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1bb1l.
Theodor N. DOOIDC
xistentialism has bCeD G6-
sried b aI TilIich as an ove one hudred er
oIdmovementofrebeII againstthe dehuanition
o an indstraI societ ' ut this reellion has
bee viewe as emrging because he sotIns O
posd b egel and Mar proed ineectie for cver-
oing the fact of aIIenation. Thus Kieregaard i
rej ecting eeIs immahehtism o

easOn n istor
simpIy tried toestore the rreducbiIt of sub
j ectity or Kierkeard e suerin oI e IDUIVIG-
uaI s notj ustihed in a panIogsm o hsto.
1hc ]argon 0j Authen/icitq isTheodor dorno
l. a! J!!ch, txistcnta!st h!OsO, ]ourndl oJ
thc Hstorg oj Idcus, V ( )an. t gqq,, qq yo.
2. H. incmann, Lstcntu/sm dnd thc ^odc rc-
dcumcnt (IeW York, tgo;, Q. 12.

crItIuc oI thc IdcIo oIcrman cxIstcntIaIIsm s a


cmbc oI thc ranurt schooI oI crIIca thcor,
dorno scItIucIs a HcgcIIanarxIstrcsponsc to thc
cxIstcntIaIIstrc cctIon oI crItIcaI rcason. Ithough thIs
anaIysIs Iocuscs upo twcntIcthccntury crm cx
IstcntIas cspccIaII Its postorIdar ! dIusIon
thc basIc conccrn Is ItsnoIon oI subj cctIIty That Is
dornos crItIuc Is ItscII an attcmptto tansccnd and
IncIudc In thc pcrspcctIvc oI crItIcaI rcason thc truth
oI thc cxIstcntIaIIst conccrn Ior thc IundamcntaIncss
oIuman su cctIty nthIs scnsc dorno s anaIsIs
paraIIcIs at oIcanauI artrc, hInthc Introduc
tIon to thc Critiguc oj Dic/ccticu/ hccson argucs that,
corrcctI ndcrstood cxIstcntIaIIsm Is a momct oI
dIaIcctIcaI, or crItIcaI rcason.
ocvcr, dorno s Intcnt gocs bcnd a countcr
rItIuc oIcxIstcntIaIIsmand aspIrcstoca crItIucoI
thc IdcoIogy Ihcrcnt In Its crman IormuIatIons
dorno not onI ans to saIvagc thc notIon oI su
cctIvItyIromthcIdcaIIstIctcndcncyof cxIstcntIaIIs
a conccrn hc sharcs wIth artrc, buthc aIso wants to
shothathIsthcoryhas bccomc amystIcatIonoIthc
actua roccsscs oI domInatIon. n thIs ay dornos
crItIuc Is wIthIn thc tradItIon oI crItIcaI thcors crI-
tIuc oI IdcoIog. Thc Intcnt oI crItIcaI thcory 8 to rc
. hc rankfurt schoo s bcstknown by ts |cadng mcm
bcrs, among whom arc ax Horkhcmcr VaI tcr Bcnan,
Hcrbcrt Marusc, and )rcn Habcrmas . Howccr, thcsc arc
onI tc bcttcrknown mcmbcrsof a tradton of crtca| thcory
that has now spanncd two gcncratons An cccI!cnt ntc||cc
tua|hstory ot ths hghIymportant and |t tIc ndcrstood com
munt ot radlca| schoars has st bccn pubI shcd b Martl
a undcr thc ttc ot 1he DIn/ecticnl aa , Boston,
J Q ) .
q. )can au 5artrc, Seorch o Mcthod , Pcw York,
Q6 )
v I I I
onstruc e generatIon oI hIstorIcaI Iors o cn
scIosnessIn orde to demohs tratehow the mIsrepre
sent actuaI socIaI reaIons and thereby j usty IstorI
aIfors oI domInaIon. nthIsay daIectcaI reason
IsactuaIIedbycrItIcaItheorIstswho IntheIrcIve
rItues of he asIc categorIes oI hIstrcI ccn
scIosness see to reconcIIe men ahd woe o he
atuaIIty oI teIr hIstorcaI pssIIItIes o onceIved,
crItIaI theoy Is a theoretIcaI oment of the cass
strugIe
owever the Iater rahfurt schooI no Ioner as
suedthatthe categorIesofarxs crItIuefoItIcaI
ecomy were adeuate or the crItIue of Iate
dustrIaI socIety c. both capItaIIsms ad socIaI
Ism. was precIseIy the IaIure oIarxs IstorIcaI
age oIchange, the proIetarIat, to become cIassIor
ItseII ha stImuIaed te ranIurt schooI aayses
oI te IdeogIcaI reIcatIons tat bIoced an IIb
eraton heIr concern Ior the gro of IaIe con
scosnes geerateby the cuIture Indst nd he
Increasd IntegraIon and yet atmIatIon oI persons
In te IndustrIaI order resuItd In a serIes oI crcaI
anayses oI mass cuIture and Ideo ogIcaI traItIons
e g athorItarIan socIaI orms, the Iegacy o the h
IIghtenmentsnotIon oIeason, etc n the bseceoI
a dcIsIve agent I socaI change, ahd In te ds oI
wht arcs trme a o

eIensIona socIety e
bscIterestO thranIurtschoowastoresorethe
actaIIty oI crIcaI ratonaIty deed, theI rsaI to
am mchan ca arm or utopIan hos or
g. 5mc of thcsc s |dcs arc nw avaiabc inngIish SUCH
as . Hrkhcmcr and hcoor V. Adorno, c u
eueu ,cw York, gz, Max Horkhcc, C1
hcr ,Icw ork, : gy

beatIon Is perhaps evIdencc O theIi cosIstency in


stayIngwIthin theIimItsofnegativecritIueFothe,
OD!y Inthe negatIon ofpseudoIntegiatIons adresou
tIonswas emancIpatoryactIon cIearIypossibIe. cne
therankfurt scooI becamc a tradItIon revoIutIon-
ary theorIsts who, In the absence of the objective ps-
sIbIIItIes !or the transcendence of IdustiiaI domIna-
tIon, attempted to uphoId the ideaIs of critIcaI reason
tha antIcIpated the eancIpatIn of mankid from
the unnecessary power constraInts of natuie andhIs
tOry. 1D thIs way theIrworkIs basIcaIIy a crItIue O
tDt recatIonsthatconceaIthe truthofcrItIcaIreason
SInce reIcatIon Is for hem a foretIn thcIr
workIs essentIay a remembrance, !rom thchIstorIcaI
setg the mId-twent|eth century, of the notIon of
crItIcaI reason
Adornos 1hc ]urgon oj Authcn/ici/g contInues !DC
CIUQUC o!eIstentIaIIsmIDR! DRU aIwaysbecnRD Issuc
ornkfurt theorIsts. c contInuityofths crItIuc
can O SDOWD by UorDoS 1
3
essay n Ierke-
aaIUS octr|nc O LOVC, hIch antIcIpates and Is
assmed b thIs book. dorno shows that Icrke
a3UsnotIon of!OVC !IRDSCCDUCU human dIerences,
DR__DCSS, RDU CVCD DS!OICR! moraIity |tseIf. e
6. O1KDC1DC1 and UO1DO, Oc/cctc oj Ln/ightcnmcnt.
. Pcrhaps thc carcst statcmcnt of thIs conccrn s PO1DO5
Hcb/totonscrbct ( t g,, WD1CD Was pubIshcd as Kicrhc
g0od: Konstruhton dcs Acsthctschcn ( Irankfurt, tg6,. But
thc cssay b Hcrbcrt Marcusc, IxIstcntIaIIsm: Bcmarks OD
)can-IauI Sartrc's LLtrc c nont, F/osog und Fhc
nomon0/ogcc| Hcsccrch V, no. (March, t gq8 ,, s ODc of
thc most mportant crtIgucs ot cXIstcntaIsm n thc Irank-
furt lf3U1t1CD.
o. Zcschrjt 5ouljochung, (1gg, q1 lg.

most emote neIghbo as to be amed a mch as


the mostntImate IIend preIerece was o be oe
come and Iove as cgape was to be experInced a
radIcaI Inwardness that transcended the nauraI IncII
natIons oI . doo arguesthat thIs Iove sextreme
nwardness coceed I ItseII as Its ow ground
Hence whIIe Ieregaards docIne oI Iov aImed at
ovecomIng the eIcatIons oI hIstorIcaI ontext It
actaIIy became, dorno caIms, a reIctIon that
coud not be actaIIed. n oppressg boh natuaI
dIves andtherI ghtoI themIdto uestIon, radcaI In
wardness Ioses Ioves power oI econcIIIng the antag
onIm between naturaI IstIncts and socaIy Iored
seIes . n abs tact Inward Iove both hIstrIcaI need
and happIness ae eectIveI denIed. The eaI ob ect
oI hIs Ioves desIe Is edeptIonwhI becomes
theuItImateeaIIt sought.
doo shows that Is adIcaI hrIstI nw
ness evades the actaIIt oI secIa I ustIce and In
euaIIty onetheIess eregaad s e deepI
aware oIthe tansIormatIon oI theperson the bo
geoIs epoch than hIs contemporarIes or hIs Iate c
ma exIstentIaIst IoIIowers That Is he eognIed
the mechanIsms oI IdusrIaIatIon that Iorcc men
Int aIIenated socIaI patterns and reIed cmunca
os. ut thIs InsIght onI conmed Iegaad
sense that the progress oI cIvIIIatIon was the hIsto
oI advancIng decay and Iurther IncIIned I to the
hated oI IeveIIng mechansms and the ctIon oI
theotIves oI the bourgeosepoch. nIIn the radIcaI
Inwardness oI hrIstIan Iove n the Ieap o IaIth that
suspendstheethIca ,IsItpossbetohopeIoeenaIty,
Ior redempon.
t doos centraI poInt Is that regaard s
I
radIcaIInwardnesshas Iostthe diaIccticaImedi at|on of
subj ect and obj ect-whIch was the achIevement o
egeIs cr|tIcaI pIIosophy. That Is, the constItutIve
resupposItIonsofhumansubj ectIvItymustthemseIves
be d|aIeccaIIy reIated to the hIstorIcaI context in
wh|ch etermate subj ects are ormed FaIIure to so
cIate te subj ect ad object of hIstricaIIy sItuated
kncwIedge resuIts In the faIIacy o j
the reduction of subjectIv

ty t

e InItseIfness of
facts e. g. , posIt|smortheInnateprInciIes oImInd
the IdeaIIstIcphIIosophy oftheIdentityof reason and
Ind Both forms of obj ectiIsm arc the Ioss of cri|-
caI dIaIect|caI eason nIy the tradition of reec-
t|ve crItIue conceived ofhuman subjectiIty In a way
thatdnotreduce|tto thedetermInatenessofnaturaI
facs or absorb It Into the spIrItuaI prIncipIes of abso-
Iut |deaIIsm. Ierkegaards raIcaI Inwardness be-
comes an deaIIstIc obj ectIvIsm by faIIIng to comre-
hend subjectIvIty as a hIstorIcaI category
|aIecticy conceIved subjectIvIty Is historicaIIy
foe and et not educ|bIe to h|stor|caI detemIna
tIcns h|storIcaI subjectIvIty Is reconstructed from the
framcwork of eect|e crItIue u that the I|mIts of
constutI e syntesIs estabIIsh the range of possIbIe
xecnc. nIy In suc a reectIvc reconstructIon of
the enesIs of subj ectIvIty Is It possIbIe to d|stIngu|h
between reaI possIbIIitIes an

those modes of ap

e
ancc ta are u astract usons, e. g , isten
aIIsms transcedence cf hIstorIca domInati o
coceIved, the dIaIect|caI notIon of uj ectIvIty Is a
fundamentaI category of crItIcaI reason. n reectIve
reconsiuctIons of seIf-formatIon processes, It Is pos-
s|Ie toshow the peudcnecessity of sociaIIy unnees
say motIves and to therebypromote 8 reversaI of con-
xI I
scIousncss that can dIssoIvc thc casaIt oI thcsc
obcctIvc IIIusIos.
n 1hc !argon c[ Authcntcit_ dorn acs thc
mco oI Immancnt to contcmcrar r
m estentIaIsts uber crs eIdcr
ctc HIs basIc thcsIs Is that tr orId ar thIs
phIIosophIcaIpcrspcctIc bccamc 8 IdcoIoIaI mystI-
catIonoIhma dmatIonwhIIc prctcndIng tobc
a rItIuc oI aIIcnatIon. sc oI tcms
bcamc, orno argcs , a argo a mod I maIcaI
cxrcssIon whIch aItcr cn am caIIcd an aura
n thc ar oI cxIstcntaIs thc IstorIa nccd Ior
mcanIg and IbcratIon was cxprcssc bu a ay
that stIc thc actaI rcatIon betwcen I angac
ahd Its b cctIvc contcnt doros crItIu ocuss on
thc argonsIncapacItyto cxpressthc rcatIonbctwccn
Ianguagc and trth In that It breas thc dIaIcctIc oI
IahgugcbmaInghcIntcndcdobj ct aparprcscnt
b thc IcaIIatIon Inhcrcnt I thc or ItscI hc
argon, thercIorc Ias Intc an o cctIvIs that co
ccas thc dIcrcncc bctwcc phIosoIca rccctI
and the InItscIIncss oI hc b cct oI reectIon. uch
cbcctIvIs Ioscs thcIntcnt oI rccctIon to aIntaIn a
scIIconscosncss oI hc mcdIatIonoIIactthrcugh the
thInIng sb cct. onsccnty, In thc argcncb cctIvc
conscIusncss Is comrcsscd Ito scIcxpcIcncc U
n IdcaIIsm rcsIts
g. Jhc mc|hodoog|ca dca! ot criticaI thcr has bccn
givcn a contcmporary rcstatcmcnt in rgc Hacrmas,
bD0160g6 0D0 u10D Dt6t6$t$ , Boston, :g,, and 1h6O
0DJ t0ClCc , Boston, :g_,. Jhc continui|y ot hc trad|t|on
of ctca thcory has bccn argucdb rcn Schrocr, 16
QDc O] LO1D0tOD ,Icw York, Jg_,.
I I
utthe socIetaIresuItoI thIs IdeaIIstIc tedency Is
tat the argon shares th mode advertIsIng the
IdeoIogIcaI cIrcularIty oI pretendIng to make present
u purcexpressIvIty anIdealIedIormthatIsdevoIdoI
content or aIternavely ust as the mass medIa can
createa presencewhoseauramakesthespectatoseem
texperIenceanonexIstentactuaIIty sothe gonpre
ents a gesture oI autonomywIthoutcontent. dorno s
anaIysIs here contues arxs anaIysIs oI the etIsh
Is o commodItIes u hat e symboIIsms oI the
argon do nt represent actuaI socIaI reIatIons but
rather symboIIe onIy e reIatIos between absat
co

cepts . ost In the IetIshIsms oI the argon Is te

ctuaIIty oI the hIstorIcaI deveIopment o human co


scIousness That the sub ect ItseII Is formed, and de
!ormed, by the ob ectIve conuratIon oI InstItutIos
Is orgotten and thus reIed In the aron s pathos of
archaIcprImaIness oseuentIy, thereIs aIoss oIthe
obectIve contex o! um socIet d an deaIIstIc
compressIon oI aII hIstorIcaI coscIousness Into the
shere oI selIexperIence. or example, doro cItes
tIn ubers | and 1hou and auI TIIIIchs stress
that relIgIosIty Is anend ItseII as Instaces oI the
hIIt to sub ecvIty as an InItseIIness . n both cases
thewordsarereIerrcd to the ImmedIacy oI Ie, tat
tItudInaI and uaIItaIve aspects oI seI!experIence
ne needs onIy to be a beIIever the ob ectIve content
oI eIIe has been ecIIpsed In the sub ectIvIatIon oI
ob ectIve content. o bc a hrIstIan seems to be a
personaI uesInIndependent Irom the hIstocI
dIInIty oI hrIst IthoutnecessarIIy IntendIng tc do
so thI etreme subj ectIvIty ransorms exIstentastIc
Inguage Into a myscatIon oI the objectIve con
saInts that bIoc the autonomy and pontaneIty
ehIstorIcaIsub ect
I
cgeI procIaImedposop a homecomIng that
crItIcaIIy reconcIIed obj ectIvc dIscord ad sub cctIc
ccnscIousness . HIs Intent was to maIntaIn moanIn-
IuI totaIItyb te rcectIve mcdIatIons oI crIIaI rea
son eectIon had as Its aIm the crItIue o astrac
tIons, or I arIan term, oI reIctIons tIs a
axs wor attcmpted to deonstrate te oneIa
Icne o cchange In the capItaIIst econothcrcby
restorIng to human conscIosness a crItIca meIatIo
oI economIc cxpIoItatIon
dono ImpIIcs that contemporar eran c
IstentIaIIsm began Irm a hIgh

r IceI o caItaIIst
deveIopment Ich the

uraI atagIs
a uc

onomIc

tat and
Into ercfore, the haste
wIth hIc teexIstentIaIIsts andteI argon attcmpt
toacIevearecncIIIatIo IrrcgardIessoftoj ectIe
processcs of aIIenatIon ch Ioc meaIg and
atonom IndIcatedonIytheI awarcnessoI the dcth
of the eed The resItIg ovement to 3 rad caI In-
adnss and tsepessIons of authentIcIt freeom
ctc I s an attempt t actaIIc these Ideas utsIdc oI
the oj ectIve socIaI contet O fuII herIc cIturaI
modeIsIndepedentof the socIet eIndtheseempt
cIaIs Ior freedom the socIocconoIc prosc of ad
vacedcapItaIIstInteatIon contIne InteI the
depenence oI aII persons upon Iare oranIatIona
unItsforepIoymentadeIIare Thc ars Icss
InsconeaIthIsobectIve contetcI unfeeom and
InthcnameoIcrItIcaIreectIonthej ar on onsands
wImodc advertIsIngInceIeratInthemcannuI-
nes oI ImedIate cperIence.
Hence Ior doro erman exIstentIaIIs and re
Iatcd nrcs, such as neoromantIc IIc oery e.g.,
Ic come to R hca In R myIc arn that rc
X
duces the IaIectIcaI reIatIonshIp oI reectIve crItue
o the ob ectIve cotent a contet oI sub ectIItye
hc resuIt Is an IeoIogy oI the sImQIe In whIch the
rImaI sense oI pure wors Is eIevate In IutIIe at
temptto overcoe the aIenatIonthatremaIsIIked
to the potIcaIeconomIc frameork oI socIetye
dorno s reconstructIon oI eIuggers phIIosophy
attempts t show thatIt becoes an ontoIogy tha re
treats behd rather than overcomes u trdItIon oI
transcendentaI hIIosophy. n the unIversaIIatIon oI
transccndentaI subectIvIty Into aseI he emIrIcaI
totaIIyIostand asdornocIaIms an essencemythI
ogy o eIngeerges. ThIs Is exemIIeIn the laIm
tat the prImacy o aseIn Is a eaIm beycnd Iact
and essence and yet cne whIch maIntaIns tse as
anIdentIty hereas crItIcaI reason was abIe to show
at maInteance oI IdentIty oI conscIousness presup
osed adIectIcoIsub ectIveandob ectu recIprocIty
whIch was unIed only In the constItutIvc actIvIty oI
concrete sub ectIvIty ItseII HeIdeggers ntIon oI
aseIn as both on tIc ad ontoIoCaI stops the dIaIec
tIcIty oI conscIous exIstence In an IdcaIIstIc eIevatIon
oI the absoIute subect Touotedorno .
WD0tCVCP QP0sC8 t8C OP PC0Chn_ DCDDd tDC COH-
CCQt8 O PCHCCtOn-suOCCt 0nd OOCCt-H OPdCP !O
_P0sQ 8ODCtDu_ 8Ost0H!aI , dOCs nO!DD_ Ou! Cy tDC
LC8OIV0DIty O !DC CODCCQts O CHCCtOD. t LCCs
lDC mpossb|tg O LCduC_ OnC utO tDC O!DCP DtO
thC D-t8CI [t0ICs 0ddCd

_
J0
dorno s thcsIs Is that eIeers noIon oI seIf
nessremaIns areI oIusscr s concetoI
1o. hc maturc statcmcnt of the nouon ot criuca rcason
haS bccn rcccnty transIatcd as 6g0lD6 L06COR ( Icw York,
17;

