERING
Time frame when ptants are receptive to flower initiation; Days 14 - 21; 3 - 4 leaves. Flowering lype.' Facultative long-day plant - long days required for flowering'

Media: . pH: 5.5 . EC:


1

- 5.8 Yellow upper leaves may indicate iron deficiencies when pH is > 6.6. 1.5

Llghf; Petunias need long days to flower. To initiate bud under short days,

Specific Flowering Mechanism: Flowering is affected by daylength, irradiance


and temperature.

PLUG CULTTJRE
Germination: Optimum conditions for seedling development that begins the day the crop is sown until cotyledon expansion.
Expect radicle emergence in 3

5 days.

exiend day length to 13 hurs. Under long day, low light conditions, supplemental lighting of 350 - 500 foot candles (3,500 - 5,000 lux) may be necessary' Temperature: After transplant, Petunias require temperatures > 55'F (13"C) nighis fbr the first 6 weeks to initiate flower bud development. After bud set, the nilht temperatures can be lowered to 50"F (10"C) to encourage basal branching anid compactness. However, lower temperatures may also substantially decrease the number of flowers initiated. Downward cupping of leaves may indicate toocool temperatures in combination with overwatering.

Cover: Do not cover the seeds. Media: , pH: 5.5 - 5.8

. EC: 0.75 Lighf:


candles (100

Average Daily Temperature (ADT):67"F (19'C) Morsfure: Alternate between moisture levels wet (4) and dry (1) Allow media to approach level (1 ) before re-saturating to level (4).

Light is necessary for germination. Provide a light source of 1 0

- 100 foot

Dehumidify: Provide horizontal airflow to aid in drying down the media through
evapofanspiration under cool, low light conditions. Fertilizers: Under high light conditions, apply an ammonium-based feed (17-5- 17). Under low light conditions, apply a calcium-based feed (14-4-14)'

- 1,000 lux) if utilizing a chamber.


6 reduce moisture to wet (4)'

Moisture: Saturated (5) for days 1 - 3. On days 4 Reduce further beginning day 7 to medium (2).

Humidity:100% until radcle emergence then reduce to 40%. Dehumidify: Provide horizontal arflow to aid in drying down the media through
evapotranspiration, allowing better penetration of oxygen to the roots.

nder high light and long or extended days, an ammonium-based feed (20-1020) is preferred. To prevent stretching under low light and cool temperatures, reduce ammonium and apply only calcium-based fertilizer'

-76'F (22' -24'C) until radicle to 62" - 65'F (16'- 19'C) as cotyledons expand.
Temperature:72"

emergence. Gradually reduce

Ptug Butking/Flower lnitiation: Optimum conditions during the vegetative perid, beginning at cotyledon expansion, needed for the root to reach the edge of the plug cell AND to make the plant receptive to flower initiation. Media: . pH: 5.5 - 5.8

Growth Regutators: Petunias are responsive to B-Nine (daminozide) at 2,500 - 5,00 ppm. Apply B-Nine before the buds are visible. Late applications will distort flower color and size. Also responds to DIF treatments, Bonzi (paclobutrazol), Sumagic (uniconazol) or B-Nine/Cycocel (chlormequat chloride) tank mix.
Common Diseases: Botrytis, Rhizoctonia Common Pesfs; Thrips

.EC: 0.5-1
3,000 foot candles (2,500 - 3'000 lux). Supplemental ligting at 400 foot candles (4,000 lux) for a 14-hour day will induce early flowering.

Light: Provide2,500

GAREEN SPECIFICA"TION$
Lrgltf: Full sun
USDA Hardiness Zone:8 AHS HeatZone:12- 1

20"C). Once seedlings are established, gradually reduce night temperatures to 59 F (15 C) to initiate early flowering.

Temperature:65"

6B'F

(18'-

Average Daily Temperature (ADT): 67"F (19"C)


Moisfure.'Alternate between moisture levels wet (4) and medium (2). Allow
media to approach level (2) before re-saturating to.level (4).
12 10
10

14" (30

35 cm)

14
14 12

16" (35

50 cm)

Humidity:40 -70% Dehumidify: Provide horizontal airflow to aid in drying down the media through
evapotranspiration, allowing better penetration of oxygen to the roots. Feitizers: Upon initial germination begin feeding early on with 50 ppm nitrogen. Pay attention to the addition of boron since low boron can cause tip abortion. Feed established seedlings at 100 - 150 ppm nitrogen. Under high light conditions, apply an ammonium-based feed (17-5-17). Under low light conditions' apply a calcium-based feed (14-4-14). Under high light and long or extended days, an ammonium-based feed (20-1 0-20) is prefened. For more shoot growth, add an additional ammonium treatment to the schedule. To prevent stretching under low light and cool temperatures, reduce ammonium and apply only calcium-based fertilizer.
3,500

- 12" (25 - 30 cm) - 12" (25 - 30 cm) 8 - 10" (20 - 25 cm)

- 16" (35 - 50 cm) - 14" (30 - 35 cm) 12 - 14" (30 - 35 cm)

PETUNIA SChlEDULlf.G lN WEEKS

5,000 ppm after the first true leaves have appeared. Petunias are also responsive to a negative DIF treatment, Bonzi (paclobutrazol) and Sumagic (uniconazol).

Growth Regulafors.'Apply two applications of B-Nine (daminozide) at

4-5
Transplant to finish crop time

4-5 5-6
indit irlu*l grawet's needs. cherk all csrnca/ laire/s ia rrenfy regisir*frcn for use yr regitl.
n

www. go ld s m ith s eed s. co m

36

G.:jdsmith SEEDS

l4,

Plushs, Ramblin/t,tt
P

ETU

IA X HYB

RI

DA

/ fRAJL''VG

Mi n imu m Germ inatio n Rate :

85o/o

Seed Product Form.'Pelleted, raw

FLOWRING 3-6leavespresent. Flowering lype; Facultative long-day plant - long days enhance flowering.
and temperature. PLN".'G Time frame when plants are receptive to ftower initation; Days 18

24;

5 weeks from sow in a'288'tray. Transplant as soon as root system is established. Root bound plugs do not transplant well. Plush and Ramblin' Petunia require less growth regulators and are not as daylength sensitive as other trailing types of Petunias, makng them very economical to grow. Grow Plush and Ramblin' smilar to other spreading Petunias.

GRCIWING ON Transplant Read 4 -

Finish Bulking/Flower lnitiation: Optimum conditions during the vegetative period, beginning at transplant, needed for the root to reach the edge of the containerAND to make the plant receptive to flower initiation.

Specific Flowering Mechanism: Flowering is affected by daylength, irradiance

Media: . pH: 5.5 - 5.8 . EC: 1.5-2


Lrghf.' Petunias need long days to flower. To initiate bud under short days, extend day length to 14 hours. Under long day, low light conditions, supplemental lighting of 350 - 500 foot candles (3,500 - 5,000 lux) may be necessary. Ptush is very early flowering under short day and low light conditions.

CULTURE

Germination: Optimum conditions for seedling development that begins the day
the crop is sown until cotyledon expansion. Expect radicle emergence in 3 days. moisture levels.

Coyer Seeds may be covered with a thin layer of coarse vermiculite to maintain Media: . pH: 5.5 - 5.8 . EC: 0.75 - 1

Lrghf Light is necessary for germination. Provide a light source of 10 candles (100 - 1 ,000 lux) if utilizing a chamber.

- 100 foot
6

Temperature: After transplant, Peiunias require temperatures > 55'F (13"C) nights for the first 6 weeks to initiate flower bud development. After bud set, the night temperatures can be lowered to 50'F (1 0"C) to encourage basal branching and compactness. However, lower temperatures may also substantially decrease the number of flowers initiated. Downward cupping of leaves may indicate too cool temperatures in combination with overwatering. Average Daily Temperature (ADT):67'F (19'C) Moisfure.'Alternate between wet (4) and dry (1) Allow media to approach level (1 ) before re-saturating to level (4).

Moisture: Saturated (5) for days 1 - 3 or until radicle emergence. On days 4 reduce moisture to wet (4). Reduce further beginning day 7 to medium (2).

Humidty:100% until radicle emergence then reduce to 40%. Dehumidify: Provide horizontal airflow to aid in drying down the media through
evapotranspiration, allowing better penetration of oxygen to the roots. to

Humidity:40

50o/o

Dehumidif: Provide horizontal airflow to aid in drying down the media through
evapotranspiration, allowing better penetration of oxygen to the roots.

Temperature:72" -76'F (22'-24"C) until radicle emergence. Gradually reduce

65'-

68"F

(18'-

20'C) as cotyledons expand.

Plug Bulking/Flower Initiation: Optimum conditions during the vegetative period, beginning at cotyledon expansion, needed for the root to reach the edge of the plug cellAND to make the plant receptive to flower initiation. Media: . pH: 5.5 5.8 Yellow upper leaves may indicate iron deficiencies when
pH is > 6.6

Felizers: Feed at 100 - 200 ppm nitrogen. Under high light conditions, apply an ammonium-based feed (17-5-17).To prevent stretching under low light conditions, apply a calcium-based feed (14-4-14). Under high light and long or extended days, an ammonium-based feed (20-10-20) is preferred.
Growth Regulafors.' B-Nine (daminozide) as needed at 3,500 ppm. Apply B-Nine before the buds are visible. Late applications will distort flower color and size. Also responds to DIF treatments, Bonzi (paclobutrazol), Sumagic (uniconazol) or B-Nine/Cycocel (chlormequat chloride) tank mix.
Common Diseases.' Botrytis, Rhizoctonia Common Pesfs; Aphids

.EC: 1-1.5
Lrghf; Petunias need long days to flower. To initiaie bud under short days, extend day length to 13.5 - 14 hours. Under long day, low light conditions, supplemental
lighting of 350

500 foot candles (3,500

5,000 lux) may be necessary.

Temperature: After transplant, Petunias require temperatures > S5"F (13.C) nights for the first 6 weeks to initiate flower bud development. After bud set, ihe night temperatures can be lowered to 50'F (1 0"C) io encourage basal branching and compactness. Howeve lower temperatures may also substantially decreas! the number of flowers initiated. Downward cupping of leaves may indicate too
cool temperatures in combination with ovenvatering.

PR0tsUCT

USE

I GARDEN SpECtFtgATtONS
B

walls

Pots, containers, trellises, hanging I Lrghf; Full sun baskets, mass plantings, retaining IJSDA Hardiness Zone:

AHS Heat Zone: 12

Average Daily Temperature (ADT):67"F (19"C) /lfoisfure; Alternate between moisture levels wet (4) and dry (1) Allow media to approach level (1) before re-saturating to level (4).

10 10

14" (25 14" (25

35 cm) 35 cm)

- 28" (60 30 - 36'(75 24

70 cm) 90 cm)

Humidity: 40 - 50Vo Dehumidify: Provide horizontal airflow to aid in drying down the media through
evapotranspiration, allowing better penetration of oxygen to the roots.

PETUNIA SCHEDULING IN WEEKS

Feilizers: Upon initial germination begin feeding early on with 50 ppm nitrogen.
Pay attention to the addition of boron since low boron can cause tip abortion. Feed established seedlings at 100 - 150 ppm nitrogen. Under high light conditions, apply an ammonium-based feed (17-5-17). Under low light conditions, apply a calcium-based feed (14-4-14). Under high light and long or extended days, an ammonium-based feed (20-10-20) is preferred. For more shoot growth, add an additional ammonium ireatment to the schedule. To prevent stretching under low light and cool temperatures, reduce ammonium and apply only calcium-based fertilizer.

Transplant to finish crop time

Growth Regulators.'Petunias are responsive to B-Nine (daminozide) at 2,500 - 5,000 ppm. Apply B-Nine before the buds are visible. Late applications will distort flower color and size. Also responds to DIF treatments, Bonzi (paclobutrazol), Sumagic (uniconazol) or B-Nine/Cycocel (chlormequat chloride) tank mix.

l{*i*: Ihese
ya$ regiorl.

suEgesfo.s ae on}y guitlelirses and may ha't* to e lfsre.f t* n}si '1d;vdal grw*r s nseds. Check al clerncl lairels lo verily r*gstratian fur use n

www. goldsm ithseeds.com

37

FicobellarM
PETUNIA MILLIFLARA
M i ni m
u

GRCIWING ON
Transplant Ready;4

m Germi nation Rate:

90o/o

5 weeks from sow in a '288'tray.

Seed Product Form; Pelleted, raw

Finish Bulking/Flower Initiaton: Optimum conditions during the vegetative


period, beginning at transplant, needed for the root to reach the edge of the

FLOWERING
3

containerAND to make the plant receptive to flower initiation.

Time frame when plants are receptive to flower initiation; Days 10 - 4 leaves.

12;

Media: . pH: 5.5 - 5.8 Yellow upper leaves may indicate iron deficiencies when
pH is > 6.6.

Flowering lype: Obligate long day and irradiance Specific Flowering Mechanism; Flowering is affected by daylength, irradiance
and temperature. Plants will flower under a day length of t hours, 12 mols of light; flower development is enhanced in temperatures of 67"F (19.4'C).

. EC: 1.25

1.75

Ltghf: 3,000 - 4,000 foot candles (30,000 - 40,000 lux or I 0 - 14 mols) Petunias
need long days to flower. To initiate bud under short days, extend day length 12

hours.

to

PLI.'G CULTURE
Germination: Optimum conditions for seedling development that begins the day
the crop is sown until cotyledon expansion. Expect radicle emergence in 3 days.

Temperature: 65"
18 hours.

68'F (18' - 20"C) with a -3 to -5'F G2 to -3'C) DIF or drop

Moisfure;Alternate between saturate (5) and wet (3); dry back must occur within

Cover: Do not cover the seeds. Media: . pH: 5.8 6

Felilizers: 14-4-14 or 17-5-17 or 20-10-20 at 100 ppm phosphorous.

- 150 ppm nitrogen; 8 - 12

. EC: 0.5 -

Growth Regulators: Plant growth regulators are usually not necessary on genetic dwarf Petunias.
Common Dlseases.' Botrytis, Rhizoctonia

0.75

Lrghf; Light is necessary for germination. Provide a light source of 10


candles (100

1,000 lux) if utilizing a chamber.

- 100 foot

Common Pesfs.'Thrips

Moisture: Saturated (5) for days 1 - 5. On day 6 reduce moisture to wet (4) drying back to a moist (3) within 18 hours. Humidity:100% until radicle emergence (approximately day 6), then reduce to
40o/o.

PRODUCT

USE
mass

Packs, pots, containers,

plantings

I GARDEN SPECIFICATIONS I Lighf; Full sun

Dehumidify: Provide horizontal airflow to aid in drying down the media through evapotranspiration, allowing better penetration of oxygen to ihe roots.
Temperature: 72" - 76'F (22' - 24'C) until radicle emergence. Gradually reduce to 65 - 67'F (18" - 19.5'C) with -2 to -3"F (-1 .5 to -2"C) DIF or morning drop as
cotyledons expand. 0.5
8

USDA Hardiness Zone.'8 AHS Heat Zone:9 - 1

10" (20

25 cm)

I-

10" (20

25 cm)

Fertilizers: 144-14- or 17-5-17 at 60

0.75; add 8

- 75 ppm nitrogen to maintain - 10 ppm phosphorous.

an EC of

PETUNA SCHEDULING IN WEEKS

PIug Bulking/Flower lnitiation: Optimum conditions during the vegetative


period, beginning at coiyledon expansion, needed for the root to reach the edge of the plug cellAND to make the plant receptive to flower initiation.
*To

keep plants vegetative, provide less than benefit from less than 6 mols of light

hours of day length and may

Transplant to finish crop time

Media: . pH: 5.8 - 6 . EC: 0.75 1.50 Light: Provide 2,000 - 2,500 foot candles (20,000 * 25,000 lux or 6 - 8 mols). Temperature: 65' - 68'F (18" - 20'C) with a -3 to -5'F (-2 to -3"C) DIF or drop
Moisure; Alternate between saturate (5) and wet (3); dry back must occur within 1 8 hours

frlafe: Ihes sr.rgges{l?s are anly gLidelines and may have to be allercd ta meet individual grower's reeds. Check all chenlcal labeJs lo verify registratian for use in yar rcgion.

Humidity:40o/o

Fertilizers: 14-4-14 or 17-5-17 or 20-10-20 at 100


ppm phosphorous. genetic dwarf Petunias.

- 150 ppm nitrogen; 8 - l2

Growth Regulafors.'Plant growth regulators are usually not necessary on

www. go ldsm ithseeds.com

3B

G.:ldsmith SEEDS

rrfXrXrrt

I
J

Miss Tillyru
P

LATVCO

DA

G RAN D I F

LA RA

GROWING OhI
Transplant Ready: 4 - 5 weeks from sow in a '288' tay. Transplant before plug cells become root bound. Platycodons do not like to be transplanted. Finish Bulking/Flower Initiation: Optimum conditions during the vegetative period, beginning at transplant, needed for the root to reach the edge of the containerAND to make the plant receptve to flower initiation.

M ini mu

m Germi nation Rafe: 90%

Seed Product Form.'Raw

FLOWERING
Flowering Iype.' Platycodon grandifl ora is day-neutral. Specific Flowering Mechanism.'Long days and high light enhance flowering.

Media: . pH: 5.5 - 6

.EC:1 PLUG CULTURE


Germination: Optimum conditions for seedling development that begins the day the crop is sown until cotyledon expansion. Expect radicle emergence in 3 - 4 days. Cover.'Seeds may be covered with a thin layer of coarse vermiculite to maintain moisture levels.

Lrglrf Young'plants need to be shaded from direct sun. Once established, plants can tolerate higher light levels up to 4,000 foot candles (40,000 lux).
Temperature:55".- 60"F (13"

- 18"C) nights; 68" -75'F (20'- 24'C)

days.

Average Daily Temperature (ADl):67"F (19"C)


Moisure; Alternate between moisture levels moist (3) and medium (2). Allow media to approach level (2) before re-saturating to level (3).

Media: . pH: 5.5 - 6 . EC: 0.5 0.75

Humidity: 40

70o/o

Lrgttf; Light is necessary for germination. Provide a light source of 10 - 100 foot
candles (100
6

Dehumidify: Provide horizontal arflow to aid in drying down the media through
evapotranspiration, allowing better penetration of oxygen to the roots.

- 1,000 lux) if utilizing a chamber.

Moisture: Saturated (5) for days 0

- 5 or until radicle emergence. On days 18 reduce moisture to moist (3) until cotyledon expansion.

