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DNO IRAQ AS QS-HSE PROCEDURE H2S AWARENESS AND RESPONSE

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H2S Awareness and Response Procedure


KU-PR-QS-HSE-015

Prepared by: Name Joseph T. Platon Position QHSE Date Signature

Approved by: Name Jon Sargeant Position Operations Director Date Signature

DNO IRAQ AS QS-HSE PROCEDURE H2S AWARENESS AND RESPONSE


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REVISIONS

REV
0

DATE
00.00.00

DESCRIPTION
New Release

Orig.

Verif.

Appr.

Note: This procedure should be reviewed and updated at least every 2 years

This document is the property of DNO. It must not be reproduced or transmitted to others without authorization from the Company.

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CONTENTS
1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0
PURPOSE4 POLICY.4 SCOPE.4 REFERENCE DOCUMENTS4 RESPONSIBILITIES4 5 DEFINITIONS OF TERMS5 PROCEDURE...5 15

8.0 CONTACT INFORMATION...16

This document is the property of DNO. It must not be reproduced or transmitted to others without authorization from the Company.

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1.0

PURPOSE

The purpose of this procedure is to provide the awareness and response to potential harmful effect of Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) in all DNO Iraq AS activities and implement effective actions in order to mitigate or eliminate the risk. 2.0 POLICY

DNO Iraq AS policy is to ensure the health and safe working environment of the employees and other places within the DNO area of responsibility. 3.0 SCOPE

This procedure is applicable to DNO Iraq AS Drilling, Central Processing Facility, Export Facility and other DNO activities were there is or potential presence of H2S. 4.0 REFERENCE DOCUMENTS

KU-PR-QS-HSE-010 Emergency Preparedness Plan 1st Line KU-PR-QS-HSE-009 Emergency Preparedness Plan 2nd Line KU-PR-QS-HSE-007 Permit to Work KU-PR-QS-HSE-013 First Aid Team 5.0 RESPONSIBILITIES It is the responsibility of Drilling Supervisors, Rig Manager, Rig HSE, Production Manager Field Superintendent and Site/Production Supervisors to ensure drilling and production site has sufficient numbers of H2S PPE, fixed detection equipment, portable/personal Gas Detectors Trained Personnel and assembly area/safe breathing area. Drilling Manager provides overall supervision of emergency response and assures that the response plan requirements are met. Maintain communication with all other supervisory emergency personnel. Mobilizes to the site if required, provides assistance in determining whether ignition is required. Ensure that all emergency personnel are informed of the alert status. If Drilling Manager is not available, the Operations Director will assume this duty. The Day Drilling Supervisor will function as Senior On-Site Supervisor. Direct all well site operations. Decides on the Level of Emergency and supervise well control. Ensure safety of on-site personnel and responsibility to direct ignition of the well if ignition criteria are met. Keep supervisor of emergency operations informed of on-site activities and equipment needed, request outside assistance and
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equipment as required. The Night Drilling Supervisor will assist as directed by the Senior Supervisor, assumes senior responsibilities in the absence of the Day Drilling Supervisor. Drilling On-Site Rig Manager is responsible in supervising rig personnel involved in well control operations. Inform DNOs On-site supervisor of outside assistance or additional equipment that may be required. H2S Safety Engineers to advise DNOs On-site Supervisor of safety requirements. Monitor compliance of all personnel with established safety policies and guidelines. Inspect and maintain the safety equipment, monitors, breathing apparatus, and audible alarm system. Monitors are directs the movement of all personnel to and from the well site. Ensures that safety rules are met and that proper protective equipment is worn as required. Supervise and advise the roving patrol gas detection activities.