ubj CCl a Ts COnce


[
t OI suj CcL, D at CU
[
ID to oer
COUC HC QuC possbit oI th ontIc, claIs to bc It
sCCoDCCtCa Hece, CdCgCrdOmalIcal
[
rOcIaIDS
hIs coce oI eXslecC a OmCti OQosIIO tc
O0Dl]!0 a lHC s umC lUC HC COuCs th
tradIIoh of te doclrnC of dCL l Ith s ImQcL
dcnItIon o te eI tHrOuH l8 on pcervtI
CCC, dornoCxaUDCs the notIons fasen, au
theIcIt dCathg care etc. and sHO tat lHC
us vades lHC Issue OI historIcaI dCCrUmatCDCs b
mcans oI a pImary ad aoIute creatIv sub ct
whIch Is, by deDLIon_ supOsCd] utouccdb rcI
catIon
CHCC, lHCauraoauthCDtICItIn CdCgershat
I hames DothIn te I rCDaIDs forma and e
QIlCD8 lat thword contas cOntCDt IItseI. o
dorno, cIdCCr eItentIaIIm I a HC alHsD
whIchImQIIes tat authCCt comes 0 comQI00
dIsposaI OI lHC peron over hImelIa I here ere
ndrmInatIon eUCrn IIOD HC b ecI ofI
tor.
E E
raduatC aCuIt] OI lHC
CW cooI for ocIaI CsCarch
COIua, 1_]_
x
/\\!O !
e author conceIcd the a:-
gon cj Authcntctg as pt o the Ncgat0c Dulcctc.
wever he naII ecIuded tt tet ro he Iatter
wrnot onbecauseIts sIe grewdIsproprtIoate to
th other prts, but as becuse the eIeents oI
gIstIc pysIognomy and socIoogy no lnger tted
poperI wIth te rest oI the pIa. C resIstance
aInstIteectuaI dIvIsIon Ibor reuIes tat thIs
IIsIon oIlabo souIdbereecte on an not meI
Ignored. eraInI In Intenton and In thee the ]cr-
cn Is phiosophIca . s long as pIIosohasI Ie
th Its own nature, It Iso hd content. owever, In
retretIng to the Ide o Its ure tur pIosopy
cncels ItsII out hIs ought s on deveoped
n the book wich ws e sI uIsed wIIe
I
tc ur0 procccds accordgtc thIsInsIght wIthout,
occr, groudIng It fuII. us It was pubIIshcd
cacr, as a kndofproacdcutIc.
nsofar as tc author as paI homagc to thc dI
vIsIon of I abo, hc has at thc samc tImc aII thc morc
rudc chaIIcngcd thIs IIon. c mIght bc accuscd
of phIIoopIcI , scIoIogIcaI, nd athctIc scductIon
wIthout cmpIoyng thc tradItIon mnhc oI kccpIhg
tc catcgorIcs scpratcor mabe cvcn o dIscussIhg
thcm dstInctfrom cch othcr t hc woud havc to
nwc that a dcmnd of thI kIhd pro cct onto ob
ccts thc dcIc for ode which mrk d caIfyIng
cIcncc ndwhIchthcnpocIs thatItIs ecvatcdby
ob ccts hc autho, howcvc fecs orc Incincd to
gIc hImscf ovcr to ob ccts than to schemtie Ikc a
choomstcfr the kc o n ctcrnI stnard
a standrd wIch, ucstIonab, hs bccn brought to
bcar on thc sub cctmattc Iom thc outsIdc hIs ttI
dc dctcrmIncs ItseIf by pccIcy thc fct that thc
sub cctmattcr cIcment of phIosoh rc IntctwIncd.
Thc coon mcthodoogIca IdcI uId bek up
tIs IntImatc unIt. mcns of uch unIt of thc
subcctmattcr thc unIy oI thc authors own attcmpts
shouId bccomc aII thc morc vIsIbIcfo campIc, c
unIt of tc authors phIIcsophIcaI cssays wIt tc
cssay, rItIcIsm oI thc usIcIan from thc Oiss0-
nunces. at Is acsthctIcaII pcrccIcd tc bad
Iorm I Ianguagc, and Intcrprctcd socIoIogIcIIy, Is
dcduccd from thc untruth of tc contcnt whIch Is
posItcdwI It Its ImpIIcIt phIIosoph.
hIs makcs fr bad bIoo. asagcs from aspcr
d Idca bIocks from cIdcggcr arc trcatcd on tc
sc IccIs , and wI that samc IInguIstIc attItudc,
wI schooImastcrs wouI probbI rccctwIth dI g
natIon. Tc tct c thc ]urgon, ocvcr cotaIhs
X
enogh evIdence, Iro a tr Ihehaustie wealth
o O tha tse me Il0 th0 s ae ane
whIch tcdesIse D theI Iesser ollowers as a j UstI
CulOD O! lD0I OW sueIIor l D0I phOsOhees
SDO OD what the argoh Ieeds, as eI as Its ndIrect
Sug_0lV0 !Orce a he ambItious procts O! 0IaD
phosoh D lhe secoh ha oI the twehtIes concre
ied uDO uIlCul0O the OI0ClOH DlO which the OD
j eclVe 8
[
Il oI th0 l0 as dIVna S sI| e
ae wha it was ahd thus seas H the j ar_On
eve tOdao nI he criticis of these IIosphicaI
Io eclS CuD ODj 0ClV0! O0l0ID0 lH0 mendacIt
whch echoes D the u!gaI j uIOD he hysiogho
O! heVU _r argoh leas ihto what discIoses tseIIIn
0O0_0
t8 Do|DDg 0W to hd that the slie ecoes
he COV0I !OI soethIn_ Iow t is hO
]
otent3I
IcIms are kept D Ie ut the Ideoog O! the sub
IIme no Iohger aCkn0weges lseII wIthOut Dein dIs
regrded o show this Iact I ght heIp to recnt
cIItIcIs Iro stagatIg In a age ah hohco
mIttI sspIcOD oI Idelogy, a susicion hich has
tseII IaIIen o IdeoIog. ohteporary ra
deIcgIs careIuI not to pronouncedenite doctrInes
SuC as !D0Iu! OI 0V0D 0!l l OD0 eoIOghas shIted
In Ianguage ociaI an anthropoIoca chaDges
aeDrOghtaboutisshI, thOu_ wIthoutrcaking
C VeIl o he Iact tha sc lahage is actual IeoI
og, v e e , sOcIetaI!y necess ar Schcin, aearance
caD D0 shownfromwIthIn It. hIs bccomes cbous
the conradIctIon between i ts ow and Its wha
ts 0D eCtIve I0ssIDIIit the j a1goD reacts tOwaId tC
IDent IOssIIIIt oI Iahguage aD_UagC Cs
tseI oer eIthe l he aret, o alderash, or to
the
]
IedODInatg vuIgrIty. n other had ! aD
X1
agc shocs ts way toward thc ]udges bcnch, cn
cIopcs ItseII In ]udIcIaI gb, and In thatway asscrts
ts prvgc. Thc ] argon Is c happ synthesIs whIch
makes t expIde.
ShowIng s has practcaI conseuences. As Ic-
sIsbIc asthe] gon parsInpreset-day Cermany,
ts actuaIIy wcak ansIckIy TheIact that the ] argon
hasbecoe an IdeoIogy unto ItseII dstroys thIs IdeoI
o as soon as thIs !act Is recognIzed. !I thc ] argon
wcrc aIIy to becomc sIIentD Cermany pat oIthat
wouId hac becn accompIshed Io whIch skeptcIsm,
tscIIre]udIced,IspraIsed-prematureIy and Ithou
] ustcaon. Thc IntcrestedpartIes whousee ] argon
as a means oIpwe, or dcpend on theIr pubIIc Image
!or thc ] argo's socIaIpsychoIogIcaI eect, wIII never
wan themseIvcs Irom It hee are others ho wII
cmarrassedby thc] argon enIoIIowerswho beIIeve
InauthrItyIIshyawayromrdIcuIousness, as sn
as they IecI thc IragIIe nature oI that authorIty to
whIch they Iook or support The ] argon Is the hstorI-
caIIy approprIate Iorm oI untruth In the Cermany oI
theIastyears For ths reson c can dscoer a uth
n the etermInate negatIon of the ] argn, a truth
whIchreIusestobeIormuIatedIposItIve tems. ts
oI e rst sectIons were orInaIIy pubshe D the
thIrd Issue oI thc Ncuc undschau In , and have
beenIncorporatedmto he tet
une,
xx
Jl ]ar_CD
\ /utCDtIcit
n thc carIy twentIes a umc
oIeopIe actIe InphIIosophy, socIology, ahd theolog
Iancd a gathcrIhg ost of them had sIIted ro
one crccd to aother TheIr commn ound was an
hasIs on a newIy acuIred reIgIoh_ and ot the
JcI_Ion I!SC. lI oI tcm werc unsatIsed Ith the
IdcaIIsmwhIch atthattIme stIIl omInatcdhc unIvcr
sItIes hIIosophy swayed thcmtocoosc toughIrcc
and aoomy a poItIvc theoIog sch as had
aIready apeared Ih Iccgaard. Howccr, thcy wcc
Iss Intcrested In the secIc doctrIne, he truth con
tcn oI revel atIon than In convIctIoh o hIs sIIgt
anoyace a Irend, who wasatthattImc attractey
thIs cIrce wahotIvIte HewastheyID!ID3!6O
nt authcntIc cnugh or hc hcsItated efrc erc
gaards Ieap e suspctcd that relIgIon wIch Is con
ured up out oI autonomous thInIng WOU!U sordI

natc ItscII to tc Iattcr and wouId ncgatc ItscII as thc


absoIutcwhIch aItcr aIIcrsoIIts ow concptua
naturc Itwantstobc ThoscuItedtogctherwcc antI
ItcIIctuaI IntcIIcctuaIs Thcy conrmcd thcIr mutuaI
undcrstandIng on a hiherIevcIby ccIudIng onewho
did ot pronouncethc samccrcdo thcyrepeatedtoonc
othcr hat thcy Iught Ior n a spIrItuaI and In-
tcIIcctuaI pIane they mked down as ther chos as
II It elevated thc ncr ran of a person to IoIIow thc
tcachIg oI hIher ideas as iI there were nothing
wrIttc In thc cw Tcstamcht agaInst the harIsces
vcn Iorty ycars Iatcr a pensioned bishop waIcd out
o thc conIerencc oI a rotestant academ because a
gucstIccturcrepresseddoubtabout thecontemporar
possIbIty oI s acrcd musIc c too had bcen warcd
agaInst, and ispensed Irom havg deaIings Ith
pcopIc who do t toc thc IIh as though crItIca
thought had no bj ectie foundatIon bu was a sub
cctIvc dcatIon cpIc oI hIs naturc combInc thc
tcdccy tat orchardt caIcd a puttIngthcmscIvcs-
InthrIght wIth thc Icar of rccctIng thcI reections
as II thcy dInt compIctcIy cIIcvc thcmeIvcs
day as hcn thcy scnsc thc dangcr oI IosIg agn
what thcy caII thc concrctcoI IosIng It to that ab
stractIon oI whIh thcy ar suspIcIous a abstractIon
whIch cannot bc cradIcatcd Iom coccpts Thc co
sIdc concrctIon to bc promIscd In sacrIcc and rst
I aII In IntcIIcctuaI sacrIcc crctIcs aptIcd thIs
ccIc c uthcntIc ns
hIs was Iong bcIorc tc pubIIcatIon oI 5ein und
Zeit. Througout thIs work cIdcggcr cmpIoycd au
hcntIcIty In thc contct oI a cstcntIaI ontoIo

as aseccaIyphIIosohIcaItcm husmospy
hc oIdc that hIch tc authentIcs strIc fo Icss
thcoctcaIIy andIn tat way he ocr t his sIde
aII hosc who hd somc age eactIoh to atpiIos
oph huh hIm denomnatIohaI demandsecame
dIsensae Is crcd It aura O esrIn
thc drios o the d rIcs o the IhteIigcnts a
beoe __dIrcctns wh h he derIed s IulI o
IhsIh d h he ee ed to e soI y cerIc
! cours in dege a alI tos whc IIIowcd
hIs langue a dIIscd a cace cah
bceardto thIs O day hc thcolocaI adIctIons oI
ee

rs hae sece Into thc I angagc !ar eond


the crce oI hosc wh at that tImc sct theseIcs up
as the IItc eertheIcss thc saccd ualIty oI hc
authentIcs taI beIongs to the cIt oI authentIcI
rate ha to the hrIstIan cuIt, cen herIor
teorary lac oI any othe avaIIablc authoriyIs
lanuc rcscmIs thc hrIstIn Ior t any con-
sIdeatIon I patIcla contcnt, thIs language moIds
thought s a conseucnce, that thought C00DDO-
dates itseII to thc goa oI sordatIo cc herc It
asIrcs torcsIst thatgoaI The authortyoIc absoIutc
Is vethon O absoIutIed authoIty ascIsm was
notsImpIy a conspIracyalthough It as tO
WR8 somcthIg that camc to IIIc In th orsc o R
pocuI socIaI dceIopmct. anguagc odes It
Itha rcIue thIn thIsreIugc a smoIderIgcvIIc
pcsscsItseI as though It wec s aIatIon.
n crmany a j gon oI authcntIcity i soken
een mc so, wItten ts languagc s a tear o
socetaled hoscness oIe ad ome t oncc

uanguagc a supcrIoIanguac Thc argon ctcnds


r phIIosohy and hcoIonot onIy oI rotcst
adcmIcst cagogy, cvcnIng schools and youth
ranIatIon cvcn to tc eIcvatcd dIcn oI thc cp-
rcscntatIvcs o!buIncss ad admIstratIon hIIcthc
agn ovcrows wIth tc prctcnsc dccp human
otIon, It Is ust as standardIcd as thc orId that
ItcIalIyncgatcs thrcason IorthIsIIc partlyInIts
ass succcss, partly In thcIact that It posIts Its mes-
a automatIcaIly, through Its mcrc naturc hus thc
argon bars thc messagc Iro thc cpcrIcnce whIch
Is to chsouIIt Thc argon has at Is dIspos aI a modst
ubcr oI words whIch arc rcccIvcd as promptIy as
Ials uthcntIcIty ItseIIIsnotthc mst promheht
I thcm t Is more an IIImInatIon oI thc ether In
whIch thc j agon ourIshcs and thc way oI hInIng
whIch Iatcntly Iccds It. or a bcgInnIng, terms IIc
cIstcntI al , thc dccIIo commIssIon, apcal,
encountcr genuInc dIaIoguc, statemcnt coh-
ccrn wIlI do camplcs ot a Icw nontcrmino-
IogIcaIterms oIsImIlar castcould bc adddto thIsIIst
omc IIc conccrn, a term stIll InnoccntIy used by
n aIn ad vcrIcd Ih rImms dIctIonary havc
only tacn on such changd colorIgsInc gcttInInto
hIs cId oI tcnsIona tc that Is aIso an appro-
rIatc ampIc.
hus thc Iportant thIng Isnotthc pannIng oI an
|ndcx Vcrborun Prohbitorun oI ucntnoble nouns
butrathcr thccamInatIonoIthcIrIInguIstIcIunctIon
In th argon. cr aInIy ot aI Its wrds arc nobIc
nouns t tIcs It cvcn Icks up ana oncs, hoIds
th

hIgh and broncs thc In hc IascIst mancr


b
whihwiselymixes Ianwitheltiteees o
romanticpoetswhodrankthei

IloftheprecIcs, Ik
co gc

oImansthaI , by no means otc heircsc


InIC j argn. owever, manyoftheirinermdIaries
kc CundolfdId s o . hc ods become tcs oI thc
agcn onIy urough C consteIlation thathy negoIc
thogh cach ncs gcturc oI unIgucncss hc ag
hat the sInguIar ord has Iost Is procued Io II by
manIpuIatIonsoI hatcver kInd. The transccndcncc
oI the single word Is a secondary oe onc atIs c
Iiveed readyfiom thfactory, o tanscendence hIh
Is a changeling said to be the Iost oiinaI lemcnts
cmpIrIcaI Ianguage ar manipulated In teir rId
Iy as if they ere elements of a te an evcaIed
Ianuge. h empiricaI usabii ty oI the sacd ccrc
mcnial words mokes both the speaker ad lIscc
cIIve in theI corporeaI presence. he ete Is c
chanIcalIy spryed and toIsIc words ac dcsscd
up ithout hong been changed. hus they becom
orimpoitantthanthej argons socaIled sstcm hc
argonobectiely spcaking o systemuses dIso
ganiatIon as its principe of organiation, thc brca
doh oI Ianguage Into words in themseIves . Many o
them in another IInguIstic consteIlation, can bc scd
tout a gIance at the argon statcment hcrc
Is uscd In its IIIcs t scnsc, In cpistemoIogy dcs
nate Ihe sense I prcdIcatIvc udgmens , uthcnIc
-areody to be uscd wIth cautIonven In oj ec
tIva schsc, here hc esscntIaI Is dIstInguishcd
Ihc accIdentoI inauthentic, where somethingboen
Is IIIcd an expessIon whIch Is not imedIoteIy
appoprIatc to what Is expcssed, radio boadass o

trdItIo

musIc,musIc cohccIvcdIhthc catcgorIcs oI


IIvc pcrfcrmancc arc groundcdy thc fccIIng of as ij,
oI hc InautcntIc ' nauthcntIc Ih that way c
comcs a crItIcaI tcrm, In dcnItc hcgatIoh o somc
thg mcrcIy phcnomcnaI . Howcvcr, thc argon c
cts authcncIt Its oppsItc Iro cvcry such
trahsparcnt conct I coursc onc wouId ncvcr crItI
cIc 8 rm Ior usIhg thc word Auj trag (commsson,
whc has ccn assIghcd a comIssIon ut possI
IIItIcs o that sortrcmaIn harrow an absact ho
cvcr ovcrstraIns thcm Is payIng trIutc to a ank
nomInaIIstIc thcory oI Ianguagc, In whIch words arc
1HCICD_C8UC countrs untouchcd y hIstory.
ct hIstcry docs Ihtrudc on cvcry word ahd wIth
hoIds c ch word from thc rccovcry oI somc aIIcgcd
rIgIna mcahIng that cahIng whIch thc j argon Is
aIwas tryIng to track dowh hat Is or Is ot thc
argon Is dctrmIhcd y whcthcr thc word Is wrIttcn
In ah IntohatIoh whIch pIaccs It trahsccndcntIy Ih
cpposItIon to Its o mcahg ywhcthcr thcIdIvId
uaI words arc Ioadcd at thc cpcnsc of thc scntcncc,
ItsproposItIohaI orcc ahd thc thoghtcohct hthat
scnsc thc charactcr oI thc argon wouId c uItc Ior
maI It sccstoIt thatwhatItatsIsoh hc whoIcIcIt
and acccptdthrghItscrcdcIIcry, Ihourcgard
to thc cohtcnt o thc words uscd t takcs undcr Its
own cohtroI thc prccohccptuaI ImctIc cIcmcnt m
I anguagcIor tc s akc o ccct cohnotatIons tatc
mcnt uswatstomaccIIcvcthatthccIstchcc of
thc spcakcr has comuhIcatcd Itsc sImuItanccusIy
1. Jeodor V. Adorn, L6r g6tt6u6 bOtr6]tOr (Irankfut,
1Q6_, Q. zJd.
b
wIth hIs sub cct mattcr an has gIvch thc Iattcr Its
gnIty Thc j argon makcs It see tha Ithout thIs
surus oc speakcr thc sccch would alrcdbcIn
authcntIc, that thc purc attcnIo tc cxrcssIon to
thc sub cctmatter oIbcaIaIIIhtosIn. IsIorma
cIccnt Ivors emagoIc chs hoevcr Is crscd
c j argon docs othae to say Whathc thInks, dos
nt cn havc to thInk It roper!y Thc argon takcs
vcr thIs task an cauatcs thought at thc wholc
man shouId scak Is authcntIc, comes rom thc coc.
us somcthIng occurs whIch thc argn Itsclf styIizes
a o cccur ommnIcaIon cIIcs and ut s rth
as truth what shouId Istcad bc susct b vIrtu I
c promp coIIectIv agrccmcnt . Thc toc c tc j
gon ha somehIng Ih It oI thc serIousnes o thc
aurs arbItraIIy Idopcndcnt Irom thcI ntcxt or
concptuaIcntent, conspIrIngWaCCs s acrcd.
hc Iact that thc ords oI thc j argon scnd as I
c saId somcthg hIghc than what thccan sug
gcsts thc tcrm aura. t Is hard!y an acIden that
cnj amIn Introduced thc ter at the am moen
whch, accorIng to hIs own theor wha hc undc
sod by aura bcc3mc ImpossIbIc to cxcrcncc
Wrdshatac sacrcwIhoutsacrc contcnt as OO
cmanatIos, the trs oI thc argon o authcntIcIty
2. atcr n thc tct dorno rctcrs to HcIdcggers tc
Lreins, hc has bccn rcndcrcd as 'cvcnt n tc standad
transIaton ot Bcng 0DO 1Inc. Jo occur our rcdern o
sioh creigncn, has bccn choscn tor ack of an ng! cr
cocspondng to tc noun 'cvcnt
. Ct aI tcr Bcnj am|n, Schrijten l ( Irant, g
a Kunswck m c|tatcr sc|ner tcchnschcn eproduz|e
bareit, Q. q. jLng|sh transaton b Har hn, |
0tD8 (Icw Yor Jg6d.

arc products oI th dstcgaton oI thc aura Thc


Iattr paIrs ItscII wIth an attIudc oI notbg bound
and hus bccoms avaIIabIc In thc mIdst oI th d
thIcdwoId or, as Itmghtbc n pamIta
odcrn crman, I bcms cnsatzhcrct, mobI
Icd. ThcprpctuaIchargO agstIcatIonacharg
hch h j argon rcprcscnt s, s tseII rccd t Ias
ndcrIcharagnrsdcnItIonoIacacaIct
as hc rcsuIt oI an actn wthout agcnt, a dcIton
hIch was dcctcd agans bad ar. Thos who havc
n ou oIhoIy spIrIt spca th mcchancaI tongues
hcsccrctwhIchI s suggcstcd, andIrom tbcng
Isnctthcrc, Is a pubIIc onc. Irstonc can subtractthc
Isuscd ostocvskI Irom thc cxprssonst IormuIa
ach man Is scIcctcd, whIch can bc Iound In a pIa
auI ornIcIdho as murdcrcd by thc aIs
hcn thc IoruI aIs good onIy Ior thc IdcoIoca seII
atIsIactoncI aIowcr mdIcIasswhch Is thratcnd
an humbId b socIctaI dcvcIopmt. Thc jargon dc
Ivcs ItsownbIIngg thatoIprImaIncss, Irom th Iact
hat It has dccIopcd as IIttIc In aCtUaty as n spIIt.
ctschcddnotIIvong nough to gow sIck at hIs
tomach ovr th ago oI auntcIt - In thc
twcntIct cntur h Is th rm rescntmcnt phc
ncmcncn par cccIIcncc. Ictschs somcthIng
stnks woId nd Its rst j stIcaIon In thc stang
bathng cccmon of h haIc IIfc .
bUDO3 IC3H] DC_DS OD b3lUIO3] CCD_ DCD
DC 3OCSD3D S3_DlCDS DS SDOQ, WDCD lCDOUSCWIC
D3S QUl lDC DOC DOUSC lO CC3D 3Dd SDDD_ CODd
OD, 3DO D3S CVC SWCQl lDC SICCl D UDl O lDC DOHSC
3DO ICCO 1 IOD 3 lDC OIl WDCD l D3S COCClCO OU
L O
D_ lDC WCCK WDCD, DDa]_ CCH lDC CDOIC 3IC
D3lCO lDCD lDC 3OUlS W3SD O lDC WCCKS OSl, 8CPUD
lhCDSCCS lDOIOU_Dy DC _O lO lDC ICSD !lDCS
WDD aLC yD_ ICO] IOI lDCD WDCD a O lhal S 3I-
I3D_CO, WlD II3 CD_lDDCSS 3DO CaC, lhCD a OCC
W3D CCH_O ICSlD_ SClCS OOWD OVCL lDC COQ!C
ressIons and sIuaIons, dawh Irom a rc Ionger
eIstent daI IIfe are Iorcer beIrg bIown u as If
thc werc emowered ad guaranteed by some abso
ItchIch Is eptsIIent outoIreverence IIetose
whonowbeter hesIae o appeaI to rcclaIon tc
arranc In thcIr adctIon to authorIty, fo thc asce
sIon o thc ord bcond he reaIm oI thc actuaI co
dItIoncd, an contcstabIc whIIc tcsc sam pcopIc
cven In prIvate, epresshe word as though blcssIng
Iro abovc wcrc dIrecI composd Into tat wod
ThatsprccstaehIchhastbcthought, btwhch
aIso rcfscsbcIng thught Is mtlatcdb tc j aIgoHe
Tc Iattc ats as If It had possessed thIs stc from
te begInnIng oI tIe, as It mIghtrun In tc argon.
hat phIIosoh aIms a, thc pecuIIar charactc o
phIIosoh hIch akes representaIon esscntIaI to It,
causes aIIItswords to s a morehan each sgIe oe
Is characcrIstIc Is cIoIed b the aron he
transcendene oI h beond he meanIngs o In
dIduaI words an prposIoa saemens Is attrb
ued to thc wors b the argo s theIr Iabc
ossssIon whereas Is ore Is ormed onl] by lhc
medaon o the costeIaIon. ccordIg o Its IdeaI,
hIosophIcaI Ianguage goes beond what I s as b
q. LtIO Iricdrich Bo!now cc Gcrchc1 [CIU1t_31t,
1__,, Q. 2O_.
L
cans oI whatIt saysIn thc dccIopmcnt oI a tra oI
thught hIIosohIcaI languagc transccnds dIaIcc
tIcaIIy In that thc contradIctIon bctwccn truth and
thought ccmcs scIIconscIous and thus ovcrcomcs
tscIf. hc argon tacs ovr thIs ansccndcncc dc
structIcly and cosIgns It to Its ow chattcr hat
vcrorc oI mcanIg thccIsI thcords than what
thcsayhasbccnsccurc Ir thcmonc andora as
cprcssIon. Thc dIaIcctIc Is brocn o thc dIaIcctI
bctwccnword andthng aswcIlasthcdIaIcctIc wIthIn
uac, bctwccn th ndIvIduaI wds and thc rc
IatIons . Ithout udgmcnt, thout haIng bccn
thout, thcwordIs to Icavc ItscanIn bchInd. ThIs
I to InstItutc thc cIty oI thc orc. t Is o sco,
Ithout rcason at that mystIcaI Ianguagc spccuaon
whIch thc j argon proud I It sIplIcty Is carcIuI
notto rccbcr. hc aron obIIratcs thc dIrcncc
bctwcc thIs mrc ! hIch Ianguag gropc and
thc InItscII oI thIs orc HypocIsy thus ccocs an
rIoI an cvcryay Iangua Is spokn and
nw as II It crc thc acrcd ne. A roac I anguac
Id onIy approachtheaccdoeydIstncgI
ound holy stead o y tyIng to
IItatc It. hc gon transcscs thI uIc bIapc
ously. hcnItdrcsscs cmpIrIcaIwordswIth aua, It
caggcratcs gcncaI conccpts andIdcas oI pIIsph
as orIs anccthcconccptoIcIngso osslyhat
hcI concptuaI sscncc, thc cdIatIon through thc
Inng subcct, dIsappcars compIctcIynder thca
nIsh. Thcn csc tcrms Iurc us on as II thcy wcrc thc
ost concrctc crms . ransccndcncc and concrctIon
scInIIIatc. mbIguIty Is thc cdIum o an atttudc
1 2
lOW0O !uDgu0g0 WHCH 3 d0DD0O D] l3 IuVII0 QH-
!OSOQH].
uI ID0 uDlIuID DOClS lS0!I D] O0COD Dg DOD
D0Sl II0I u !ODg S0QuI0lOD 0 C0IIuD Q0I3OD WO!0
ID0IH0 WuS 0S!0Dlu] 30CuI0 I IOO 3OU0 00ClO
lO I0!0 lDu D0 D0uDI D0 HJO 00D SuC0Dl! IuK0
C0I0 OID 0_0O IODS DD0C03 C0D!0I DI0DO0O OI
Dl0IulODu! OSCuSSODSDuI0V0I IH0] D0 D0 _OOO
IOIS Cu!!0O lD0 Ou30 OI DCOuDI03 I0 V3D0
DOuS0, DID!] gIOuDO0O D IH0 00IIH, 3 luI0O D!O a
SuCI0O HOuS0 lDIOugH IHO30 gJIH0IDgSDCH JI0
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uDOg 0SIg uDO !D_ DOVOu0!S, 0IHOgH ID030
DOOuu!S DgDIj uS!JSW0!D0 0D_0_0OH O3uSSOD,
IOI 0S !ODg 0S !H0] OO DO! CODDI 3uCO0 l0] COuO
uIO!] OO uD]IHDg OIH0I IH0D 03l D0 3 IC!0!OD IO
S 0!O DuD SDOuO D0 DQO!IuDI IOI l 0 COD
I0D! IOI IDu! QuIQOS0 IH0 uIgOD S SJ!S0d WlD ID0
SD0DD] gIOUQ0IDOS O lD0 ]OuIH DOV0U0DI , D DOCu
OD 0IDOIDDg S I00CD_ 0IH0I D0]ODO ID0 DO30 OI
D0 3Q0u0I, ID0]ODO ID0 CJQuCI] OI IH0 Q0SOD WHO
D0S OD!] ul0!] D0guD IO D0 C0!!0O DS QuIl0I. D0
j uIgD CD0DD0!S 0Dgu_0D0DIDIOIDDSIluODS uD,
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D IH0I S0!I0SI00D lD0] 0I0 0I00O] SOD0lDD_ D0
C0uS0 3OD0O0 SQ0uK3 IIOU WlH lH0D, 00D W0D
ID0I SOD0OD0 S DOIDHg ul 0!! . 0 I0SODuD OI0CI0
g Ct. art|n Hc|dcgcr Sein unJ /eit, d d , HaI c
: g: ) , pQ. 2 : . jngIs sIaon byoh Macuarrc and
Ldwrd onson Beng nnd Time Ic Yok Sub
scun pagc rctcrcnccs trom Beng nnJ Tme I e to |hs
|rasI a|on.