Fertilizers: Constant liquid feed at 200 ppm nitrogen with a nitrate-based fertilizer (17-5-17) to promote a strong root system.

Humidity: 100% until radicle emergence then reduce to 40 - 7OoA. Dehumidify: Provide horizontal airflow to aid in drying down the media through
evapotranspiration, allowing better penetration of oxygen to the roots.

Growth Regulafors; Apply B-Nine (daminozide) at 1,000 ppm as needed to control plant habit. Higher rates may burn leaf edges. Begin applicatons 2 - 3 weeks after transplant.
Common Diseases; Botrytis Common Pesfs; Spider Mite

Temperature:68"

65'

68'F

(1

8'

70"F (20' - 21'C) until radicle emergence. Reduce to 20"C) until cotyledon expansion.

Fertilizers: Fertigation water should not be greater than an EC of 0.S. Plug Bulking: Optimum conditions during the vegetative period, beginning at cotyledon expansion, needed for the root to reach the edge of the plug cell. Media: . pH: 5.5 6

PRODUCT

USE
gardens

GARDEN SPECIFICATIONS
rgh Filtered sun to full sun USDA Hardiness Zone:6 AHS Heat Zone:9 - 1

Pots, containers, rock

. EC: 0.75

-I

Lrghf.'Maximum 3,000 foot candles (30,000 lux). Avoid direct sunlight. Temperature:65" - 68"F (1 8' - 20"C) Morbfure.'Alternate between moisture levels moist (3) and medium (2). Allow media to approach level (2) before re-saturating to level (3).

PLAWCODON SCHEDULNG IN WEEKS

Humidity:40 -70% Dehumidify: Provide horizontal airflow to aid in drying down the media through
evapotranspiration, allowing better penetration of oxygen to the roots.

Fertilizers: Feed established seedlings at 50 based fertilizer (13-2-13 or 14-4-14).


prevent stretching.

- 1S0 ppm nitrogen with a calciumTransplant to finish crop time

Growth Regulators: lf necessary apply B-Nine (daminozid) at 1,000 ppm to

indvidual gnswer's needs. Che{:k all chemital fabels ta ve{{y reglstration fo use jn your reg;an.

ww. goldsm ithseeds.com

39

0' ldsmith SEEDS

&ron@, FrimetrarM
PRIMALAAEA{,,S
Minimum Germination Rate:
g0o/o

GROW'FG ON
Transplant Ready: 6 - g weeks from a ,2gB' plug tray" Finish Bulking/Frower rnitiation: optimum conditions during the vegetativeperiod,

Seed Product Form.. Raw, GoldSmartrM primed

FLOWER!rdG
Time frame when plants are receptive to flower initiation.. g _ 10 leaves present.

beginning at transplant, needed for the root to ieacfr tfre eOgJof the contaner AND to make the plant receptive to flower ntration.

flowering.

Flowering lype; Facultative long-day plant _ long days enhance flowering. Specific Flowering Mechanism.. Maturity and irradiance (12 _ 15mols)

Media: . pH: S.5 - 5.8 . EC: 1- 1.5

trigger

PLLJG CLJI-T{JRE
Germination: optimum conditions for seedring deveropment that begns the day the crop is sown until cotyledon expansion.

'

Provide 3,000 - 4,000 foot candles (12 _ 15 total mots or 30,000 _ 40,00C ly! 9j11?l ftower devetopment. Long Odys may enance growth. Avoid direct sunrgnr as reat scorch mav occur..NorE: do not ailow right tdver to exceeo ,si foot candles (35,000 tux) fr an extended length of time." Te.mperature: pays 50" q?"1(].g. _-t"C);Nights 55. _ 60.F (12. _ 16.C) with a negative DtF of 5" 10.F (1. _ :.C tiom _ S a.m.

lighf:

cover" cover seeds with a thin rayer of medium-sized vermicurite to maintain mosture levels. Media: . pH: 5.5 - 5.8
. EC:
<1

Average Daily Temperature

(ADI:

Sa.F

(2.C)
(3).

Moisture: Alternate between moislure rever moist (3) and ' ' medium (2). Ailow soir to reach
level (2) before re-saturating to level

Light: Light is not necessary for germination. lf utilizing a chamber, providing a light source of 'f 0 - i00 foof cand'es tloo _ i,oo i*iitt irprou"'j*;;;ti"; and reduce stretch compared to seed germinri"J in i" ou*. lgytOgyqtyre:64" - 6B"F (1 B" - 2O"C) untit cotytedon expansion; then 60" - 62"F (1 6" - 1 7"c) to orevent strtcn. temperaturs above io;r 1z+"c result in a lower germintion percentage.

Humidity:40 -70% Dehumidify: Provide horizontar.airfrow to aid in dryng down the media through evapotranspiration, allowing better penetration ot xyien to the roots.
Fertirizers: Finish prants wth an N:K ratio of 1:3. rn coor weathe maintain row ammonium levels to avoid excessive vegetative growth and roofrot problems. Alternate with carcum-based and nitratelbased t'tiri=" 1rz-+-20 at 100 - 150 ppm nitrogen, 14-4-14 at.lO0 _ 150 ppm nitrogen). Gro,wt! grown cool, pGRs should not be necessary. !;eSu.l1fors.. lf tf needed, apply B-Nine (daminozide) spray at 2,500 _ 5,000 ppm .

*itt

M:!:tt!re: Saturated (5), from day 1 _ 7. On day 7 ,lower to moisture level wet (4)' and re-saturate to rever (5) untir day tz,'or'to iutt cotyredon exjansion. Afieruard, atternate between moisture levef wei most

i+iio

tel.

llumili\: 1009o until day B - 10. Make sure that germination lowering humidity or lower
reduced too early. oermination percentag;s

;y

is complete before -resutt if frumiOii'

TECHNIQUES TO ENHA{CE POST f{ARVEST QIjALITY


When to treat:
1

2 weeks prior to finish or shipping.

D.ehumidify: on day 8 10,.rower humidity rever to 40 - 50%. provide horrzontar -"'"' airflow to aid in drying down the,media tirrough vpoiranspiratrn, uff*rg better penetration of oxygen to the roots.

Growth Regulators: B-Nine (daminozide) spray at 2,500 ppm may be applied if desired. Feilizer: Potassium nitrate at 150 ppm nitrogen.
Common Drbeases; Ramularia and Botryts. provide adequate ventilation between plants and avoid over-saturateo tonditins.pfiy tungicioes as needed according to label rates and directions.

Fertilizers: None needed until cotyledon expansion (approximately day 9 10),

therr feed 50 ppm nitrogen with ,;iffi;;,dJrium (N:K) ratio of needed. NOTE: primula are ligt feeders.

l:2 as

begnning at cotvredon expansion, needed forth rootto reach the edge of the ptug cellAND to make the plant .J"pir-t n-o*"i initi"tion. Media: . pH: 5.5 - S.8

PIug Bulking/FIower tnitiation: Optimum conditions during the vegetative period,

f::f_tc:twof :, wh itefly, Funs us Gnats, shore Fties, Leafm ners, Apnros and thrips. Scout plants on a regular basis and apply appropriate pesticides according to label rates.

f:f.::::

PRODUCT USF
Beds and borders during cool season months. primrose is a novelty blooming plant in winter months.

.EC:.75-1

Light:3,000 - 4,000 foot candles (30,000 _ 40,000) lux. Avoid direct sunlight.
and plants have 6 - B true teaves, tower temperatudio;; _ +'iz" _ ro.cl for _ yg": \9TF, I juvenite ptant wiil not respond to coiteniperatures and 4 5 wiil resurt n brind prants. Do not drop tempertures ir vo*g t"nt has not estabrished 6-8trueleaves.

GARDEN SPECNFICATIONS Light: Full sun to light shade USDA Hardiness Zone: 1O
AHS Heat Zone: 4

Temperature:60"

65"F (i6"

- 1g"C). After roots are established

Moisture: Alternate between moisture level moist (3) and medium (2). Allow the soil to approach rever (2) before re-saturating to reve (3). watch roi"i""r, growth. using Ri./o (Reverse ormosi"iw"t"i riri-n"ip'r"" argae "rgJ"

5-6"(r3FRIIVlULA ACAULIS SE}iEDULING IN WFFKS

the crop's production cycle.

!]:!-1,11at 50 - 75 fpm-nitrogen and a catcium_bui" r""o (12_4_20)at s0 _ 75 lllnit!o.S:!:Under tow tightionditions, appry "l"irr_"""0 feed (14_2_14) aI cu - /b ppm nitrogen. Emphasis should " be on potassium during thd,+ii
Growth Regulators: None at this time.

Fertilizers: under high light conditions, alternate with an ammonium_based feed

revers.

Total crop time

20-22

21

"t

'288'plug crop time


Transplant to finish crop time

-23

6-7
13-14

o- |
14-15

4" crop

Traditionally, Primrose is sown in July. primera is an early season varety for blooming October January. Orin s a m ieson vriety tor blooming December- March. {o{: riese srjggeslicns are anfy guidelines and r?ay have fo efered o msel individua! gra*ier's nesds. Ch*ck al! cl.temcal aleJs o re*iy,-eqrrt.arbn fo.:Jss

'

/J-'tQqDn.

fi

www. gol dsm ithseeds.com

40

G !sEEDS ldsmith

:ji:,:.f..:.:.::i::.::,

Enrubraceo*, GracerMo Li*rrerM


PRIMULA OBCONICA
Minimum Germination Rafe; Libre, Embrace g}yo; GraceT0o/o Seed Product Form.'Raw

GROWNG ON
Transplant Ready;6 - 7 weeks from sow in a ,2gB'tray. Finish Bulking/Flower lnitiation: Optimum conditions during the vegetatve period, beginning at transplant, needed for the root to reach te eOgjof tfre

FLOWERIhG
Time frame when plants are receptive to flower initiation.. g present. flowering.

- 10 leaves

containerAND to make the plant receptive to flower initiation. Media: . pH: 5.5 5.8

llowering lype; Facultative short-day plant (minor) - short days enhance

. EC: I Primula obconica is sensitive to high salts. Llght:


To avoid leaf burn, provide a light shade when transplanting in the summer.

lpg.cific Floyering Mechanism.- Maturity and irradance trigger flowering. Unlike other Primula, cold temperatures are not necessary to et flower o Primula obconica.

Temperature: After transplant, maintain night temperatures at 60" 65.F (16' - f B"C). Once roots are established lower night temperatures to 50. 55"F (10' - 13iC) with 60" - 70'F (16' - 2f 'C) days. Cot temperatures wiil hetp produce a r,nore free-flowering, compact pant. Finishing during periods of

PLUG CULTt"'RE
types of Primula.
/Voe.' Primula obconica requires higher germination temperatures than other

excessive high temperatures will produce plants with large leaves and few flowersto approach level (3) before re-saturating to level (4).

Moisture: Allernate between moisture levels wet (4) and moist (3). Allow media Humidity:40 -70%

Germination: Optimum conditions for seedling development that begins the day the crop is sown until cotyledon expansion. Expect radicle emergenc in 7 days. cover seeds may be covered with a thin layer of coarse vermiculite to maintain moisture levels.

Dehumidify: Provide horizontal airflow to aid in drying down the media through
evapotranspiration, allowing better penetration of oxygen to the roots.

Media: . pH: 5.5 - 5.8 . EC: 0.5 0.75 Lighf: Light is notnecessary for germination. lf utilizing a chambe providing a light source of 10 - 100 foot candles will improve germination dramaticall/
compared to seed germinated in the dark. Morbfure; Saturated (5)for days 0 - 5 or until radicle emergence. On days 6 - I B reduce moisture to moist (3). Beginning day 19 redue further to medium (2). Humidity: 1 00% until radicle emergence then reduce to 40 7Oo/o.

Feftilizers: Primula obconica are light feeders. Fertilize with a calcium-based

fertilizer (14-4-14) at I 00 - I 50 ppm nitrogen as needed to promote active growth. The use of ammonium in combination with high temperatures may promote excessive vegetative growth. Heavy fertilization practices can reult in large leaf development. 5,000 ppm.

Growth Regulators: lf needed, Libre will respond to B-Nine (daminozide) at


Common Diseases; Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus, pythium Root Rot

Common Pess; Whitefly, Leafminers, Aphids and Thrips

Dehumidify: Provide horizontal airflow to aid in drying down the media through
evapotranspiration, allowing better penetration of oxygen to the roots.

PROD.JCT

USE
indoor

caRorru spEetFtcATlo,s
11

T^e_yO9rylre:72' -75'F (22" -24.C) untit radicte emergence. Reduce to 65' - 6B'F (1 8' - 20"C) until cotyledon expansion.
period, beginning at cotyledon expansion, needed for the robt to rech the edge of the plug cellAND to make the plant receptive to flower initiation. Media: . pH: 5.5 - 5.8

color

Pots, containers, gift item,

Plug Bulking/Flower tnitiation: Optimum conditions during the vegetative

] Lrghf; Filtered sun I aISDA Hardiness Zone: AHS Heat Zone: 4 - 1

Embrace, Grace, Libre

- 10" (20 - 25 cm)

6-8"(15-20cm)

. EC: 0.5 0.75 Lrgf.'Maximum 3,000 foot candles (30,000 lux). Avoid direct sunlight. Temperature: 6!"- 6B"F (18" - 20.C). As seedlings mature, gradually reduce temperatures to 62'- 65"F (16. - 1S"C). Morbfure.'Alternate between moisture levels moist (3) and medium (2). Allow media to approach level (2) before re-saturating to level (3).

PRIMU-A OECONICA SCHEDULING N WEEKS

it,::i:r::.i.::;
Total crop time

16-20

16-20

16-20

Humidity: 40 -70% Dehumidify: Provide horizontal airflow to aid in drying down the media through
evapotranspiration, allowing better penetration of oxygen to the roots. calcium-based ferlilizer
(1

'288'plug crop time


Transplant to finish crop time

6-7

6-7

6-7

4" crop

8-9
10

8-9
10-12

8-9
1012

Fertilizers: After cotyledon emergence, fertilize weekly at 50 ppm nitrogen with a


4-4-1 4)

6" crop

-12

Unlike other Primula, cold temperatures are not necessary to set flower on Primula obconica. Libre can be cropped year round. Primula Obconica Grace is not primine free. Special note: Certain varieties of primula obconica plants can cause allergic reactions, including skin rash and swelling, on some people. This is causd by the presence of the chemical primine. wear ratex groves and rong sreeves whln handling; wash gloves and affected clothing thoroughly after use. lf rritation occurs, call a physician.
Jce: Iii.$e"rggssftfis r cly gui.krfines anC fttay hava l b{, }ltered t fiet indivlcual grr:*er:s ns*ds- the*. alr thefiica! !abe!$ t veri{y {gi.stratan for use in yr:ur region.

www. gol dsm ithseeds.com

41

Gr''ldsmith ''SEEDS

Macht*o
RA
fV /JV C

JVlagiern
GRoWff{G

UL US A S'A T'C US

0'{

Minimu m Germ inaton Rafe: 80% Seed Product Form.' Pelleted, raw

High quality Ranunculus is best obtained with cool night temperatures and short day conditions. Low temperatures and hgh light levels will result in large flowers with an intense color.

FI-OWERING
Time frame when plants are receptive to flower initiation: 10 present.

Transplant Ready:8

- 10 weeks

from sow in a'288'tray.

- 12leaves are

Flowering lype; Obligate long-day plant - long days required for initiation. Specific Flowering Mechanism.' Days greater than '13.5 hours with high
irradiance (15 - 20 mols) will induce and enhance flowering. After initiation and while buds are immature, provide short day to enhance flower size and uniformity.

Finish Bulking/Flower lnitiation: Optimum conditions during the vegetatve period, beginning at transplant, needed for the root to reach the edge of the containerAND to make the plant receptive to flower initiation.
/lfedia.'Select a porous media that drains well. Thrs is important during the cool season when temperatures and light levels are low, and media is slow to dry.

.pH: 5.8-6

PLUG CU-TURE
Germination: Optimum conditions for seedling development that begins the day the crop is sown until cotyledon expansion. Expect radicle emergence in 14 - 21 days. Remove plug trays from the chamber when immature cotyledons growth is observed.
Cover.' Seeds may be covered with a thin layer of medium-grade vermiculite to maintain moisture levels.

. EC: 1.25

- 1.75

Lrghf: 4,500

- 5,000 foot candles (45,000 - 50,000 lux or 16 - 18 mols of light). Ranunculus initiates the highest flower count and the best growth under the natural days for spring production. Daylength extension in combination with high light will promote earlier flowering.

Media: . pH: 5.8 - 6 . EC: 0.75 -

r?hf.' Lght is not required for germination. Day 15 - 29 provide 1,500 foot candles (15,000 - 20,000 lux or 4 - 6 mols of light).

Temperature: 58" - 62'F (14' - 1 6'C) 2 - 3 weeks, until the roots have reached the edges of pots. Once established lower temperature to 50" - 55'F (10" - 13"C) OR maintain 58'F (14'C) with a -5 to -10"F (-3" to -5.5"C) DIF or morning drop. Temperatures above 68"F (20'C) may reduce vegetative growth, increase stem length and speed up flowering. High temperatures in combination with long days will stimulate corm formation or promote leaf yellowing. Morsfure.'Alternate between saturate (5) and moist (3); dry back must occur within 18 hours. Avoid a wilting state to prevent leaf yellowing.
Humidity:4Oo/o

2,000

Moisture: Saturated (5) for days 0 - 14 or until radicle emergence. On day 15, alternate between saturate (5) and moist (3); dry bacf must occur withn 18 hours.

Feilizers: 14-4-14 or 17-5-17 at 100


I .25

Humidity: 1 00% until radicle emergence (approximately day 14). Dehumidify: 40% on day l5 after radicle emergence Temperature:50 - 55'F (1 0 - 13'C) for highest number of usable seedlings and
young plant quality. As temperature increases to 56 - 65"F (13.5 - 18.5G) usable seedling quality will be reduced and young plant quality will decrease. Apply at -3 to -5F DIF or morning drop day 15 -29. FeTilizers: 144-14 or 17-5-17 aI60 0.75 - 1.

.75. Provide 10

- 150 ppm to maintain an EC of 5 ppm phosphorus.