6.0 DEFINITIONS OF TERMS


H2S - Hydrogen Sulfide SO2 - Sulfur Dioxide PPM - Part Per Million BA - Breathing Apparatus SCBA - Self Contained Breathing Apparatus Sour Gas - Is a natural gas or any other gas containing significant amount of H2S. 7.0 PROCEDURE

7.1 H2S Physical Properties Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) is colorless, transparent, flammable and smell like rotten egg at very low concentration and heavier than air and thus may accumulate in low places. The slightest presence of H2S, sometimes referred to as sour gas, in the air is normally detectable by its characteristic rotten egg odor; however, it is dangerous to rely on odor as a means of detecting life-threatening concentrations because the sense of smell is lost rapidly, allowing lethal concentrations to accumulate without warning. The following table describes the poisonous nature of H2S. Concentration of H2S % ppm 0.001 10 0.002 20 Effects Obvious and unpleasant odor; safe for 8 hours of exposure Safe for 4 hours of exposure

This document is the property of DNO. It must not be reproduced or transmitted to others without authorization from the Company.

DNO IRAQ AS QS-HSE PROCEDURE H2S AWARENESS AND RESPONSE 0.010 0.020 0.050 0.070 0.100 100 200 500 700 1000
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Kills sense of smell in 3-15 minutes; may sting eyes and throat Kills sense of smell; stings eyes and throat Dizziness; breathing ceases in minutes; prompt artificial respiration required Unconscious quickly; death will result it not rescued promptly Unconscious immediately, followed by death within minutes

H2S is heavier than air and can be readily dispersed by wind movement or air. On calm days H2S will tend to accumulate in low areas in dangerous concentrations. However, if the H2S is warmer than the surrounding air (such as when flaring), it may rise. It is also highly corrosive to certain metals and is readily soluble in drilling fluids and hydrocarbons. H2S produces SO2 when burned, another toxic gas, but less toxic than H2S. 7.2 Physiological Effects on Humans When a person breathes in H2S in low concentration, the gas goes directly through the lungs and into the bloodstream. Due to an oxidation process, H2S is broken down to a harmless compound. However, if the individual breathes in large quantities, the oxidation process will lag behind the intake rate of the gas. The un-oxidized gas build up in the bloodstream causing the nerve centre in the brain which control breathing to become paralyzed and the respiration process is halted. The victim is asphyxiated. Susceptibility to H2S poisoning is dependent on four factors: 1. 2. 3. 4. Duration - The length of time the individual is exposed. Frequency - How often has the individual been exposed? Intensity - How much was the concentration of exposure. Individual Susceptibility - The individuals physiological make-up. Studies show symptom of H2S exposure vary considerably from person to person because of individual physiological make-up. Personnel may be hyper-susceptible to H2S due to health reasons such as lung diseases and the individuals mental state such as anxiety attacks.

7.3 Personnel Rescue in the Presence of H2S Use the following guidelines when rescuing or retrieving personnel that are suspected of being overcome with H2S. 1. Put on SCBA before proceeding to assist anyone affected by the gas. 2. Put on a safety belt with 50 ft of tail line and obtain standby assistance before entering the area. When if necessary.
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3. Utilize the buddy system when entering possible contaminated areas. 4. Move the victim to fresh air. 5. Administer resuscitation immediately if needed. Summon well site/company medic for further treatment. 7.4 Well Planning, Production, Storage and Export When evaluating the possible scenarios that may be encountered while drilling well, production, storage and export, the presence of H2S and the possibility of encountering higher than normal pressures have been considered. To counter the presence of H2S, the following shall be considered. 1. Fixed Detection System H2S gas detection and warning devices are essential equipment for operations where a sour gas environment is anticipated. Low, poorly ventilated locations are susceptible to H2S accumulation because the specific gravity of H2S is greater than air. Portable hand held H2S detectors should be used in entering or reentering suspected areas where permanent or fixed detectors have not been installed. Complete operating and maintenance instructions for all units are to be readily available with at least one person on each tour being proficient in their use and operation. Detectors/alarms should be conspicuously mounted in high traffic areas as well as remote locations where personnel may be working. Alarm location points for lights and sirens should cover the following areas as a minimum or as required by H2S Safety Engineer. Rig Floor Rig Site Camp Area Mud Tanks / Logging Units Shale Shaker Well Head / Cellar Area Choke Manifold Mud Pump Area Well Test Separator CPF Export Facility Storage Tank Safe Briefing Areas