oI th j argon, atItsthoughtshouIdnoI D0 too strcnu
ous, ccauscothcrwIscItwouIdocndthc comunIty
asobccosorID0S0Q0OQ0 ID0 guarantcc ahIghr
conrmatIon ThIs SuQQI0SS0S thc Iact that thc Ian
guag ItscIthrough Its gcncraIIty 0D ODj 0ClVl]
0I00] D0_0l0S thc WHO0 man, lD0 artIcua SQ00
Ing IndIvIduaI suj cct th rst QrC cactcd b Ian
guag Is thc cssnccoI thcIndIvIdua utthrough thc
0QQ0uI0DC0 thuI thc whc man and not thought,
sQcas , ID0 argon rctcnds that, 0S a COS00ID0DO
mannc o CODDuDC0lOD, It Is DVu0I0D0 to dc
humanId mass communIcatIonwhIch Is QI0CS0]
wh0I rccomcns It lO cvcryoncs 0DlDuS0SlC 0CC0QI-
ancc hocvcr standsbchIndDS words, In thc way D
whIch thcscwordsprtcnd, Is sac !IOD 0D] suSQIcoD
DOUI WD0l hc Is at that vcry momcnt about to do
sQ0a or othcrs In ordcr to pam somcthIng o on
ID0
0 word statcmcntnaI sccurs Its aIbI WD0D
truc Is connctcd to It y mcans oI Its prcstI gc It
wts tocndowthc Ior othcrswIth lD0 soIdIt O! th
IItsI. or gIrIcd man, who hImscI not to oDg
ago Invntcd thc trm dcath uD gOI suad s
ID0 ground oI bcIng or tDc j goD 0S cI 0S ID0 ad
drcsscoIthc statcmcnt andIthas ccomcImpssIbIc
I dIstInguIsh bcccn thc two Thc attrIbutc vaIId
otn stIcks I statcmcnt. Thc rcason Ior thIs ob
vIousIy IIs In ID0 !uCl lDuI c cmphatIc cpcrIcnc,
WDCD c word cIaIs InsstcntI, Is noIongcr cpcrI
cnccd thosc who Iavor thIs wod Ior lD0 cIaIm t
akcs. IouscakcrD0COD0S D0C0SS0I] tatcmcnt
ants to announc thatsomcthIngwhIchW0S s0Idas
come Icm thc dcpth oI thc speakng sub c is
rcmovcd Irom the cursc of surface communcaIc.
ua thc sametimecommunicotivedisoe disguIes
itself In he statcment omone speaks and, thans
to te elevated termstaemcn ,whathc saysis to be
the sIgn oI truthasIf men could not beco caugt
up in untruth, as If hey could no su martyrdcm
for Ian nonscnsc rIor to alI content th s shIIt in
dicts statement as soon as it wants to b such
chagessaemenhbeingaIie helistener Is su-
posd to gaIn somethin Irom the statmet becuse
of i s subjectie Iel ability This latter attribute, ho
eve, is borrowed fro te word 3IS . t Is the
cIaim of the consumei tht even the spiiiuaI should
direct sef according to his will aaIns Its own con-
cepuaInaIurc
hIsadmonItIno the spirItsilentlydoinates the
whIcclImateofhej argon Thea andanneedfor
hel Is spoed t be satIscd by th ure spit,
merely by means of cosoIotIon and wIthout actin
e empt chatter about epression is deoo
complemenary to hat silecIng whch he s as
Imscsonhscwhohavnopowcrover andhosc
cIaI Is thcrcfre hoow in advancc. u haever
tus IsbackcIIicaIly on he stus uoha been ds-
counte, bycrmas in solidositions, asIthoute-
pcsiv vaIuc. o Ieast cf aII , saemcn Is scd as
the club wIth which to assaII the new art at arts
recaIcIancc aainst radona cOmmunicabIe sense
has bc rcproachcdas hOugh Iom a hi ger ew-
poIn b hos whose aestheIc conscIousss s nt
up tc I. f onc adds c a stcmen ha i Is aId,

thcn whatcvcr at a gIvcnmomcnthodsgood,whatcvcr
IsocIallystampcd, canbcImputdtoItasmctahysI
IyauthrIcd. ThcIomuaparcs pcopcthctroub
oIthInIngabotthcmctahysIcshIchItasdaggd
wIthIt,r aboutthccontctoIwhathasbccn statcd.
Thcconccp oI statcmcnt appcarsInHcIdcggcr as
nothIng lcss thathcconstItucnt oI thc Oa, cIstcncc
chInd thIs argon Is a dctcrmInIng doctrInc oI th
thou rclatIonshIp as thc ocac oI trutha doctrIn
at dcIams thc ob cctIvIty oI truth as thgly and
ccrcty warms up IrratIonaIsm s such a rcatIon
hIp, communIcatIon turns Into that anspsycho
ogIca clcmcnt whIch It can ony b by vIrtuc oI th
ob cctIvIty oI hat Is comunIatcd In thc cnd stu
pIdIty bccocs thcIoundcroImtaphysIcs vcr sInc
artInubcrspItoIcrkcgaards vIcw oItccIstcn
tIa Irom Icrkcgaards hrIstooy and drcsscd It up
a a uIvcrsal posturc, hc has bccn a domant In-
atIon toconccIvc oImctahysIcal contctasbond
to c socallcd rclatIon oI and thou. Is contcntI
rcIcrrcd to thc ImmcdIacy oI Ic Thcoogy Is tIcd to
thc dctcrmInatIons oIImmancncc,whchInturn want
o aIm a argcr mcanIng, bymcans oI thcIr suggcs-
Ion oI thcology thcy ar alrcady vIrtuay lIkc h
words o thc argon. hIs proccs, nothIng css I
hIskcdawaythan thc rcshold ctw

cn thc natura
and thc supcrnatural csscr authcntIs raIsc thcIr
cycs rcvcrcntIy bcIorc dcath, but thcIr pIrItual attI
ud, IIatuatcd th hc IIvIng, dIsrcgards dcath. Th
In thcoogy wIthou hIh savatIon I unthInk
6. td. , Q. 1Q6.
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DC C!!uOCO! QIO0IuII, DO 0I ID0D lDICul
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IDCD DIO DCCVg IDuI ID0y_ CI0 IDDg 8Q0cIu t
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u IdIIg U0IKCl DOOU ID0l 8uQCI8IIuCIuIC H08 DCCOU0
ID0uDI0I8ud0OO OI u 8OCICIyWHCD DI8uke8 ItseIf
for unIeIddle Cu88. D0] CI IDCD80V08 be con
U0d ID8 uIId0 D] uDIOID UOO0 OI 8QCCCD
DC eag0I!] 0CU08 IH0 j uIgODIO QuIQO8C8 ofcol
ectve narcIssIsm ThIs 'aQlIe8 nt Ony to those wo
sC It u !8O to D0 ODj 0CIIV0 8QI D0 j OD a
O r0uDIIIy O e unIversal by mens of the
dIstnctIn O! avIng u DOurgCIs OII n_ a IstInctIn
whIch Is Itself uthrIed b] the unIvesI. 8 IOnC Of
uOved 80ICcIIIt] seems t come I0D IhO QCI8OD
DD80I D0 g0uICI uuntge D u D Is that OI
goo Ieer0ncCs makes no dIerenceD the voIce
that resonates In thIs way says It I sIgnng a socIaI
contct we In Iace O th8 eIstent whIch pretends
tbeore tIs beatsdll thatIsunruIy ne
Isgventoundesand thatIDuIwhIchoccusIssode0Q
thtIngagcouId not unhallow wha has been saI
by syIngIt uen andsecIl IOD the thought
oI changg nythIng n th vad popertyand
auhoIII reItIonshIps the vey sud oI t I mkes
atIdecontetbIesthemereIyontIcstoeIdCg
ge ne cantst anyonewho babblesthIs argon Q0O
Q!e O In theI buttnholes, In pIae of IDC
2
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2
ncnon as no bcIng abIc to gc rId oI a bcncvoIcnt
audwhIch aaIIcostsccndsordcrvenanordcr
nwIch acscthIngs arcnoIorder. hathIngs
cordIng o thc IogIco thc sentcncc thc ought onI
bc accIdcnaIs , butInscad the arcstrIIngIcsscn
tIaI pIsonous chaust cmIssIons, prcssIng t abos
InsInccrIt, rcsentments , hIddenhsterIa on aII sIdes
ha rcmaIns then of th orderIIness o thc order
bvIousI, It needs rst to be crcate cnevoIencc I s
IdenIcaI wIth beIng preecIded hat Is aratIvc
adhoIsomcdoubIcs the curseoeII hroughmar
rIage oers the j argon guIdes the e|i| b0urgeois to a
psItIve attItude oward IIfe t fasdIousI proIongs
te InuerabIe evcnts whIch arc to make attactIvc
to men a IIfc b whIch thc otherse wouId bc dIs
gsedand whch thcwouIdson come to consIdcr
unbearabIe hat rcI on has shIIted Into the sub ec,
has becoe regosIt, foIIows he trend o hIstory
cad ceIIs of reIIgIosIt In thc Idst of thc scuIar
howcvr, becoc poIsnous . hc ancIentforcc, whIch
accorIng to etsches InsIg nourIshcs evcrthIng
shuId cnter copIetcI Ino tc profanc nscad t
presccs ItcIfInanunrcectcd manncr andcIcvacs
IIIatIon, whIch abhors reecton, to tc Icve o
vItuc.
II cperts In thc argon, Irm aspcrs on down
nIteInpraIscofposItIvIt. nI hc caruIedcggcr
avoIds a too openheartcd armaIoIrIts own s akc
and IndIectI as hIs ducs Hc Is cagcr and gcnuInc
about It u aspes wrItcs, unashamcdI ctuaII
. 5onnemann, 08 0d dcr unbcgrcncn Zumut
0tD ( cnbck be Hamburg, : Q6 , QQ. 1b
2 2
on Hul man Oun I0D0D D c WOIO wh !0S Ol
IOU SOcIDIng hch ccry casc D0 posssses onl
through COmDlmcn. 0 HIcD D0 0OOS nIy he
person WHO COUDIS DDS0! !r0cIy Is prooI a_JnS l 0
OS8OD0O I0VO!I a_aIDSl Imscl I Is II0 ID0l
D phiIosophy of cscncc H0 chO80n, as ts paton
Sul, a ccr who sto up piouIy wI lHO !!u
sIons cvcrhclcss H0 8 0I03l0O D r0 _0D

ulI0I ofDulDO. 08Dl0I08lO DlpiddIis


reay a hand ccasc garants ther0Ir0d O
Dlcnl , or siycuscl 03l8, HcIDCI 0 DOl I!
ls WI H0 DOOD O! ndcpnOcDl phIlosoy wich
JS0I8 rScrVcS for HD80!! 0S If I W0I0 pcsDa
pi!cgc .
DOCVC1 S IUC lO II3DSCCDdCDCC D lDC OI O SUCD 3
DCC SDOUO DCVCI OC 3ll3CCO, sO OH_ 3S C dOC HO
DCCODC OCI3Dl OI D lDC OCJCV_ CISn OD
OCSlIClOD C3D l3KC 3CC C C3D C1D3QS D OQC
l QDOSOQDD_, 3DO ISK lDC COIICSODO_ OUICCH
O dOUDlJD_, DCD S DSCQ3I3O!C IOD D3D CXSI
CnCC ]Cl DC D3S lDC OSl O 3D DSlOC ClCDCC
3S DS ICCICnCC 3nO DC3SC, WDCD DI C
[3CC3Dj D3CK lO DDSC DOUl lDCSC QOSSDICS WC
OO nOl S[C3K.
hcn uuIonODouS lHOl S! DuO coence D
IS uDuD0 I00ulOD, l D0HuV0O !0S3 Du0c!y
d. Kar )aspcrs, Dic gcstgc 5ituction dcr Zct, gth cd
Bcn, :gq) , pp : 6g . Lngsh transatIon b L a
Ccdr au Mon in thc Modcrn Agc , Pcw York, :gg AI
uotatons from ths work arc transatcd fom thc rgi naI
cran.
Q. lbid.
L O. lbid. , Q[. l 2 H.

he eatIme he Iss phIlosophers are Infeced wIh
phIIosophy the more InnocentIyo they Iet the cao
f the bag a bag whIh proInnt ones weave IIke
os ntnces from ollnow sund k thIs
DCICO1C l 8CCm8 C8QCC0IIy DC3DD_U lD3lD QOl1,
3DOVC 3 D lDC yPC O lDC 3Sl C31S, 3lC1 lHC CX
QCPCHCC8 O OIC3O, DCW CCID_, O! 0Pm0tOH O!
DCD_, 8 OC_DHJD_ tO m0KC 1lS 3QQC3I3DCC, 3 O]U 3DO
lD3DKU D3IDOD WlD lDC VC CXSlCDCC O D3D, 3S
l s , DOD] W1lH tDC WOPId 3S l CODIODlS D3D
WO O! tDCsC QOCtsD QlCUI3I sDOuId PCCCC 8QCCa
0ttCHtOn DCPC . IC 0nd CP_CH_CD. C1_CD_PUCD S
Iasl VOumC O QOC Uie Hei|e We/| [NunJCD, 1 Q_O

,
Q. 22, CIOsC8 tD tDC COD!CssOH . YD3l C3mC !Pm
QD W3S ODI] tPaHsCHt. PDd D] C3I DCaPd HOtDD_ OUt
8On_ O! QPasC. H OtDCP WOPds, ts 3 !CCIH_ O! lD3DK
U a_PCCmCDt WtD XstCDCC. PHd CP_CH_JuCH CCP
l3 s HOl QOCl WDO COuId C CtCd !O 3 CDCaQ
OQtmsm. H tDs !CCID_ O! dCCQ tDaHK!uDCss D COmCs
CIO8C tO IKC, WDO 3SO, 3l lDC COSC O! Ds W0y, s 3DC
lO SllC `1VCPtD_ OPCatDCs Dd IClUIDS lD3DKs. LD
lIOUDCS O tDC H_Dt, DOW OU S3DK lDOUl
tJCC.
egenuen s vIue Is y a few years cIose to us
thaneIewhenewswohadntbncopleteI
lledby gaswerehronIIIngIntohere,where
they regaIned conscIousness and scaed e poe
whocan cetaInynotbecrIIcIedorcheapoIIs
ad he phIlosophIcalIy mInded pedagogue who eal
atesIm, heardnothIng butsogs ofpraIse apre
Iny denItIon we caII hIs Inner state oI man an
atItde o trstI reIIance Ths the ask s set to
1 1 . BOnO, Gcborgcnhct, [[. z6.

eaInc the nture oI thIs statc oI the soII crder to
nd Its possIIIItIes. oIInow Iond thc s oI aII
ossIIe names Ior thIs task, whIch the Iae oIhor
ror can no Ioner een appease us by Irt oI Its
rIdIcuIousnesshe caIed It Seinsg|dubig/ei/, IaIth
unto eIn The Iact that the term remIds us oI
Deutchg|Jumg/eit, IaIth unt erman natIalIty Is
certainIy accIdentaI nceIaIthuntoeIngIsahIeed
creIsnostoppgeIorewereach aposItIcreIatIon
to theworId andIIfc an cnstrute wo toard
thc ercomIng oI exIstentIalIsm hat reaIns
aIter the remoaI oI exIstentaI bombast are reIgIos
custos cut o Irom eIr reIos content hre Is
oreognitIon oI hefattat cuIt Ios, te sub ect
matt oIIoIklore IIke ey sheIIs, outIie heImy
tery hIs state Iaars s I Iact eIende It e
aId of the argon II of ths Is an InsuIt not onIy to
thoht bt aIso t reI gIon, whch ws occ an s
prose of etenaI IIss hIIe now authencIty con
tentsitselesIgnedIyIth anuItImateIyhaIord
J6
n te IoIowI wean tIngush these to os
Ior the s ae o a ohenIent termInoI ogyas hpe
whIh has a determIned ontent and hope hIh as
an ndetermIed content or brIey, as rc atI and
asoe hope hIs pItIIuI coneptspIIttI apIIes
ItseIf to e uestIon oI eIstene eIfarc t kes
no dIerence to a IoIIower to what he attahes hIm
I 2. Ibid. , Q. _1 .
: . Ibid. , Q. _
: q. Ibid. , Q. 6:.
: g. Ibid.
: 6. Ibid. , Q. _ .
I . Ibid. , Q. :oo.

scI at a gIvcn momcnt. Hc praIsesthIs as hIs capacIty
IorcnthusIasm. hethersuch a mananshImscII as
Iowbrow mIddIbrow, or hIghrow, he can consIder
tht haIc reIers to tc haIeness oI th s ouI, or rIght
IIvIng or socIaI cncIavcs notyct taen ovcr by du-
rIaIIsm or sImpIy pIaccs whcre Ietsch d thc
nIIghtenmcnt havc not yet becn heard oI or chasc
condItIons In whIch gIrIs hoId thcIrmaIdcnhoodtact
untII thcy gct marrIcd. e shouId not oposc to the
catchwordoIshcItcrcncss,thccuaIIywooutIdca
oI the angcrous IIIc who woudnt want to IIvc th
out anIetyInthIsorIdoI terros utshetcredncss,
as an estcntIaI vaIuc, turns Irom socthIng Iongcd
Io and dcnIedItoa resenccwhIch Isnowdhcre
and whIch Is Indcendent oI what preents It Iro
bcIng. t Ieaves I ts trace In the vIoIatIon oI the word
the rcmInIscence oI what Is hedgedIn and saIcIy or
deed rcaIns oIne to that cIemet oI shortsI ghted
patIcuIarItywhIch outoIItseIIrencsthe cvII agaInst
whIchnooneIs sheItered Home I onIy come tobe
hen Ithas IrcdItseII Irom such partIcIarIt, when
home has neged ItseII as unIvesaI c IeeIng oI
sheItereess maes ItseII at homc th ItseII and
oers a hoIIday resortIn pIace oI IIIe. Iandscpe bc
comes ugIIer hen an admIre dIsrus I h thc
words hoeautIuI he samehapens to customs
haIts , InstItutIons whIch arter themseIcs away y
stressIng teIr on navet Ins tcad oI y chanIng It
II taIk oI sheIteredness Is IndIcted b ogons report
at the worst trocItes In thc concentratIon camps
were commIttd b the youngcr s ons oI Iarmers . e
0D0Ia SluaIOD D lD0 COuDII, WHCD S IH0 DOO0
IOI ID0 I00Dg OI SH0!l00OD0SS , QuSH0S SD0I0O
8ODS DIO DaIDaIOuSD0SS D0 !OgC OI I0 aIgOD COD
8laI SDugg!0S D WDuI S DI0O, Da! 0V0D Stua-
IOS OI DaICIa! WaD, uDO0I lH0 guS0 O QOS
aD QI0SS0S IOI lH0 D0Dg 0l0IDa!! DSlIl0O al j USl
ID0I DOD0DI WH0D, IDaDKS lO l H0 SluI0 OI HuD
uCH00D0DIS, SuCD a !DIaIOD DO ODgCI DC0O D
I0a lO 0SI SQIl WDCD DaK0S DS DIaOD
IS CuuS0 HIS IS0I OuI aS IH0 aCK0 OI DuI S 0
D ID0 H gH0I I0DKS OI lDC H0IuICD OI au0D-
lCI, DOW00I, D0gl0S uI0 uSO S0IV0O 0O0gg0I
0VCD I0uSODS IDC CODC0Q OI O0SIuCIOD DCD S
laOO0O D lH0 OW0IaDK, lOg0lD0I!D IH D!aCK0SS
OI0aI, SOIIO, aDO O0aID aSQ0IS OCCaOa!! DaI0S
Ou ID0 OOStC OI OOWS Ceb0renhci/, SH0l0I0O-
D0S OOa QHOSOQH S lH0 OD OSS1! IOI O0
WHOS ODSOuS uSH0!l0I0 ! lH0 OSlV0, 0
a lDD0 OO! , CaDDOl D0 0I OOWD. aD0I, DaaO,
ISDg O0S !I0 aDO lD0 WDO!0 CHaaC0S HuOO0I,
aIOt taD a!tHaS0OuS D0 OI IH0 IalD0DC
ODS D H ID0 I0aI0O lHaI D ID0 DDIDOSI CO0
OI OSlO0SKS H0! IH0 !gHl OI Sa!alOD SOD0 a_uD
bH DaO lO SWa!OW D0 I0Q lDal D0!! 0D aD
a! SHOl !IOaO IuDD0 bOD0 IODDDI auIH0D-
lC OD0S ll!0 I laDl!uI I !0 !H QaISD
QICaH0I lH0 Sa lH0WOu!Oa!D0HaI0SODu0O
0aIH H0 00 DO 0SS C!00I IDaD SOCa! QSDOOg,
WHCH D0 ODS0I0O Hl D0gaV0 uOgDDIS, OI DO
18 asers Die gesrige Sruotion, p : z8.