Growth Regulafors.' B-Nine (daminozide) at 2,500 ppm. Apply first treatment when flower buds are visible in the crown. A second application is made when ffower stems are 2" (4 - 5 cm) in length. lf needed, subsequent applications can be applied until flowers begin to open. Common Dr:seases.'Cercospora ranunculi, Pythium Root Rot, Bot$is, Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus Common Pesfs: Aphids, Whitefly, Leaf miner, Thrips, Fungus Gnats

-75

ppm nitrogen to maintain an EC of

Plug Bulking: Optimum conditions during the vegetative period, beginning at cotyledon expansion, needed for the root to reach the edge of the plug cell.

PRODUET

USE

Media: . pH: 5.8 - 6 . EC: 1.25 - 1.75

Pots, containers, mass gift item, garden cut

flowers

I GARDEN SPECIFICATIONS plantings, I Light: Partial shade

USDA Hardiness Zone.' AHS Heat Zone: 4 - 1

11

- 30,000 lux or 8 - 10 mols of light). Make sure plants remain under short days (less than 13 hours) to avoid premature flowering and corm development. After approximately day 52, provide 4,000 - 5,000 foot candles (40,000 - 50,000 lux or 14 - 1 8 mols of light).
Temperature:52
morning drop.

Lrght 2,500 - 3,000 foot candles (25,000

Mach

12

55'F (11

13"C) with a

to -6'F (-2 to -3.5'C) DIF or

Magic

- 16" (30 - 40 cm) 6-8"(15-20cm)

10

12" (15

20 cm)

4-6"(10-15cm)

Moisture.'Alternate between saturate (5) and moist (3); dry bacX must occur within 18 hours.

RANUNCULUS SCFIEPULING N WEEKS

Humidity:40% Felilizers: 144-14 or 17-5-17 at75


1

.25

- 1 .75. Provide 8 -

125 ppm nitrogen to maintain an EC of 12 ppm phosphorus.

Tohl crop time


'288'

21

-24
10

22-26
o 10

Growth Regalaors.' May be necessary if optimal conditions have not been provided. B-Nine spray at 1,500 - 2,500 ppm.

plug crop time

8-

Transplant to finish crop time

4" crop 6" crop

12-15 13-16

14-16
N/A

Ranunculus is traditionally sown in AuguslSeptember for January/February sales. Additional crops can be sown in September/October for March/April sales. {oei llese suggesfir?s ar anly guir}elines and may have to f}e alterec! t {neet indi'tidual grovver's .16'ds. Check all chemlcal Itbels to ve ri$ registratton fr rs rn your regiDn.

www. gol dsm ith seeds. com

42

dsmith

figenEye
M inim u m Germ

ination Rate :

85o/o

GRCIWING

CIf\

Seed Producf Form; Raw, pelleted

Transplant Ready: 5

weeks from a '288' plug tray.

FLOWERING
Time frame when plants are receptive to flower initiation.' 6 present or about days 21 - 35.

8 leaves

Finish Bulking/Flower lnitiation: Optimum conditions during the vegetative period, beginning at transplant, needed for the root to reach the edge of the containerAND to make the plant receptive to flower initiation.

Flowering lype: Obligate long-day plant (primary)


hours) will initiate flowering.

Media:. pH: 6-6.2


. EC: 1.5 - 1.75 Light: Provide 3,500
35,000

long days (greater than 13

Specific Flowering Mechanism: Maturity and long days trigger flowering.

55,000 lux).

5,500 foot candles (12

20 mols of light, or DIF or

PLUG EULTURE
Germination: Optimum condtions for seedling development that begins the day the crop is sown until cotyledon expansion. Expect radicle emergence in 10 - 14 days.

Temperature: 64
morning drgp. 18 hours.

67'F (18'

- 19.5'C) with -5 to -1 0'F (-3 to -5.5'C)

Moisfure.'Alternate between wet (4) and moist (3); dry back must occur within

Cover A light covering over the seed is recommended. Avoid media compactron.

Humidity:40%. Fertilizers: 144-14 or 17-5-17 at 50 - 100 ppm nitrogen or add calcium nitrate or calcium chloride at 50 ppm once a week from March 15 - September 21 . A weekly supplement of magnesium sulfate (Epsom salts) at 16 ozl100 gallons will enhance the foliage color. Growth Regulafors.' lt is best to control growth ihrough moisture, feed and temperature management. lf needed, apply sprays of B-Nine (daminozide) at 2,500 - 5,000 ppm, or Bonzi (paclobutrazol) or Sumagic (uniconazol).

Media:. pH: 6-6.2


. EC:
<1

Ltghfj Light is necessary for germination. Provide a light source of 10 - 100 foot
candles if utilizing a chamber.
Tem peratu re : 7 5"

Moisture:

(4) and moist (3); dry back must occur within 18 hours.

- 25' C) until radicle emergence. Provide wet (4+) level day 1 - 14. On day '15, alternate
7

8"

F (24'

between wet

Humidity:100% from day 1- 14 or until seed coats are shed. Dehumidify: After seed coats have been shed, lower humidity to 40%. Provide
horizontal airflow to aid in drying down the media through evapotranspiration, allowing better penetration of oxygen to the roots.

TECHNIQUES TO ENHANCE POST HARVEST QUALITY


When to treat:
1

2 weeks prior to finish or shipping

Growth regulators.'B-Nine (daminozide) at 2,500

3,000 ppm

Fertilizer: Potassium nitrate drench at I 50 ppm nitrogen


Common Diseases.'Botrytis, Pythium. To reduce disease pressure monitor moisture and humidity levels, and use preventative fungicide drenches and sprays. Common Pesfs.' Fungus Gnats, Shore Flies, White Fly.

PIug Bulking/Flower lnitiation: Optimum conditions during the vegetative period, beginning at cotyledon expansion, needed for the root to reach the edge
of the plug cell; and to make the plant receptive to flower initiation.

Media:. pH: 6-6.2


. EC: I

- 1.5
-67"F (18'19.5"C) with -5 to -10'F (-3 to -5.5'C) DIF or

Light: 2,500 - 4,500 foot candles (25,000 - 45, 000 lux or 8- 16 mols)
Temperature:64
morning drop.
1

PRODUCT

I''SE

GAREEN SPECIFICATIONS
Lrgfif; Full sun
USDA Hardiness Zone: 10 AHS Heat Zone: 12 - 1

plantings, combinations
Containers, mass

Moisfure.'Alternate between wet (4) and moist (3); dry back must occur withn
8 hours.

Fertilizers: 144-14 or 17-5-17 al50

- 100 ppm nitrogen or add calcium nifate or calcium chloride at 50 ppm once a week from March 15 - September 21 .
Growth Regulaors.' lf needed, spray B-Nine (daminozide) at 1,250 or Sumagic (uniconazol).
foliar diseases, especially Botrytis.

2,500 ppm

RIJDBECKIA SCF{EDUL!NG IN WEEKS

Fungicides: Preventative fungicide should be applied between days 21

35 for

Total crop time

11

15

'288'plug crop time


Transplant to finish crop time Packs

5-8
3-4(soldgreen)

4" crop 6" crop


6

5-7
8, depending on number of plugs transplanted

lYcfe: Inese suggesfrars are any gudeiines and may ha'te ta be altered ta meet n.lividual Erwer's needs. Check all ckemical !absls to verlfy rer,iislratiafi ft:r use in yur regin.

www. go l dsm i th seeds. com

43

Gr.|dsmith

a'l:,

FieanterMn Fuegsu*, $alsarM


SA'. YJA SPT-FfVPE'VS
M ini m
u

GRCIWIf\NG CIN Transplant Ready: 5

m Germ ination Rafe.' 90%

6 weeks from sow n a '288'tray.

Seed Product Fonn.'Raw

FLOWERING
Time frame when planb are receptive to flower initiation.' Salsa: days 18 - 21; Picante: days 21 - 24;3 - 5 leaves are present.

Finish Bulking/Flower Initiation: Optimum conditions during the vegetative period, beginning at transplant, needed for the root to reach the edge of the containerAND to make the plant receptive to flower initiation.

Flowering fype; Salsa is a day-neutral plant. Picante is a facultative long-day


plant

Media: . pH: 6.2 - 6.5 . EC: 0.75 - 1.0 Salvias are sensitive to high salts and levels should be
monitored to avoid leaf drop.

long days enhance flowering.

Lighf; Provide 3,000

Specifrc Flowering Mechanism: Daylength triggers flowering. Warm


temperatures will enhance flowering.

- 3,500 foot candles (30,000 - 35,000 lux). Under low light conditions, supplemental lighting will reduce stretching.
Tenperature:55'- 60'F (13" - 16'C) nights; 70' -75'F (21" - 24'C) days.
Avercge Daily Temperature (ADT): 67"F (19"C) ilioisfure.'Alternate between moisture levels wet (4) and medium (2). Allow
media to approach level (2) before re-saturating to level (4).

FLUG CUI.TT"RF
Germnaton: Optimum conditions for seedling development that begins the day the crop is sown until cotyledon expansion. Expect radicle emergence in 4 - 5 days. Cover.' Seeds may be covered with a thin layer of coarse vermiculite to mainiain moisture levels.

Humidity:40 -70o/o Dehumidify: Provide horizontal airflow to aid in drying down the media through
evapotranspiration, allowing better penetration of oxygen to the roots.

Media: . pH: 6.0 - 6"2 . EC: 0.5 Lighf; Light is not necessary for germination. lf utilizing a chamber, providing a light source of 10 - 1 00 foot candles (1 00 - 1 ,000 lux) will improve germination
and reduce stretch compared to seed germinated in the dark.

Fertilizers: Feed as needed at 100 - 200 ppm nitrogen with a calcium-based fertilizer (13-2-13 or 14-4-14). Acombination of low feed and cool temperatures may promote the yellowing of leaves. Growth Regulafors.'Salvia is responsive to DIF treatments, B-Nine (daminozide), A-Rest (ancymidol), Bonzi (paclobutrazol), Sumagic (uniconazol) or B-Nine/Cycocel (chlormequat chloride) tank mix.
Common Dseases.'Alternaria Leaf Spot, Powdery Mildew, Rust and Corynespora Leaf Spot Common Pesfs; Thrips, Aphids, Whitefly and Spider Mite

Moisture: Saturated (5) for days 0


5

- 4 or until radicle emergence. On days 14 reduce moisture to moist (3). Beginning day 15 reduce further to medium (2).

Humidity:100% until radicle emergence then reduce to 40%. Dehumidify: Provide horizontal airflow to aid in drying down the media through
evapotranspiration, allowing better penetration of oxygen to the roots.

Temperature: 75"
72"

-75"F (22'-23"C)

7B"F (22' - 23"C\ until radicle emergence. Reduce to until cotyledon expansion.

GARDEN SPECIFICATIONS
Light: Parlial to full sun
USDA Hardiness Zone: 10 AHS Heat Zone: 12 - 1

Plug Bulking: Optimum conditions during the vegetative period, beginning at cotyledon expansion, needed for the root to reach the edge of the plug cell. Avoid premature flowering in the plug stages. Plants will not size up properly after
transplanted if budded in the plug tray. ln troubleshooting plug culture, downward cupping of the leaves indicates that the media is too dry and/or EC levels are too high; or temperatures are too cool.

10

12" (25

30 cm)

Media: . pH: 6.0 - 6.2 . EC: 0.75 - 1.2 Salvia is very sensitive to high salt levels and can be
used as an indicator crop for high EC.

Lrghf; Provide 2,500

3,000 (25,000

30,000 lux).

Temperatu re : 7 2' - 7 5" F (22" - 23" C). Gradually reduce to 65' (18' - 20'C) as seedlings mature.
media to approach level (2) before re-saturating to level (4).

SAL\IIA SCI{EDULING IN WFEKS


68" F

Moisfure; Alternate between moisture levels wet (4) and medium (2). Allow

9-10
Transplant to finish crop time

Humidity:40 -7004 Dehumidify: Provide horizontal airflow to aid in drying down the media through
evapotranspiration, allowing better penetration of oxygen to the roots.

Fertilizers: Fertilize established seedlings at 40 - 50 ppm nitrogen with calcium- and potassium nitrate-based fertilizers (14-2-14, 13-2-13). Ammonium concentrations >5 ppm can be toxic. Symptoms include a gray cast or browning of immature leaves. lnterveinal chlorosis on mature leaves indicates a lack of magnesium.

Nols; Iir+se srggeslib*.s *re only gr:idelines ard nay have ta b,2 allsed t fi1aet ndvidt:ai graut*r"s n**ds. Ch(:k all cheiit;a labes l t'eri\r reEistratian {ar use lrt
yu{ reEin.

Growth Regulators: lf needed, apply B-Nine (daminozide) at 2,500


to tone plants.

5,000 ppm

www. go I ds m i thseeds.com

GI ,ldsmith

,r:i|fx

AtlantisrM
s c 1 I ZA N Tt4 U S
M i n im u m

X t4lrs-roljws/S
7 SoA

Germi n ation Rate:

Fertilizers: 14-4-14 or 17-s-17 arTs the soil of 1 - 1.2.

12s ppm nitrogen, as needed for an EC in

Seed Product Form..Raw

GRCIWING Ort
The timing approximations are based on optimal culture recommendations below:
ratio.

FLOWERf{G
flower initiation.

Flowering Mechanism.'Obligate long plant _ days > 12 hours are necessary for

Transplant to Finis: optimize prant shoot and root growth, which is usuaily a

1:.r

Time f.rame when ptants are receptive to ftower initiation.. 1_2 weeks after transplanting allowing plants to bulk before initiation.

PLUG CUI-TURE
The timing approximations are based on optimal culture recommendations below: Germination I (approximatery day 7 14): From the time a seed is sown untir radicle emergence takes prace; usuaily wiih the root penetrating the media and some cotyledon deveropment. Humidity in the air is gs gg% (umidification); media moisture 3.

rf weather conditions are poo additional lighting wirr improve quarity of prnts. prants shourd be burked in the finish container under short days 1 2 weeks and then day rength can be extended to 14 hours per day until flowering begins.

Media: pH:5.8 -6.2. EC: 1.1 -1.3 I-iglrf" Plants shourd be grown in fuil sunright.

Temperature:.60

63'F (16. -17"C) days and 55. _ 58.F (12.b. _ 13.5.C) nights.

cover" seeds may be covered righfly with a right rayer of coarse vermicurite to majntain optimum moisture levels.
Media: pH:5.8
penetration.

Moisture: Alternate between moisture revers moist (3) and medium (2.5). Ailow media to.approach lever (2.5) before re-saturating to oist 1s. oven,uatrinf witt create a larger but soft prant prone to Botryts an soft rots.'underurratering riiil
produce small plants with yellow lower leaves or leaf{ip burn.

6.2. EC: 0.2S

0.5 Avoid media compaction to allow for root

Humidity:40oA
1so ppm, as needed for an EC in the soir of 1.1 - 1.3. Underfeeding will cause ineversible lower leaf yellowing. Growth Regulafors.. B-Nine (daminozide) .l ,500 _ 3,000ppm or A_Rest (ancymidol) at '1 -2 ppm. prant growth regurators ut" g"nLiuily not needed when

Liglrf.'No lght is needed for germination. Moisture: Moist (3) important to keep soil moist but not wet (4). Humidity: 100% until radical emerges then lower to 4}o/o_loyo. Temperature:62' - 65.F (1 7" - 1 9"C) 7_14 days. Fertilizers: 14-4-14 or 17-5-12 at50-70 ppm. Maintain EC of 0.25 _ 0.50.

Fertilizers: 14-4-14 or 17-5-17 at 12s

plants are grown under the recommende temperatus_

Sub-irrigation or drip watering wiil herp prevent disease due to the dense foliage in the finished product.

Fungicid*:

Gefli!11tlon 2 (approximately day 7 14): From the time mtyledon is observed until it is fully expanded. The roots have expanded throughout ihe media. oeirumioity from 98% to 50% in the air. Media moistur needs to Oe"mist at tf,is stage.

TECFINIQUES TO ENHANCE POST HARVEST QUALITY


When to treat: 1 - 2 weeks prior to finish or shipping. Growth Regulators: Not required if plants are grown at temperatures

1O

Media: pH:5.8

6.2. EC: 0.2S

I:ig!!:
2,000

0.S0

K?9e plugs under short days to prevent premature flowering. 3,000 foot candtes (20,00b _ S,OoO tui); 6 _ lo mots of tilnt.

recommended.

Moisture: Moist (3) and alternate to medium (2.5) within i 8 hours at radicle
emergence (approximately day g).

allowing better penetration of oiygen to the roots. of 62"


70
DUr

Dehumidify: Lower relative humidity to 40% (approxmately day i4). provide horizontal airfrow to aid in drying down the m"oi flrrouji' evaporranspration, Tgy2era^typ: Olce cotyledons are observed, continue to maintan temperatures

directions.

Fertilizer: Potassium nitrate drench at 150 ppm nitrogen. Common Diseases; Botrytis. Monitor moisture and humidity levels. common Pests" Thrips, whitefly and Aphids. Use pesticides according to raber

PRODUCT

USE
plantings

GARDEN SPECIFICATIONS
I Lrgf; Full sun USDA Hardiness Zone: 11 AHS Heat Zone; Unknown

65"F

(17'-

19.C).

Pots, containers, mass

Fertilizers: 14-4-14 or 17-s-17 at 50

- 100 ppm once true reaves appear

Fungicides: Prants may become susceptibre to Botrytis under humid conditions


no preventative fungicides are recommended.

70 ppm nitrogen then can be increased to as needed for an Ec in the soir of 0.s 1. -

rnitiation: rhe time it takes for the shoots to proportonatery fill the plug cell and for roots to develop througnout tne meia. Flower initiation is Media: pH:5.8
not recommended for Schizanthus uniil two vleeks after tiansplant. - 6.2. EC: 1 - 1.2

PIug Bulking/Flower

Atlantis

I-

10" (20

25

cm)

t8

- 10, (20 - 25 cm)

SCHZANT}.{US $CI.NEOUI-ING IN WEEKS


,t:.i.:,ii:lta:i:.i::.i.i:.i:::.f
,,:a:.:i::

Lrghf 3,500 - 5,500 foot candtes (35,000 _ 55,000


Keep plants under short days to prevent

prer"irre

tux); 12 _ 20 mols of light.

nowbring

Total crop time

12-14

.moisture levels moist (3) to medium (2.5). Allow the soil to approach medium (2.5), before ,e-s"turatii1o moist (3j. If media is allowed to dry back further than (2.S) may cause burninjand foliage loss. Fertilizers: 14-4-14 or 17-S-i7 atTS 125 ppm nitrogen, as needed for an EC in the soil of 1 - 1.2.