2. Portable / Personal Gas Detectors Portable / personal gas detectors for H2S, SO2, and combustible gas will be available for use whenever temporary work is carried out in an area not covered
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by fixed detector system. These instruments if possible also measure oxygen content (%O2), Lower Explosive Limit (%LEL) and Carbon Dioxide (CO2) level. All portable and fixed detectors shall be tested and calibrated in accordance with manufacture recommendations, Test both accuracy and operational efficiency of the system and equipment. Detector tubes should be checked that they are not out of date. This will be the responsibility of the H2S Safety Engineer in drilling site and Supervisors in production / work field. All testing and calibration result shall be recorded; these records will be available for inspection at all times. 3. Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA) Positive pressure SCBA / BA will be provided for all personnel required to make the well safe and other areas were H2S may presence. For immediate evacuation purpose, a lightweight unit will be utilized. It will supply approximately 30 minutes of air. The positive pressure system will provide air on demand, and yet maintain a positive pressure within the mask above the pressure of surrounding outside air. A positive pressure mask will totally exclude toxic external atmosphere and decrease the chances of injury due to poor face fit, a cracked face piece, or a momentary dislodging of the mask. The location of protective breathing apparatus shall be such that they are quickly and easily available. 4. Resuscitators Oxygen resuscitators complete with ventilation masks will be supplied in the event someone is overcome by H2S. These resuscitators will be stored in the training container. They should only be used by the H2S Supervisor/Engineer, rig medic, or someone trained in the use of emergency oxygen as improper use can cause injury. 5. Wind Direction If necessary a wind socks will be positioned about the well site so as to be seen from any point on the well site and other work areas to enable personnel to determine wind direction. This will allow personnel to move upwind to reach protective equipment and a Safe Breathing Area in the event of emergency. 6. Warning Signs Caution Poison Gas H2S signs in English and Arabic will be displayed to alert personnel and visitors of the possible presence of H2S. These will be displayed prominently at the main entrance gate and will also be placed at various points on the perimeter security fence. 7. Communications

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A communication system should always available with a backup during emergency situation, a Drilling/Field Superintendent and Dubai Office should update on time. 8. Safe Briefing Areas Two different Safe Briefing Areas (SBA) will be designated on opposite sides of the drilling location thus ensuring one of the SBAs will be upwind of the prevailing wind direction during a gas release. 9. Roving Patrol A roving patrol carrying SO2, and H2S detectors, breathing apparatus and a handheld radio shall be established for the purpose of monitoring the surrounding area during testing and during emergencies. Only qualified person trained to H2S shall do the patrolling. 10. PERSONNEL PERSONNEL WITH BEARDS OR OTHER FACIAL HAIR OF ANY KIND THAT INTERFERES WITH THE SEAL OF THE BREATHNG APPARATUS TO THE FACE WILL NOT BE ALLOWED ON THE WELL SITE AT ANY TIME. THERE WILL BE NO EXCEPTIONS. 11. Well Site Access A system of Site Access Control will be in effect throughout the well. A T-Card system will be supplied for use at the entrance to the well site. Only authorized personnel will be allowed on the well site. A record of all personnel on the well site must be maintained current at all times. The number of personnel on the site during the critical sour drilling and testing operations are to be kept to a minimum, and restricted to those directly involved in the operation. Production and Export Facility may apply this when required. 12. Visitor Indoctrination All short term visitors entering the well site, production and export facility shall attend a safety indoctrination conducted by Safety Engineer or Field Supervisors on the potential hazards of H2S, instructed in the use of personal safety equipment, familiarized with the alarms and shown the location of the Safe Breathing Areas. Their presence on the site should be kept as short as possible and they are to be accompanied by a person with suitable H2S portable detector and training. Short term workers, such as drivers are to be supervised at all times and not allowed to linger on site. 13. Workers Training