mattcr what content, gIc 0 bcttcr chance oI eIn
rmed than d posIIvc judgments IhIIIsm turns
IntoIacc Intomcrcmeod, as as aedyhapened
toartesIa dout c uestioaIorIte prereuI
sItcoI the argonmustsoundaII the moreradIcaI the
morc IoyaIIy It dIrects ItseII o thc kInd oI answe
hIch an bc ceryg ecept radIcaI erc Is an
cIcmcntary eampIc Irom aspers
L8tCD0 QDO8ODy WOuId OC IO8t mmCd0tCIy, ! t
ODCC 0_0D DCCVCd tD0t t KDOW8 WDat m0n 8. t
WOu!d 0_D _VC u8 8KCtCDC8 O DOW tO DVC8t_0|C hu
D0D 8Dd 0Dm0I IC D t8 tyQC0I OLm8, t WOuId 0_0D
DCCODC 0DtDPOQOIO_y, Q8yCDO!O_y, 8OCOIO_y. t8 mC0D
_ 8 ODIy QO88DC WDCH t LCm0D8 _IOuHdIC88 D t8
CODCLCtCDC88. t 0W3KCn8 WD8l t dOC8 DOt KDOW, t
_DtCD8 0Dd DOVC8, Dut t dOC8 DOt X 0Dd DOd. OL
tDC D0H WDO 8 unCPW0y, tD QDOsODy 8 thC CX
QLC88OD LOu_D WDCD DC m0Dt0n8 D8C D D8
LCCtOD; tDC mC08 tOW0Pd QLC8CPVu_ D8 DI_DC8t
DODCDt8-8O tD0t DC C0D m0C tDCD PC0! tDPOu_D D8
C. . . . D8_Dt HtO CXI8tCnCC, OCC8u8C t PCm0n8
WtDut 0D OOj CCt, IC0d8 tO COHCu8OD.
actIy concernedtoe Is omInousIy s truckup
no aswcr wouIdbe serIous enough eery answer no
mattcr oIwhatontent wouIdbcdIsmIssed as a IImIt
Ing concrctIatIon. ut the eec oI Is remorscIcss
transIgce Is IrIendIy he man never pIns hImseI
1g Cf. ppepee Ironkjurtcr Bci trcgc zur
5ozio/ogic ( Iranfurt, : ggg, , qb2 H.
2O. )asQars, Die gc|stigc 5itudtion, QQ. 1 q q.
don thc worIdIs aII too dynamIc The odrotestan
te oIabsurdeIIeI groundIngIseIf Inthc ect
convcrted ItseI Irom essIng to Ieregaa Into thc
pathos o exIstence hIs pathos cIsted D opposItIon
to Its resuIt, thc reIed worId seen as coaguIated ad
aen tc the sub ect hat oId theme aIIIes ItseI sa
tegIcaIIy wIth the crItIue oI posIvc scIencesIcnce
Iro whIch, as Ierkegaards thesIs ran, hc subjcct
has dIsappeard t the cost oI any possIIc anscr,
the radIcaI uestIon becomes what is substatIaI nto
ItseII IsItouthaard nowhoanrangc oI

-
coe arc he onIy Iactors hIch determIc whccr
oneappears on he scene sheItered oras o sartot
wIthout securIty ven thoscwho are noseItered ac
aIe as Iong as they oIn thc chorus. ThIs Is at
macs possIbIe passages IIkc the one Iom eIn
chtkes 1hree unJcmentc| 1heses jor 1e/etsio:
h8 8 tt0y dCPCnt D tDC 8COn. CC 0 CPCa
8C0KCP POC88Cd D8 CICdO OP mOPC tD0n tCD pDutC8,
Out O D8 OWn dCtD8, n tDC CX8tCnt0I aHOCL, a
8_IC, nCVCP-CD0n_n_ CO8CuQ. D0nK8 t tDC DOOC
DumC QOWCP O COnVCtOn tD0t P0d0tC Out
Du, DOt ODIy dd D8 WOPd8, WDCD WCIC tCstC tO Oy
s QCtOPaI PC8CCC, OCCOmC CODCtCIy CLCdC , Out
thC 8tCDCL tOt0Iy OP_Ot tDC mCdatn_ a0P0tu8. H
ODt tDC tCCV8O 8CPCCn, 08 D lDC DO8C O d
tC1C OPmCdt8C! a 8OPt OQ0P8D 0mOn_ tDC 0CCdCt a
VCWCP8 , WDO C t a8 tDC WCPC OCn_ COn!OntCd W t
thC ppCd C IC8CnCC O! tDC 8QCaCP, aC tOD
Dm Ct COpttCd tO tDC 8uOj CCt DattCP O 8 8CPmO,
LOd8 OPd. CPC 8 HO OtDCP CQ 0ntOn OL tD8 8uI
Q8D_ OCuPICnCC tD0n tDC 8uQPCmC OP CC O tDC
8C0Kn_ QCOH, tDC QCP8On WDO Da8 CHO_ CO0_C
and CtDO8 tO QC Dp8CI H tDC OIC0D, 0DC t 8CC
DOlDD_ DUl lDC SUDCCl D3llCI WDCD DC Sl3HOS OI 3O
lHC SlCDCIS lO WDOD DC KDOWS DC C3D IC3lC
IsIs authetIcItysunkycommecIaI hewordo
epreache, asIIhIsanod sweeonewIhoutues
tIon, Is testIed to nct byhIs pIctoIaI pesence, but
atbestbybehar whose trustworthIness sprts the
redIbIIIty oI Is satements
] thanks to the apeaance oI the preache, one
oets te medIatIn cuIpment, the the ao o
authentIcIty, whIch takes pIeasure thIs sIuatIon, Is
commIt ItseII to th phIIosophy oI s I throuh
stagesettIn, the nw andheeoIa cuIt aconIs sImu
Iated, an actIon whIch thouh Its omnIpesenceIs an
uIIed o teIevIsIon. ut, by the exIstenaI mnne
InwhIchthepeach akespubIIcprIessIon oIhIm
seII, om out o hImseII, In a neve hangIng
Ioseup, we nee oIyo undestand the seIIevIden
Iat that th preacher, who aIter aII hd no other
hoIce, was poj ected as an empIIcaI peson onto the
sceen and In thIs way, pehaps, had a sympathetI
cec on many peopI e. hat he omed a communIty
anotbe poven.ThenotIonthathehado thowhIm
scII Into the beach, wIth Is whoIe substahce and
eIstence, Is Impotcd Io the sphee o Is. tIII,
Ior that peache who etaIIs on eIevIsIn why thc
hurch Is too narow Icr hIm thee Is no Is t aII
neIthe oI contadIctIon Io outsIde nc oI Inner nc
essIty. I Iact, hemmedInbetweenIcophoneand
oodIIht, e had to suer thouh moments oI temp
2 . )cnz bchWt2kc, Orc Grundthcscn zum crnschcn,
D BunJjunk unJ |ernsehen, ( t gg ) , t I .
_
O
I0IOD, ID0 j JIgOD WOuO H0V0 D00D IgDI ID0I0 0ID_
WD 0OOlODJ!QI0S0 IOI DS 0XSI0DI0I] H0CDCI
IH0 D0g0lV0 S II0DSI0!I0O IO IH0 QOSlV0 0S DOu_D
] 0 SDg0 SIIOK0 OI lH0 Q0D OSIV0 D0_lV0D0SS I
WJ IH0 H0JIl H0S0 !K OIOS 0I0 DuDDOS , j uSl
!K0 O!DOS HI0W0SH0O buDOJ WOIS0S C!OS0
IO I0j OCD_ 0S ID0 OI00O!u lIuDQ0I D0S JW0]S D0CD.
uI 0S IH0 j JIgOD S0S lD0 OOuD!0 S0DS0 ] ID0 WOIO
QSlVC, I uS0S lD0 0D _uI] OI IH0 lID D0lu
QHS CS, JCCOIODg IO WH0lH0I 0I 0 gV0D DOD0DI O0
QII0!S DOlDDgD0SS OI D0D_. D lD0 OD0 D0DO 0l0-
QHSCS D00DS DVOV00Dl IH 0l0QH]SJ! lD0D0S,
CVD I IDC D0I0QH]SCJ! COl0DI S CODI0SI0O OD H0
I0I DuDO I D00DS IH0 0DJIV0 OClID0 O! lD0
IIJDSC0DO0DI WOI!O, D H0 !0lODC DO0 . In IDS
HIDg D0l0QDSC0! D00O, lH0I SII0 O IH0 3QII
WCH !OD_ 0gO D0O0 l30! KDOWD D OVu!S n
co o oc OI WDCH 0 ]ODg O
C00O II0DSC0DO0Dl0DD00SSD0SS, D0S COD0 OWD I
CuIuI0! O0DD0O KDOW0O_0 . D0 IH0O!OC0! I00D_
IDC DuDDOuS IOD OSSD0O OO_D0 Du3 0VC D
IK0_00IO, VOuDIJI] COD0 lO D00 IS Q0Iu
0u0IIOD. In D]SIC0 D0I0S, ID0 DS0S0D!0
QuIC0IOD O ID0 OVD0 IOD DlD, O OV0S I
II0DD0 D lH g0SIuIC OI O00Q DVO!V0 u0SlODDg,
D0DOS ID0 VD0 OV0I IO WDO0V0I I00I0S O I In uD]
WJ, D0I0 IH0O!Og S SuOO0D I0DOID, SDCC CD
CI S IO D0 OuDO OD!] D 0 I0!0IOD, IH0 OD0I O0 !
WCD I0DOV0S lS0 IIOD 0 O0DDlOD 0S IDC uD
O!uI0] DO0I0DI, 0DO D0IK3 0 O0DDlOD WlD IH0
DDD O I0DC0OD. ODQ!0l0 O0]lOO0IO
IOI0!] I0OuC0S lIJDSC0DO0DC0 lO JD 0DSI!ClOD, lO J
_

cp,ncpp|. H_DICHUCHI, WDCD lDC ur obscuri uC
CuSC, IuQDS H lDCI IDOu_DI HIDC 8uUC OVCUCDI
O IDC 8QII, DOWCVCI, DC QO8lD_ QOWCI O IDC 8uO
Ccl, CICO uHIO I8C, u_uH COHjuIC8 uQ IDC UIH
HDCICl H u OuICCICu lDCOO. DuI 8uOj CCVC
OWCI8 D_DC8l VuuC u8 uD8OuIC] OCICHI, 8 Od
HOCI COUQuI8OH lDC 0iri obscuri QIu8C COUUIDCHS
SCuOO juUQD_ HIO 8QCCuuIOH WDCD uIOHC COu!O
juSI] IDCI OWD COUUIUHI8 I IDCI IuOCu u8
lOHCIS . DCI ICIulOH8DQ IO 8QCCuuIOH 8 COu8CO
HC DCCO8 I OCCuu8C OHC WuHI8 O OC OCCQ, ]CI OC
DC8 uWa IOU OCCuu8 O I8 HIC!CCIuu DuIuIC.
HC OuOQICCIOIC8CIVC IOIDC _Iu8 . DC OIHuI8
8t COHC88 lDCI _IOHdC88C88 HOIdCI IO _VC CDuI
lCI lO IDC uIDS O OCICO 8uVuIOH, WDC uIC re
QuICO lO DC 8uCCC88u CXIICU CVCH Ua_HuI]
_C. OWCVCI, IDC] hHO HOIDH_ Oul _IOuHOC8
l_ 8OOH u8 IDHH_ ICu8CS, lDIOu_D I8 u
lOC, IO 8uQQOII IOU IDC OuI8C lDO8C COUUIDCHl8
CD uIC u8 uHuVOOuDC H uIDCHICI] u8 8 IDC
3QQ]COH_mUOVC8 . IDC DuQ] DOD_8 uCD_
lCH 3UOH_ ID CX8lCHIuI uuDIC8 CX8IHIu8U
t8C u8 HOID_ lOuu_D uI.
Dj 3_Sl lDS D3CK_IOUDO OCS lDC WDOC _IC3lDCSS
lHC CXSlCDl3 ClDC 1CVC3 lSC l DCC 3_3D
3lU3CS OD lDC _IOUDO O DOCID DSlOIC3 1C3
VSD CCCOCOj DI3 Sl3DCC Ul D QICCSC lH3l
SCDSC 3 O3D_C S _VCD lH3l O3D_C1 WDC CODCS lO
CSSD D lHC QOSSDlj O 3D CXSlCDl3 3OVCD-
22. [Vr obscr : obscurantists, enemies of en!ightenment
HistoHca! referencc tO cc humanIst ( teenth and ix
centh centur, authors of Icttcrs aainst !ate forms f 8cho-
Iasticism. ]
j
2
lISD. 3VD_ DCCODC Uj UDCODOlODCO D 1C_31G c
CcDlCDl, 3DO WlHOUl j O lD3l CODSl3DC WHCH C
SOCS D OClj lDC 3CVCDlUICI CDO]S lDC ISK O D1S
CD_3_CDCDl 3S 3 3Sl 3DO DOSl SUDDC [C3SUIC IC
cCj lDC UDCODOlODCG Sl3lC O 3D _VCD DODCD
CD_3_CDCDl, lDC CXSlCDlSlS CSQCCa CQOSCO
l lDC lCQl3lOD O DCODSl3DCj 3DC O 3CSSDCSS.
oI these words draw Irom Ianage rom
whIh ey are s toIen the aroma oI the bodIIy
unetaphorIcaI btIn thc j gon theyecme IctIy
spIrituaIIed n that wy they aoId the dangers oI
whIh ey are constantIy paIaverIn The more e
nestIy the argon sancties Its everyday orId, as
though in amoeryoIIeregaardsInsIs tenceon the
unItoIthesuIImend the pedestrIan, thcmoresadIy
does the argon mi p thc IIteraI I thc gratIe
CCC__IS D3 1CD3IK 3DS 3 lDS O3DCDl3
DC3DD_ O ICSOD_ OI 3 DUD3D CSlCDCC, 3DO D
lDS 1CD3IK DC OCUSCS OD lDC DCCO OI 1CSOCDCCS 3S
OHC O lDC _IC3l CCUlCS OOUI lIDC C UC DCCC
OI ICSOCDCC, HC S3jS DCIC, `CODSSlS DOl Sl O 3 D
lDC 3DSCDCC O ICSCCDCCS , 3lDU_D lDS HCCC SDOO
D DO C3DS DC l3KCD _Dl] DUl DCDDC lHS DCCG 3
OCCQCI ODC S DOOCD, lD3l 3D D3S OSl HS D D3lUIC
3DO SO C3DDOl CODC lO ICSl. `DC lIUC DCCC I ICSdCDCC
CODSJSlS D lDC 3Cl lD3l DOIl3S DUSl ISl C3ID IC-
SOC. ul lO C3 lO 1CSC DC3DS O 3S lDS DCCCS
Sl, lD3l, D lDC3CC OH3lS lDIC3lCDD_, 3D SO
D3KC OI DSC 3 SDClCID_ S[3CC 3DO SU SClIC
lO l WlH 3 lIUSlU 1CDCC Ul, lDCD, JCISC lDC
QOSSDl O lDS SCll_ OOWD S 3_3D CDDCCCC D
3 DCD3CD_ W3 lH lHC 3V33Dlj O CSCCDCCS
2. oInoW, Gcbcc, __. _ f.
2q. b. , _. lO.
3
The eIn oI he sheIterIn sace of seItcedness Is
sImpIy erIed Iom the necessIty hat mah shouId
make Ior hImse such a space The IIhuIstIc care
Iessness, In the unresIstIn mechanIsm oI the aron
admIttedIy Iays sheIteredness are, as If out o com
puIsIon I ays It bare as somethIn that is mereIy
posIted Hoee, thawhIch anounces ItseIf In he
ame aout tc ned Ir resIdences, Is more serIous
than the pose oIeIstentIaI serIousness t Is the Iear
oI unempIoyment, IurkIn In aII cItIens oI countrIes
oIhIh capItaIIsm ThIsIs a Iear whIch Is admInIstra
vcIy Iou o nd thereIore naIIed o the pIatnIc
rmamcnt oI stars a Iear that remaIns even In thc
IorIous tImes oI IuII emIoyment. eryone knows
that h couId becoe ependabIe as technoIy de
eIops , as Ion as productIon Is onIy carIcd on Ior
productIns sake so everyone senses thathIs j o Is a
dIs uIsed unempIoyment Is a support that has ar
ItrarIIy andrevocabIypInchedosomethInIomhc
totaI scIeaI product Ior e purpose of maIntaInIng
the statusu c who hasnoteen gIen aIe tIckct
couIdnprIcIIebc sentawaytomrro. ThatmIa
Ion oI eopIe couId contInue whIc the dIctators aI
ready once eIorc set motIon and channeIed Into
uscht. ngst, usIIy dIstInguIshed Irom Inne
orIdIy emIrIca Iear, need by no means be an e
IstcntaI vaIue. Ince ItIs hIstorcaI, It appeas In Iact
thathosewho areokedInto a Iety whIch Is scIe
aed ut contradIctory to he deepest corc con
2. Cf heodor V. Adorno, e e e
ee ( Irankfurt, J g6 ) , Q. :y.
j
+
stanty IeeI threatehed what sustaIns the hey
IeeI threatened wIthot r beIn abIe In sIc In-
stances to concretIe thIs threat Iro the hoIe
scIety t n sheIteredness the decIassed peson hs
hIs cms trIumphthe decIassed man whc knows
whathe can et awa wIth. n the one hand he has
nothI to Iose on the other hand the oeadmInIs
tred worId oI toda stIII respects de compoIse
strture oI bourgeos

socIt t

the extnt that that


socIetyIn Its o

ntereststops short beIcre the


ItImate, the IIIdatIon oI Its mebers , stops sort
becas In the massIepans ofItsInds try has the
mans oI deIay at Its dIspcsaI o aspers stence
weIIare and socIaI weIIareadmInIs trated race
comeIntccontact n thesocIaIound oIthe aon
reInterpretatIon oI compIete neatIy Into hat Is
posItIe, wesuspectthecoercIe seIIcondene of he
neasy conscIosness en or cheap serig fro
theIossoIeanIn a suerIngIohsInce atmatIed
IntoaIormuIa, Is notsIpIy thatemptInessIch ha
grown up rouh thewhoI moeent oI the nIiht
enmentas the moredeandIng 0bscuri IIgy
descrI It here are reports of /aeJium 0|0e een
drIn perIodsonchaIIenged satereIIIon twas as
coon aon the athers of the hurch as aong
thosewho carry oerInto the argon Ietsch s dg
mentaoutmodern nhIIsm, and whoImaI thatIn
that ay they have gone bond oth Ietshe d
IhIIIsIetsches concept oIwhIch e sIm
pIy trnedupsIde down ocIaIIy the IeeIIn oI en
IngIesness Is a reactIon to the dereachIn IreeIg
om WOIK hIch takes pIace under condItIon O ccn
3
tuingsociaIunfreedom. The freetimeof the subects
wihoIds from them theIredom which they secretIy
hcpeIor, theIree tIme chains them to theeversame,
the aparatus of productioeven when this appa-
ratusisgivingthema vacation iththissituationthey
ae Iorced tc cmpare the obous possibiities, and
teyowthemoreconIusedtheIessthe cIosedfaade
oI consciousness, which is modeIed after that of so-
ciety,IetsthroughtheconceponofapossibIefreedm.
tthe s ametime, inhe feeIingofmeaningessness
which Is the hIghbourgeois expression of rea! need
te permanent threat of destructIon Is assimiIated by
conscIousness. hatthIsconscIousnessdreadItturns
suchawaythatthethreaseemstcbeanInnatepart
cI it, andthus it weakens at eIement of he theat
whIch cannoIongerbe graspdinhuman terms Te
act that on aII sides meaning oI every kind seems tc
beImpotentagainsteviI, thatheI atteryieIdsnomea-
g ataII, and at the assertion oImeaningayeen
pomote eviI, is resered as a Iack of metaphysicaI
content, especIaIy In regard to reIi gi and socI a
commItments he IaIseness of his reinterpretation,
using a mode oI cuIturaI crItIcIsm with which the
s tIngy athos of the authentics j oIns In, reguIarIy be
ccmes IsibIe In a patIcuIar Iact . the fact that past
ages-whicheer one prefers-ranging from Biede-
eier to eIasc, appear as the ages of immanen
eanIng. uch reinterpretation Iollows an IncIination
tc setbackthecIockpoIiticaIIy andsociaIIy, tobring to
endthe dynamIsminherentin a societywhich stiII,
hrcugh the admInIstratIve measuresoI the motpow
O c!iues, appears to be aII too open. s its present
om canepectnothIng goodIom such a yamIc It
stbonI IIndsIseII totheognIIon hat the re
hc soIey oes Is tseIf he eII hatIt Irs Is
Is broght to a head HeIdeger IeIy he coIes
theapeaonromant c IncoptpuIty Ith th
propecy of a saIng eIement whIc In coneence
an esent tse as nothng other than ths It
seII heheroIMahag0nn onedthewaIn aoua
oId n hh thee s nothng to hoI on O. n
Hcdge, aswIasIntheechtofthedIdactcpIas,
thIs s foIIowe b the pocIamatIon oI oIs
order as saIaIon he Iack oI somethngtocI on O
Is th mIror eectIon oI Its opposIte oI nIrecm
nI ecause mank IaIIed to dene tsI dId It
opeIo determatIonthrough somcthIngeIse soe
thIngthatwas saIeIoutothereach oIthe dIIctIcaI
moveent. The anthropIcaI condItIon cI socaIed
humn empness, whIch Ior the sake oI contras the
auentIcs are accustomed to dau out as anna

y,

ut evtabIe, conseuence oI e demstIed Od


couId be changed. The IongIng Ior some cIetIn
acto couId be IuIIIed as soon as It was c Ionger
denIebt not IuIIIed, oI course throug he
ectIon oI a spIItuaI meanng or a mereIy vrbaI su-
stItutIon The socIaI constItutIn esscntIaII traIs
mannd Io the reprcductIon cI ItseII and te cm
puIsn etendsItseIIIntosocIetyspschoIog a scon
as t Ises Its eernaI powe hans to the I acto I
seIIpesratIon hIch has Ion ItseIf upInto 8 t
taIIt the foIIoing happens what an I aa
onceorebeoeshIs goaI ehapsIthhIsosense
the aearance oI meanIngIessness mIght a s o dsap
_

ear, the eagerI assurednoIngnessof the subj ect, a
shaw of the state In whIch each peison is IiteraII
hIsownneIghbor. IfItis the casethatnometaphysIca
thoughtwaseveicreatedwhichhasnotbeenaconsteI
In of eIements O expeiience, then, n te iesent
instance, tLe semInaI expeiiences of metaphysics arc
simpIy diminished by a habit O thought wich sub
IImates them nto metaphsicaI pain an spIits them
o Irom the rea pain whch gave iise to the The
j aigon s whoIe hatied is directed against this con
sciousness. o dis inctin is made between rx and
the superstition ofiace
3IXSD, 8yCDO0H0Iy88, 3DO I3C3 lDCOI] 3IC lOO3]
lDC DOSl WOCSQIC3O OCCCQlODS O 3DDd DC O
LCCtIy OIut0I D D3lICO QI3SC, 3S l D08 CODC lO
dOm0HCC D DU3D XSlCDCC, DDOS lS CXQICSSOD D
lDCSC S]SlCDS O lDOU_Dl D 31XSD, D lDC D3DDCID
WDCD IDC 3SS QOSlU3lCS CmmuHIy, 8yCDO
0Dy88, H lDC W3] l SCCKS DC1C CX SlCDCC S3S3COD
DP0C0I lDCO1y, D lDC W3] l W3DlS lO DC DClCI lD3D lDC
lDCI . . YlDOUl SOCOO_] DO QOlC3 SlI3lC_ C3D
DC C311CC OUl YlDOUl QS]CDOO_] DO ODC DCCODCS
D3SlC1 O lDC C_HH_ CODUSOD, D DS ODVCISC WlD
HDSC 3DO WlD DC OlDC1S lDOUl 3DlDIOQOO] WC
WOUO OS OU1 CODSCOUSDCSS O lDC O3IK C3USCS O lD3l
D WDCD WC QOSSCSS OUISCVCS. . . O SOCOO_ C3D
lC WD3l 3lC W3Dl, DO [S]CHOO_] C3D C3I] WD3t
3D, 3UlDCDlC DCD_ O 3D C3DDOl DC DICO 3S L0CC.
VC1]WDC1C S tDC DOUDC31] O lD3l WDCD C3D DC
[3DDC 3DO 3OC. O1 31XSD, 8yCDO0H0Iy88 , 3DO
lDCO1 O 13CC D0V CD0LCtCP8tCy OCSlIUCC 3ll1
DUlCS S 31XSD lDDKS lD3l l UDCOVC1S 3 SQ1lU3
DCH_ 3S bUQC1Sl1UClU1C, QS]CDO3D3]SS OOCS lDC S 3DC
D CXQOSD_ S[1lU3 DCu_ 3S SUDD3lOD O 1CQICSSCO
OVCS . D3l, lDCD, S S C3HCO CUlU1C S S 1UClULCO
KC aH ODSCSSVC HCuIOss . hCOIy O! aCC C 3UCS OD-
CCQlOD O! hstOIy WhCh s WlhOul hOC. C_a
sCCClOD O! lhC OCst WH sOOH OtH_ aOOut lD IU O
aCHlC humaH1ty OI t s lhC HaIC O maD
QIOuCC dIH_ lhs IOCCss lhC h_DCst Oss lCs H
a XluIC O!IaCCs, H OICI lO6aC ChHd ad
lC maIOW0ss aVCIa_C CXslCHC O! hs ICm01Hs , a!CI
lhC mX H_ Das COC lO aH DO JD lC COutsC O! a tCW
CCHtICs . lhICC lCDd0HC0s aIC al lO dCslIOy Whl
has sCcmC DC O! VauC OI mCL. c aIC sCCay
lhC IuH O! 0HlhH_ aOsOulC, !O, as OCd_C, C
mC lhCsCVCs !asC asO|C WhCh ICOCs
CVCHI H_ 0sC as COHdI lHCd O| OH has Od lO 3
Oul as CC !O O! HOsOCa DCJC UOth lhC
h_Csl 0Hd lC OWCsl aIC ! 3DCCd Wlh lh6 s anC lC
HO_y aHd, juO_Cd_ slC HlO HOlhH_HCss
hc ractIca usabIIIty o thc cnIIghtcnng dcIIIcs
s cohdcsccndIngIy antcd In hc bcgInnIn onI o
rcvct morc ccctIvcI an ccctIon on thc trt
ontctocItIcIsm byarousIngourIndgnatn a tc
dcsIrc to dcstroy assIonatc gIc abot obIIIuscss
to bcIng Is gIcn thc appcaancc o tc cssctIaI o
thc pInt hcrc nc ouId athc IIc to oget aIl c
Ing. II o that Is moc omInusIy attcndcd t In Der
Crune Heinrich.
DIC s aH Od say_ WhCD maHtLs lDal OHC usl
DOlOD lC dOWH Oulmust asOKDOWDOWO Ou!O
a CODODQ3CC CODslaDly CDQOC D CDCC aHd
suCIhCa1 QCOQC WDO aI6 uDCOm!OIlaOy CH!IH|Cd
Wlh aH aClIVly WDD dCmaHs a CCsOH tICm lDC
Ds ay O! sCaKH_ s H QaCC WDCIC sOClDH_ s
suCIhCa sCllCd OI s OCDCd Oul O! slu HCa
lOn OIDCWSC , lDu_h, t s uHHlC_OC . OI OHC s
2. aspcs, Die geistige Situnton, pp : z .