- 65"F (1 7. Morsfure; Alternate between

Temperature:62"

-j

9"C)

'128'plug crop time '200'plug crop time '288'plug crop time


Transplant to finish crop time

6-7 5-6 4-5

4"

crop

ppm.

Growth Regulators: lf needed, spray B-Nine (daminozide) at 1,500 _ 2,500

IB

9, depending on number of plugs transplanted


1

5" crop

0, depending on number of plugs transplanted

28 mols of light continue to keep plugs under short ays to prevni premature flowering. Temperature:62" - 6S.F (17. -19"C)

Fungicides: None recommended; watch for Botrytis in humid condjtions. lnitiated Bulking: Seedllngs develop from juvenile to mature. Lighf; Provide 4,750 - 7 ,EOO foot candles (47 ,SOO _ 75,000 tux) or 17 _

Alole: Iese s'ggesibr']s re only grirdeltnes anrJ may have ta be altered to fircet indivitlual grcwer s neds. check ail chenical rabers lo 'lerify {egistratian fcr use in yaur reaion.

www. go I dsm ithseeds. com

45

-'

G.'ldsmith SEEDS

Aroxnaso*, ArrowrM
A'VT'RRIlINUM MAJUS
Minimum Germination Rafe.'Aromas 85%, Anow 80%
Seed Product Form; Raw

Growth Regulafors.'lf needed, apply B-Nine (daminozide) at 2,500

ppm to tons plugs. Also responds to A-Resi (ancymidol), Bonzi (paclobutrazol)' Sumagic (uniconazol) or B-Nine/Cycocel (chlormequat chloride) tank mix. tnitiated Bulking (approximately Day 32 - 44) - Plants are receptive to flowering.

5'000

FLCIWERING
Flowering Mechanism: lnadiance (primary); plants initiate on approximately day
17 - 30 with HID light for'16 - 18 hours OR total 12-20 mols (3,500 - 5,500 foot candles) for 4 - 6 weeks at 67'F (19.4"C). Bud/flower initiation at approximately 4 leaves.

Lrght' Provide 3,500 - 5,500 foot candles (35,000 - 55,000 lux) or 12 - 20 mols of lignt. to induce early flowering, use supplemental lighting at 300 - 450 foot candles (3,000 - 4,500 lux) for a 14 hour day. Temperature:64'- 67'F (17.5' - 19.5"C); -3 to -8F (-2 to -4.5C) DIF or morning
drop"

Flowering fype: Facultative long-day plants (secondary): long days enhance


flowering.

GROWIT{G CIN
The tirning approximations are based on optmal culture recommendations below:

PLIJG EULTIJRE
The timing approximations are based on optimal culture recommendations below: Germination I (approximately day 1 - 5): Humidity in the air 100% (humidification)from the time the crop is sown unl radicle emergence hkes place; root initial has penetrated media; some cotyledon development. Expect radicle emergence in 3 - 4 days.

Transptant to Finish.' (approximately day 45 - 11 5) Media: . pH: 5.5 - 6.2 pH levels greater than 6.2 may lead to iron deficiencies.

. EC: 1.0

- 1.5
5,000 foot candles (35,000

Liglr.' Provide 3,500

50,000) or 12

18 mols.

Cover.'Not necessary due to seed size.

Media: . pH: 5.5


. EC: 0.5

6.2 0.75

Temperature:64' -67'F (17.5' Moisfure.'Alternate between moisture levels moist (3) and medium (2). Allow media to approach level (2) before re-saturating to level (3).

'19.5'C); -3 to -10F (-2 to -6C) DIF or moming drop'

Llghf; Light is not required for germination. lf utilizing a chamber, providing a light
source of 25 - 100 foot candles (250 - 1 ,000 lux) will improve germination and reduce stretch compared to seed germinaied in the dark.

Humidity:4004
Fertilizers: 14-4-14 or 17-5-17 al75 - 125 ppm, as needed for an EC in the soit of I - 1 .5. At temperatures less than 55'F (13"C), the use of ammonium-based

fertilizers may cause root rot problems.

Moisture: Saturated (5) for days 1 - 5 or until radicle emergence. Humidity: 100% until radicle emergence then reduce to 40%. Temperature:70 - 75'F (21" - 24'C) until radicle emergence. (Temperatures
higher than 79' F (26'C) can decrease the speed of germination and reduce usable seedlings.) Once cotyledons are observed, reduce temperature to

Growth Regulators: lf needed, apply I - 2 applications of B-Nine (daminozide) at 2,500 - 5,000 ppm. Also responds to DIF treatments, A-Rest (ancymidol), Bonzi (paclobutrazol), Sumagic (uniconazol) or B-Nine/Cycocel (chlormequat chloride) tank mix.

65'

68'F

(1

6'

8'C).

TEEHNIQUES TO E['{HAl\CE FOST I.IARVEST QI.'ALITY


When to treat:
1

Fertilizers: Fertigation water should not be greater than an EC of 0.5. Germination 2 (approximately day 6 - 1B): Change the humidity in the air (dehumidification) to 40%. The result is better root expansion; cotyledons fully
expanded; roots are expanding throughout the growing substrate.

2weeks prior to finish or shipping.

Growth Regulators: B-Nine (daminozide) at 2,500

3'000 ppm.

Ferlilizer: Potassium nitrate drench at I 50 ppm ntrogen.


Common Diseases; Botrytis Blight, Downy Mildew, Powdery Mildew, Pythium' Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus, and lmpatiens Necrotic Spot Virus Common Pests.'Aphids, Thrips, and Spider Mite

Media: . pH: 5.5

6.2

. EC:0.75

Light: 1 ,500 - 2,500 foot candles (15,000 - 25,000 lux); 4 - I mols of light. Moisture: Dry back media to wet (4) and alternate to moist (3) within 18 hours
beginning at radicle emergence (approximately day 6).

- 1.2

GARDEN SPECIFICATIONS
Lrgh.'Full sun USDA Hardiness Zone:9 AHS Heat Zone: 12 - 1

Dehumidify: Lower relative humidity to 40% when radicle emerges


(approximately day 6). Provide horizontal airflow to aid in drying down the media through evapotranspiration, allowing better penetration of oxygen to the roots'

Temperature: Once cotyledons are observed, reduce temperature to 65"


(16"

- 1B"C). -

6B'F
'r4" (30

35 cm)

Fertilizers: 14-4-14 al 50 ppm as needed for an EC in the soil of 0.75


PIug Bulking/Flower tnitiation (approximately day 19
period

1 2.

31 ): Length of vegetative

time necessary for roots to reach the edge ofthe plug, for shoots to fill out mntainer, and for plants to bemme receptive to flower initiation. Before initiation starts, the plants should be a proper size, which includes optimum shoot development, large number of auxiliary shoots and good presentation from pot size to plant size.

SNAPDRAGON SCHEDULING IN WEEKS

Media: . pH: 5.5

- 6.2. High pH levels may promote iron deficiency in snapdragons resulting in chlorotic young shoot growth.
. EC: 0.75

- 1.2. High EC levels may encourage

shoot tip abortion.

Llghf; Provide 2,500 - 4,000 foot candles (25,000 - 40,000 lux). Do not exceed 4,000 foot candles (40,000 lux) or 8 - 14 mols of light. Temperature:64' - 67"F (17.5' - 19.5"C); -3 to -5F (-2 to -3C) DIF or morning drop. Gradually decrease to 62'- 65'F (17'- 18'C) as the seedlings mature.
Moisfure; Alternate between moisture levels wet (4) and medium (2). Allow
media to approach level (2) before re-saturating to level (4). Watering or fedilizing late in the day may cause tip abodion.

7-9
10-12

8-10
The shortest crop times may be achieved when following recommended optimal culture. Deviations in environmental conditions will result in longer crop times. Volei Ltese suggesfions are ottlt guiCelines anC may have ta be altered tc ftteet indivirlual grcweris r;eeds. Chck all chemial labls fc verfy reEistration fr Ltse n

Fertilizers: 14-4-14 or 17-5-17 at 50 - 75 ppm, as needed for an EC in the soil


of 0.75

- 1.2.

y**r regian.

www. gol dsm ithseeds. com

G,'ldsmith ::...3 SEEDS

C[rlmsrM, Little Darlingt*, fulontegorM r{rER&,rEDArE sERtES: CorometterM, La &ellarM , l-iherty Classict*, &Aadame ButterflyrM, KibbonrM
DWARF sERTES: BellsrM,
ANTIRR,HINUM MAJUS
M i n i m u m Germi n ation

GROWING ON
Transplant Ready:6

Rafe; 80%

-7

weeks from sow in a '288'tray.

Seed Product Form.'Raw; Montego raw, pelleted

FLOWERING
4

Finish Bulking/Flower Initiation: Optimum conditions during the vegetative period, beginning at transplant, needed for the root to reach the edge of the containerAND to make the plant receptive to flower initiation.

Time frame when plants are receptive to flower initiation.. Days 16 - 6 leaves are present.

20;

enhance flowering.

Flowering lype; Facultative long-day plants - long days enhance flowering. Specific Flowering Mechanism: High inadiance (15 - 20 mols) will trigger and

- 5.8. Low pH may allow sodium to become toxic. High pH may lead to iron deficiencies. EC: 1 - 1.5 Snapdragons are salt sensitive. Leach occasionally to reduce EC levels.
Ltgf; Snapdragons are long-day plants. Provide high light levels. Under low light conditions supplemental lighting will aid flowering.
Temperature:50"

Media: pH:5.5

PLUG CULTURE
Germination: Optimum conditions for seedling development that begins the day the crop is sown until cotyledon expansion. Expect radicle emergence in 3 - 4 days.

55"F

(10'-

14'C) nights;

60'-

70'F (16'- 22'C) days.

Average Daily Temperature (ADT):67"F (19"C)


Moisure: Alternate between moisture levels moist (3) and medium (2). Allow media to approach level (2) before re-saturating to level (3).

Cover Seeds may be covered with a thin layer of coarse vermiculite to maintain moisture levels.
Media: pH:5.5

Humidity:40 -70% Dehumidify: Provide horizontal airflow to aid in drying down the media through
evapotranspiration, allowing better penetration of oxygen to the roots. FeTilizers: Feed at 1 50 - 200 ppm nitrogen with calcium nitrate (13-2-1 3 or 14-4-14). Under cool weather conditions, avoid ammonium-based fertilizers which may encourage root rot problems.
1 - 2 applications of B-Nine (daminozide) 5,000 ppm. Also responds to DIF treatments, A-Rest (ancymidol), Bonzi (paclobutrazol), Sumagic (uniconazol) or B-Nine/Cycocel (chlormequat chloride) tank mix.

5.8. EC: <0.75

Lrghf: Light is not required for germination. lf utilizing a chamber, providing a light source of 10 - 1 00 foot candles (1 00 - 1 ,000 lux) will improve germination andreduce stretch compared to seed germinated in the dark.

Moislure: Saturated (5) for days 0 - 5 or until radicle emergence. On days

Growth Regulafors.' lf needed, apply

18 reduce moisture to moist (3). Beginning day 19 reduce iurther to medium (2).

at 2,500

Humidity: 100% until radicle emergence then reduce to 40 - 70%. Dehumidify: Provide horizontal airflow to aid in drying down the media through
evapotranspiration, allowing better penetration of oxygen to the roots. Temperatu re: 7 2' - 7 5' F (22' - 24" C) until radicle emergence. Higher temperatures can decrease the speed ofgermination. Reduce to 65" - 68"F (16" - 18'C) until cotyledon expansion.

Common Dr:seases.'Botrytis Blight, Downy Mildew, Powdery Mildew, Pythium, Rust, Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus, and lmpatiens Necrotic Spot Virus Common Pesfs: Aphids, Thrips, and Spider Mite

PRODUCT

USE
mass

ERROEN SPECFICATIONS
Lig: Full sun USDA Hardiness Zone:9 AHS Heat Zone: 12 - 1

Fertilizers: Fertigation water should not be greater than an EC of 0.5. Plug Btllking/Flower lnitiation: Optimum conditions during the vegetative period, beginning at cotyledon expansion, needed for the root to rech the edge of the plug cell AND to make the plant receptive to flower initiation.

Packs, pots, containers,

plantings

- 5 B High pH levels may promote iron deficiency in Snapdragons resulting in chlorotic young shoot growth. EC: 0.S - <1 High EC ievels may encourage shoot tip abortion.
Provide 2,000 - 3,000 foot candles (20,000 - 30,000 tux). Do not exceed 3,000 foot,candles (30,000 lux). To induce early flowering, use upplemental lighting at 300 - 450 foot candles (3,000 - 4,500 tux) for a i4-hoLir'day. Days tess than 12 hours will promote vegetative growth and dlay flowering.

Media: pH: q 9

t:rrrrlr:tr,
Madame Buftertly Coronette
24 - 30" (60 - 75 cm) 20-24"(50-60cm) 18 10 14 12 12

Ligt

16" (30 14" (30 14" (30

35 cm) 35 cm) 35 cm)

La Beila, Liberfy Classic, Ribbon


Little Darling

22" (45

55 cm)

Temperature: 65'
(17"

- 18"C) as the seedlings

68"F

(1

e'

mature.

20'C). Gradually decrease to 62.

65.F

Bells
Chimes Montego

Average Daily Temperature (ADT):67'F (19"C) Morbfure.'Alternate between moisture levels wet (4) and medium (2). Allow media to approach level (2) before re-saturating to level (4). Watering early in the day and providing good ventilation is important to avoid tip abortn unier wet, cool and low light conditions. Shoot tip abortion can occur if tips are left wet
overnighi.

- 12" (25 - 30 cm) 8 - 10" (20 - 25 cm)


6-8"(15-20cm) 6-8"(15-20cm)

I-

- 25 cm) 6-8"(15-20cm)

10' (20

6-8'(15-20cm)
8

- 10" (20 - 25 cm)

SNAPDRAGON SCHEDULING IN WEEKS


16 18 for spring sales; 12 14 weeks for fall sales

Humidity: 40 -

70o/o

Dehumidify: Provide horizontal airflow to aid in drying down the media through
evapotranspiration, allowing better penetration of oxygen to the roots.

Total crop time


'288'

Fertilizers: As needed, begin feeding established seedlings at 25

nitrogen with a calcium-based fertilizer (13-2-13 ot 14-4-14). Mature sedlings can be fed at 100 ppm nitrogen. lf additional shoot growth is needed, alternale between calcium nitrate and ammonium phosphate-based fertilizers. Chlorosis of lower leaves may indicate ammonium levels are too high.

S0 ppm

9-12 6-7

plug crop time

6-7
N/A

Transplant to finish crop time Packs

- 5,000 ppm to.tone plugs. Also responds to A-Rest (ancymidol), Bonzi (paclobutrazol), Sumagc (uniconazol) or B-Nine/Cycocel (chlormequat chloride) tank mix.

Growth Regulafors.' lf needed, apply B-Nine (daminozide) at 2,500

4" crop
6" crop

10-12 12-13

4-5 5-6
N/A

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47

CIpals !!/fvrMu &ventune llrM


ANTIRRfIINUM
$fiA.1

A5 / CUT FLAWR,

GROWING CIN
Cut flower Snapdragons are typically transplanted directly into the ground' Raised beds aie prferred. Piovide support to the growing stems to produce high-quality stems. Transplant Read 4 - 5 weeks from sow in a '288'tray. Transplant plugs before ."Ctig" becom root bound. Delayed flowering and reduced quality will occur if plugs are held too long pror to transplant. plants Spacing: ln high light conditions, transplant plugs on a spacing of 10 - 12 pr squre fooi. Under low light conditions, decrease spacing to 8 plants per square foot. Finish Bulking/Flower Initiation: optimum conditions during the vegetalive period; beginning at transplant, needed for the root to reach the edge of the container ND t make the plant receptive to flower initiation'

Cut flower Snapdragons are extremely daylength sensitive. Variety selection is critical to success. The proper Snapdragon grouping must be planted in the appropriate time slot to have a high-quality crop. Overture (Group ll) is tylically prOuceO to flower under short, cool days. Opus (Group lll/lV) is generally produced to flower under long, warm days.
M i ni m
u

m Germi nation Rate:

85o/o

Seed Product Form,'Raw

FLCIWERING
Time frame when plants are receptive to flower initation.' 5 - 10 pairs of leaves. Flowering Type; Opus is a facultative long-day plant - long days enhance Rowering. Ovrture is a facultative short-day plant - short days enhance flowering. Specific Flowering Mechanism: Daylength, light intensity and temperature trigger flowering in cut flower Snapdragons.

Media;Amendsoilsasneededtoprovideadequateaerationtotheroots,yet

PLUG CI.'LTURE
Germinaton: optimum conditions for seedling development that begins the day the crop is sown until cotyledon expansion. Expect radicle emergence in 3 - 4 days' coyer Seeds may be covered with a thin layer of coarse vermiculite to maintain moisture levels.

rtain enough water to provide a steady supply of moisture without staying saturated. . pH: 5.5 - 5.8. Low pH may allow sodium to become toxic' High pH may lead to iron deficiencies. . EC: 1 - 1.5 Snapdragons are salt sensitive. lf necessary, leach beds occasionally to reduce EC levels.

Media: . pH: 5.5

5.8

. EC: <0.75

Lighf

so-urce oi

Light is not required for germination. lf utilizing a chamber, providing a light germination and 1 0 - 100 foot candles (100 - 1 ,000 lux) will mprove reduce stretch compared to seed germinated in the dark.

Moisture: Saturated (5) for days


6

0 5 or until radicle emergence. On days .-. 18 reduce moisture to moist (3). Beginning day 19 reduce further to medium (2)'

Light:The two biggest factors influencing flower initiation are daylength and light q,-tity. tgl.r lightiJvels are necessary to initiate opttmum flowering. lnitiation geneially ccr.Irs when plants have developed 5 - 10 pairs of leaves. Overcast iveatheiduring this time frame may affect the outcome of the crop. lf necessary provide supplmental lighting of 350 - 400 foot candles (3,500 - 4,500 lux) to bnsure adquate light lvels. Altering natural day length will impact flowering and stem length. Temperature:lemperature directly affects the rate of growth and quality of cut flowr Snapdragons. The winter blooming Overture (Group ll)' prefers night temperatures olSO" - 55'F (10'- 14"C) and cool days. The summer blooming Ops (Group lll/lV), prefers slightly higher night temperatures of 55" - 60'F
(13"

Humidity: I 00% until radicle emergence then reduce to 40 -

70o/o'

Dehumidify: Provide horizontal airflow to aid in drying down the media through
evapotranspiration, allowing better penetration of oxygen to the roots' Temperature:72" -75'F (22'-24"C) until radicle emergence. HIS-!"t --^temferatures can decrease the speed of germination. Reduce to 65' - 68'F (16" - 1B"C) until cotyledon expansion.