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All personnel assigned to the Well, Production and Export shall have an understanding of the properties and characteristics of H2S and be able to demonstrate proper skills in the donning of breathing apparatus equipment. Safety instructions will include a face fit test, this will ensure that all personnel are trained and have a skin tight face fit while wearing a Self Contained Breathing Apparatus. Upon first time arrival at the site, each person will be immediately undertake the indoctrination to become informed of the hazards of H2S, the proper use of available safety equipment, and how to recognize and respond to emergency alarms. This training will be repeated when necessary. A breathing apparatus use and muster drills exercise shall be held to enable personnel to practice emergency skills and allow supervisory personnel to evaluate rig, production and export personnels response to emergency situations. Particular attention shall be paid to the buddy system, rescue procedures, and the use of protective equipment. All personnel including third party personnel assigned to the project will participate in these exercises. Attendance records shall be recorded and kept. 7.5 LEVELS OF EMERGENCY AND ACTION PLANS This section defines the level of emergencies and defines the required actions. Refer to document KU-PR-QS-HSE-010, EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS PROCEDURES on DNO Intranet for detailed guidance on procedures and communication in addition to those listed herein. Level 1 Emergency: Potential Emergency Situation There is no immediate danger to the public or environment as no H2S has been released. The emergency is confined to the well site or company property. Possible H2S bearing zone is open and any of the following may be occurring: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Drill string stuck in the hole Loss of circulation or inability to circulate H2S or soluble sulfides detected at surface in the drilling fluid Influx of possible sour formation fluids Production processing, storage and export areas

Level 1 Action Plan 1. Alert all well site/production and export facility personnel to the possibility of H2S. 2. Observe flow and shut in as necessary. 3. Evaluate problem and initiate appropriate remedial action.

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4. All non-essential personnel to report to upwind safe breathing area as required. 5. Keep DNO Dubai Management apprised of the situation. Level 2 Emergency: Emergency Situation There is the potential for risk to the public or environment, as the emergency could extend beyond company property. However, control is still possible. H2S bearing zone is open and H2S is present in the atmosphere. Any of the following may be occurring: 1. Any Level 1 Emergency that results in the unwanted releases of H2S. 2. Incomplete combustion of H2S at the flare pit. 3. Equipment malfunction that hinders well control while circulating or injecting a kick. 4. Inability to maintain required volumes of drilling fluid for circulation. Level 2 Action Plan 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Ensure all Level 1 actions are taking place. All essential personnel to mask up as and when required. Evacuate non-essential personnel as required. Mobilize Roving Patrol and reporting. Access the situation considering following points a. Locate and verify accuracy of sensor(s) giving high readings. b. Wind direction / weather conditions. c. Equipment position and status (SCBA, detectors, etc.) Ready ignition equipment in case of escalation of the situation. Evaluate the problem and discuss solution with DNO Dubai Management. Initiate remedial action as decided upon. Prepare for evacuation of people, evacuate as necessary.

6. 7. 8. 9.

Level 3 Emergency: Major Emergency Situation There exists an immediate danger to the public or environment. Control of the situation has been lost. H2S bearing zone is open and H2S is present in the atmosphere. Any of the following may be occurring: 1. Any Level 2 emergency that results in loss of control. 2. Uncontrollable flow of Hydrocarbons with or without H2S.