Ol 3W3S lC3LD_ OO, m OIOCL lO DUO 3_D OD
DC ODlI3, ODC lC3LS lDD_S OOWD C3_CI D OLOCI lO
WD ICC S[3CC OL _Dl 3O , DCD 3[[C3L 3S 1l
WCLC D lDCDSCVtS, WDCLCVCI SODC ODSlIUClD_ OD CCl
1S 1CDOVCO YDCD OD OOKS D3llCLS _Dl D lDC 3CC
3O lC3lS lDCD D 3D U[_Dl DCL IDCD DOlDD_
1S C_3lVC, DUl S [OSlVClO USC lDS OO S3W.
hn tc oId warrIors ad an easIer tme o! It the
ad n need ! oId s aws they onIy needed t brethe
scnemtcoubterswIth the cudgcIof!ate and odIc
anhood But eyaeadyhadthej argon at theI dIs-
psaI
PD CXlLCDC DlCDSDC3lOD O a 3ClVly, 3DO 3 SD3L[
CD O 3 CIC3IVC [OWCLS , CCD IDC C3I [OIC3
CVCDl 3S SUCD D3L OU1 ImC 0HO IO IDC Cy08 O
[DOSO[Dy IDCy D3VC [DySC3] QICSCHI0O IDS QDC
DODCDOD D lS 3UlDCDlCIy 3DO UDVaIHSD0O OI_3-
l]. DOSO[D] D3S _I3SQCO lDS QDCDODCDOD aS 3 COH-
OlOD O lDC D_DCS I [DOSOQDC3 IC0V3HC0 , D OIOCI
lO Cl lSC DC CO, IDIOU_D IS COICDl 3DO QIOCm3lC
SlLUClULC, lO 3 U 3DO [UIC UOC18I3HOD_ O! 3D 3DO
lDC WO1O. . . . MUD3D CSICDCC HOI DCaDD_0SS
lD3l S lDC C3lC_OIC0 3SSCIlOD WlD WDCD lDS CXSl
CDCC ISC CODIODlS lDC [DOSOQD O !C, D OIO0I lO
3SSCLl lSC D OQQOSIOD lO 3DO OVL 3_3DSI lDal QD-
OSO[Dy. . . . O S3y yCS lO 3IC O lO DC_3lC I D
S[lC O lD3l, lO SUCL l 3DO yCl lO OODD3IC l, C IO
3CC l 3DO lO l3KC ODCS Sl3DO 3_3Sl l, lD3l S lDC
3llUOt O lIUC DUD3Dly. DS 3llUOC COIICS[ODOS IO
lD OC3 D3_C O D3D DCC3USC l CQ1CSCDlS DOIDD_
2]. Gottricd Kc!cr, Ucr Grunc Hcnrch, , 2, uoe in
1Hedrich o!!ock, bombarts Vidcr!egung des Mxismus,

in
Bchcjtc zun Arch0 jr dc Gcschchtc dcs 8ozo/snus und
dc Arbctcrbcucgung, cds CatI Grnbcrg ( Lcpzg, : gz6 ) ,
1, 6.
Dl lDC CS8CDCC O D3D, UDVCI83y V3O 3HO COVCO
IO 3 lC8 lO lDC. Pl lDC 8aDC IDC, aHO 3l CD WlD
l, IDS alllUOC OCDDC8 lDC OCC[ 3DO _CHUH CaDD_
O 3lC, lD3l DC3DD_ WDCD D3S DOIDD_ lO OO Wl
13la8D 3 DCaHD_ lO WDCD C8QCC3y a CID3H
ODS DD8C. OIlDC D3D 0 OIOC DOOO, I8 C3D
D_ l3C8 OD 3 OCC[y IC!OU8 COHICDl 3HO _IUHOS
WD3l !OI DD DC38 D8 DODO WID 3IC aDOD C D
3l

anguage uses the wod meaning for te harm


Iess epistemoIogicaI intentionaI obj ect of sser, as
weII as for the prpose of saying that something I s
j ustied as meangfuI as one woud sea, cr in
stance of the meaning ofi ory. It reains tue tht
e fctuaI particuIar has meaning t o the etent that
the hoIe, above aII the system of societ, aears
it tht the dsered facts ae always more thanwhat
eyimmediaely seem eveni fsuch eanin Is mad-
ness. The sechfomeaningashtwhch i
i s authenicaIIy and as that hich is hidden n i t ,
pshes aay, often nnoticed and herefoe al the
astc the uestion as to thc i gh of this smetng.
aIsIs of meaning becomes thc norm in this de-
ma not onIy fo thc signs but Iso fo that hich
thcy cIc to. c si system of IanguaO_ b its
mce cstcncc tacs cvcythIng O bcgIn into
something tha Is hcId i cadIncss by societ nd i t
dcfdsthissocIctyI nItownIompIoto aI ontent.
his is wht ccctIOn stands m agst. Oc
e j agOn driftsIt thc cuent and wouId bc gIad
2b. 1 DCD LtCDC, c dcc Mcnsch. Uncr-
schungcn ZOT h|osophc d H0ndcns B
q 1
t Incrcasc It m unIon wIth thc rcgrcssIc IormatIons
oIconscIousncss
nIt sscmantIcrcctIons posItIvIshas constantIy
otcd thc hIsorIcaI brcak bctwccn Ianguagc and that
hIch It cxprcsscs InguIstI Iorms, as rcand
onIy through rcIcatIon do thcy bccoc Iorms havc
outcd hat thcy oncc rcIcrrcd to togcthcr wIth thc
contcxt oI that rcIcrcncc. c compltcly dcmytholo-
Icd Iact wouId wIthhoId I tsclf from Ianguagc
through thc mcrc act of IntcndIng thc Iact bccocs
an othcrat Icast mcasurd In tcrms of Its Idol oI
prc acccssIbIIIty ha wIthout Ianguagc thcrc Is no
Iact cmaIns, cvcn sc, thc thorn In thc csh and thc
thcmc oI posItIvIsm sIncc It Is hcrc tat thc stub-
borny mythIcaI rcmadc oI languagc Is rcvcalcd
athcmatIcs Is Ior good rcason thc prImaI modcl oI
posItIvIstIc thoughtccn In Its Iuncon as a lan-
guagcIcss systcm o sIgns ookcd at In cvrsc tc
tcnacIousrcsIduum oI wat Is archaIc In languagc bc
comcsIruItIuIonIywhcrcI aguagcbsItsclf crItIcaI
agaInst It thc samc archaIc tus Into a ataI mIragc
hcn Ianguagc spontcousy conrms and strcngth
cns hc argon sarcs wIth posItIvIs a crudc con
ccptIon of tc archaIc In languagc ncIhcr oI thcm
bothcrs about thc dIaIcctIcal mmcnt In whIch lan
guagc as II It wcrc somcthIng clsc wIns Itsclf away
Irom Its magIca orIgIns, Ianagc bcIng cntangcd In
a progrcssIng dcmythoIogIatIon hat partIcuIar ncg
cct authoIcs thc sccIaI usIng oI lInguIstIc anachro-
nIsm hc argon sImply cnnblcs hc antIuIty oI
anguagc, whIh thc posItIvIsts just as sImpy long to
eradicateaIong wIth aII expression m langagc. he
disprcpcrtion between languagc and the ratnaed
socIety drives the authentIs o pIunder Iangage
rather than to drive It on though eate sharpess
to its proper due. ey don t IaIl to notice that one
cannct speak absoIuteIy wIhout spean archaicaII,
but at the positIIsts bewaiI as retogcssive th
authentIcs eternaIie as a blcssIng
cr them that bIock which !anguage piIes be
fore the expression of undImInIshcd experience be-
comcs an aIt I!It doesnotaIIow ItsclI to be broke
throuh, then It ocs us sImpl thc omnIpotncc and
disoIuIIity ofwhat was precipitatedIntolaguag
ut the archaic takes vengeanceonthc j argc wos
greedforthearchaic vicl ates tLepropcr dIstac h
archaic Is oj cctIcdfr a second time n Its eampI
Is epeated that whIch m any case hapene to Ian
guagchistorIcally enImOs In which the rds ar
ein apped, Iike oranges in tissue paper t akes
nderIts ownirecticn he mythology olanguagc, as
i!eradiantforce cfthewords oId not yet uite e
trusted MixedwIth tihciaI colorIng thc words thcm
seIes, clcased from the reIaticn to what is though
are to speak areIatichich shcuI change the and
so alays dcmthologIcs them anguage mthoo
andrIhcaticnbecomemixdwith thatelemet whic
identie Iagage as antImholocal and ationa
The j rgonbeomespractIabIe aIcng the whcIe scaIe
rechgfromsermcnto advertisement. ntheedium
oftheconcept thej agon becomes suprIsgI

sImIl
to thc haItuaI practices oI advertIsig. e ords of

thc argo and those lIkc )0QcIDcISlcI, /0 /0S/cI-
jrau, CCh01Rc, arcalloIapIecc hceploIttheap
pIncss promIscd b that whIch had to pass on to the
shaows . loo Is dra Irom that whIch has Its ap
peaancc oI concrcteness only aIter the Iact, by vIrtue
oIIts dwnIaII t lcast In terms oI thcIr IunctIon, e
words, naIIcd Into Ity and covcrcd wIth a IumInous
acroIInsuIatIon,remIndusofthcposItIvIstIc count
crs hc arc useIuI Ior arbItrar ecctconnotatons,
out rcgard to thc pathos oIunIucness whIch thcy
usurp an whIch ItscII as Its orgIn on thc market,
on tat markct Io whIch what Is rae has cchangc
ac
It tc sscrtIon oImanIng at aI osts, thc oId
tIsophIstIc cmotIon sccps Into thc socaIlcd mass
scIct c sIncc thc Ictcr oI Iato and rIsttIc
ovcr thc ocratIclcft, thatcmotIon has domInatcd thc
IaI posItIon oI phIIosophy hatcver rcIuscd sub
cctIon to It was pshcd o Into powcrlcss undec-
rcnts n thc morc cccnt posItIvsm has madc so
phIstIc motIvcs rputabIc by Its allIancc wIth scIcnce
argon struggIcs aaInst thIs alIIancc Ithout
udgmcntIthandsdo c ugcntoItratIn. hc
shamc of thc sophIsts, opposcdb Iato was thc !act
thatthcdnotghtagaInstfalsItyInordcrtochange
thc sIavc socIety, butathcrraIsed doubts abot tuth
In ordcr to arm thought for whatcve was hI kId
o! dcstructIon was Idccd sImIlar to thc totaIItarIan
conccpt oIIdeoIogy lato couId arIcature the oas
sophIsts as clowns bccause tought, once It has bee
2g. jK|ostcrjrdu, ]gcrmcstcr, 5chnhc: astabshad brand
namas Ot Wc KnoWn igucu:s and Wnas . ]
4 4
freed from concrete owIedge and the nate oI the
obct, reduces to fce tht moment o pl y hich is
essentiaItoought-turnssuch amomcntintc d ghost
of tLat mImesis hich is combatted by ee enIi ght
enment evertheIess, the atIsopIsic cement
misusesitsInsi gh Ino such misccnstructions o Iree
wheeImg thoughtmisuscs them In order to scredit
thought, through thought Thiswas thew Ischc
crIIcIcd Kant, raising the charge oIover-subte think
ing in the same tone as tat adoptcd magis teriaI by
egeI, when he spoke oI reasonmg n te modish
antisphitIc movement here is a sad ccnence . of
a necessary crItIue of isoIated instrumentaI reason
with a grim defense of institutions against thoght
e j argon, a wastc prduct of thc modern tai t at
tacs, seeks to protect itseIaIong with Ii teaIIy de
structie instituonsagaint the suspIcIo of being
destructive by imuItaneousI accusing other, mostIy
anticonservative, groups of sinfuI tcIlcctaliy f
tht sin hich lIcs dccp in he j argons ow unne,
reecive principle oI existence emagogcaII it scs
the dobIe charater of the antisophIstIc at con-
sciousness is faIse whIch, etrnaIIy, andg as egeI
sas, without being In thc thIng, placcs IseI above
this thing and manages from above but criticis
becomes euaIy ideoIogicI at the mmeh wen It
Iets I be KDOW, seIfrighteousIy, that thogt mus t
hae a gound egeIs diaectic wentbeyond th doc
trme tha tcught , In order to be true, needs soe
absoIute sttingpoin , Iree of doubt. This doctinebe
O. Cf. Ma Horkhcmcr and Jhcodor PO, L0-
/6hlh d6r Aujr/orung , Amstcrdam, : gqy ) , p. z.

comcs aI thc morc tcrrrIstIcIn thc argn oI authcn
tIcIty, asItmorcatocratIcayIocatcss startIngpoInt
otsIc oI tc tcxtrc I thought. sopIstIc attI
tdcs In thc naI stagcs oI proccssc mytology, arc
acnc orms oI causa tInng crcapscoI thc
scn mctaphyIcs, bchIn IaIcctIc, Is chaIkcd up by
tc gon to a rcturn t thc mcrs
YDCD CVCLylDD_ D3S DCCD CUl O, lDC IOOl CS D3tCO.
DC 1OOl S lDC OL_D OUl O WCD Wt CW 3DO WDCD
WC D3C OI_OllCD D lDC CICC[CtS O O[DODS, D3DJlS,
3DO SCDCD3l3 O COD[ICDCDSOD.
vcn I atc Vcrunjt und Lxstenz, aspcrs wrItc
Dy D lDS W3y COUO lDC lLUC SHCD_lD O D3D DC
LC3O. DC [OWC1 O lDt 3DSOUlC H D, [1OVCD D
CVCLy [Dly O SHU__C 3DU UCSlODD_, WOUd
OD_C1 DCCd SU__CSlOD, D3lC, USl O1 CCly D OLOC1
lO DCCODC 3ClVC, DO OD_C1 DCCO lDC DlOXC3lOD O
D_ WOLOS 3DO UDUDOCLSlOOO OO_D3S D O1dCL lO DC
CVC lSC Ly lD3l W3y WOUO l 3C3y DCCODC
SCVCLC D31O 3DO SODC1. LDy D lS W3y C3D 3 lDC
SCOCCt[lODS S3[[C31 lDOUl UCSltOyD_ D3D
lDC [1OCCSS O dCSl1O DS CCS. Dy D lDS W3y
W

C l1UC _LOUDO 1CVC3 SC DVCCd IO lDC


OC[lD.
hc autcntIconcscamc scphIsry, ttcydragIts
barIncss aIong tc programs, stcad o! pro
_1 . Kar )ascrs, L0I ph/oshischc G/uubc ( Munch,
1Qd, , . 1zg [Lng!ish transabon b L. B Ashton, Ph|ooph
00 0Ih 0T0 Hcc/uton ( Pcw York_ 1Qy ) . Jhc guotation is
transatcd from thc origina Gctman. ]
_. Kar Jaspcrs, Y01UDjI UTd Listcn ( Munch, t g6o )
. Qd . jLngsh trans!aton b V. Iar!c, H0uson cnd Lx
8I0TZ: U0 0CIU10S ( London, :gg6 ) . Jhc guotation s nans-
atcd 1rom thc orgina GcDan. ]
Ing to bc a match Io It ut thcy agcc wIth thc
opsts In thcI avorItc csIs tat man aIonc s Im
ortantthat Sc1c1I0 oI H0mo Dc1SuI0 warmcd
ovcr agaIn h uncpcctcd Iulsomcncss. s ncc bc
cc th socII modcl oI thcI choscn scapegoat Is u
ban Iccdom whIch In thc past hcIpc thght t
cmancIpatcItsc hc nIy dcrcncc Is e Iact that
Intcs tIctratIonal odcoIbougcoIs socIcty thcmo
bIIIt oI pcrson d spIrIt arc Icss thrcatcng t
ps whIch In ccctncIongcr cIstInhIhlIhdus-
trIlcdcountrIcs tItcostantlychlcngcs thccn
tInung IatIonaIty oI tc totaI systcm whIch wouId
Ikc topuncawaywhatIs stIl vcgctaIng o omthc
socIamodcs oIbchavIodcvcIpcdundclIbcraIIsm.
hccIorc thc j argon must dcfcnd so as not to bc
lost transItor sccIal Iorms whIch ac InmpatIbIc
wIth thc cotcmporay statc oI thc Iorccs oI podu
n I It wantcd to mount hc barrIcadc Itscl hcn
It wouId havc to cngagc ItscII not onIy o a posItIon
much scorncd among Its bcIIcvcrs ut possIbIy aIs
o tat atIonalIty whIch thc cchgc socIcty bo
romIscs and dcnIs and thcugh whIch tat socIct
coud bc transccndcd hc bugcoI Iom o atIonaI
Ity has always nccdcdIratIonal suppIcmcns In ordc
to maInta ItscII as wat It Is connuIng In ustIcc
throgh ustIcc. uch IrratIonaIIty In thc mIdst o thc
ratIoaI Is thc woIng atmsphcrc oI authcntIcIty
eIattccanupportItsconthcfactthatocraong
pcrIo oI tImc IItcra as wcl as guraIc obIlIty
maInclcmcntInbourgcoIcualIty always tuncdIno
Inj ustIcc Ior thosc who couId not cntIrcl kcc up
Thcy cpcrIcnccd cprocss of socIcty s a vcrdict