Moisure.'Alternate between moisture levels moist (3) and medium (2) Allow media to approach level (2) before re-saturating to level (3).

16"C) with cool daYs.

Humidity:40 -70o/o
Dehumidify: Provide horizontal airflow to aid in drying down the media through evapotranspiration, allowing better penetration of oxygen to the roots' Fettilizers: Feed at 1 00 - 300 ppm nitrogen with calcium nitrate and/or potassium nitrate fertilizers. When the buds begin to show color, irrigate with tlear water only. Avoid fertilizers high in ammonium under cool conditions' Under high lignt and warm tempertures, an ammonium feed may be beneficial. Excessiv side shoots may be indicative of high fertility levels or excessive moisture. Common Diseases; Botrytis Blight, Downy Mildew, Powdery Mildew, Pythium' Rust,Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus, and lmpatiens Necrotic Spot Virus Common Pesfs; Aphids,Thrips, and Spider Mite

Fertilizers: Fertigation water should not be greater than 0.5. PIug Butking: Optimum conditions during the vegetative period, beginning at cotyledon exlansion, needed for the root to reach the edge of the plug cell'

Media: . pH: 5.5

- 5.8. High pH levels may promote iron deficiency in Snapdragons resulting in chlorotic young shoot growth. . EC: 0.5 <1. High EC levels may encourage shoot tip abortion' - 3,000 foot candles (20,000 3,000 foot candles (30,000 lux).
Lighf; Provide 2,000 Temperature:65'
(f 7"

30,000 lux). Do not exceed

- 18"C) as the seedlings

68'F

(1

8'

mature.

20'C). Gradually decrease to 62"

65"F

PRODIJCT USE
Commercial cut flower Production

Moisure.'Alternate between moisture levels wet (4) and medium (2) Allow
media to approach level (2) before re-saturating to level (4).

Vaselife:

6-7days

Humidity:40 -70% Dehumidify: Provide horizontal airflow to aid in drying down the media through
evapotranspiration, allowing better penetration of oxygen to the roots' Fertilizers: As needed, begin feeding established seedlings at 25 - 50 ppm nitrogen with a calcium-based fertilizer (13-2-13- or 14-4-14) Mature seedlings can be fed at 100 ppm nitrogen. lf additional shoot growth is needed, alternate between calcium niirate and ammonium phosphate-based (17-5-1 7) fertilizers. Chlorosis of lower leaves may indicate ammonium levels are too high'

SNA,PDRAGOII SChIEDULING lN WEEKS

Alrlej lhese s.rEgesficns ere only guidelnes and may have ta he alte{ed to meet inrtividua! gtowis nee6s. Check a! chemical labels ta vetiry rcgtstralan far use itt yaur regian.

www. gol dsm lthseeds.com

48

ConstellationrM
t4 E L I

ANT

t-t U

SA

rV

U {.rS

Temperature:65"

Minimum Germnation^'Rate: 80oA


Seed Product Form.'Raw

gradually reduced to 62'

68'F (18' - 20"C). lf needed, the temperature may be - 65'F (16' -18'C) to hold plugs.

Moisure: Alternate between moisture levels wet (4) and moist (3). Allow media to approach level (3) before re-saturating to level (4). Do not allow plants to wilt.

FLOWERING
Flowering Mechanism: Short days; plants initiate on approximately days
21

Humidity:40 -70% Fertitizers: Allernate between calcium-based fertilizers (13-2-13 or 14-4-14) and
potassium nitrate (15-5-15) at 75

-28,4 -

6 leaves present and the daylength is less than 12 hours.

- 100 ppm nitrogen.


* 2,500 ppm.

Flowering lype; Facultative short-day plant.


Specific Ftowering Mechanism.' Flower buds will initiate when the daylength is less than 12 hours. Plants will grow approximalely 24" lall at this daylength. lf the daylength is greater than 14 hours, plants will grow up to 36" tall.

Growth Regulafors.' lf needed, spray B-Nine at 1,500

PLUG EL'LTURE
The timing approximations are based on optimal culture recommendations below: 6): From the time a seed is sown until radicle emergence takes place, usually with the root penetrating the media and some cotyledon development. lf desired, Helianthus Constellation seeds can be sown into the final container. Humidity in the air is 95 - 98% (humidification); media moisture 4+ - 5. Expect radicle emergence in 5 - 6 days.

Fungicid*iPreventative fungicide may be applied for Pythium, Rhizoctonia and Thielaviopsis, Rust and/or Botrytis. tnitiated Butking (approximately day 28 - 35): Seedlings develop from juvenile to mature, qsually determined by the number of leaves present or daylength. Seedlings are receptive to initiation and flower bud development.
Lrghf.'Provide 3,500 of light.

4,500 foot candles (35,000 - 45,000 lux) or 12

- 16 mols

Germination I (approximately day I

Temperature:62'

68'F (17"

20'C)

Cover.'Cover seeds with a thin layer of medium-sized vermiculite to maintain


moisture levels.

Fertilizer: Alternate between calcium-based fertilizers (13-2-13 or 144-14) and potassium nitrate (15-5-15) at 100 - 150 ppm nitrogen. Under high light conditions a 20-10-20 fertilizer can be used; leach with fresh water every third watering. Fungicides: Preventative fungicide may be applied for Pythium, Rhizoctonia and Thielaviopsis, Rust and/or Botrytis.

Meda: pH 5.5

5.8. EC: 0.75 - 1. High EC discourages rooting into the media and could decrease final count of usable seedlings.

Light: Light is not necessary for germination. lf utilizing a chamber, providing a


light source of 10 - 100 foot candles and reduce stretch.
(1

GRWIhIG OT{
The timing approximations are based on optimal culture recommendations below: Transplant to Finbh (approximately day 35 - 98): Optimize plant shoot and root growth, which is usually a 1:1 ratio. Flower buds are usually present and developing.

00

- I ,000 lux) will improve

germination

Moisture: Saturated (5) for day

9, reduce moisture further to moist (3).

5, on day 5 reduce to wet (4). Beginning day

Humidity:100% until radicle emergence then reduce to 40%. Dehumidify: Provide horizontal airflow to aid in drying down the media through
evapotranspiration, allowing better penetration of oxygen to the roots.

Media: pH:5.5

5.8. EC:

.2

- 1 .5; high salts may result in root loss.

Temperature: 68'

72"F (20

22"C).

Lrghf.' Provide 3,500 - 4,500 foot candles (15 - 20 total mols or 35,000 - 45,000 lux) to enhance shoot and root growth. Less than 12 hours daylength will result in shorter plants. Greater than 14 hours daylength will delay flowering and result in taller plants.

until it is fully expanded. The roots have expanded throughout the media. Dehumidify from 100% to 50% moisture in the air. Media moisture during the wet cycle is usually 4 - 5, and 2 - 3 during the dry cycle; this wet-dry cycle should take place within 12 - 24 hours for most plants.

Germination 2 (approximately Day 6 - 10): From the time cotyledon ls observed

Temperature:70"

-75'F

(21' -24"C) days;

65'-

68'F (18" - 20'C) nights.

Molsfure: Alternate between moisture levels wet (4) and moist (3). Allow media to approach level (3) before re-saturating to level (4). Excessive drying of the
media moisture level will concentrate salts around the root system and burn the root hairs. Symptoms of excessive drying include lower leaves turning yeilow, and dropping.

Media:pH'.5.5-5.8. EC: I -1.5


L,gltti Supplemental lighting at 350 - 450 foot candles (3,500 - 4,500 lux) during
a 10

- 12 hour day will enhance


72"F (20"

plant growth. 22"C).

Dehumidify: Provide horizontal airflow to aid in drying down the media through evapotranspiration under cool, low light conditions. Humidity:40% Feilizers: Constant liquid feed at 150 - 200 ppm nitrogen with a calcium-based fertilizer(13-2-13 or14-4-14). Underhighlightconditions, a17-5-17 fertilizercan
be used. Leach with fresh water every third watering.

Temperature: 68"

Morbfure: Alternate between moisture levels wet (4) and moist (3). Allow media to approach level (3) before re-saturating to level (4). Do not allow seedlings to wilt.

Humidity:40 -70o/o Dehumidify: Lower relative humidity to 40% (approximately day 6 - B). Provide
horizontal airflow to aid in drying down the media through evapotranspiration, allowing better penetration of oxygen to the roots.

Growth Regulafors; lf needed, spray B-Nine at 1,500

Bonziatl-2ppm.
Thielaviopsis, Rust and/or Botrytis.

3,500 ppm, or drench

Fungicides: Preventative fungicide may be applied for Pythium, Rhizoctonia and

Fertilizers: Allernate between calcium-based fertilizers (13-2-13 or 14-4-14) and potassium nitrate (15-5-15) at 50 - 75 ppm nitrogen. Phosphorus should not exceed 10 ppm.

TFCI.IhIIQUES TCI ENhIACE PSST I.IARVEST QIJALITY


When to treat: 1

Growth Regulafors.'Helianthus Constellation is naturally a compact plant and should not require PGR applications. lf needed in the plug stages, a 1,500 - 2,500 B-Nine application may be supplied as a spray. Fungicides: Preventative fungicide may be applied for Pythium, Rhizoctonia and
Thielaviopsis, and/or Rust. the shoots to proportionately fill the plug cell and for roots to develop throughout the media. lnduction and iniiiation may occur if daylength is less than 12 hours.

2 weeks prior to finish or shipping.

Fertilizer: Potassium nitrate drench at I 50 ppm nitrogen. Common Diseases.'Pythium, Rhizoctonia, Thielaviopsis, Rust, Botrytis. Monitor moisture and humidity levels and use preventative fungicide drenches. Common Pesfs.'Fungus Gnats, Shore Flies, White Fly, Spider Mites, Beetles, and Thrips. Use pesticides according to label directions.

PIug Bulking/Flower Iniation (approximately day 21 -28): The time

it takes for

Media: pH:5.5
(35,000

5.8. EC:

- 1.5
continued on next page

Lighf; Supplemental lighting under low light conditions at 350 - 450 foot candles

45,000 lux) will enhance shoot and root growth.

www. goldsm ithseeds.com

49

G,,.ldsmith SEEDS

Constel lationrM (continued)


PRODUCT

USE

I ENOEru SPECIFICATIONS
Light: Part sun to full sun USDA Hardiness Zone: 10
AHS Heat Zone: 12

Pots, containers, mass

plantings

SUNFLOWER SCHEDULING IN WEEKS

Transplant to finish crop time from a '200' plug

10, depending on number of plugs transplanted

The shortest crops times may be achieved when following recommended optimal culture. Deviation in environmental conditions will result in longer crop times. Nofe: Ihese suggestions are only guidelines and may have to be altered to meet ndivduat grower's needs. Check all chemical labels to verify registratian far use in
your region.

www. gol dsm th seeds. com

50

Ducl'lessrM
TOR,ENIA FOURNIERI
Mi n im u m Germ i nation Rate : Seed Product Form; Pelleted
90o/o

GROWNG ON
Transplant Ready: 4

5 weeks from sow in a '288'tray.

FLOWERING
ftame when plants are receptive to ftower initiation.. Days 25 - 30 days; Tim? 6-Sleavespresent.
Flowering lype.' Facultative long-day plant (minor)- long days enhance flowering. Specific Flowering Mechanism: lradance (12 - 18 mols) and temperature

Finish BulkinglFlower Initiation: Optimum conditions during the vegetative period, beginning at transplant, needed for the root to reach the edge of the containerAND to make the plant receptive to flower initjation. Media: . pH: 5.5 5.8

. EC: 1.0 1.5 Light: To avoid heat stress, provide a light shade during the summer months.
Low light conditions may cause stretching of stems and delay flowering. Supplemental light may be beneficial during winter/early spring production.

trigger flowering.

PLUG CULTURE
Germination: Optimum mnditions for seedling development that begins the day the crop is sown until cotyledon expansion. Expect radicle emergence in 4 6 days. Cover: Do not cover the seed. Media: . pH: 5.5 5.8

Temperature:60; - 65"F (f6" - 1S"C) nights; 65. - 70"F (1 8" - 21.C) days. Night temperatures below 60'F (16'C) may cause leaf curl and leaf discoloratron ranging from yellow to red. Moisfure.'Alternate between moisture levels wet (4) and medium (2). Allow media to approach level (2) before re-saturating to level (4).

. EC: 0.5 0.75 Lghf; Light is necessary for germination. lf utilizing a chambe providing a light
source of 10 - 100 foot candles (100 reduce stretch. (18"

Humidity:40 -70% Dehumidify: Provide horizontal airflow to aid in drying down the media through
evapotranspiration, allowing better penetration of oxygen to the roots.

- 1,000 lux) will improve germinatin


6B.F

and

Fertilizers: 150
14-4-14).

200 ppm nitrogen with a calcium-based fertilizer (13-2-13 or

Temperature:75'F (22'C) until radicle emergence. Reduce to 65"

20'C).

Growth Regulators: Due to its compact nature, growth regulation should not be necessary. Torenia does respond to Bonzi (paclobutrazol).
Pinching: No pinching is necessary due to the natural branching habit of Duchess_ Common Diseases; Botfiis, Pythium Root Rot
Com mon Pesfs.' Aphids,Thrps

O - 6 or until radicle emergence. On day 7 reduce moisture to moist (3). Prolonged saturated media will reduce the umber of transplantable seedlings.

Mo.isture: Saturated (5) for days

Humidity:100% untit radicle emergence then reduce to 40 -70o/o. Dehumidify: Provide horizonial airflow to aid in drying down the media through
evapotranspiration, allowing better penetration of oxygen to the roots.

PRODUCT

USE
mass

ennor spFctFtcATtcNs
Llghf: Filtered sun to full sun
IJSDA Hardiness Zone: AHS Heat Zone:9 - 1

Felilizers: Fertigation water should not be greater than 0.5. PIug Bulking: Optimum conditions during the vegetative period, beginning at
cotyledon expansion, needed forthe rootto reach the edge ofthe plug celi.

Packs, pots, containers,

plantings

j0

Media: . pH: 5.5 - 5.8 .EC: 0.5-l


,gl,f.'Maximum 3,000 foot candles (30,000 lux). Avoid direct sunlight.

Temperature:65' - 6B"F (1 B" - 20"C) /l4oisture.'Alternate between moisture levels wet (4) and medium (2). Allow media to approach level (2) before re-saturating to level (4). Avoid drying plugs
to wilting.

TORENA SCHEDULING IN WEEKS

evapotranspiration, allowing better penetration of oxygen to the roots.

Humidity: 40 -70% Dehumidify: Provide horizontal airflow to aid in drying down the media through

Transplant to finish crop time

Feilizers: After cotyledon emergence, fertilize weekly at 50 75 ppm nitrogen with a calcium-based fertilizer (i 4-2-14 or j4-4-14). A tfle phosphorus is beneficial for improved rooting and flowering. lncrease rate to 7b _ 100 ppm
nitrogen as seedlings mature.

Growth Regulaors.' lf desired, B-Nine (daminozide) can be applied to mature seedlings to tone the flat prior to transplant. Also responds to A-iest (ancymidol).

l{ole: Ihese $irgEesfrbrs are cnly guidslines and may have to be allered t raset ndividual grawer s needs. check all chemea! labels ta \/erify regislration for use in
yaur regian.

www. go l ds m ith seeds. com

51

()bsessiom

rM Tuseamy@ u
6ROWlt\G 0f.l
Transplant Ready.' 8 - 10 weeks from a '288' plug tray. Finish Bulking/Flower lnitiation: Optimum conditions during the vegetative period, beginning at transplant, needed for the root to reach the edge of the container AND to make the plant receptive to flower initiation.

VERB ENA X HYERIDA


Minimum Germination Rafe; 85% Seed Product Form.' Raw GoldSmartm Primed

FLOWERING 4-6leavespresent.
Time frame when plants are receptive to flower initiation.' Days 18 - 24;

Flowering lype.' Facultative long-day plant - long days enhance flowering.


Specific Flowering Mechanism.'Maturity of plant and high light will trigger
flowering.

Media: . pH: 5.8 - 6.2 . EC: 1.5 - 2.0


Lighf.' Provide 3,500 - 4,500 foot candles (12 - 1 5 total mols or 35,000 - 45,000 lux) to hasten flower development. Long days may enhance growth. Temperature:70'F (21'C) night temperature and 67"F (19'C) day temperature for 3 days aftertransplanting. Then 68" -70"F (20" - 21'C) at night, 64'- 67' (18: - 19'C) in the day with a - 5 to -10'F (-2" to -3"C) negative DIF from
5 a.m. to 9 a,m.

FLUG EULTURE
Germination: Optimum conditions for seedling development that begins the day the crop is sown until cotyledon expansion. Expect radicle emergence in 4 - 7 days. Gover.'Cover seeds with a thin layer of medium sized vermiculite to maintain
moisture levels.

Average Daily Temperature (ADT):67"F (19"C) Mosfure; Alternate between moisture levels wet (4), and moist (3). Allow media to approach level (3) before re-saturating to level (4). Humidity:40o/o

Media: . pH: 5.8 . EC: <1

6.2

fugh: Light is not necessary for germination. lf utilizing a chamber, providing a light source of 10 100 foot candles (100 - 1 ,000 lux) will improve germination and reduce stretch compared to seed germinated in the dark.

Dehumidify: Provide horizontal airflow to aid in drying down the media through evapotranspiration for better disease control.
Fertilizers: Under high light conditions, apply an ammonium-based feed (17-5-17) at 100 - 150 ppm nitrogen. Under low light conditions, apply a calcium-based feed (14-4-14) at 100 - 150 ppm nitrogen. Growth Regurators.' lf needed, apply either 1 - 2 applications of B-Nine (daminozide) at 2,500 - 5,000 ppm, A-Rest (ancymidol) at 2 - 5 ppm or Bonzi (paclobutrazol). Also responds to negative DIF treatments of 5 - 10'F (2'- 3'C) for height control.

Temperature: 75' - 76'F (24" - 24.5"C) day and nght from day 1 - 7; when cotyledons appear reduce temperature to 68'F (20'C). Moisfure: Water in plug trays before seeding to moisture level moist (3+), and maintain at (3+) for days 1 - 7 or until radicle emergence. For days B - 15,

water trays to moisture level wet (4), and allow trays to approach level (3) before resaturating. Beginning day 16, begin alternatng between moisture level wet (4), and level medium (2).