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3. H2S readings have reached 15ppm over a 15 minute time weighted average at the nearest un-evacuated residence. Level 3 Action Plan 1. Ensure all Level 1 and 2 actions are taking place. 2. Advise DNO Dubai Management of the state of the emergency if time allows. 3. Ignite release if any of the ignition criteria in BLOW OUT met. 7.6 OPERATING PROCEDURES Normal Operations No H2S Operation: Alarm: Situation: Actions: Drilling / Production / Export None Operations proceeding according to plan. 1. 2. 3. 4. Stay alert for change in conditions. Maintain all sensors and safety equipments. Ensure personnel awareness training. Though not always reliable, smelling H2S may be the first indication of its presence. The odor threshold of H2S is very low, i.e. approximately 0.01ppm. 5. Stress the importance to all personnel of reporting any occurrence of H2S.

Drilling / Production / Export Operation - H2S level at 10 ppm or less Alarm: Situation: Actions: Not at lower levels. Audible and visual alarms at higher levels of H2S. Operations proceeding according to plan. 1. 2. 3. 4. Stay alert for change in conditions. Maintain all sensors and safety equipment. Ensure personnel awareness training. Operation will cease upon first notice of H2S. Observe for flow and shut in as necessary. 5. All essential personnel to mask up if required. 6. All non-essential personnel to report to upwind Safe Briefing Area. 7. Assess the situation considering following points: a. Locate and verify accuracy of sensor(s) giving high reading. b. Wind direction / weather conditions. c. Equipment position and status SCBA and etc.

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8. Activate appropriate Emergency Level plans. 9. Once the reason for H2S presence is determined, discuss with DNO Dubai Management the steps to be taken to solve the problem.

Drilling / Production / Export Operation - H2S level at greater than 10 ppm Alarm: Situation: Actions: Audible and visual alarms. Possible control to operations. 1. Operation is shut in and pressures recorded. 2. Assess the situation considering following points: a. Locate and verify accuracy of sensor(s) giving high readings b. Wind direction / weather conditions. c. Equipment position and status SCBA and etc. 3. Activate appropriate Emergency Level plans. 4. Possible evacuation of non-essential personnel. 5. Discuss with DNO Dubai Management the steps to be taken to solve the problem.

7.7 Testing Operations Almost all hydrocarbons in Northern Iraq contain H2S. When associated with gas, the dangers increase tremendously when it reaches the surface during testing. For the purpose of this well, it is assumed that gas will be produced along with the oil or water. Precautions: 1. All service companies involved in the testing operations are to be informed in advance that H2S and SO2 could be present. 2. All testing equipment shall be certified for H2S (calibrated). 3. First opening for flow of each zone will be in daylight. 4. H2S in the flow stream will be monitored every 10 minutes for a change in level. Once the level has stabilized, sampling rate should be reduced at the discretion of the Drilling Supervisor / Field Superintendent. 5. There will be NO flowing of the well / production without flaring. Positive ignition sources will be provided for both oil and gas burners. 6. All non- essential personnel shall be restricted to the accommodation area during the testing period until it is proven that no H2S is being produced.