7
a awncdo rcmcmbrancc oI thcIr sucrIng undcr
that sstcm, brIngs authcntIcIt, aongwIthIts agon,
t a Icrmcnt ts bubs causc hc truc ob cct oI thc
suerIng, thc partIcuIar constItutIon o socIct, to
dIsappcar or thc scectcd IctIms oI thc IccIng
agaInst mobIIt ac cmsccs bccn condcmncd,
evcrsIncc c sphcrc oIcIrcuatIonwas IuscdItothc
sphcrc oI productIon Thc argon strIvc to turn thc
Ittcrncss oI thc InIgcnous cI thc mutc Into somc
thInglIkc a mctahsIcamora crdIct oI annhIatIon
agaInstthemanwhocan spcakot andhcj argonhas
hadsomuch succcss onI Ior thIs rcason bccausc thI s
vcrdIctI n ucstIn has acadI n ccct bccn skcn,
and hasccncarrIcdoutIn crman aaInstInnumcr
abe pcoIcbccausc c gcsturc rootcd gcnuInc
cs Is at onc wIth that o thc hIstorIcl conucros
at Is hc substantIaI cIcmcnt I n authcntIcIt, thc
hoy Iount oI Its strcngth TacIturnIt and sIcnc arc
thc bcst countcrpoInt to cscntIaI and cIstcntIaIst
ac hc ordcr whIch thIs babblc aIm at s Itc
onc that rcachcs Ior spcchIssncss oI sIgn and m-
mand n hapy agrccmcnt wIth Its consumcr thc
ar gon s thc brcach crcatcdy thc socIctaIy ncccs
ary dsIntcatIon oI I anguagc. Petit bourgcois avc
cacuaIntccs thcyIccuncomIortac as soon a
they comc tgcthcr t pcopIe c dont aIrcady
ow, andthcIrucIty tus thI attItudcInt a r
tue. ot ast, thc argn bcars omc rcscbancc t
te rough manncrs oI a doan, In an Inc hotc
whhcctorsthegucstsasI!thcywcrcIntrudcrs, andIn
tI ay s thcIr trust Iacc oI thc socIaI sasIs
atoccagaInIsdarkcnIngthchorIon, a shImmcroI
humanty Is shcd bac nt thc cIously pcrsuasIvc
wordofthc daybcIorccstcrday IphIlosowcre to
tac acInto socIcty thc cxpcrIcnccs whIch crc c
cIItatcd thc argon In thc Ialsc Iorm Its dIs
tIlcd csscnccssocIct bcIng thc placc hcrc thcy
orIgInatcdandI thc wordorIgInhad canIg
at all thcn phIlosophy would c alc t go cyond
oposItIonoImobIty and xIty of ou ssncssand
auhcntIcIty t would thcn rccogIc thcsc pposItIos
asclcmcs of thc sac guIlywhol In Ichhcros
an usncssmcn arc oI valuc t o cach thc c
ralIsm that hatchcd thc culturc Industy producd
orms o ccctIon that arc cncountcrcd IdIgnantIy
ythc aroof authcnticIty a touIIsI t sclfoncoI
the hIs IbcralIsm was thc anccstor of thc IascIm
whIch dcstroycd oth It d Its lacr potctI cs
tocs. ut o coursc thc blood guIt of that hch
ccocs oday in thc argon Is Icomparaly gcatcr
thn thc dcccptIvc mancuvcrs oI moIlIty hosc prn
cIpcs arcincompatIblcwIthhoscoImmcdI atcowcr
cIcggcrIsno thc ma adorofsuchpolIcasrat
cgIs and In Iact hc protccts hImscl aInst hIr
blunt dIrcctncss. t Is truc that hc docs us thc word
athctIcity ccntrallyIn Sein unJ Zei/, dmoo
hc amIlIar shorthand Is sprcad around vr hIs bs t
known tctsprcad wIth gcsurcs of Inontcsae
ahorIty whIch thc mass o thc auhcntIc thcn m
chnIcally ImItatc hcrc Is unucstIoncd grccct
aout thc unIscusscdcorc o allthIs n th samc
Hcdcggcr strugglcs to sho rcscrvc owrd a te
__. Heidegger, Bcing cnd 1mc, Q. _Oq H. , a QQ. bB UQ

currcnt phrascs whIch hc wIth casc can put asIdc as
vular IsundcrsandIng ccrthcIcss as soon as hc
Iooscns hIs oluntary sclIccnsorshIp c Ials Into thc
gon wIth a provcIalIty whIch cannot bc ccuscd
on thc grounds thatIt bccocs hcatI I ItscII c
has pubIIshcd a Ittl olumc oI gnomIc thoughts cn
tItcdOut oj /he Lxperience oj 1hin/ing. tsIormccs
tc thc mIddc grou btwcn poctry and prcocrac
Iragmcnt. cttc sIbIIInc charactcr oI thc prcoca
Ic ragcnts rcay rcsuIts atcasIn any I hcm
Iro thc accIdcntoIadIscontuoustradItIon andnot
Irom sccrcIvcncss cIdcggcr has praIsc Ior c
spcndor oIthc sImpc * c rIngs back thc hrad
barc Idcology oI purc atcrIals Iro hc rcaIm oI
handIcraIs to that oI thc Indas II words wcrc
purc and asItwcrc roughcncd matcrIaI ut cxtIcs
o tht scrt arc mcdIatcd toda through thcIr calcu
Iatcd cpposItIon to mass productIon and ust that
wacIdcggcrwans synthctIcaly to crcatc a prIaI
scnsc Ior purc words.
cthcr spccIcalIy socIaI cccnt pIays Into hc
catcgory oI thc sImpc thc cIcvatIon cI thc chcap In
accorancc wIth hc wIshcs oI thc proudly dcclInIng
clItcan clcvatIon rcIatcd t yout usIc whIch
gIay gocs alongwIth thc argon and Icts ItsclIbc ac
copanIcdbyIt cIngbchnd thc tImcs hIstorIcalIy Is
n lcss cagcry convcrtcd Intc thc Icclg oI thc Iatc
IuIly tragIc than Intc that oI somcthIng hIghc that
too gocs aIong wIth thc sIlcnt IdcntcaIon I c
q. CUC__CY, U8 00I Ij0hIHg d08 L0DR0H8 [ UHDgCD,
I g_q} , Q. 1

arhaIc the genuIne tte Ialt oI the sIm
pIeIs no, as dggerwoldlIkeItto t trItable
to the valuebndness oI thought tat has Ios beIn
uh trIvIalIty comes Irom thInIng atIs supposedI
In tne wIth beIng and reveals ItsII as somIng
sremeloble chtrIvIalItyIsthesInoIthatcas
sIfInthought, evenIn thesImplestod romIch
Hedegger pretends that he has escaped naml, a
strctIon read m the rs t versIon o Ceis/ der
Ltupie, rnst lochs ayshat smbolintentins, whIch
areIorhImthetracesoImessIancIIghtInthedarkened
wod ar I n Iat not expressed the most sImpIe
basIc reatIonshIps andbasIcwords le the old man
themother anddeath. BteIdeger,InhIsIastIIos
HanIsmeter letsshear tesewrds
3D S DOl lHC OIO O CXSlCDCC. 3D S IDC SDCQDCIO
O DCD_ D lDS CSS DaD OSCS JOIHD_g Ul IDCI
DS DLC3CD_ lDC lIUlDO CD_ CWD lDC CSSCD
lJ3 QOVCIly O lDC SDCQDCIO WDOSC WOIID OHSSlS D
D_ C3CO, D] CD_ lSC, DlO lDC UCDCS O lS
llD. DS C3 CODCS 3S lDC lDIO_ IOD WDCD l
lIOWDDCSS O CXSlCCC SlCDSa D DS DCD_HSlOI C3,
[scinsgeschicht||ch| SSCDCC, D3 S lDC CSCDl DOSC
DD_ 3S CKSSlCDCC COSSIS D HS VD_ D lDC DC_H
DIDOOO O CD_ 3 S lDC DC_HDOI O CD_
hIosophIcalbanalIt Is geerated when that maIcal
partcIpatIon In the absote Is ascrIbed to the gneal
coneptapartIcpatIonwhIch puts the IIe to thatcon
cept s conceIvabIlIt
__. Hcidcggcr, bcr dcn Hmonmus ( tankturt, z gqg )


hosophIIng, accordIng toeIdegger Is a danger
o ought ut the authentIc thInker, harsh toward
nthIng somodernIstIc as phIosoph Ites hen
n carl summer IsoIated narcIssI bloom hIdden In
hc meadow anthemunaInose gIIstens under he
apIc tree . . or hen rom the slopes of he
hI ghalIc,wherethehcrdsareslowlpassIng, hecow
eIIsingandrIng . . . ` rverses
DC WOOOS D3KC C3D[
lDC SlIC3DS IUSD OD
lDC CS ICD3D
lDC I3D IUDS.
DC DC3OOWS W3l
lDC OUDl3DS S[ID_
lDC WdS WC
DCSSD_ l3KCS lDOU_Dl.
The encwIng oI thInng through outmoded Ianguagc
c bc j udged b these Instances c achac Is thc
cxpcssIcIdeIoIthIsIanguage hcoldest element
oI thc oId comesubchIndusIn ourthInkg andct
mects us cad on ut ungnIckeI knows how to
putIt thcevengc of the mth on e person who Is
curIous about It on thc denouncer oI thInkIng he
poctIc chaacter oI thInkIng Is stIl conceaIcd
HeIdcggcr adds I order to forestalI crItIcIsm a alI
costs whcrc It shows ItseII, It Ior a Ing tIme e
6. Heidegger, Aus dcr Lrjchrung, _. l _.
_. Ibd. , _. 1 2.
B. Ibd. , _. 22.
g. Ibd. , _. 2.
qO. Ibd. , _. lg.
qI . Ibd. , _. 2_.
sebles the utopIa of a halfpoetc Intect tIl
tho alIpoetc Inteect wch babbles rth thos
peces oIwIsdom beas less resemblane thI s o o
a other unsuccessIul utopIa than t o t he work f
se trust Iok at hch after aIl Is not scd to
seakIng elI abut hose thgs urIn the Ie
pIod, d wc can feel wIth hIm eIdegger ed
dwn a academc appotmentD ern e uses
tat In an artIcc, hy e eaIn In e
ovInce Ih ly strategy hc dIsarm the charge
tathe s provncIaI he uses thetermprIncIalIsm
I a posItIve scnsc Is stategy takes thIs Iorm
hcn on a dcepwIntcrnIght a wIld snostorm rages
around thc cabIn, andcovcrs an coccals everythIg
thn thctIe Isrpc for pIIosophy ts uestIon must
tn bccomc sImplc and essentIaI hcther cs
ons are cssentIaI an any case onlbc udgcd b
th answes gIven theeIsnowa ontIcIpatIng, a
cetaInl not by the crterIon oI a sImpcIt bascd on
mteoroIogaI events . Tha smplIcIt sas as lItle
about uth as abouIts opposItc ant, egel wcr as
olIcated and as sImple as theIr content Ioccd
hm tbe t cIdegger sInuates a preestablIshed
haron between esscntIaI cotent and home mur
mrng ereore thc ecoes of ugniccI crc ac
not ustloveable lapses hey ae therc to deafen an
sucIonthatthephilosopherIghtbeanItelectuaI
d pIlosophIcal ork does n take pI ace as c
qz. lbid.
q. Quotcd n GuIdo 5hncccrgcr, ucn/6$6 ZU cd6gg6I,
LOku16Dl6 ZU $6D61 !6b6D UDd LcDh6D (Bcr, : g6z ) , [.
z: G.


sparctImc actIvIty oI a crank t bcIongs rIht In thc
mIdst oI thc I abor oI Iamcrs * nc ouId IIkc at
casttoknothc Iarmcrs opInIon about tat HcIdcg
gc dos not nccd thcIr opInIon or durIng thc tIme
oI th vcnIng orkpausc, hc sIts on the stovc bcnch
aIong wIth thc Iarmcrs . or at the able In thc
orncr undcr thc crcI an thcn usualI dont
taIk at aIl c smokc or pIpcs sIlcncc cs
o works Inncr bIongIng to th Iack orcst and
Its pcople comes fom a centurlong ermanic
abI rotcdncss whIch Is IrepIaceabIc. ' tc
aII HcIdcggcr says It hImscII ohann ctcr HcbcI
whocomcsIromthcsamcrcgIon andtowhomcIdcg
gcrwouldIIke to gIvc thc pIaccoIhonoronthc mantc
pIcc, hadIy cvcr appcaIcd to thIs rotcdncss Instca
DC passcd on hIs grcctgs to thc pcddIcs chcItcc
n auscI, In onc oI thc most bcautIIu pIcccs oI
posc dc!cnsc oI thc cws that as cvcr wrIttcn In
cman ootcdncss hocvc pus ItsclI up
CCCDty _Ol 3 SCCODO DVl3tOD tO tDC DVCISty O
CI. LD SUCD CC3SOD t3VC lDC Cty 3DO _O D3C
lO Dy C3DD. DC3L WD3l lDC DOUDl3DS 3DO WOS 3DO
13Ly3LOS S3y. LD lDC W3y OIO[ D OD Dy OO 1LCDO,
3 SCVCDlyVCyC3IOO 3LDCI. MC D3S IC3 D lDC DCWS
[3[CI 3DOUl lDC CLD DVl3lOD. YD3l J DC S3y MC
SOy [LCSStS lDC SUIC _3DCC O DS CC3I CCS 3_3DSl
DC, DOOS DS DOUlD l_Dly COSCO, 3yS DS 13U
3DO C3UlOUS D3DO OD Dy SDOUOCL3DO DOSl D
qq. Ibd.
qg bd , Q. 21y
6. Ibd
qy U. )Ohann Ieter Hebe, V6Ih6 ( BcrIIn J dq) , zgq


C1CtOI 8h0KC8 8 DC0. D0t mC0D . aO8OlCy
c
hIlc hephIlosophercompIaInstothcr IubofrIcnd
about theIr 8dertsgoI the Iubo whIh would bc
etrimental to hs moopoI hIs reectedecIc
ness deenerates into chumm chItchat, or thc s akc
of the ruraI setg wIth whIchhcwants to st and on a
contiaI foon hc dcscrpton oI the od farmcr
reIns us oI the most asheot cIIchs n pIouh
anfro nocIs fromtcreIon 8 resen a
It rcmInds us euII o the praIse of ben sIIent
hich the phIIosopher autorIcs not onI Ior hIs
IarmersbtaIsoIorhimseI.ereen aI gnorance
oI eerthngwc hvc lcarncd aboutruraI copIe Ior
Instance In rnch rIsm !rom alacs I atc work
to aupassant from a lItcraturc not attuncd to thc
mustyInstInctsoerman petit-bourgeois tsch; m
a Itcrature whIch wouId be avaIabIe In transIatIon
cvcn to a prcocratic. hc a Iarmcr wcshIs con
tIng cIstcncc cntIrcIy to graIous gIIts Irom tat
cchangc cIcty by whIch hIsver ground and!on-
daton cvcnD apcaancc havcbccn rcmocd In thc
!ac oI thIs cchangc thc farmcrs havc nothIng on
thcorIon cccpt somcthIng worscthcImmcdI atc
cpoItatIon o! thc IamII wIout whIch thcy wouId
bc bankrpt thIs holIcwcdout statc thc perpctu
rIsis oI thc salI Iarmcrs bsIncss, has I cc
tc hoIlowncss oI thc argon c subIdIc hch
qB. Schnccbcrgcr, Noch/cse, p. z: B.
qg. [B|ubo: catchword of thc Pazi movcmcnt, cmphasizng
thc Intctdcpcndcncc of onc`s Ifc wth onc's nativc soiI . P
provInOia vcrsion of pro pcto mor. ]


aId to thc smaI armcrs C thc vcry grond I that
hIch hc prIma ords o! c argon ad to that
hIch In !act thcy mcan Ikc Icss promIncnt p0r|c-
pr0/cs oI athcntIcIty cIdcggcr Is IIcd wIth thc
dIsdan! prIdc oI Inardncss hIch hc touhcs on
hsophIcally In hIs thought about cgcIs crIIuc
oI hocvcr Is Iorccd by thc naturc of hIs work
o say In oc pIacc, glay akcs a Irtuc out of nc
cssIty c trIcs to conIncc hIsclf and othcrs that
hIs bounncss Is of a hIghcr ordcr. hc nancIall
rcatcncd farmcrs bad cpcrIcccs wIth mIddlcc
sbstantIatc thIs opInIon h socIally cIumsy pcrso
who ay bc partIalIy cxcludc Irom socIcty hatcs
thosc mIddlcmcn as j acks oI all tradcs. hIs hatrcd
oInsIthrcsIstancc agaInstall agcnts, Irom thc cttIc
aIcr t thcjourIst n thc stabIc proIcssIons
hIch arc thcmsclcs a stagc oI socIal dcclopmcnt,
arc stIll thc norms Ior cIdcggcr Hc praIscs cmIn
thc namc of a IaIsc ctcrnIty of agrarIan condItIons
an rIcs In vaIn to brIng thc gIobc to ordcr through
IanIng, hcn hc Is not In tunc Ith hc consoIg
voIc of thc contry lanc. orth mcrIca knows
no ontry Iancs, not ccn vIllagcs hIIosophy hIh
Is ashamcd oI Its amc, nccds c sIthand smbol
oI hc Iarmcr as a prooI oI Its rImalncss as a way oI
auIr somc othcrsc navaIabIc dIstIcIvcncss.
ocvcr ssIngs IsIght sIll applIcs asItId In hIs
tImc hcInsIghthathccsthcIcrItIdocsnotnccd
oocttcrhImscthanhathcrItIIcs ThatwhIh
g Cf. Heidegger, 0Dg 0Hd c, QQ. zq8 .
l . Heidegger, L0I 0/0U0g (Irankfurt, z gg6) Q. q.
a IghtIo the Hamburg Dramaturgq s aIsoreason
aIe Io phIIosophIcaI theoy the scIIaareess oIIts
IImItatIons does not obI gate It to authentIc pocc
eatIon utItmusthaethepower topeent thInk
g peopIe Irom prodIng mere aesthetc stapes
thcIse thesc argue agaInsta phIIosophy whIc
teds to sorn argumcnts as confusIng ts nobIc
hIIstInsm grows Into the argon oI authetcty
s In thIs argon and even In Idegger the e
dence o aguage reeaIs the falsIty of rootedess
at lcast s soon as ootednss descends to somethng
that as a concrete content edegger wos wth a
atIthess between beIng alone and loelIess
LIl] Q606 3I6 0!l6D SIQIIS6U D] lH6 3D6S 0D_, 0
D0l0D0US Sl3l6 0D6IDg 30D6 3D0D_lD6Dl3DS. `C
Il IS D0 D6ID_ 30DC, DUl I3lH6I 0D6ID0SS. 1 DI CIlI6S
H3D C3D 63SI] D6 30D6 3S I l IS H3I0! QSID6 l0 DO
6S6WH66
,
Ul H6 C3 D6V6I D6 0DC] l6C. 0I 0DC1J-
6SS DS lD3l IID3 Q0W6I D0l 0 S0 0lIDg US, DUl 0
C3SlID_ 3 6Sl6DC6 166 IDl0 lH6 WIU6 DC06SS 0 lDC
6SS6DC6 0! 3 lHID_S .
owever thIgs may stand th thIs dIstInctIon, In
terms oI otent anguage to whIc Hedcgger Is
tunIg Ior testImony does not know the pesent dI s
tInctonIn the presentIorm heIectramooIogueoI
oImannsthaI who certaInIy understood such -
aes begns Ione al aIonc hehumcondItIon
oItheheroneIs IfanythIngatalI thatuItIatcbeIng
thronackononeseII In whIch Ideger trust
somewhat otImIstIaIIy He eIIes o the way tha
_2. Quotcd in 5chnccbcrgcr, 0Ch/6$6, Q. 21 .

7
statcIcadso thc wIdcncancssoIhe essenccoI aII
thIngs though In Iact such sItuatIons arc no Iess
IIcI to Iocc pcopIe Into obscssIc narrowness and
IpocIshent oocd at thc otherway aroundIn
opposItIo to eIdeggcanguagc wIII rathcr suggest
tha peopIc arc IoeI bIg cIcs or on puIIc hoII

das, but that the cannotc aIonon suc occasIons .


n an cascpesentusagcIs IndccIsIon Is attc
HeIdcgcrs hIIosophy, whIch akcs so uch adan-
tagc oIIts abIlIttoIIstc rcndcsItscdcaI to wods
Thc cphatIc natuc oI thIs phIIosoph aouses thc
bcIIcI that Itts ItscII Into thc words whIIc It Is onI
a coe Ior arbItrarncss cIdeggers pmal sounds
apcas such sounds usuaIIy do I course, een a
orc sensItIve IInguIstIc organ than hIs wouId hardI
accomplIsh anythIngbcttcIn thIs mattcr In whIch hc
IaIIs vcy such cort has Its lInguisIcay IoIca
IImIt In the accIdcntal cIcmcnt of cvcn thc most prc
cIse word ords ow mcanIns cIgh heavIIy I
them. ut thcsc words do not usc themseIves up In
theImeanIngs thcythcmscvcsarccaughtupIn theI
contct. hIsIactIs unercsImatcdIn the hIgh pasc
gIven to scIencc b cver pure anaIysIs oI meanIng,
startIngwIhHussc s cspccIaIIybhatoIHcIdegcr,
whIch consIdcrs Itscf I abovc scIcncc ny that
pcrson satIscs thc dcmand oI lanuae who masters
te rclaIon of Ianguac to IndIvIduaI words In the
conguratIons ust as the In oI hc purc eIemcnt
oI canIn theatcns to ass ocr Into thc arItrar,
o the belIeI In the prImac oI the conratIc
tcatcns toass to Ut badI IuncIonaI thc cc
counIcavcInto scorn Io thc obcctIc spcctoI

d
wcds n anguagc that Is worth sometin bo I
thcsc cIcments arc transmIttcd
lcgcly halc IIIc Is opposed o damacd IIIe cn
whosc socIetaIIcd conscIousness, on whose aIaIsc
thc argon speculates hcughthcIngaIcdInguagc
form oI te argcn, that hae f Is catcd w
agrarIan condItIcns cratcastwIth simlc cmmodt
econom, fa Iom aI socIal consIderatIn hIs IIe
Is In cect cuatcd to somctIng undvIcd potec
tIngy cIose whIch runs Its couscIn a hthm
anunboen contInuIt hc eIdoI asscIatInhcrc
Is aIcItoer oIromantIcIsm and Is transpantcdwIt
out sccond thought Intc the contempoary sItuatIc
to Ich it stnds In hashe contradIctio than ee
bcIoc n tat sItuatIon the catcgorIes o

O gon
arc l adIy ought Iorwd as ouh the crc not
abstactcd fom geneatd an tasitoy sItatIons
but athe eonged tc the cssecc of m as InaIIen
abe possIbiit an Is thc Ieology oI dehuanIa
tIon oncsIons ac drawn Irom certaIn categoIcs
whI emInd us oI somewhat Ima sccial clatIcn
sIps whee the InstItutIos of cxchangc d t ct
hav completc powcr oer the catIonshIps o cn
o those categoIcs It Is concuded tht

I OIO
man Is ImmcdIatcIy prescnt among cotcpoar
en thathe is thee toeaIIc Is eiJcs. storms o
socialiatio pIo tc thc dIisIon o abor are sur
epttIously adpted as II thc wee eternaI. hcIr IO
ectIon Ialls upcn Iatcr condItIons which hac aIread
bccn ctImIcd by pcssIc ratIonaIIatIon an
conast to thosc thc cc statcs sccm I
huan hatwhIch authentIcsoI Icsscr rankaIIwIt
o
gustothc Imagc oIm thcy IocatcIn aoncInwhIc
t IsnoIongcrpcrmIttcd to askIrom whcrc thoc con
dItIons cmcrgcd ncIthcr can onc ak what was don
tocsuugatcd atayptcuIar tImc, wIth thctran
sItIonIrom nomadIc IIIc to cttIcdncnorwhatwa
donc to thosc who can no Iongcr moc aound n
whccr thc unIdcd condItIon ItclI, both uncoh
cIous andompuIsIc dIdnotrccd and carn t ow
dowII hc ta aboutman macs ItscII popuIar
thc oldIashIoncd haIItImcrcd, galcrooI way u
i t aIso wIns IrIcnds In a mor contcmporay ay I
thc gcsturc oI a radIcaIIsm whIch wants to dsmantl
atccr mcrcIy conccals, and whIch conccrn Itscl
Ith thc nacd cscncc that hIdcs undcr aII cuItura
dIsguIscs Howccr asItIs a ucstIon oI an andot,
Iorthcac oImcn oIthc condItIons whch arcma
by mcn and whIch harden Into oppoIton agaIn
thcm,wcarcrcIcacdIromcrtcIngthcm athough
tmporaIIyoundIIcItso cct uchacrItIucwcrcal
too haIIow hI pItIon Iunamchtay upprc
thcmotII oI thc antIan dca toward a cncral Hs
toryIrom a osmopolIta oIntoIIcw thcIdca that
t atc oI aaIrs worthy oI an can onIy c produc
through antagonIm, Irom out oI thcIr own Iocc, nt
Iom a pur Idca hc tak about man so wothIes
ccauc tppac Icuntruth thatwhch s oIhIgh
et truth hcc Is cat trcs on thc cItcntl
eIcmcnts oI man In whh lack and 80!8uI!0l0O
HOugHt thInk It holds Its hahd that concrcn
HCH t h lot lDIOuH l8 tansIoaton Int
mthod uch mcucr sImy deect u8 Iro
ccIg howlIttlc ItIs hcc a uctIon f man, who ha