TEC},II{QUES TO ENhNAhICE POST FIARVEST QI.'ALITY


When to Treat:
1

Humidity:100% rom day

7 or until seed coats are shed.

2 weeks prior to finish or shipping.

Dehumidify: On day 8 or after seed coats have shed, reduce to 40%. Provide
horizontal airflow to aid in drying down the media through evapotranspiration, allowing better penetration of oxygen to the roots.

Growth Regulaors.'B-Nine (daminozide) at 2,500

3,000 ppm.

Fertilizer: Potassium nitrate drench at 150 ppm nitrogen. Common Diseases; Pythium, Rhizoctona, Powdery Mildew. Monitor moisture levels and utilize preventative fungicide drenches. Common Pesfs.' Fungus gnats, Shore Flies, Aphids, Thrips. Use pesticides according to label directions.

Fertilizers: Maintain EC at <1. Fertigation water should not be greater than an


EC of 0.5.

Plug BulkinglFlower lnitiation: Optimum conditions during the vegetatve period, beginning at cotyledon expansion, needed for the root to reach the edge of the plug cell AND to make the plant receptive to flower initiation. Media: . pH: 5.8 - 6.2

GAREEN SPECTFICATIO\S
Lrghf; Full sun
USDA Hardiness Zone: AHS Heat Zone: 12 - 1
11

. EC: 1.2

- 1.5
16 total mols or 35,000

- 45,000 lux) to hasten flower induction. Supplemental lighting under low light conditions at 350 - 450 foot candles (35,000 - 45,000 lux) will ehhance shoot and root growth.
Ltgltt: Provide 3,500 - 4,500 foot candles (12 Temperature:67'
drop from day 16

6B'F (20'C) with a -3 to -5"F

(-1 .5

to -3"C) DIF or morning

44.

Tuscany Obsession

- 10" (20 - 25 cm)

Moisfure.'Alternate between moisture levels wet (4), and moist (3). Allow media to approach level moist (3), before re-saturating to level wet (4). Fertilizers:14-4-14 pr 17-5-17 at 60

6-8"(15-20cm)

- 12" (25 - 30 cm) 10 - 12'(25 - 30 cm)


10

1.2- 1.5;6 -

8 ppm phosphorus.

80 ppm nitrogen to maintain an EC of

VERtsENA SCT.iET}ULIhNG IN WFEKS

Growth Regulaforc.' lf needed, spray B-Nine (daminozide) at 1,250

ln warmer conditions Bonzi (paclobutrazol) orA-Rest (ancymidol) may be applied

2,500 ppm.

Transplant to fnish crop time

7-9

lVofe: Lhese srggesfr'o.s r* arlfy guidenes afid nay have e alfered lo ineel n{lividLta! grawer's needs. Check af! chentca abels l v*rify {egstratir}t} fo use i yaur {egr}.

www. go l dsm ith seeds. com

52

G,,ldsmith !lEEDS

i.i

Cora@, Sa.m$tmffffi@,
A

Sus!?

DressrM, SumGlowrM
Fungicides: Preventative fungicide may be applied for Thielaviopsis, Rhizoctonia, Pythium, and Phytophthora. lnitiated Bulking (approximately day 25
Light: Provide 4,750

AT

hI

AN

T'''

-IS & O

SE US
B5o/o

Minimum Germination Rate:


Seed Product Form.' Raw

35): Plants are receptive to flowering.

FLOWERING
Flowering Mechanism: lrradiance (primary); plants initiate on approximately
day 20 with HID light for 16-18 hours OR total 15 - 24 mols (4,250-6,500 foot candles) for 3 - 4 weeks at 75'F (24"C). Bud/flower development occurs day
36

6,000 foot candles (47,500

60,000 lux) or 17

22 mols of light.

Temperature: 75"

78'F (24'

25.6'C)

Fungicides: Preventative fungicide may be applied for Thielaviopsis, Rhizoctonia, Pythium, and Phytophthora.

70.

Flowering fype.' Day-neutral plant - high inadiance, temperatures hgher than 75'F (24"C) will enhance flowering. PI-I"!G EULT{JRE
The timing approximations are based on optimal culture recommendations below: (humidification) from the time the crop is sown until radicle emergence takes place; root initial has penetrated media; some cotyledon development. Expect radicle emergence in 7 - 8 days. Cover.' Seeds may be covered with a medium layer of coarse vermiculite to maintain dark conditions, optimum moisture levels and so roots will penetrate growing media.

GRCIWIdG ON
The timing approximations are based on optimal culture recommendations below:

Transplant to Finish; Approximately day 36 Media: pH:5.5 - 5.8. EC: 1.7 - 2.0 Lrghf: Provide 5,000 Temperature:75"

70.

Germination I (approximately day 1 -7): Humidity in the air 100%

7,500 foot candles (50,000

75,000) or 18

28 mols.

78'F (24'

25.5'C)

Moisfure.'Alternate between moisture levels wet (4) and medium (2). Allow media to approach level (2) before re-saturating to wet (4). Humidity:40o/o Fertilizers: 14-4-14 ot 17-5-17 al 1 00 of 1.7 - 2.

50 ppm, as needed for an EC in the soil

Media: pH:5.5

- 5.8; this recommended range will reduce the incidence of Thielaviopsis. Monitor pH frequently because Vinca will naturally raise the soil pH by as much as 0.5 - 1 unit. EC: <0.5 - 0.75. Avoid media compaction to allow for root penetration.
Light: Dark conditions are required for germination. Moisture: Saturated (5), from day 1 -7 or until radicle emergence Humidity:100% from day
(approximately day 8). lf you are unable to dehumidify on day 8, decrease the moisture level to wet (4+).
1

Growth Regulators: SunStorm is a genetically compact so growth regulators are normally not required. B-Nine (daminozide) at 2,500 - 5,000 ppm or A-Rest (ancymidol) at 2 - 4 ppm can be used for the other Vinca.
Fungicides: Preventative fungicide may be applied for Rhizopus, Thielaviopsis, Rhizoctonia, Pythium, and Phytophthora.

TFEHI{IQT'ES TO ENHANEE POST I.-I,ARVEST QIJALryY


When to Treat: 1 - 2 weeks prior to finish or shipping. Growth Regulafors.'B-Nine (daminozide) at 2,500 - 3,000 ppm.

-7 or until seed coats are shed. Temperature: 76" - 7B'F (24" - 25'C) untit day 7. Fertilizers: Maintain EC of 0.5 - 0.75. Germination 2 (approximately Day 8 - 16): Change the humidity (dehumidification)
Media: pH:5.5

Felizer: Potassium nitrate drench at 150 ppm nitrogen.


in the air

Common Drbeases.' Thielaviopsis, Rhzoctonia, Pythium. Monitor moisture and humidity levels and use preventative fungicide drenches. Common Pests.'Fungus Gnats, Shore Flies and Thrips. Use pesticides according to label directions.

to 40%. The result is better root expansion; ctyledons fully expanded; roots are expanding throughout the growing substrate.

5.8. EC: 1 - 1.25

Light: 2,000

3,000 foot candles (20,000

30,000 tux); 6

0 mols of tight.

PRODUCT

L'SF
containers,

Cnnpsl. SpEetFtcATtoNs
Lrghti Full sun
USDA Hardiness Zone: AHS Heat Zone: 12 - 1
11

Moisture: Dry back media to wet (4) and alternation to moist (3) within 18 hours
at radicle emergence (approximately day 8).

Jumbo packs, pots, mass

plantings

Dehumidify: Lower relative humidity to 40% (approximately day B). provide


horizontal airflow to aid in drying down the media through evapotranspiration, allowing better penetration of oxygen to the roots. (24"

Temperature: Once cotyledons are observed, reduce temperature to 75.

-25.6'C).

78"F

Cora SunSform SunDress SunGlow

the soil of 1

Feilizers: 14-4-14 ot 17-5-17 at 60 - I 00 ppm nitrogen as needed for an EC in

- 1.25.

Fllngicides: Preventative fungicide may be applied for Thielaviopsis and


Rhizoctonia between day 7 and 10.

- 16" (35 - 40 cm) 8 - 10' (20 - 25 cm) 8 - 10' (20 - 25 cm) 10 - 12. (25 - 30 cm)
14

22
10

25" (55

62 cm)

- 12" (25 - 30 cm) 12 - 14" (30 - 3s cm) 12 - 14" (30 - 35 cm)


rt::ti

Plug Bulking/Flower lnitiation (approximately day 17 - 24): Length of vegetative period - time necessary for roots to reach the edge of the plug, for shoots to fill out containe and for plants to become receptive to flowr initiation. Before initiation starts, the plants should be a proprsize, which includes optimum shoot development, large number of auiiliary shoots and good presentation from pot size to plant sze" Media: pH:5.5 Lrghf; 3,500

VINCA SCHEDULING IN WEEKS

Total crop time '288' plug crop time '200' plug crop time

11-18

10-14

12-15

11-14
EA

5.8. EC: 1 .25

- 1.5
50,000 tux): 12

5,000 foot candles (35,000

- 1B mols of tight.

5-7 6-7

5-7 6-7

5-7 6-7
N/A

6-7
4-6

Temperature: 75'

-78'F (24'

- 25.6"C\

Transplant to finish crop time

/tlorbfure: Alternate between moisture level wet (4) to medium (2). Allow the soil to gpproach medium (2), before re-saturating to wet (4). lf media is allowed to dry back furtierlhan (2), roots damage may occur resulting in a lack of iron uptake. Wtering or fertilizing late in the day may increase the susceptibility to airlcorne disease.

Jumbo packs 4" crop 6" crop

5-8 5-9
6-10

4-6 5-8 6-8

5-9
7-10

5-8 5-8

Fertilizers: 14-4-14 or 17-5-17 at75 the soil of 1.25 - 1.5.

125 ppm nitrogen, as needed for an EC in

.Depending on the number of plugs per container.


The shortest crops times may be achieved when following recommended optimal culture. Deviation in environmental conditions will result in longer crop times.

Growth Regulators: SunStorm requires little to no growth regulators since it is genetically compact. lf needed, spray B-Nine (daminozide) at 1,500 2,500 ppm. -

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53

G ldsmith

Cora@ Caseadn*, SunShowetrrM


C

A T'4 ARA

TH US R O SE {J$
ation Rate : 85Vo

Initiated Bulking (approximately day 25 - 35): Plants are receptive to flowering.


Light: Provide 4,750

M i n imu

m Germ

7,500 foot candles (47,500

75,000 lux) or 17

28 mols of light.

Seed Product Form.'Raw

FLOWERINIG
Flowerng mechansm; lnadiance (primary); plants initiate on approximately day 20 with HID light for 16 - 18 hours OR total 15 - 24 mols (4,2506,500 foot candles) for 3 - 4 weeks at 75"F (24'C). Budlflower development will occur between days 36 - 70.

Temperature: 75" -78"F (24" -25.6"C) Fertilizers: 14-4-14 or 17-5-17 at 75 - 150 ppm nitrogen, as needed for an EC
the soil of 1 .25

in

- 1.75.

Fungicides: Preventative fungicide may be applied for Thielaviopsis,


Rhizoctonia, Pythium, and Phytophthora.

Flowering lype: Day-neutral plant - high irradiance, temperatures higher than


75"F (24'C) will enhance flowering. PI-LJG CULTUR
The timing approximations are based on optimal culture recommendations below:

GROWING ON
The timing approximations are based on optimal culture recommendations below:

Transplant to Frnish.' approximaiely day 36 Media: pH:5.5


Lr'ghf: Provide

84.

5.8. EC:1.7

-2.
25.5"C).

Germination I (approximately day 1-7): Humidity in the air 100%


(humidification) from the time the crop is sown until radicle emergence takes place; root initial has penetrated media; some cotyledon development. Expect radicle emergence in 7 - B days.

5,OOO

7,500 foot candles (50,000

75,000) or 1B

28 mols.

Temperature:75"

-78"F (24' -

Moisfure.'Alternate betvveen moisture levels wet (4) and medium (2). Allow media to approach level (2) before re-saturating to wet (4). Humidity:40o/o FeTilizers:14414 or 17-5-17 at
1.7 100

Cover Seeds may be mvered with a medium layer of marse vermiculite to maintain dark conditions, optimum moisture levels and so roots will penetrate growing media.
Media: pH:5.5

- 5.8; tris recommended range will reduce the incidence of Thielaviopsis. Monitor pH ftequently because vnca will naturally raise the soil pH by as much as 0.5 - 1 unit. EC: <0.5 - 1. Avoid media mmpaction to allow for root penetration.
Light: Dark conditions are required for germination. Moisture: Saturated (5), from day
1 - 7 or until radicle emergence (approximately day 8). lf you are unable to dehumidify on day 8, decrease the starting moisture level from saturated (5) to wet (4+).

-2.
at2-4ppm.

175 ppm, as needed for an EC in the soil of

Growth Regulators: B-Nine (daminozide) at 2,500


(ancymidol)

5,000 ppm orA-Rest

Fungicides: Preventative fungicide may be appiied for Rhizopus, Thielaviopsis,


Rhizoctonia, Pythium, and Phytophthora.

Humidity:100% from day


Temperature:76"

-7

or until seed coats are shed. until day 7.

TEEh{NIQUES TO ENHANCE POST HARVEST QUALITY


When to Treat: 1 - 2 weeks prior to finish or shipping. Growth Regulators: B-Nine (daminozide) at 2,500 - 3,000 ppm.

7B"F (24"

-25'C)
1.

Felizers: Maintain EC of 0.5 -

Germination 2 (approximately day I - 16): Change the humidity in the air (dehumidification) to 40%. The result is better root expansion; cotyledons fully
expanded; roots are expanding throughout the growing substrate.

Fertilizer: Potassium nitrate drench at 1 50 ppm nitrogen.


Common Dr3eases.' Thielaviopsis, Rhizoctonia, Pythium. Monitor moisture and humidity levels and use preventative fungicide drenches. Common Pesfs; Fungus Gnats, Shore Flies and Thrips. Use pesticides according to label directions.

Media: pH:5.5

5.8. EC: 1 - 1.25

Light: 2,000

3,000 foot candles (20,000

30,000 lux); 6

- 10 mols of light.

Moisture: Dry back media to wet (4) and alternation to moist (3) within 18 hours
at radicle emergence (approximately day 8).

GARDEN SPECIFICATIONS
Lighf; Full sun
USDA Hardiness Zone: AHS Heat Zone: 12 - 1
11

Dehumidify: Lower relaiive humidity to 40% (approximately day B). Provide


horizontal airflow to aid in drying down the media through evapotranspiration, allowing better penetration of oxygen to the roots. (24"

Temperature: Once cotyledons are observed, reduce temperature to 75" - 25.6'C).

78'F

Fertilizers: 14-4-14 or 17-5-17 al60 the soil of 1 - 1.25.

- 100 ppm nitrogen as needed for an EC in


VIhCA TRAII-ING SCHEDULING IN WEEKS

Fungicides: Preventative fungicide may be applied for Thielaviopsis and Rhizoctonia between day 7 and 10.
24): Length of vegetative period - time necessary for roots to reach the edge of the plug, for shoots to fill out container, and for plants to become receptive to flower initiation. Before initiation stas, the plants should be a proper size, which includes optimum shoot development, large number of auxiliary shoots and good presentation from pot size to plant size.

Plug Bulking/Flower Initiation (approximately day

'17

'128' Plug crop time

Media: pH:5.5

5.8. EC: 1.25

- 1.75
55,000 lux): 12

Light: 3,500

5,500 foot candles (35,000

20 mols of light.

Temperature:75"

-78'F

(24"

- 25.6'C)

*Transplant to finish crop time

Morbfure: Altemate between moisture level wet (4) to medium (2). Allow the soil to approach medium (2), before re-saturating to wet (4). lf media is allowed to dry back further than (2), root damage may occur resulting in a lack of iron uptake. Watering or fertilizing late in the day may increase the susceptibility to airborne disease.

Felilizers: 14-4-14 or 17-5-17 at75 the soil of 1.25 - 1.75.

125 ppm nitrogen, as needed for an EC in

.Depending on number of plugs transplanted


The shortest crops times may be achieved when following recommended optimal culture. Deviation in environmental conditions will result in longer crop times.

Growth Regulaors.' lf needed, spray B-Nine (daminozide) at 1,500 - 2,500 ppm. Fungicides: Preventative fungicide may be applied for Thielaviopsis,
Rhizoctonia, Pythium, and Phytophthora.

www. go I dsm ithseeds. com

54

Erdrrio@,

Pennyt*,

Roe<yrM
Media: pHi 5.5

VIOLA, CQRNUTA
Minimum Germination Rafe.' Penny 85%; Endurio, Rocky g0% Seed Product Form.'RaW GoldSmartrM Primed

- 5.8 At pH levels >6.5, Thielaviopsis may develop as black lesions on the roots. Symptoms also include yellowing of lower leaves and die back of the plant. Stressed plants under high temperatures are most likely to be affected. EC: 1.0 Viola roots are sensitive to high salts.
Lrghf; Provide full sun.

FLOWERING
2

Time frame when plants are receptive to flower initiation.. Days 16 - 3 sets of true leaves.

24;

flowering.

Flowering Type: Penny is a facultative long-day plant - long days enhance


Specific Flowering Mechanism; Daylength and irradiance triggers flowering.
Cool night temperatures enhance flowering.

Temperature: During the cool season, a night temperature of 59'F (15'C) will promote early flowering. Temperatures below 59'F (15"C) will promole a hardier plant, but will increase crop time and delay flowering. Keep days below 68'F (20'C) or as cool as possible during warm weather conditions. Average Daiily Temperature (ADT):67'F (19'C) Moisture: Alternate between moisture levels wet (4) and medium (2). Allow media to approach level (2) before re-saturating to level (4). Saturated media for
extended periods will induce stretching. When growing under warm temperatures and high light ionditions, do not allow the plants to wilt.

FLI.JG CUI-TURE
Germination: Optimum conditions for seedling development that begins the day the crop is sown until cotyledon expansion. Expect radicle emergence in 3 - 4 days.

Cover Seeds may be covered with a thin layer of coarse vermiculite to maintain moisture levels.
Media: pH:5.5

Humidity:40 -70% Dehumidify: Provide horizontal airflow to aid in drying down the media through
evapotranspiration, allowing better penetration of oxygen to the roots.

