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The Industrial Revolution Assessment

Hi my name is Herman and I am the leading historian on the period of History in Britain from 1750 1900. I am here to tell you how brilliant the Industrial Revolution was. It was a time of great achievement when Britain became the richest and most powerful country in the world. Britain led the way in all kinds of new inventions. It was the first to have factories, machines, power, engines, railways and proper roads. The industrial Revolution was also good for ordinary people in this country. Most people now lived in towns and worked in factories. They were much better off than ever before. They were paid better wages and ate better food. After hundreds of years of being poor people were now well off for the first time. I am about to write a book called Progress and Prosperity Britain during the Industrial Revolution and I need your help. Dont listen to Mr. Boring below who will argue against this, you will soon see that it was here in Britain that the world we live in was born.

What? All that hair gel must have affected his brain if he thinks the Industrial Revolution was a good thing. Let me introduce myself. I am Geoffrey and I am the most important historian on Britain 1750 1900. I certainly dont think it was good. During this time some people became richer but most people stayed poor. The lives of ordinary workers were hell. They had to obey harsh rules at work in the factories and there were strict punishments for little things like being late or slacking, they were paid starvation wages and had little free time. The factory owners even used little children and women in the factories because they were easier to bully and they did not have to pay them as much. Many workers were crippled or even killed in these factories. The workers were also forced to live in slum conditions. The factory owners built houses without running water or toilets because they did not care about the workers. Many died from disease and overcrowding. Most of these workers had been forced to give up a nice life in the countryside to live and work in polluted towns. Herman should think again, we should be ashamed of what happened in the Industrial Revolution. I will prove this in my new book called The Hardship and Suffering of the Industrial Revolution. Can you help me with this?

Tasks
You are going to help the historians Herman and Geoffrey to write their new books on the Industrial Revolution by working through the tasks. Task 1: Interviewing people Herman and Geoffrey both need to interview people from the time of the Industrial Revolution to include as evidence in their books. Below are 5 people that they could interview. As you read through decide which people would help Herman with his book Progress and Prosperity Britain during the Industrial Revolution and which will help Geoffrey with his book, The Hardship and Suffering of the Industrial Revolution. Once you have decided fill in the table on the pupil answer sheet. Source 1: Joseph Hebergam Hello my name is Joseph Hebergam, I am 7 years old and I work in a mill in Huddersfield. After I had worked for a half a year I could scarcely walk. In the morning my brother and sister used to take me under each arm and run with me a good mile to the mill. If we were five minutes late the overlooker would take a strap and beat us til we were black and blue. I have seen my mother weep at me sometimes.

Source 2: Archibald Buchanan My name is Archie Buchanan and I am a Manager of a cotton mill in Glasgow. I have seen many instances of children that were taken in to work in the mills as young as six whose health did not appear at all to suffer. Quite the opposite actually, they appeared as healthy, stout people as any in the country.

Source 3: Elizabeth Bentley I am Elizabeth and I began work at the age of six in a factory in Leeds. A few years ago I was interviewed by the committee on factory Childrens Labour and this is what I told them as evidence. I worked from five in the morning til nine at night. If I slacked off at work I was strapped, we had black marks many times on our bodies. Our parents dare not complain as they were afraid that they might lose their jobs. The work really affected my health. I had dust on my lungs and the work was so hard I pulled my bones out of their places. I am now considerably deformed and miss the healthier life I used to have in the countryside. Source 4: James Kay Shuttleworth My name is James Kay and I would be a useful person for these historians to talk to as I have seen a lot of the bigger cities. In Manchester, I have seen two or more families crowded into one small house and often one family living in a damp cellar where twelve of sixteen persons were crowded. Children are ill fed, dirty, ill clothed, exposed to neglect and cold. As a result more than one half of the off spring die before they have completed their fifth year.

Source 5: Andrew Ure I am Andrew and I wrote a book in 1835 called Philosophy of Manufacturers so both historians should speak to me. I visited many factories to research my book both in Manchester and the surrounding areas over a period of several months. Never once did I see a single instance of punishment inflicted on a child. The children seemed to be always cheerful and alert taking pleasure in using their muscles. They were delighted to show off their skills and showed no signs of being exhausted at the end of the days work.

Task 2: Statistics/tables/maps As well as including interviews with people our historians, Herman and Geoffrey also need to include statistics in their books for further evidence. Below are 4 statistical sources that they could use. As you read through decide which statistics would help Herman with his book Progress and Prosperity Britain during the Industrial Revolution

Also which statistics will help Geoffrey with his book, The Hardship and Suffering of the Industrial Revolution

Again, once you have decided fill in the next part of the table on the pupil answer sheet.