bcc condemncd to thc status of an appendage. hc
epressIon of the wod man has ItseIf moIed Its
formhIstoally. ntheepressIoIsIeraure sIc
th pcrIod of th Irst oId ar the word an
has had a hIstoIal valuthanks o the protest
agaInst thatagrtInhumanIty hIch Ioud human
matrIaI Ior matrIcI sIaughtcr he honorabIc oId
cIcatIon oI bourgeoIs socIety, whIch omcs Int Its
on In the grcat pcrIods and Is aIIed IndIIduaI hu
man cort D that way bccomes graspabl and,
that wa, antagcIstIcalI, aso bccomes Its o
couterconcept hcsntcneanIsgoodwsfaIsc
but at IcastItnccdcdno mctaphysIalanthropoloIcal
saue t Is aIrcad dIrent wIth the eprcssIonIstI
ah a manIIesto dIrcced agaInst that hIch
done onIy b men Is a usurpato posItI hc ex
prcssIonIstIc an was aIready Inned to Iave
mcns vIoIence out oI consIdcratIon. hc uIspute
hII sensc ofunIcrsaI humanIt taIntsItseIwIth
thathIh It opposesas could be shon I thc wIt-
Ings oI ran crfcI . Thc j argons Imag a
meanhIIe, Is stIII tc sellIngout of that unInhIbIted
a ad the hegatIvc tuth conernIng It
o characterIc thc change InfunctIon o! thc od
ma e need onIy consIde two ttIcs whIch rcscm
blconanother. tthc tmcothc cran oveber
evolutIo there appeaed a book b the pacIst d
wI g ubner Man in /he MiJJ|e, In thc ItIcs a book
aIIed Man at rhe Cen/er oj rhe Business ercti0n
haks to ts abstractness thc conccpt Iet Itsel! be
suIted IIke case Into the same mahncry It one
wated to assaIl ts pathos meanwhle eapoated
b
III chocs In thc Idcology whIh hoId that busIncss
hIh mustbcopcratcdbymcn cxIstsIor thcIr sakc
hIs mcans that tc orgIatIon has to takc arc f
Its workcrs so that thcIr produtIvIty wIll IImb Ic
IsIc, thc happy mcrIan advcrtIscmcntow, tha
hrascabout whomthcphrasccn osustoc
or wouId not bc so convInIng II thc phrasc dId no
cI on a suspIIon thc supIIon hat, aItcr tc
crpowcrIng ondItIons oI oIcty rcally wcrc ma
mcn andcanbcundoncbythcm hc ocrpowcrIng
tcngth oI thoscrcIatIonshIps, kc that o! myth has
It 8 cIcmcnt oI IctIshIsm and mcrc appcarc
u a thc InItcI! oI thIstItutIon Is mcrc ppcar
ancc, a rcctIo o!pctcd human tatcs oI as,
o u rcaIIty thIs appcaranc domInatc mcn to thc
amccgrcc hIs Iswhat dcbascs thc appcaI to In
acnabIc ccncc oI an whIch ha Iong bccn ac
ntcd t was not an who rcatcd thc InstItutIosbu
paIuImcnInapartIuIaronstcatIonwIthnaurc
an wIth tcmcIvcs hIs nstcllatIo od thc In
tItutIon on tcm thc samc way that mcn ccctc
hocInstItutIons , wIthout csIousnss thaa
!ormuIatInIsIcIy durIng thcorm, tIcuIarI
by arx, agnt cucrbahs anthropoIogy and thc
young cgcIIan oh appcc and ncccsIt arc
cIcmcnts o!thcorIo!wc ognItIonIaIIs a soo
a It IsoIacs onc oI thcsc cIcmcnts c who acpts
thc worId of warcs as thc InItscII, whIh It prctcnds
to bc, I ccIcd by hc mchanIsms whIh arx
aIycd In thc haptcr on fctIshcs c who ncgIcct
I InItscII, thc aIuc oI cxhangc, as mcrc IIIusIon,
gIvcs to thc IdcoIogy oI unIcrs aI huanIty c
cs to Iorms oI an ImmedIate togehercss whIch
arehIstoricalIIrretrIevaleIIInactheyeer eIse
In nyother Iom. nce capItasm hasronuneasy
aot thcoreticaI seII assertIon, Its advocats QeIer to
use the categorIes oI spontaeous le In order to
prcent what Is manmade. They preent thos cate-
gories as II hcy wee aIId now and herc e j aron
usIIy spIashesbeyonalIhIs, perhaps eve poud oI
Its hIstorIcal oblIousness-as II tIs obIousness
wee aeady thehumanly Immeate.
he angeIs oices th whIch thej argn regIsters
theord an, are derIved the j aron ro the
ocIne oIman as the Image oIod. heord
ounds alI the ore IrreIutable and pcrsasie the
moe It eaIs ItseI o agaInst Its theoIoa orI
oe eIement It poInts ack to a IIngIstIC phc
noenon dra Irom the ]ugcnJs//, a cIcmn
which he j argonhas prepared Ior mass cosumptIone
Th IInk he hIstory oI phIIosoph twecn the
]ugcnJs/i/ and the j gon Is probabIy the youh move
met or one oIhIs plays Hauptmann choe O tItIe
50//0Q Mcn. n a noveI y ontess eeDtIow, a
poIessor Is rIdIcIed ho eIoned o th costume-
party boheme oI unIch around L He s ys, aou
eveypesonwhomheconsIdersttoentertheSchwa
IncIrcIe atawondeIuIman hIsIsreIatedto
thcmannerIsm oIacors IromtheearIyeIhadcra,
wh wouId place theIr hands on heIr hets wouId
opcn the eyes as de as the coId, an wouId n
cneraI amatIe themselves nce he orInaI theo-
logIc Image has IalIen rscendence, wch e
erelIgIonsIs sepaatedIrom heIIenespowe
IItaboosthoushaIthavcno gravcnImagcsoIme
Is shIItd to thc kencss ThIs Iagc Iscnsad to bc
IuII oI ondc sIncc wondcrs no Iongc cIst ec
thc concctIon oI authcntIcIty has Its ystcry thc
concctcncss oI whatcve Is as Its on Iagc. hIc
therc Is nothIngoc to whIch ondcIuI man has t
don manwhoIssadtobcondcrIuIccausch
nothIng but thc agon acts as man shId
nce havc actcd bIoc thc odhcad Thc argon aIms
at ahumIIItyhIch Is unucstIoncd and wIthout rcIa
tIon. uch humIIIt Is pcscntcd as human IrtucIn
tscI om thc outsct such huIlIty has gon wclI
Ith thc soIcnce oI thc scIIposItIng subj cct hc
Iddenncss oI thatwhIch humIIIty aIms at Is In ItscII
InvItatIon to be ccIcbrated hIs cIcmcnt has ong
ecn prcsent I thc conccpt oI rcvccnc ccn In
oethes undcsanIng It aspcrs cprcssly rccom
cnds rcecnce Indcpcndcnt oI Its obcct c con
demns Its abscnce d casIIy ds hIs wa to thc hco
cItwIthoutcIngIrIghtcncdbyarIyIcs campIc
D lHC VJSJOD 0 HJS!01C3 _U1CS O HUD3D _1C3lHCSS,
lDC SUCD_!H 0 1CVC1CHCC HOOS 3Sl !DC DC3SU1C O
D3DS CSSCHCC, 3O O HS [OICH!3. CVC1CHCC OOCS HOl
0W !HC OCSI1UClJOD 0 WH3l Jl H3S SCCH. 1l 1CH3JHS
QUC !O WH3l V9S CCC!VC 3S U3OIOD D JIS OWH SC!-
DCC0DH_. CVC1CHCC _13S[S lHC O1J_H O JlS SUDSl3HCC
tHOSC 1HOVJdU3 HCD JH WHOSC SD3G0W 1CVCJCHCC DC-
CC CODSCOUS. lHC 01H 0 UHqCGD_ [C!j Jl SO
D3Hl3US JlS [1CSC1VH_ 1UDCIOD. Y0l DO OH_C1 H0S
1C3lj H lHC W01O 1CD3HS [ICSCH! 1CVC1CDCC 9S 3H
3DS0UlC C3H, Dj DC3HS O HCDO1j.
g . Jacrs, L8 g0SIg0 bIU00H, .
j
yO.
n c j argon, howcve the word an no ogcr rc
es on human dIgnI asIdeasm In spItc oI thc cult
of hIstorIcaI gurcs and of grcatncssInitscII t cad
ma Is to have s poerIessncss and nothIncss as
hIs subs ace hs bcme a heme the phIIoso
hers I ucston TspweIessnessandnctngnes
of man I s comng cIose o s reaIIao In peet
socetye uch a hItorIca sate I aaIrs Is thn tars
scd o he pure essencc an. t bcocs af
red and etrnaIIe at hc ame me tIs way
the ar gn pIundcrs tc ccep oI an ho s to c
IimebecausefhInoigness robs hI ofpe
sCIy thsc traIts wIc have, as theIr cotet, c
crIcIsm oI statcs of aaIrswhIch prccIude the dIIc
rIghtsoIhe souI ThIcrItIcismhasbeenImancntIn
aIIenIIghtenmen_ awcIIasIn earIy eranIdcaIIs.
Th argn oes hahdIn hand wIth a cnccpt oI an
frwhIchaIImcmry fnaturaIIahasce cradI
atd ct as InvarIable_ In he argon man hImscIf
becomcs somtIng IIke a supcrnaturaI aturecate-
ry. rcvIousIy, thc unbearaIc tansIcncc I a asc
ad unsadsed IIfc was ounteractcd b hcoI
whih gavc hpc of an cternaI fc. hIs pc dIsap
csn thc praIscfhc tr3nsIcnt a aboIutc apaIc
whIh Icue ccl had aIcad dced tbestow.
struns In the agn . sucrIng, cvIl , an deat a
oc accctcd nt to be changed Thc puIIc i bcIng
ancd thIs tu de orce!mantaInIg a baI ance
Thy ac IcarnIng to understand hcI noIngncss as
chg trvcrc atal avodaIc o atIcast corIgle
needasthcms t humaneeIementI theImagc fan
Thy arc IcarnIngt oepectauthorty IsIIbccause

oI thc Innatc human InsucIcncy though such
authorIty now rarcIy caIls ItscI godscnt, It stIlI hods
on to thc regaI InsIgnIa whIch oncc Itborrowed Irom
od thc athcr nsoIar as thIs authorItynoongcrha
any IcgItImatIon apartIrom mcrcIybcIng there bIInd
and obscurc, ItbcomesradIcaIIy eIl . hIs the rca-
son hy the unIvcrsaIIyhuman I guagcgcsturc Is In
good standIng wIth thc totaIItarIan statc n the Icw
oI absoIutc power sub ccts arc IndIcrct to thIs Ia
guagcgesturcIn the doubIc sensc oIIndIccnt c
Thd cIch, whIch ouId present such consIdcrabe
ma oItIcs that It was hadIy ncccssary to Iorge thc
cIctIonreturns, wasoncccrcdItdbyH aIma chact
as thc truc cmocracy He Is conrmcd by thc
arons vIcw oI an, whch was at tImcs morc Inno-
ccnt. ccordIn to the IattcrIcw, a men are cuaI
thcIr powcrIcssncss, whIch thcy possess bcIng Hu
manIty becomes hc most generaI and cmpty om oI
prIvIIcgc tIss trIctIysuItcdtoa!orm oIconscIousncss
whIch no Iongr sucrs any prIIIcgcs yctwhIh stIII
nds ItscI unde thc spcl oI prIIlcge uch unIversaI
humanIty, howevcr, Is IdcoIogy t carIcaturcs thc
eua rIght oI cveythIng whIch bears a human Iacc
sInce It hIdcs Irom mcn thc naIIcIatcd dIscrIma
tIon oI socIetaI powcr thc dIercnccs bctwccn hun
gc and ocraundancc, bctwccn spIrIt and docIIc
IdIoy hastcIymoed, manIctshImscIIbc addrcsscd
through an It docsnt cost anyonc anytg. ut
hoeve cIue thIs apeaI gIes hImscI ovcr as
nonhman to the admInIstators oI thc argon, and
bcacIccdbythcm, IIsucha sacrIce Isnccded
o h thc nonuman, and ct thc InstItutIon
b b
power Is c onc whoscprIdc trampIeshua dInI
to thc dit n tc mask oI th j aron a scIIItcr
cstc action can ivc Itsc tc aI oI publi c Intccst
oI serviccoa Thus nothIIsdoncianscrious
Iashio to allcvIatc mcs suc and ecd clI-
rIghtous humanIty In hc mIdst oI a ccraI inhu
may oly IntcnsIcs thc Inuma statc oI aaIrs
ThIsIsasatcoIaaIrswichcccssailyraIns hI
dc to thoscwho suchcrcadnow. Thcj aro oI
douIes tc hidIn covcr Thc compcnsaIo and con
soIaIon ocrcdy thc j argon andItsworId arc stad
ardIed by thcIr twistcd dcsIre Io that whih thcy ac
rIused
hc cmpty phrasc an dIstors mas rcIaIo to
his socIty aswel as thc conctoIwhatIsthouh in
thc ocep oI an Thc phasc docs not boher about
hcreaIdivIsIonoIc subcctItoseparatcdIuctIons
thatcanocundonc y thc voic oI mcrc it. c
socld latoIc pschoIogy acady cpcsscs th
ItealiatIo oI thc socIctaI disio oI Ibor. ach
IuntIon iI thc pcso occ rmly dend, c
gatcs hc pcsos oal prIncipI Thc pcrso comcs
sImIy e sum oI hIs Iunctios thc Iacc oI thI
sItuatio ocvcr thc prso ccomcs aII hc worsc
sInce Is ow IaboIously aied uIty as rcmancd
Irailc ac IdIdaI Iuncon, ccatcd nder thc
Iaw oI selIprescvaio bccomes so rmly cogeaIcd
thatoc ca cIst by ItscII tha no IIIc c bc con
srutcd out oI Its Iunctioal pIcccs . Thc IndIvIduaI
Iuctios tur aaInst thc scI wich thc arc sup
posd to seve IIc soIar as it sIl css Ics
such scpratIon as IalscIor amplc I he vebaI
scaration among thikIg, IeeIIg, ad desIrig o
thought Is a thoughtor morc than a tautoogythat
dcsotaIsodesIre somethIng IthoutacIemetoI
cItIon, o IeelIg and no III canbe moe tha a
ectIg motIon t Is casy Ior the j argon to point I
ger atthc sIIncssoI thIs dIvIsIon IorInthemea
tmc It has saIIocd thc currcnt tcrm aIIcnatIo
hc j argo, Ior campIc, was onIy too wIIIIng to
ant dcpth to the young ar, I order to bc abIc to
cscapc thc crItIc oI poIItIcaI economy. n thIs proccss
thcrcaIorcc oI thc spIIttg oIthc IndIvIduaI sub ect
I Ios Irom vIe Thc thought that es tIes t Is
spt suddenIy nds ItscII Itupcratcd. c unstIs
abIc trIumph wo ag oer the mcchaIstIc ps
choIogy oI the nIetccnth ccntury, mIsuscsthe IsIght
oI estaIt thcory, whIch ItseIII snoIongr uItc dcwy
IrcshmIsuscs that IsIght as pretet Ior not havIg
to touch on that hIch Is IeIt to bc the ond The
pogcss oI scIecc whIch othcrwIsc Is not much ad
cd, ad hIch dId not takc pIacc In peci seIy th
sItuatIon, Is vIeed as the reaso not t cosIder th
wound e authentIcs hun rcud by cuItIg thc
Iactthat thcy are more modcrn than reud, butt
out any rcason eanhIIe, In a tImeIy IashIo, thc
IuIsomc taIk about the whoIe man roted In bcIn Is
put Into Its pIace by psychoaaIysIs o eIcatIo oI
the concep oI a as any power In thc Iacc oI his
actuaI degadatIon Into a bundIe oI IuctIons Thc
onIyhcIpIIesIchagIngthccodItIoswhIchbrouht
thc statc oIaaIrs to thIs poIntcodItIos whIchu
ItcrruptedIy rcprodcc thcmseIvcs o a Iarger scaIc
y mcans oI c magI IormuIa oI cIstcnce, oc dIs
b
regas soety and the pschology oI rcal ndduals
wch s penet on tha socety hus onc nssts
on te changng oI an ho egels sec ests
merl n the abstract hs ress oly n a tghten
In theresnotneeatonun thc cctnung
oI te ol sppresshg deology h te athentcs
attak sycoanaIysIs they are realIy amng at In
stInt he deadaton oI nstnct s taken oer unre
cctedly nto ther cthIcs hus aspers s ays
DC CXCuSVCDCSS D lHC OVC O lHC SCXCS UHCODd
lD3] DDS lO QCOQC OI lDC CDlIC UlUIC. YlHOl
CD_ 3DC lO DC _IOUDCCO, lHS OVC ICSIS HC OC
COD WDCD lCO lDC SC IO lHS O3l], 3l lHC DODCHl
WDCH l C3DC lO lSC 3ulHCDlC3 lD1u_H lDC
OlHC1. O 1CDOUDCC WD3l S DC_3lVCQ_3DOuS
CIOC 3ClVlS lHCCODSCUCDCC O 3 QOSlV CCDCHl.
DS QOSlVC CCDCDl S OD lIUC, lDC Iu O 3
[ICSCDl OVC, WDCD l DCUCCS lDC WDOC C DC DC_3
lC CCDCDl lDC W DOl lO lHIO ODCSC a, S lDC
CSul O 3D 3DSOulC WD_DCSS O1 lD S O3l]
WD_CSS CXCICSCO D] DC3HS O lHC QOS SDl
SCIC33lOD. DCIC S DO SCIC33lO lHOl
SlCDCSS D CIOlCSD. IOlCSD DCCODCS DD3
CD_u OD] lHC CXCUSVCDCSS O UDCODdlDCO
CODlDCHl

ommtmcnt s thc current word Ior te unrca


sonable demand oscIplne. hetermcomtment
untes edegger and aspers togetherwth the Iowest
ters t st thc term was desgncd to
nataIc a Ioan word heng ther cus patrot
pcdagogucs would s ay that commtmcnt was actuaIIy
thc naeoIrelgon utt wasnotonIy the eaggera
bd. , p. : y: .
Q
tIo oI erman ways that aowed Io the nauI
tIo oI commItments The loanwod eli gIon
deanded sbordInatIo to somethIng denIte hrIs
a reveIatIon orthc dIve l aw of the ews. his eIe
ent Is no loge IcIt in the newy coined commit
ment Thc epessionvestheappeaanceofevIvIg
that sensuaI concretIo whIchhad become eaced In
thc Ioan wodo ut In contrast to that sensuous coor
thc eIement to which the concetion adheed has be
ce obscued eople ow dress up the factual tate
I commItment he concept preserves the auhoIty
whosc s ouce I OIgIn Is cut orIghtIrom thc ben
nIng Thc thg that Is undcrstood under thc tcrm
cmmItcnt Is no better than thc wrd. omIt
cnts are cercdnotIortheIrOW truth butas a mcI
cIncagast nIhIsm InthcsamemannerascvaIucs
hIch wcrc curren a gencratIn bcIrc and whIch
surrcpItIousIy cIrcuIatc agaIn today ommItmcnts
arc cIassedundcrentaI hygIene and Ior thatrcason
ndcrmIne thc transccndcncc whIch the prescrIbc
hc capaIgn that thc j argn Is IaunchIg rccords
nc rrhIc ctry aIter anothe The gcnuIncness oI
nccd andbeIIcI whIch Is uestIonabIe anwa has
trn ItscII Int thc critcrIon Ior what Is desired ad
becvcd andInthswayItbecomesnoIonger genuIc
Is Is thc easn why no onc can say thc word ge
uccssthutbecomIngIdcoIogIcaI . Ictsche stIII
scdthctcrmn anantIIdeologIcaI wa nthej argon,
howcver Itstands otIn hcunendIng mumbIc oI thc
IIturgy oI Inwdncss c a ragpIckcr the j argon
srps thc naI protestIng ovcments oI a sj ect
h In Its dwnaII Is thrown back on ItseII and
HuCKslC\s lHOsC UOCCHls O HC CO_C s \CUOCO
\OU IHC !H_ sU CCl s potst a_ainst b3D_ COD-
demd to play \Oles . HC CaH IHCor o! Ole-
pIayIH_ I so popula OCCusC | lCHs out lHs
]
IO-
lest lO lC s l\uCluC O sOC t Hd the sbj ctt Is
tod tt lHC OIC o H HC CCs bac HlO !s
CuVC Has HO poe over him ot l aslly lHC j a\_H s
suC\0 as lC IaD_ua_e oaHDVsC KOOD Hch
CXIs ts oHl H lHC OOsCssVC O! O theIlenta orIty
O us HO| IO sallC\ OHCsC!lOOu, thrOuH the COD-
s Ua\CIt Is reUOveO !OU ls socil CODlCXl
O HlCrpCtCd as soUelhn_ hIchIs OI esscHcC. u
In ha ay It OH] neotIates somethI HCaIC .
Petits-bourgsois Wtc! OVCL peti|s-bourgeois . ispr
sIon, hIch Is the coseuece O the consumer habIt
Is vIeed as orIginaI cI. osciousness, DOWCVCL,
a Iready been soned In the sphere o produc
tion, hIch trains IndIduals to Ois
]
CrsC cUseIves .
H0IdC_er de
]
Cts thc authentic state I cOHtas
o te dIspersedoe
DC bC O CVCyO3y O0sein S lDC theg-sc/j, DCD
WC OSD_USD OD lDC 0uthentic ejlD S t
lD bC WDCD D3S DCCD l3KCD DOO O D lS OWD W3y.
. . . PS lDCy-SC, lDC [lCU3I 3SCD D3S C0 dis-
pcrsed DlO lDC `lDCy, 3DO DUSl DISl DD SC. DS
O8[CIS3 CD3I3CICCS lDC `SUDjCCl t lDal KO O
CD_ WDCD WC DOW 3S CODCCU 3DSOI[lOD D lDC
WIO WC CHCOUDlCI S COSCSl IO US.
c OOCs not l!HK O the conectionbetween the arc
urb CCHlC\, O hID cuptisU uHd !t dIspCsIO
WDH Wus HotCd by eor mUCl aHO alred IcI b
g. Hcdcggcr, 61g u1d 116, p. :
7

3uOCuC. VDuICVC ICUuD8 sOC! O lsC, u8 ODC8
uulDCHlC CX8lCDCC, OCCOUC8 HO !Css UQOVC8DCO
ID3H lDuI WDCD Os8OVC8 DIO sIuuIODs. OlD C_C
3O OIDC CXQCCHCCd uDO CIlC2CO HWu\dHCss u8
u 0\0! aCCdCHIu C!CUCDI. DC saW l us IDC CODO-
lH O _Dl COHsCOusHCs8, uDO us uH C!UCHl WDCD
D3O lO DC DC_ulCd OCCuUsC O ls !UlalOH. DC UCU
OI] O IDs C\lCsU Das OCCD suO!UalCd sHCC HOH
DDd Das uCCOUQ8DCO sO UuCD O\0 lDO\Ou_D]
Dul IDC UDd ODCC OCUuHOCd O lHC UDd.
DC \CCOHCulOD OClW00H lDC HHC\ aHd OulCI
OIds , WDCD C_CH QD!OsQD s l! DOQ0d O\ a
C QOslQOHCd ad HHIuU Dus l D

us OCCOUC uD
DCC0ssa IO aOVOCulC a!CHalOH, sDCC lDC !all0\ s D
[OWC uHWu], us lDC !uW O lDOsC WDO u0 DuQQ 0X
IIOVCls . PI lDC 8uUC IUC IDC COHsCOUsDCss O lDC
IuluI DCCOUC8 UOC uDd OC uDOCaaO!C. I
s! lDs uQlu\C CDuH_Cs s0!COHsCOusHCss HlO
8COCCCQlOD. OCOO CuD _usQ OHIO lDC uCI IDuI
tDC _OWD_ QOWCC88DC88 O IDC suOj CCI, ls 8CCuu
ulOH, Wu8 ul lDC 8uUC C u Oss O WO!O d COD
CIlCDCs8. VID _OOO ICu8OD, IDC hIsI O\_Du QD!O
OH ulC C_C! , IDuIO CKCaO, Da8 OCCH u!!CO 3
QD!O8OQDO

WuIdDCs8. UlID8 VC CKC_uuOuD


[D!O8OQD] D8 Id I8C! OI IDC DIOD OI u Ca DDCI
OO! ICCOHCulOD. DC CCCIOD OD HWudDC8
lDC QOslD_ O I lO_CIDC WlD uH CCDCDI OI I8

C
CO_, QODI8 IO l8 ICu 3DOlOD. DC j u_OHDIOu_DI
lO CCuulOH UaH] O lDC CulC_O\C8 O HWudDC88
uH IDus CODDulCd l8 [uI IO IDC OC8IuClOD O D
WuOHCss O CuD8 O 8uCD u COHlIudClOH PlCI lDC
u!uC O IDC OOu_CO8 ICVOuIOD CIU3D], I
DsIO O DWuIODC88 DCCuUC, IO ls hsI Ou] OH
7
2
lH Hs|OI] O! ls OOWHa! HC !Css QOWCrI |DC suO
j CCl CCOUCs , lHC UOIC thc Qhcrc WHCH DC sC-
COHsIOus!] COH!CssCO JI80! IO O0 IDWaIODC88, 8HIID
|O J J8lJCI QoDl thc _\CJlCI OCCOUC8 |H |CUQ|-
ton O\ HWaIOHCss lO QIOC!JU lsC! aDO lHIO lsC!
OHlO lHal 8JDC DarC| O HCH | s |CIIO CIU
HO OCJ!! H\dHCss O0COU08 a VJ!C JDd a QO88C8
8OH OCHHO hch | cntcchcs IsC JH | 8
suItlOU8 OVCCOU O rccton t Occocs
CrC

aarO8 nI

HlUarC O! IHC u08l0lC WOO O HC


UCI OHOOC\, WHOC COu|CIQa\| s lO C C CI8 lCD
lIJ! Ha HaH. HJlCC\ aHls |O rC aO8O-
IUl0y QUI0 IIOU L0 O0H8 O! CJlOD s J8tCO
OHO HC 8u CCI J8 a r lrOutC Hus |HC suOj Cl
OCOC JH OOj C|H |HC 8CCOHd dCCC JD lDay HC
DJ8 QrOOuCl O OHsOalOH IOU |Ha| OuO D
I!K08 C

aI8 CaD CJ!! Ou IOIHCI JDO 8 l Ou CH


OC a KIDg |O lHC HOlOIOus QOVCIl] WHH 8 lHC Cal
DJIO _!CaU OI lHC sQI |.
hsc QH!OsOQHCIs KC c_C! JDO 0IKc_aJI
WDO lCs|CO lO |HC HHaQQ] 8IaIC OI COHsCOsHCss !OI
|sC!, uHOCIslOOO HWaIOHCss H !HC W|D rotetant
lIaO|OH CssCHla] as HC_a|OH O lDC 8O CCl, a8
ICQClaHCC. DC HHCI|OI8 WDO O 8C_hl OI DaHO
CDuD_CO uDHJQQ] COHsCOu8HCs8 H|O DQQ HOD
OaC|C OHC, QICsCIVC OH! |HC UlCO sCII_DlCOus
HCs8 WDCD CC! 8CHsCO u HuHd\CO CaI OCOIC
a8CsU. DC] C!CaH8C HWaIdHCss O lDal CCUCHl
WDC COHIaH8 ls lIulD, O C!UDalH_ sCICOD,
H WCD lHC C_O DCCOUC8 lIaH8QaICHl lO I8C a8 u
QCC0 O hc WOIO. HsICaO, lHC C_O QO8I IsC 38
H_DI lDaD |DC WOIO aDO OCCOUC8 8uDClO lO lDC
WO\ QICCsC] DCCausC oI hs DC DaIOCH0 HWaIO

_
DC88 O lOOu] OOC8 l8 O QuII], WDCD Du8 8uQ
[O8CO] DCCD DCU8DCO D] OHIC CCUHI8. Pl Cu8l H
tD8 IC_3IO lDC Ou|8CI O CODICDQOI] OHIOO_] CO
CC8 WlD IDC CuI O HuIODC88 . DC IClICuI O
OlOO_] IOU lDC COuI8C O IDC WOIO 8 u!8O u ICIICuI
IOU lDC CDQICu COHlCD| O 8uDj CC|Vl]. H u Cu8
8Cu] CD_DlCHCO uIIIuOC, uDI lO uH uDIu_OD8lC
8 tuDCC lOWuIO lDC COHCCQl O IDC DuIO uHO 8CQu
I3lCO OuI IDC UQICu 8UDjCCI, WDCD Wa8 OCaI WID
D] Q8]CDOO_], u8 ODC lDH_ 3UOH_ OIDCI8 .