- 5.8 Lower pH levels will discourage Thielaviopsis outbreaks and boron deficiencies which may cause tip abortion and stunted growth. EC: <0.7S

Light is not necessary for germination. lf utilizing a chamber, providing a light source of 10 - 100 foot candles (100 - 1 ,000 lux) will improve germination dramatcally compared to seed germinated in the dark.

Lighf

Fertilizers: Feed every 2 - 3 waterings at 100 - 150 ppm nitrogen with a calcium based fertilizer (13-2-13).lf desired, an application of ammonium nitrate (17-5-17) will help expand leaves. During cool weather production, ammonium-based feeds may encourage root rot problems. High nitrogen concentrations may promote stretching.

Temperature: 68' - 70"F (20" - 21'C) until radicle emergence. Reduce to 65'- 68'F (18" - 20"C) until cotyledon expansion. Moisture: Saturated (5) on day '1 . On days 2 - 3 reduce moisture to wet (4) until radicle emergence. On day 7, reduce further to moist (3). Non-uniform germination may result if media conditions are too dry.

Humidity:100% until radicle emergence then reduce to 40%. Dehumidify: Provide horizontal airflow to aid in drying down the media through
evapotranspiration, allowing better penetration of oxygen to the roots.

Nutrition: Malformed, puckered and upward cupped leaves indicate calcium deficiencies. To prevent this, fertilize with calcium nitrate or add calcium sulfate to the growing media before transplant. Boron deficiencies can be distinguished by tip abortion, upper leaf stunting, puckering and thickening of leaves, along with shortened internodes and/or a gnarled mass of lateral shoots. Violas tend to be more sensitive to boron deficiencies than pansies. Boron deficiency is more prevalent during warm weather with frequent watering. pH levels <6 will ensure boron is more readily available to the plant. A one-time application or Solubor will help overcome these problems. NOTE: An overdose of Bonzi (paclobutrazol) may also produce symptoms similar to boron or calcium deficiencies. Growth Regulaors.'Violas respond to DIF treatments, B-Nine (daminozide) and A-Rest (ancymidol). NOTE: Malformed leaves and leathery growth may occur if B-Nine is applied at 5000+ ppm when temperatures exceed 90'F (32'C).
Common Diseases.' Alternaria Leaf Spot, Downy Mildew, Thielaviopsis Root Rot, Cercospora Leaf Spot Common Pess; Aphids

Fertilizers: Fertigation water should not be greater than an EC of 0.5. Plug Bulking/Flower lnitiation: Optimum conditions during the vegetative
period, begnning at cotyledon expansion, needed for the root to reach the edge of the plug cellAND to make the plant receptive to flower initiation.

Media: pH:5.5
exceeding 1.5.

5.8. EC: <1 Violas are sensitive to high salts, avoid EC levels

Ligf; Provide 2,000 - 3,000 foot candles (20,000 - 30,000 tux) maximum. Violas should not be given night interruption as premature flowering may occur.
Temperature: 65'F (18"C) nights; 65" - 6S'F (18" - 20.C) days. Cool nights will prevent seedling stretch. After several sets of true leaves have appeared, drop night temperatures to 59'F (15"C) to initiate flowering. Average Daily Temperature (ADT):67'F (19"C) Moisfure; Alternate between moisture levels wet (4) and moist (3). Allow media to approach level (3) before re-saturating to level (4). Alternating moisture levels encourages root development. Do not allow seedlings to wilt. Continuously saturated media will limit oxygen availability, discourages optimal root development and promotes seedling stretch.

PRODUCT

USE
mass

i GARDEN SPECIFICATONS
I Llg; Full sun I USDA Hardiness

plantings

Packs, pots, containers,

Zone:

AHS Heat Zone:9

i,ii::...l.::::.i..i.:i::.

Endurio
Penny, Rocky

4-6"(10-15cm)
4

- 12" (20 - 30 cm)

6" (10

'15 cm)

4-6"(10-15cm)

Humidity: 40 -70% Dehumidify: Provide horizontal airflow to aid in drying down the media through
evapotranspiration, allowing better penetration of oxygen to the roots. fertilizer (14-4-14). As seedling matures, increase rate to .100 ppm nitrogen. An ammonium concentration >5 ppm will cause seedling stretch. Upward cupping of leaves may indicate calcium deficiency.

VIOLA SChIEPtJLING IN WEEKS


iii:.:f,:l.:.,i:lti.l:....r:.r.::::.f.:,r::

Felizers: Feed established seedlings at 75 ppm nitrogen with a calcium-based

Total crop time '288' plug crop time

- I 0 for fall sales;

4-5
11

I 3 for spring sales

Growth Regulators: lf necessary, apply B-Nine (daminozide) at 2,500 ppm to


tone the finished plug tray.

Transplant to finsh crop time Packs

Production timing will vary depending on whether the crop is grown under warm or cool conditions. Crop time for spring sales is longer due to cooler temperatures during the winter production months.

GROWING

ON.I

Transplant Ready;4 - 5 weeks from sow in a'288'tray. Finish Bulking/Flower lnitiation: Optimum conditions during the vegetative
period, beginning at transplant, needed for the root to reach the edge of the container AND to make the plant receptive to flower initiation.

4" crop
6" crop

4-5 5-6 6-7

www. goldsm ithseeds. com

55

G.:.ldsmith S E E D S

f'r
::i::::r:::':::.::iii:,

Fatiola@
v!LA CORiV{.rrA
Minimum Germination Rafe.' 90%
Seed Product Form; Raw

/l/oisfure; Alternate between moisture leveis wet (4) and medium (2). Allow
media to approach level (2) before re-saturating to level (4).

Humidity:40

60%

Dehumidify: Provide horizontal airflow to aid in drying down the media through FN-CIWERII{G
Time frame when plants are receptive to flower initiation.' Days 16 2 - 3 sets of true leaves. evapotranspiration under cool, Iow light conditions.

24:

Feitizers: Feed established seedlings with a calcium-based fertilizer (14-4-14)


at 50 - 1 50 ppm nitrogen. Use the lower rates on younger seedlings. An ammonium concentration >5 ppm nitrogen will cause seedling stretch.

Flowering Type: Paliola is a facultative long-day plant


flowering.

long days enhance

Specific Flowering Mechanism: Daylength and irradiance triggers flowering. Cool night temperatures enhance flowering.

Growth Regulators:Yidas can be treated when the first true leaves are fully developed. Apply B-Nine (daminozide) at 2,500 - 5,000 ppm. A-Rest (ancymidol) can also be used. Violas also respond to negative DIF treatments, -5 to -10'F (-3 to -6"C) DIF or morning drop. Fungcides: May be applied for the prevention of Thielaviopsis.
Initiated Bulking (approximately day 22 - 34): Seedlings develop from juvenile to mature, usually determined by the number of leave present (cultivar speciflc). Seedlings are receptive to initiation and flower bud development.

PLUG Ct.II-TURE
The timing approximations are based on optimal culture recommendations below: radicle emergence takes place; usually with the root penetrating the media and some cotyledon development. Humidity n the air is 95 - 98% (humidification); media moisture 4+ - 5. Expect radicle emergence in 3 - 4 days.

Germination I (approximately day 1 - 4): From the time a seed is sown until

Light: Provide 4,250


of light.

5,500 foot candles (42,500

55,000 lux) or 15

20 mols

Cover Seeds may be covered with a thin layer of coarse vermiculite to maintain moisture levels.
Media: pH:5.5 - 5.8; ths recommended range will reduce the incidence of Thielaviopsis outbreaks and boron deficiencies which may cause tip abortion and stunted growth. EC: <0.75. Avoid media compaction to allow for root penetraton.

Temperature: 64'

67'F (17.5"

Fertilizer: 144-14 or 17-5-17 at 100

Maintain a boron concentration of 0.5 ppm in the soil.

- 19.5"C) - 125 ppm, B - I 2 ppm phosphorus.

Lighf; Light is not necessary for germination. lf utilizing a chamber, providing a


lght source of 1 0 - 1 00 foot candles (100 - 1 ,000 lux) will improve germination dramatically compared to seed germinated in the dark.

Growth Regulaors; B-Nine spray at 2,500 - 7,500 ppm; A-Rest 2 - 3 ppm. Fungicides: Fungicides may be applied for the prevention of Thielaviopsis.

GROWING CIN
The timing approximations are based on optimal culture recommendations below:

Moisture: Saturated (5) on day 1. On days 2 - 3 reduce moisture to wet (4) until radicle emergence. On day 7, reduce further to moist (3). Non-uniform germination may result if media conditions are too dry.

Transplant Ready:4

5 weeks from sow in a '288'lray.

Finish Bulking/Flower lnitiation: Optimum conditions during the vegetative


period, beginning at transplant, needed for the root to reach the edge of the container AND to make the plant recepiive to flower initiation.

Humidity: 1 00% from day I - 4 or until seed coats are shed then reduce to 40%. Dehumidify: Provide horizontal airflow to aid in drying down the media through
evapotranspration, allowing better penetration of oxygen to the roots.

Temperature:65"
gradually to 62' an EC of 0.5.

- 68'F 65'F (17"

(18

- 20'C) until radicle emergence. Then reduce 18"C) as seedlings mature.

- 5.8 At pH levels >6.5,Thielaviopsis may develop as black lesions on the roots. Symptoms also include yellowing of lower leaves and die back of the plant. Stressed plants under high temperatures are most likely to be affected. EC: 1.0 Viola roots are sensitive to high salts.
Media: pH 5.5

Fertilizers: Maintain EC of <0.75. Fertigation water should not be greater than Germination 2 (approximately day 5 - 14): Change the humidity in the air (dehumidification) to 40%. The result is better root expansion; cotyledons fully
expanded; roots are expanding throughout the growing substrate.

Lighf; Provide full sun.


Temperature: During the cool season, a night temperature of 59'F (15'C) will promote earlier flowering. Temperatures below 59"F (15'C) will promote a more cold-hardy plant, but will increase crop time and delay flowering. Keep days below 68'F (20"C) or as cool as possible during warm weather conditions. Average Daily Temperature (ADT):67'F (19"C)

Media: pH'.5.5

5.8. EC: 0.5

0.75

Light:2,000

2,500 foot candles (20,000

25,000 lux); 6 -

mols of light.

Moisturei Alternate behveen moisture levels wet (4) and medium (2). Allow
media to approach level (2) before re-saturating to level (4). Saturated media for extended periods will induce stretching. When growing under warm temperatures and high light conditions, do not allow the plants to wilt.

Moisture: Dry back media to wet (4) and alternate to moist (3) within 18 hours at
radicle emergence (approximately day 6).

Dehumidify: Lower relative humidity to 40% (approximately day 5). Provide


horizontal airflow to aid in drying down the media through evapotranspiration, allowing better penetration of oxygen to the roots.

Humidity:40 -70% Dehumidify: Provide horizontal airflow to aid in drying down the media through
evapotranspiration, allowing better penetration of oxygen to the roots.

Temperature: Once cotyledons are observed, reduce temperature to


(17 .5"

64'-

67"F

- 19.5"C);
-

-2 to

-3'F

(-1 .5

to -2'C) DIF or morning drop.

Fertilizers: 14-4-14 or 17-5-17 at 60


the soil of 0.5

75 ppm nitrogen as needed for an EC in 0.75. Maintain a boron concentration of 0.5 ppm in the soil.

Growth Regulators: B-Nine spray at 2,500 ppm if stem stretch is observed Fungicides: Preventative fungicide may be applied for Thielaviopsis and
Rhizoctonia between day 7 and 10.

Fertilizers: Feed every 2 - 3 watering at 100 - 1 50 ppm nitrogen with a calcium-based fertilizer (13-2-1 3). lf desired, an application of ammonium nitrate (17-5-17) will help expand leaves. During cool weather production, ammoniumbased feeds may encourage root rot problems. High nitrogen concentrations may promote stretching.

Nutrition: Malformed, puckered and upward cupped leaves indicate calcium


deficiencies. To prevent this, fertilize with calcium nitrate or add calcium sulfate to the growing media before transplant. Boron deficiencies can be distinguished by tip abortion, upper leaf stunting, puckering and thickening of leaves, along with shortened internodes and/or a gnarled mass of lateral shoots. Violas tend to be more sensitive to boron deficiencies than pansies. Boron deficiency is more prevalent during warm weather with frequent watering. pH levels <6 will ensure boron is more readily available to the plant. A one{ime application or Solubor will help overcome these problems. NOTE: An overdose of Bonzi (paclobutrazol) may also produce symptoms similar to boron or calcium deflciencies.

PIug BulkinglFlower lnitiation (approximately day 15 - 21 ): The time it takes for the shoots to proporlionately fill the plug cell and for roots to develop
throughout the media. lnduction and initiation may occur; if buds are present, they should be few in number and small in size.

Media: pH:5.5

5.8. EC: 0.5

Light:2,500

3,500 foot candles (25,000

35,000 lux);

- 12 mols of light.

Temperature:65"F (18'C) nighis; 65'

prevent seedling stretch. After several sets of true leaves have appeared, drop night temperatures to 59'F (15"C) to initiate flowering.

68'F (18" - 20"C) days. Cool nights will

continued on next Page

www. go I dsm ithseeds.com

56

G:rldsmit SEEDS

il'l

Patiola@
ARest (ancymidol). NOTE: Malformed leaves and teatery grofr m"y o"cr. if
B-Nine is apptied at 5,000+ ppm when temperatures Rot, Cercospora Leaf Spot

prgwth Regulafors..Violas respond to DIF treatments,

B_Nine (daminozide) and

"icO Common Diseases.. Alternaria Leaf Spot, Downy Mildew, Thielaviopsis Root

SO.f 1eZrc.

Common Pesfs.- Aphids

pRoDUcr

usE
mass

ennoex spEctFtcATloNS
Zone.. g AHS Heat Zone:9

Packs, pots, containers,

plantings

) USon uarainess

I Ligf; Full sun

VIOLA SCHEDULING IN WEEKS


9

- l0 fall sales; 11 - 13 spring sales

liming will vary for production depending on whether the crop is grown under warm or cool conditions. Crop time for spring sales s longer due to moler temperatres during the wnter months in which it is grown.

Ihese sugge stions are onty guidetnes and may have to be altered to meet ^/ofe: individual grawerb needs. check art chemicat tabersio verig registration for use in your regian.

www. go ld s m ith s eed

s. co m

5/

MagellrM, Short StuffrM , SwTzzlet*, UproarrM, ZowielrM


ZINNIAELEGAN'S
Minimum Germination Rae: 85%
Seed Product Form.'Raw, coated

GROWING ON
Good air circulation and water management are essential to produce healthy zinnias.

FLowERttG
6

Transplant Ready.' 2 - 3 weeks from sow in a '288' tray. Transplant as soon as root system is established. Root-bound plugs do not transplant well. Zinnias can also be sown directly into the finish contaner.

Time frame when plants are receptive to flower nitiation.' Days 18 - 8 leaves.

24 days;

Ftowering lype; Zinnias are facultative short-day plants


flowering.

short days enhance

Finish Bulking/Flower lnitiation: Optimum conditions during the vegetative period, beginning at transplant, needed for the root to reach the edge of the containerAND to make the plant receptive to flower initiation. Media: . pH: 5.5

5.8

Specifrc Flowering Mechanism: Short days needed for bud initiation; long days
enhance flowering development, lrradiance overall enhances
fl

.EC:1 Lrgtrt Low light conditions will promote stretching of Zinnias. Crops finished
under short days tend to exhibit a greater number of single blooms. Long days will correct this situation. Provide 3,500 - 4,500 foot candles (12 - 1 5 total mols or 35,000 - 45,000 lux) to hasten flower induction. Supplemental lighting under low light conditions at 350 - 450 foot candles (35,000 - 45,000 lux) will enhance flower development.

owering.

PI.T.'G CULTURE
Germination: Optmum conditions for seedling development that begins the day the crop is sown until cotyledon expansion. Expect radicle emergence in 1 day.
Cover.' Seeds may be covered with a thin layer of coarse vermiculite to maintain moisture levels.

Temperature:60"

65"F

(15'-

18'C) nights;

70'-

85'F (21"

29"C) days.

Media: . pH: 5.5 - 5.8 . EC: <0.5 Zinnias are very sensitive to high salts.

Lrghf Light is not necessary for germination.


llfoisture,' Saturated (5) for days 1 - 3. Beginning day 4, reduce to level most (3). On day 10, reduce further to medium (2).
Humidity:100o/o until radicle emergence then reduce to 40%.

Molsure.' Alternate between moisture levels medium (3) and dry (1). Allow media to approach level (1) before re-saturatng to level (3). Water early in the day to allow the foliage to dry thoroughly before night fall. Rapid drying of the foliage will discourage disease outbreaks.

Humidity: Zinnias prefer low humidity. Dehumidify: Provide horizontal airflow to aid in drying down the media through
evapotranspiration, allowing better penetration of oxygen to the roots.

Temperature:70'- 75"F (21' -24"C) until radicle emergence. Reduce to


65"

68'F (18'

20"C) until cotyledon expansion.

Felizers: Fertilize weekly at 200 ppm nitrogen with a calcium-based fertilizer (13-2-13 or 144-'14). Growth Regutaors: Pack production of Short Stuff may require one application of B-Nine (daminozide) at 5,000 ppm. Other Zinnias may need additional applications. Also responds to DIF treatments, A-Rest (ancymidol), Bonzi (paclobutrazol), Sumagic (uniconazol) or B-Nine/Cycocel (chlormequat chloride) tank mix.
Common Diseases; Powdery Mildew, Botrytis Blight, Bacterial Leaf Spot'
Alternaria Leaf Spot

Plug Bulking: Optimum conditions during the vegetative period, beginning at


cotyledon expansion, needed for the root to reach the edge of the plug cell. Stressful conditions may promote premature flowering in the plug trays. Budded seedlings may not size up properly in the finish container.

Media: . pH: 5.5

5.8

. EC: 0.5 - 0.75

Ligt Lighting may trigger premature flowering in the plug. Provide 3,000 - 3,500 foot candles (30,000 - 35,000 lux)
matures, reduce temperatures to

Common Pesfs; Aphids,Whitefl y,Thrips

Temperature:65' - 68"F

(1

8'

20'C) after radicle emergence. As seedling

62'-

65'F (17'- 18"C).

PRODUCT

IJSE

I CANOEru SPECIFICATIONS
Full sun IJSDA Hardiness Zone: lQ
1

,ltoisfur.'Alternate between moisture levels wet (4) and medium (2). Allow
media to approach level (2) before re-saturating to level (4). Do not overwater or let plants wilt.

Packs, pots, gallons, mass

plantings

containers, I Lighf:

AHS HeatZone:12-

Humidity: Zinnias prefer low humidity.