Source 6 Life Expectancy table 1 Average age of death in selected areas, some cities some countryside. These figures were published in Edwin Chadwicks report The sanitary Condition of the Labouring Population in 1842. Edwin Chadwick was a reformer who worked to improve conditions. Professional People (gentry etc.) 55 34 45 35 38 52 Trades people (farmers) 37 23 39 33 20 41 Factory workers 25 18 34 15 17 38

Bath (city) Bolton (city) Kendal (countryside) Liverpool (city) Manchester (city) Rutland (countryside)

Source 7 Life Expectancy table 2

In 1759 a persons life expectancy was about 36 years old. It is difficult to be exact since no records were kept. This table shows how life expectancy has changed since figures have been available. Date 1851 1901 1951 1991 Male 39.9 44.1 66.5 72.4 Female 41.8 47.8 71.5 78.1

Source 8: A table showing the growth in the rail network Data: The Growing Density of Rail Lines in Registration Districts, 1845-1914 Registration District Alton Barton Upon 82.25 Irwell Bootle Haslingden Machynlleth Plymouth St. Giles 641.34 Wolverhampton 24.32 Plymouth Rail Density in km/km2 1845 1854 1876 1914 4.14 173.81 61.56 107.57 469.15 737.76 143.30 469.15 61.00 328.00 90.00 108.00 114.00 1214.00 738.00 168.00 1214.00 161.00 547.36 90.40 166.86 126.66 809.97 762.36 167.99 809.97

Source 9: A table showing the developments in medicine in the 19th Century

Table: The major medical discoveries an d advances since 1840. James Young Simpson (British) discovered chloroform and used it as an anaesthetic. Louis Pasteur (French) discovered that germs and microbes caused disease. Joseph Lister (British) used antiseptics in surgery. Robert Koch (German) discovered the germs which caused cholera and TB. Florence Nightingale (British) developed the nursing profession. Edward Jenner (British) developed the first vaccination

Task 3: Pictures One of the last things our historians need to do is to find some illustrations to go in their new books. As before below are 5 Pictures, decide which ones

Herman will need in his book and which ones Geoffrey will need in his. Go back and fill your answers in on the table. Source 10: A picture of the new invention, the spinning frame.

Source 11: A photograph of the cripples in the yard of a childrens home in London

Source 12: Stephensons Rocket

Source 13: A photograph of a typical city in the 19th century

Source 14: A photograph of a child Worker

Task 4: The Book Cover From the 2 pictures below decide which one Herman will want on the from of his book Progress and Prosperity Britain during the Industrial Revolution and which one Geoffrey will want on his book, The Hardship and Suffering of the Industrial Revolution. Complete the last part of your table. Source 15 Source 16

Task 5: Who do you think is right Herman or Geoffrey? Both Historians are grateful to you for your help in gathering the correct evidence for their books. Now you have to decide which historian you think is right given all of the evidence you have read and looked at. Your task is to explain which of the Historians book you would recommend people read to give them a true picture of the Industrial Revolution. Would you recommend Hermans book of Geoffreys book to people who really want the correct information? Go back to task 5 on your pupil answer sheet to explain your recommendations.

Back to Herman and Geoffrey Why did they disagree?


In the end our Historians write 2 completely different books about the same event and period The Industrial Revolution 1750 1900. So why did they disagree? Historians often disagree over the past for at least two reasons. 1. They disagree over Evidence and what it shows or they use different evidence as our Historians did. 2. They disagree because they have different Values or Beliefs which mean they see things in different ways. For example today two people might disagree over politics because one is a labour supporter and the other one is a conservative supporter.

Lets go back to Herman and Geoffrey and hear why they believe they are right.
I have always believed the industrial Revolution was a good thing and I have read many books that agree with my point of view. All of the evidence I used in my book agrees it was a great thing and people were better off. I tend to use evidence of the great inventions such as the spinning frame (source 10) or I speak to factory owners such as Archie Buchanan (source 2) who were there so give a true picture. I tend to interpret evidence in a good way. For example the evidence of the growth in rail track (source 8) shows just how advanced Britain was. I am proud of Britains achievements in the Industrial Revolution and want therefore to emphasise the good things. I simply do not believe the bad things about the Industrial Revolution and have not seen or used any evidence that backs this up. I think people like Geoffrey have exaggerated the bad things about the Industrial Revolution. I am proud to be British and want my readers to understand the great parts of British History.

I have always believed that the Industrial Revolution was a bad thing and I have written other books before this one that backs this up. The evidence I have used proves things were bad for the ordinary people of Britain. Historians like Herman are so proud of the Industrial Revolution that they tend to play down the bad things and only mention the good things because they are bias. I tend to ignore the good side because my view is that it was bad so this is what I concentrate on. I use a lot of evidence from people who suffered like Joseph Hebergam (source 1) or Elizabeth Bentley (source 3, I dont see any point in including pictures of the inventions such as the Rocket (source 12) as this doesnt give a true picture. I tend to interpret evidence in a bad way, for example I used the table on the extension of rail track (source 8) as a negative thing because it caused pollution and loss of countryside areas in Britain. Some people even died when they were knocked over by trains because there were no platforms.

Task 6: Why did Herman and Geoffrey produce 2 different books on the same event? The last task is to explain why Historians like Herman and Geoffrey disagree on the same event. Go back to your pupil Answer sheet to fill this in. Consider the following in your answer: Their beliefs Their Values The evidence that they used The way they interpreted the evidence Other reasons e.g. when each wrote their book.

Well done you have completed this Assessment