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7. BA sets will be carried by all personnel at the well test site during the testing period if H2S present in the air or flow stream. 8. No open tanks will be used for collecting flow products. Surge tanks and separators will be equipped with vent lines from the relief valve and rupture disc to the flare pit. Venting of gas during shrinkage measurements, sampling, and gas orifice changes should be done through bleed off lines run to a safe venting area. All pneumatic separator valve controls must be supplied with specific clean air (i.e. separator gas must not be used). 9. Testing personnel will don their BA sets prior to operating valves, breaking containment, or opening equipment that has contained H2S. Examples of tasks requiring BA set use are changing chokes, operating flow head valves, using bubble hoses, taking separator samples, etc. 10. At the end of the test, reverse circulate the tubing contents to the flare. Circulate conventionally until satisfied that the mud is H2S free. 7.8 Testing Guidelines A safety meeting outlining the test operations and the dangers of H2S and SO2 will be conducted for all personnel before the well test is started. This meeting will be conducted by the DNO Drilling Supervisor / Field Superintendent and H2S Safety Engineer with input from testing personnel. Particular emphasis is to be placed on the use of breathing equipment, reactions to alarms, rescue teams, and job safety and procedures with respect to the release of H2S. Once testing operations commence, the number of personnel involved in the operations and remaining on the well site will be minimized. Sufficient breathing equipment for all personnel must be easily available, and great care should be taken to ensure that the number of personnel in any one location does not exceed the breathing apparatus allocated to that area. Where people are concentrated, such as the choke manifold, separator, and rig floor, bug blowers should be in use. The key to safely flowing a well containing high levels of H2S is to maintain the integrity of the process equipment and ensure no unintentional escapes. This is achieved by the proper selection of equipment and materials, and ensuring that the design of the process system and the operating procedures are of the highest possible standards. Before opening the well to flow, the entire system must undergo a satisfactory pressure test to its operating limits. These tests must be charted and reported. All vent lines from the safety devices installed on pressure vessels (i.e. rupture discs, pressure relief valves, etc.) must be routed such that any gas release will be vented at a safe distance downwind of the well site. However, occasional controlled releases of H2S must be expected, particularly when sampling an changing chokes. Breathing apparatus is to be used during these
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operations. The areas where they take place must be located in an area where natural ventilation is available. To assist dispersal of any lingering H2S released in these areas, bug blowers are to be used to ensure that gas levels can be reduced to a safe concentration. 7.9 Kicks DNOs policy on this well for handling kicks that may contain H2S will be to bullhead, if possible, the influx back into the formation by pumping down the annulus rather than circulating the H2S to the surface. In the well kicks while drilling, follow the normal procedure for closing the well in and obtaining shut in pressures. Discuss situation with Dubai Management. 7.10 Blowout The term blowout is defined as the complete loss of control of the flow of fluids from the well to the atmosphere where well control can only be regained by installing or replacing equipment to shut in or kill the well or by drilling a relief well. Blowouts do not occur instantaneously in drilling operations. A series of events must take place before a release can occur. The formation fluids must enter the wellbore as a kick. Well control equipment and procedures are used to control and safely dispose of the formation fluid. If there is a failure or malfunction of the well control equipment, or an error in procedures a blowout can occur. 7.11 Well and Production Site Rules Smoking Smoking will only allowed at designated areas. During time of emergency, all smoking will be prohibited on the Well and Production site. Sleeping on Site The number of personnel that are housed on site shall be kept to minimum required. Only those who have responsibilities that are subject to 24 hours per day call out advisory services shall be allowed to reside on site. Permit to Work.

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8.0 CONTACT INFORMATION


Name Magne Normann Jon Sargeant Eric Aillaud Tommy Andersen Gus Campbell Joseph Platon Mohamed Youseph Tarik Chalabi Ahmad Abdulkader Dr. Avin Maroof Luc and Thaer Ted and Owen Designation Managing Director Operations Director Production Manager Drilling Chief Engr. Drilling Superintendent QHSE Advisor Logistic & Procurement Manager General Manager Erbil Deputy General Manager Erbil Company Doctor Erbil Field Superintendent OLM E-Mail magne.normann@dno.no jon.sargeant@dno.no eric.aillaud@dno.no tommy.andersen@dno.no gus.campbell@dno.no joseph.platon@dno.no mohamed.youseph@dno.no tarik.chalabi@dno.no ahmad.abdulkader@dno.no avin.maroof@dno.no field.superintendent.tawke@dno.no olm@dno.no Office No. +971 4 364 2621 +971 4 364 2622 +971 4 364 2623 +971 4 364 4153 +971 4 364 2635 +971 4 446 3280 +971 4 364 2626 +964 66 2529950 +964 66 2529950 +964 66 2529950 630 661 Network 603 674 604 679 605 736 607 610 612 Mobile No. +971 503760290 +971 506517785 +971 504598136 +971 507085007 +971 505582623 +971 507085725 +971 504509519 +964 750 4455491 +964 750 4455704 +964 750 4560837 +964 750 7450852 +964 750 4453977