Dehumidify: Provide horizontal airflow to aid in drying down the media through evapotranspiration, allowing better penetration of oxygen to the roots. Fertilizers: lf desired fertilize established seedlings at 25 a calcium-based fertilizer (13-2-'t3).

35 ppm nitrogen with

Growth Regulators; Zinnias will respond to B-Nine (daminozide) at 2,500 ppm.

- 10" (20 - 25 cm) 10 - 12" (25 - 30 cm) 12 - 14" (30 - 35 cm)


8

- 12" (25 - 30 cm) 10 - 12" (25 - 30 cm) 10 - 12" (25 - 30 cm)


10 24

28

36" (70
(60

24-3o"

90 cm) 76 cm)

27" (60 27" (60

24

- 68 cm) - 68 cm)

ZINhIIA SCT{EDULING IN WEEKS


Total crop time
'288' Plug crop me

8-9 1-2
6-7 7-8 7-8

8-11

2-3
6-7

*Iranspranf o finish crop tme


Packs

4" crop
6" crop

7-8 7-8

16l*: ile$e sJg$reslons re only gidelh1s ani ney have t, be allered t $teet itstl!'tiduai grawers rie*$s. Ch** af! chemicai iabels to rer;ft' registraitan ftr use in
y$ur {egin"

www. go ld s m th seed s. co m

58

G'ldsmith SEEIS

'l

Annuals: Cuidel ines and ScheduNes


Ageratum TycoonrM Aquilegia OrigamirM Begonia semperflorens Bada
Bing@

Pelleted, Raw

8Yo 85%

10-12
20-24 11-13 11-13

Packs, 4"- 6" Jumbos

6-8',
14-16" 8-1 0"

6"

Pelleted, Raw Pelleted, Raw Pelleted Pelleted, Raw Pelleted Pelleted, Raw Pelleted, Raw Pelleted, Raw Pelleted, Raw Pelleted, Raw

90%
90o/o

Packs, 4" - 6", Hanging Baskets Packs, 4" - 6", Hanging Baskets

Begonia semperflorens Bada Boom@ Begonia semperflorens Bayou Begonia semperflorens Eureka Begonia tuberosa Go-GorM Begonia hybrida BravehearF Begonia VarsityrM Begonia VolumiarM Campanula lsabellarM Cineraria Jestero Cineraria VeneziarM Cleome SparklerrM Cyclamen intermediate CantorM Cyclamen intermediate LaserrM Cyclamen intermediate Sterling Cyclamen mini MdorirM Cyclamen mini MiraclerM Cyclamen mini SilveradorM Cyclamen mini SilverHeadrM Cyclamen standard RainierrM Cyclamen standard Sierra/ Sierra SynchrorM Cyclamen standard Winter lcerM Cyclamen standard ConcertorM Dahlia HellolrM Dahlia FrescorM Dahlia Hadequinru Dianthus chinensis Barbarini@ Dianthus chinensis CharmsrM Dianthus chinensis Super ParfaitrM Dianthus interspecific DulcerM Dianthus interspecifi c Fandango Dianthus x barbatus DiabundarM Dianthus interspecifl c Elation
rM rM rM rM

8-10"
14-16',

85%
85o/o

4 -b 13-15 15-18
Packs, 4" - 6", Hanging Baskets

rM

9-12"

85%
B5o/o B5o/o

4-6", Hanging Baskeis


4" - 6", Hanging Baskets Packs, 4" - 6", Hanging Baskets

8-10'
14-16',

12-14
12-14

8-10"
12-14', 8-10"
8-1 0"

90% 85% 90% 85%

12-14
17-24 16-18

Packs,4" - 6", Hanging Baskets

14-16
13-15
6" and larger

7-9'

GoldSmartrM Primed

75o/o B5o/o

3.54'
10-12"

85Yo

26-28 25-29 25-27 24-26


4-5" 2.5 - 4.5" 2.5 - 4.5" 2.5 - 4.5"

10-12',

Raw Raw

85%
B5o/o

10-12" 6-8',
8-1

85Yo

0'

85%
85Yo

6-8'
8-10"

85%

t-J3

14-16"

28-32
Raw Raw 85%

4-6.5'
5-8"

12-14" 12-14" 12-14"

28-s2
28-32

4-6.5"
4" and larger 4" and larger 4" and larger Packs, 4", 6", gallon Packs, 4", 6", gallon

80%

9-12
9-10 8-9
15-18

7-9"
10-12',

Raw Film Coated


RaW Film Coated Pelleted, Raw Pelleted, Raw Pelleted, Raw Pelleted, Raw Pelleted, Raw Pelleted, Raw Pelleted, Raw

70% 70%

12-14"

8-l

0"

l5-18
15-18 15-18 16-19
9-11 9-11

8-10"

Packs,4", 6", gallon Packs,4", 6", gallon


4", 6", gallon Packs, 4", 6" & gallon Packs, 4", 6" & gallon

10-12" 16-18"
8-1 o',

www. go I dsm ithseeds. com

59

Q. SEEDS ldsmith

funuals: Cuidelini and Schedules


Digitalis CamelotrM Eustoma cut Cinderellafr and Twinkleil Eustoma LizzyrM Gaillardia PlumerM Gazania Big Kissw Gazania KissrM Gazania GazoorM Geranium (lvy) TornadorM Geranium BullsEyerM Geranium EliterM Geranium Maverickil Geranium MultibloomrM Geranium OrbiVOrbit SynchrorM Geranium Pintom Geranium Ringo 2000rM Raw Raw Raw Coated Coated Coated Coated Coated Coated Coated
8004

Pelleted Pelleted, Raw Pelleted, Raw

85%
85% 85% 7jYo
90o/o

20-24 22-26

6", Gallon N/A

AE

'

Packs,4-6" 12-15
13-15

10-12',

4-8"
4-6"

12-14" 10-12"

4-6"

8-l

0"

12-14

4-6"

10-12"
8-1 0"
1

80%

12-16
13-15 13-14 12-15

4-8", Hanging Basket 4-6"

90%
90% 90% 90% 90% 90% 90%

3-1 5"

Packs,4-6"
4-6"

10-12"

Packs,4"
4-6"

10-12" 12-14" 14-16"


12-14"

12-14

4-6"

Packs,4"
Winter/Spring:

Gerbera JaguarrM

Raw

l7-19, Summer:
16-18 12-14
10-11 10-11 10-11

4 -6", Hanging Basket

8-10'

Heliotrope Blue Wonderru lmpatiens AccentrM lmpatiens MosaicrM lmpatiens Victorianil lmpatiens XtremerM lmpatiens Blitz 3000rM lmpatiens Jambalaya@ lmpatiens Shimmero Laurentia StarshinerM Marigold AntiguarM Marigold lnca llrM Marigold MoonsongrM Marigold Moonstrucl Marigold PerfectionrM Marigold LunacyrM Melampodium Medallionil Nicotiana SaratogarM Ornamenial Pepper ExplosiverM Blast Ornamental Pepper ExplosiverM Ember

Raw Raw

65o/o 95o/o

4-6" Packs, 4- 6", Hanging Basket Packs, 4- 6", Hanging Basket Packs, 4- 6", Hanging Basket Packs, 4- 6", Hanging Basket Packs, 4- 6", Hanging Basket Packs, 4- 6", Hanging Basket Packs, 4- 6", Hanging Basket 4", Hanging Basket

12-15"
10-12" 12-14" 10-12',

90%
85To

95% 90% Raw 95%


95o/o

9-10
11-12
10-11 10-11

8-10" 12-14"

8-10'
10-12" 8-12"
10-12"

Raw, MultiPellets Detailed, Coated Detailed, Coated Detailed, Coated Detailed, Coated Detailed, Coated Detailed, Coated

80%
85To
85o/o

17-20 1o-12

Packs,4" Packs,4" Packs,4"


Packs, 4"

12-13 10-12 12-13 13-14 12-13 8-10


9-11

85% 85%
85o/o

12-15"

12-14" 14-16" 10-12"

Packs,4" Packs,4"
6',- 8"

85%

75%
Pelleted, Raw Raw Raw
85Yo

Packs,4-6"
Jumbo, 4-

1o-12"
5-6',

85%

17-20
17-20

6'

Jumbo,4- 6"

www. go ld s m ith see

d s.

co m

60

G SEEDS tdsmit

Annuals: cu,ide]l6and schedu les


Ornamental Pepper Explosiveru lgnite Osteospermum AstirM Pansy Karmail Raw Raw Raw, Goldsmartm Primed RaW GoldSmartil Primed RaW GoldSmartil Primed RaW GoldSmartn Primed RaW GoldSmartrM Primed Raw, GoldSmartrM Primed Raw Pelleted, Raw Pelleted, Raw Pelleted, Raw Pelleted, Raw Pelleted, Raw Pelleted, Raw Pelleted, Raw Pelleted, Raw Pelleted, Raw Pelleted, Raw
90o/o 85o/o 85o/o

85%
85o/o

17_20

Jumbo, 4- 6" 4- 6"

ctn

14-18
10-12 fall,

17-20"

l2-14 spring
90o/o

Packs,4"

N'

Pansy MammothrM

10-12fall,
12-14 spring 10-12 fall, 12-14 spring
.11-12 fall, 13-14 spring
I

Packs,4"

H"
ffi"
4-5"

Pansy Mariposaru

85o/o

Packs,4"

Pansy Colossusru

90o/o

Packs,4"

Pansy DeltarM

90o/o

0-12 fall,

'11-13 spring

Packs,4"

4-6"

Pansy SkYrM Penstemon barbatus PinacoladarM Pentas StarlarM Petunia grandiflora FrostrM Petunia grandiflora StormrM Petunia grandifl ora UltrarM Petunia milliflora Picobellam Petunia multifl ora PrimeTimerM Petunia trailing Ramblin'rM Petunia grandiflora BravorM Petunia multifl ora Hurrahru Petunia spreading Plush@ Platycodon Miss Tillyru Primula acaulis Orion@

90%
75o/o

11-13
1F18

Packs,4"
4- 8',

8-10" 14-18" 12-14" 12-14" 12-14" 8-10" 10-12" 10-14" 1o-12" 8-1o', 10-14"

15-18
9-11 9-11 9-11 8-11 9-11

Packs,4-6" Packs,4" Packs,4" Packs,4" Packs,4" Packs,4"


4-6", Hanging Basket

10-12
8-11

Packs,4"
Packs, 4" 4-6", Hanging Basket

8-11
9-11

14-18

Raw, GoldSmartru Primed Raw, GoldSmartrM Primed Raw Raw Raw Pelleted, Raw Pelleted, Raw Pelleted, Raw Raw Raw Raw Raw

80%

21-23 2U22

4"

5-6'

Primula acaulis PrimerarM

80o/o

Primula obconica LibrerM Primula obconica GracerM Primula obconica EmbracerM Ranunculus MachrM Ranunculus MagicrM Rudbeckia 'TigerEye Salvia PicanterM Salvia SalsarM Salvia FuegorM Schizanthus AtlantisrM

80o/o

4-6"
4--6"

8-10"

70%
8oo/o 80o/o 80o/o

8-10'
8-1 0'

4-6"
21-24

4-6"
4',

12-16" 6-8',
16"-24" 14-16', 8-1 o', 12-14',

85%
90%
90o/o

11-15 10-11
9-'10

Packs,4-6" Packs,4" Packs,4" Packs,4"


4-5"

90%

9-10 12-14

75%

8-10'

www. go I dsm ithseeds. com

61

Ann uals: C uidetids :and Schedules


Snapdragon cut Opus lll/lVrM Snapdragon cut Overture llrM Snapdragon dwarf BellsrM Snapdragon dwarf ChimesrM Snapdragon dwarf Little DarlingrM Snapdragon inter. AromasrM Snapdragon inter. La BellarM Snapdragon inter. Liberty ClassicrM Snapdragon inter. Madame ButterflyrM Snapdragon inter. RibbonrM Snapdragon inter. ArrowrM Snapdragon dwarf Montegoil Snapdragon inter. CoronetterM
Sunfl ower (Helianthus) Constellation
rM

Raw
Raw

85%
85o/o

10.-14

N/A N/A

N/A

12-17

800/

9-12 9-12 9-12

Packs,4"
Packs, 4"

8-10'

Packs,4"
4- 6"

10-12"
24-30',

85o/o

15-18 spring, ' 13-16 fall 16-18 spring, 12-14 fal 16-18 spring,

80%

4-

6'

18-22"

80o/o

12-14fall
16-18 spring,

4-6"
4-6"
4- 6"

18-22" 24-30"
1A-22"

Raw

80%

12-14fall
16-18 spring, 12-14 fall 1$-18 spring, 1 3-16 fall

Raw

80%

Raw Pelleted, Raw Raw Raw Pelleted Raw, GoldSmartrM Primed Raw, GoldSmartrM Primed Raw

80% 80%
800/o

4-6"
Packs, 4" 4- 6" 4- 8" Packs, 4" Packs, 4-6", Hanging Basket Packs, 4-6", Hanging Basket

24-30"

9-12
16-18 spring,

6-8' 20-24"
24-36" 6-8',

12-14fall

80%
90o/o

8-l

Torenia DuchessrM Verbena

11-13

Tuscanf

85%

12-14
10-12

8-10'

Verbena ObsessionrM Vinca Cora@ Vinca Trailing Cora@ Cascaderu Vinca SunDressrM Vinca SunGlowrM Vinca SunStormo Vinca Trailing SunShowerrM Viola PennyrM

6-8'
14-16"

85Yo

11-18

Jumbo,4-6"
6- 8", Hanging Basket 4- 6"

85% Raw Raw Raw Raw Raw, GoldSmartrM Primed Raw, GoldSmartrM Primed Raw Raw, GoldSmartrM Primed Coated. Raw Coated, Raw Coated, Raw Coated, Raw Coated, Raw
850/

12-18 12-15
11-14

6-8'
8-1o', 10-12"

85%
85To
85o/o

Jumbo,4-6" Jumbo,4-6"
6- 8", Hanging Basket Packs, 4- 6" Packs, 4- 6" Packs, 4- 6" Packs, 4- 6"

10-14 12-18 9-10 fall,


11-13 spring 9-10 fall, 11-13 spring

8-l

0"

85%

85%
90o/o

4--6"

Viola Endurio@

4-6"

Viola Patiola@

90%

9-10 fall,

l1-13 spring
9-10 fall, 11-13 spring

Viola RockyrM Zinnia dwarf Short StuffrM Zinnia MagellanrM Zinnia SwizzlerM Zinnia UproarrM Zinnia ZowierM

90%

Packs,4- 6"
4" and larger

8-1 0'

8-9
8-11 8-11

4" and larger 4" and larger 4" and larger

10-12"

24-30"

www. gol dsm ith seeds. com

62

SEEI'S

GLOSSARY
SEED FORMS
germination performance. mechanical handling.

MOISTURE MANAGEMENT LEVELS


The moisture number recommendation represents the driest point the growing substrate should obtain for each particular crop. Plants should only be given enough water so that they can dry back down to the original number recommendation with a 12 - 24 hour time period. lf growers are not saturating the growing substate, make sure the EC of the fertigation water is less than I .2.
Sauraad (5/; Water is easily observed. Press finger on cell. Water moves out freely from top and bottom.

Coafed Seed; Seed has a coating applied to assist in mechanical handling or

Defailed Seed; Seed has been refined by removing the seed "tails" to assist in GoldSmatm Pmed Seed: A primed product that improves uniformity and speed of emergence during germination.
Pelleed Seed; Small seed which has had a built-up coating applied to assist in mechanical handling or germination performance. Raw Seed; Seed is in its natural state after being harvested and cleaned.

Wet (4): Water is not easily observed. When media is lightly touched, there is very little movement from top to bottom.

Moist (3): Media is black but not glistening. To the touch, there is water, but virtually no water movement. Medlum (2): The media has changed color from a dark black to a medium
brown. Thre id'no water movement.

LIGHT RESPONSES
Facultative: Flowering is hastened by the identified photoperiod. Obligate: Plants must be exposed to its identified photoperiod to flower at all. lrradiance: Amount of light intensity a plant receives (represented as mols of
light per day).

Dry

fl):

Thie media has changed color to a very light brown.


l I,

HARDINESS ZONES
AHS.' American Horticultural Society

Facultative lrradrance Response; Extra lighting reduces the leaf number below
the first flower, i.e. flowering occurs earlier developmentally.

lrradiance lndifferenf Response.' Extra lighting has no effect on the leaf


number below the first flower, i.e. extra lighting does not hasten flowering developmentally Long-day Planf.' Plants require a night length shorter than a specific number of hours for flower induction to occur. Day extension or night breaks can help induce flowering. Short-day Plan.' Plants require a night length longer than a specific number of hours for flower induction to occur.

USDA; United States Department of Agriculture


For further information visit www.ahs.org or www.usda.gov.

Day-neutral Planf,'Flower induction is unaffected by daylength. plants will flower


under either short or long days.

PROTECT YOUR SEED


The method in which seed is stored is every bit as important as the techniques utilized in germination. Without proper storage, seed quality can diminish rapidly depending upon the species. Temperature and humidity are the primary factors influencing seed quality. ln general, the higher the temperature and humidity in the storage environment, the more the moisture content of the seeds will increase over time. High moisture content will deteriorate or "age" the seed prematurely. Goldsmith Seeds delivers seed in moisture-proof packets at the correct moisture content. lt is best to purchase seed in quantities appropriate for a single sowing. However, if seed is left-over, reseal the packet quickly to prevent a change in seed moisture content.

A dedicated space with the ability to control temperature and humidity is essential for preserving seed quality. An insulated closet or small refrigerator works quite

IIP,'Do not open packets immediately after removal from the storage environment. Allow the packet to acclimate to the warmer temperatures in the sowing area. This will avoid condensation forming on the "cold" seed when it is exposed to greenhouse conditions.
Note; Ihese suggesllons are only guidelines and may have to be altered to meat individual grower's needs. Check all chentici /abels fo verfy registraton for use in
your region.

nicely. For most species, a storage temperature of 40"F (5"C) with a relative humidity of 25 - 30% will keep seed moisture content in the optimum range. Cyclamen seed requires a higher storage humidity of 50% and should have its own dedicated storage space.

Tel 408-847-7333

PO. Box 1349 . Cilroy, CA 95021-1349 Toll Free: 800-549-01 58 o Fax: 408-848-5429
www.goldsm ithseeds.com
02OO9 SYNCENTA FLOWERS, INC.