C O8
lD_u8DCO I IOU IDC II3H8CCDOCHlu 8uOjCCI, uDd 8uD
8uUC I uDOCI |DC CuICgOI] O Cuu8u|]. V|D u IC
CI8C 8 |IC88 ID8 8OOWCOO] IDC QuIHO8 O lDC HWaIO
OHC8 . DC] luKC QCu8uIC |!C\ sO\H OI Q8CHOO
W|DOul, H |!C UuHHC\ O aH| , a\H_ lO |IaH8
CCHOCHla uHVCI8a] l8 u!C_CO OO|H lHH IHC
DOVOUu! QC\8OH. DC] Cu8H H OH |!C Q\O| O OOlD
8O I O 8QCuK. C laOOOs O IHC DWuI OHC8, WDCH IC
8u| IOU IDCI uHUO8I] lOuId HslHClUa! IVC8,
DCCOUCUOIC\O D VIluCOlHCuCllHaIl!C8UOj CCl
DCCODC8 aH CCUCDl O CXlC\Hu!l]O] V\IUC O I
Q8]CDO_Cu OCICIHu|OH.
DC8C IuDOO8 C8QCCu] Iu_C H u8QCI8 OOOK8 .

ul H lDC 8uQQIC88OD O ICu 8uI8uCIOH, H IDC


|I3H8QO8IOH O 8ulu|OH HIO u UC\C HDCI ODC,
WDCIC lDC 8C 8uI8C8 IDC 8C, u O lDC 3ulDCDIC8,
CCD lDC CuI] COC__CI, CODCOC. C IOO HCuOC8 IDC
g6. Cf Immanuc! Kant, Kth dcr rcncn Vcrunjt, B z t.
(Oc Amphb0/c dcr Kccxonsbcgrc ) . [ngIIsh trans!adon
by . K. 8mith, Crtuc oj Purc Hcoson ( Ncw YorX, t g6g ) . ]
gy. Cf. )aspcrs, Pscho/ogc dcr Vc/tonschouungcn, d e
Be t gzg ) , pp. tz
+
term pIeasure capacity under the categoies of In
authenIcity, andIn Sein und Zei/ he arms aspers
statement that a sychoIogy of worIdviews Is by no
mens a psychoIogy ` The noIess-di sgusting practIce
oI psychoanaIytIc I anguage, hammering enj oyment
capacity Into Its patIents thout regard for what Is
to b enj oyed, is sImpIy tured upside down Bu If
inwardness is neither an exIstet thing nor n aspect
-ncmatterhow generaI-ofthesubj ect, theni t turn
nto an Imaginary uantIty. If eveiy existent thIng
eventhepsychic, Is cut outfrom thesubj ec , then the
reainder is no Iess abstract than the ranscendentaI
subj ectinrespectto which the IndidaI sinardness,
as eistent, imagines itseIf so sueiior. I n he cl assi
texts of eIstehtiaIis as in that of the regaard-
Ian sickness unto death, existece becomes eIation-
shp to itseIf, under which heading nothing further
caneconceived. Itecomes , asitwre, an asoIutIed
moentof mediation, without any iegardIwhatIs
med ated andit pronounces a verdict, fio the very
bening, agast any phiIosophy of inwadnes s . n
the j argon, hnaIIy, there remains Irom iardness
onIy the most externaI aspect, that thInkI oneseII
superIor which marks peopIe who eIect themseIves .
the cIaim of peopIe who consider themselves bIessed
simpIy by virtue oI beIng what they e. itot an
eot, this cIaim can turnInto an etstcIam, or to
aredInessto attachItseIItoeIiteswhIch the IckI
ves the axtoinwardness. symptomothe transo
b. Hcidcggcr, Bcng ond 1mc, . Ob.
Q , . 2Q_ , and ccOia . _qb H.

mationoIInwardnessIs the beIiefofinnumrabIe peo-
pe that they beIong to an extraordinary IamiIy. The
j argon oI authenticity, which seIIs seIIdentity as
somethig higher, projects the exchange Iormua nto
thatwhichimagines thatitisnotexchangeabIe , Ioras
a bIoIogIcaI IndividuaI each man resembIes himseIf.
Thatis whatisIeft over after the removaI oI souI and
immortaIity from the ImmortaI souI .
The over-aII appearance oI the immediate, which
comes to a head in Inwardness-now mereIy a speci-
men-makes it unusuaIIy hard Ior those who are
steadiIy exposed to the j argon to see through It. In its
secondhad primaIess they actuaIIy hnd something
IIke cotact, coparabIe to the feeIing In the fraud-
Ient atIonaI ociaIistcommunity wich Ied eo-
pIe to beIieve that aII kIndred comrades e cared for
and none Is Iorgotten permanent metaphysicaI sub-
vention he sociaI basis for this Is cear. Many in-
stances oI medIatIon In the market economy, whIch
have strengthenedthe cosciousness oI aIienation, are
put asIde in the trasition to a pIanned conomy the
routes between the whoIe and atomied indiduaI
subj ects are shortened, as iI the two extremes were
near to one another. The technicaI progress o! the
means oI communication runs paraIIeI to this. hese
mesespeci aIIy radio and teIevIsIon-reach the
eoIe atIage Insuca way thattheynoticenone oI
the InnmerabIe tecnicaI IntermediatIons the voIce
o! te anoncr resounds in the home, as hough he
were present and knew each IndviduaI . Thc an
oncers technicaIIy and psychoIgIcaIIy created arti
cIa Ianaethe modeI o whic is the reeI
0Dl!] CODDO0Dla! ! W000Iu_uD8 OI l0 8uD0
SIIQ0 u8 lH0 j uI_OD OI uHlH0HlCl] H0 ClCDWOIO
IOI u!! IH 8 8 0DCOHDl0I H0 DOOK !]D_ D0IOI0 H8
WHCD CODC0ID8 l80!I WlH 08H8, 8 OI u V0I] DH8u
KHO. I OO08 DOl DI0DO lO D0 u OO_IuQH], u I0 OI
08u8, D IHC H8Hu! 80D80, DHl lO !0uO H8 IO D 08l0D-
Iu 0DCOuD0I WlH 088
, , ,

OlIII0O 0!!0I, IH0


!]IC8I, OH WHOD lH0 uQO8I!08 OI HuIDOH OOK0O
OOD CODO08C0DOD_!], WIOI0 u QO0D Cu!0O D
CODI0I, u QO0D OI WODO0II! C!uD8D088.

HC QO0I
uDXQ0CI0O] D00I8, D IH0 WOO8, D0I
WH0D 30DC Hq HC3Y! 0D_S 0I,
WY3]QC0 WlC] n SC3Y 3D0 H3l,
!Y3DS0YDCG D] 3 _00CD SDDC.
bHC 3S 30DC ]C _ICClCU HC
H3YG] 3UC SH] H ]3SSID_ 0D,
DCC3USC 1 H3U DCVCY S6CD HCI S0
D0DC, SlI, 3DG DC3U!IU .
D0 D8l !_Dl 8 IHul OI 8uOD088 , uDO IIOD l lD0
OIO 0DCOuDl0I I0C008 I8 QOW0I. Hl H8 8uOC88
_ulH0I8 lO l80!I l0 I00!D_ OI O0QaIlHI0, WHCH 8
QO0IIH! uDO DCaQaD!0 O! uDH0OuI0O 0I088OD |
O08_DulC8 DOlHD_ OlH0I lHuD, ul0 !l0I!, lH0 IuCI
lHal lH0 lWO Q0OQ0 D0l 0uCH OlH0I WlOI uD] HI0H-
IOH Hul lD0 uOH Hu8 uCCOD!8H0O W lH lH0 WOIO
0DOHDl0I, uDO WHul CuD D0V0I u_uID D0 I0QuI0O,
O. IChtL jI !/3I0UISS0H8Ch0jl, 1 QO, O) fB
ann )0SUS .
I . t. BIn ss 10S 10U|0D O0S (OO0S H O0r )qTR
L0IIjI0O 0|/0IS, n. . ss ranr a M. 1 Q_Q } , [Q.
dQ. , 2OO .

7
docs morc ham to cIIcrs pocm than a Iactoy cvcr
dId to a I andscapc. ncountcr Is aIIcnatcd rom ts
tcraI contcnt andIs practIcaIIy madc usabIc through
thc IdcaIIIng oI that contcnt crc arc scarccIy cn
countcs IIkc cIIcr s any Iongcrat thc most tcrc
arc appoIntmcnts madcy tcIcphoncn a soccty n
whIch It Is csscntIaIIy accIdcntaI cn mcn gct to
nowonc anothcr andn hIhatonc oncc my
caIIcd Ic consttIy mcIts aay morc ahd orc,
and, whcrc It maIntans ItscIf at aI , Is consdccd
somcthIng tobcmcrcIytoIcratcd utfoprccscIythIs
rcason cncountcr Is prascd, Ianguagc has smcarcd
organIcd contacts wIth ImInous pant , bccausc thc
IIght has gonc out hc accopanng spccchgcsturc
Ithatcyctocyc, asIs thc waywIth dIctators ho
ccr Ioos dccp Into somcodys cyc Is opIng to
hypnotIc hm, to wIn powcr ovcr hIm, and aIays
wIth a thrcat rc you rcaIIy faIthfuI to mc no bc
aycr no udas sychoIogIcaI Intcrprctaton of tc
argon shouId dIscovcIn thIsIanguagcgcsturc anun-
onsIous homoscxuaI transIcrcncc, and shouId In
that way aIso bc abIc to cxpIaIn hc patrIachs cacr
ccctIon o psychoanaIys . c manIc cyctocyc
gIancc Is rcIatcd to acIaI InsanIty It wants a coh
spIratrIaI communIty tc ccIng that wc arc oI thc
samc nd It strcngthcns cndogamy hc vcry dcsIc
to purIy tc word ccountc, ahd to rcnsc It
throgh strIct usagc, ouId ccomc toug unavoId
aIc tact agrccmcnt a asIc cIcmcnt of tc aon,
aIongIth purIty and prmaIncssn cIcmcht of tat
argon from hc t wouId IIkc to cscapc at as
donctocncountcr s atsc a pcccnccd osccn
COuDl0I8 HCH COHDl0IuCI lD80!V08 D0CuH80 lD0]
uI0 OI_uD0O, IH80 0DCODI0I8 IO HCH gOOO W!
DH8DOO D0DuOI uHO CuDD] O08I0 IOI QOW0 II0-
!08! 0XHOI H8, u0 8HQ!] COV0I8 IOI 8ODluH0OH8
uCIOD8 IHuI uV0 D0COH DQO88D!0 0O!0 COD8O!0
ID080!V08, OI uI0 D0H_ COH8O!0O, D] lH HDg HuI
8O0lHg Hu8 uI0uO] D00D OD0 uDOHI HuI 8 OQ-
QI088D_ IH0D 0D H0] Iu! uDOu l 0I8uIOD
ulI HuDg D0H u D0uD8 O D0CODDg 0uI uDOHI
8O0lHDg, D0COD08 uD 0DO D l80I uDO HD8lII0
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IIO I. H0 8HIQ!u8 H H0WOIO0HCHHI0IlH0 8U_-
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WD IHO80 OIO0I0 IO gulH0I CODV0I80 O_0lH0IlHuI
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HC0 Hul OIO D0uDl u 8CKD088 H0 uIOD !u!!8
DuK OD IDuI u8 IDOugH IH0 DOVOuu! 8 I0I08! I0
uI lH0 8uD0 I0 H8 lIOHD!0 l D0g8 IOI car|as Dul uI
IH0 8uD0 lD0, IOI H0 8u0 O! l8 HuDuD 0880C0,
0XIC808 IIIOI 0I0 OD0 8 0XQ0Cl0O I O HO0I8IuO u
IIu8C0DO0DI u! QOW0I HC I0QuI0 lHul OD0, u_uD
uCOIODg lO IH0 uI gOD, 8HOH!O Q0IC0V0 l0 COC0ID
H0 uICHuC 8HQ0I8l lOH, WHCH 8 8l!! 0XQ!Ol0O lOOu]
D] IH 0Q8IO!uI] IOIDu!u HOD_ HOl IO Hu0 u8K0O D
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7

to ocr oncs scrvIcs to thc othcr wthout rcmuncra
tIon or at Icst to putos tImc atthc othcrs dIsposaI
In thc cpcctatIonn mattcr how vagucthat aII
that wIII somcday bc rcpaId scc aII mcn nccd aII
mcn hc crmancoccrn howcvcr voIvcd from thc
capItaIIst cchangc prIncIpIc at a stagc In whIch thIs
prIcIpIc was stIII domIt whIIc thc IIbcraInorm oI
cuIvaIcncc had bccn shattrcd o dyamI Is thc
IInguIstIc charactcr oIthc argonas a whoIc IIt tha
bccomcs dIsgustIng whIch was by no mcans aIways
n hc cncountcrs whcrc thc agon prattIcs and
oIwhIch ItprattIcs ItsIds wIth thatwhIchItaccuscs
y thc word cncountcr namcIy thc ovcradmInIs
tcrcd worId. t accommodatcs Itsc to that worId
rougharItuaIoInonaccommodatIon. vcnthcHItIr
dIctatorshIp woocd Ior conscnsus It was hcrc that It
chccdIts mass basIs InaIIy thc scIfcmpIoycd ad
mInIstratIon wants at cvcrymomcnt, undcr thc cond
tIns oI IormaI dcmocracy provc that It cIsts Ior
thc ac oI thc admIIstratcd whoIc. hcrcIorc shc
macs ycs at thc argon and It at hcr thc aIrcady
IrratIonaI scIIsucIcnt authorIty
hc argon povcs ItscII as a pIccc oI thc ncgatIc
pIrIt oI thc tImc It InstItutcs socIaIIy uscIuI work
wIthIn thc tcndccy acady obsrvcd by a cbcr
thc tcndcncy Ior admInIstratIons to cpand ou ovcr
6z. Jhc autors ownwork taughthm about thc changc n
functon. Pothng n thc h/O$O]h6 d6t H6U6H U$h, whch
was wrttcn whcn hc was st!! n Amcrca, warncd hm aganst
cOncc. ` nI a Gcrman crtuc pointcd out to hm thc
bigotry of thc word. tvcn hc wh dctcsts thc j argon cannot bc
safc rom s contagon. Ior ths rcason onc shoud fcar t a
hc orc.
B O
WHuI IH0 COD8O0I u8 IH0I CuIuIu OODu. HCI0 uI0
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SC0DC0, uDO QH!O8OQH]. H0 uI0 u!IuO O D0_ DOI
D, O! D0D_ OI, uDO IH0 WO!O K0 IO 8H IH0
u!uDC0 WIH u KDOI0O 8QCCa!0O 8QII, IOu_D WIID-
OuI D0D_ DO0O IOO _I0u! WIH IH0 OI0I D ID0I
uCI uDO 0Q0I0DC0. ! uD Obers/aJ/Jire//0r aO-
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j u_OD. D8 8D0!I0I8 HD !IOD IH0 O8a_00D0 Iu8K O!
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D

I8 0I DuIuIC, I u!WuS uDl08 IH0 uQ0IDC0 OI
a uD80DI CODCI0I0088 WIH IH0 0DDODD_ I IHuI
CODCI0I0D088. I ID0I0 W0I0 DOIuDCIODu 00O IOI IH0
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Da0DCCOD0 a 80CODOaD_uu_0IHuIO! 0 !a_ua_0
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DOII08QOD8D!0 I aDI0a8OD, uI_0S Q0OQ0 H H0 8D-
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u O0O!O_Cu! I0Cu O! ID0 QuIa!D Qu!l OI
OCu! !HHCIOD8 H0I HOIIOI 8 DaO0 Q080I IO u8
D a!K8 OI] aD_uu_0, WHCH 8 I8C a DQ0I0
CDIIaI] lO D0 j aI_D. bOC0I]8 I0_u!aI] O0DC0
o
ccoc crassIy angIIe o th peopIc whcn hey arc
oIIgcd o rcucs somehIng Irom thc InacccsIbIc
ohpIcces oI hc admIstratIon. Ie thesc mouth
pIcce hc argon speaks dIrccty to them wIthou
Icng he respond. n addIon I taIs thc Into
hInIng thathcmanbehInd the counter IsreaIIy he
an whom hIs namc pIatc, rccentIy roduccd pre
scnts hIm asbeIng atetIy, the saIvatonIormuIasoI
hc argon are those oI powcr, borrowed Irom thc ad
InItratIvc and IcgaI hIerarchy oI authorIty
hc ureaucratIc Ianguage seasoned wth authcn
tIcIy, Is thcreIore no mereIy decadcnt Iorm oI the
approprIatc phIIosophIcaI Iaguage butIs arcadypre
Iorcd In the ost notabIe tes oI that phIIosophy
HeIdeggcrs avorIte rst O! aII tha has Its roots as
much InddactIc procedure asIn a artcsIan rstand
cn Icads thoughts aIong o a Icash, In thc spIrI oI
phIIosophIcaI syscmatIaIon as II In a busness
agcndu, one adorns whatever s ou oI order by
the throtIIng schcma u bcIore we . . Iurther
IundamcntaI IvcstIgaons havc to be undertakcn
DS CD3[lCI, m WDCD WC SD3 DOCIl3KC lDC CX[C3
OD O CD_ 3S SUCD lD3l S l S3y lDC CD O
lDC lDCIC DIC3KS U[ DlO lWO [3IlS P. lDC CXSlCD-
l3 ODSllUlOD OlDC lDCIC . lDC CVC1yO3y CD_ O
lDC `lDCIC 3DO lDC3_ O3SCD.
uch pcdanry stIII propagdIcs Ior an aIIegcdy
adII phIIosophIcaI reccIon whIch Itprcscnts as a
oIId cIcnc hc pedntry, In addIIon, Is repaIdy a
6. Hcidcggcr, Bcng ond Jmc, _. 1 1 .
d
sde reuIt that t ImpIy never arrIve at what ph
Iosphyprmses hataII goebac to userI In the
coure oI hoc cxtensIve preIImar cosIderaton
one eaIy Iorgct the man thng thogh crItIcaI re
cctIon wuId rs t come to Ip wth the er phi-
/osophcncs that adIouncs pushes aong In ront
o It. ut even the asrto that practcaI cons
uece e contemptIbIe, whIch has Its dIStIIhed
preIstory In erman deaIsm, cannot d Ithout thc
cIevernes oI stratey he admItratIvc oce In
aas worId smIIarIy shIr decIon, hIch then
unounded suddeny catch up wIth theIr vIctIms
he recIprcy oI the peronaI an

apersnaI I n thc
aron the apparenthumanIatIon

I the thIngI thc


actuaI turngoIman nto thIng aII thI the Ium
nou cpy o that admInItratIve sItuatIoh Ih hIch
bot abtract utIce and ob ectIve proceuraI orders
appear uder the uIse o acetoace decIIos t Is
ImposIbIe to orget thc Image of thoe men Irom
thc earIy perIod o ItIers rue n them admIntra
tIon and teror Iouhd themseIves sIbIy oIned the
IIder oI document above, ad beIow the I boo
Thc argon oI authentIcIty preserves somethIng oI
thIs mageI nwords IIe commIsIon D sch words
there s caIuIated uncertaInty about te dIstIctIon
betecn somethIng admInstratIveIy arrangcdg ustI
or un ustIy and omethIng aboIuteIy cmmaded
beteen authorIty adscntIment.
he IncorporatIon oI thc word commIsIn Into
the agonmghthavebeenspedythcrto!thc
Quino L|cgic8 o! IIc who was onc oI the

ondcr
o! hc gn or years very ambIou lriU0/Jozcnl
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6q. Baincr Maria BiIkc, UD080I /0g0T ( PcW York,
n. d. ) , . 8.

6g. Cf. Bancr Maria BiIkc, L0I T6U6D L000hI0 0D00I0t
18l (Lcipzig, : g:

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[OLl3HCC D tDC CHO.
ow eerythIng Is assemIedhere thc Innermos
cocern, thetruedIaIogue, thIngsIn theIr authentIcIt,
th agueremInIscenceoIeIdegger, te cncounte

n anIntrahumanIeeI, the estIon for Is own s ae,


en the sIIghtIy anachronIstIc resere ry oI the
sIInt ma orIty he IongwInded ddess desIgnates
th prIcItIng notaIes In terms oI theIr IuhctIon
an sodIntes thewhoIe seechfrom teegInnIng
to n IntngIe dmIhIstraIe urose

hIIe wht
th seke Is Ing tremIhs unsecIed the ar
go rngs It to gh h cohcern s te orkIng
cIIe ] cIIng the IIseners eoIe In a par
tIcI nd etrrdIhry sehse hae to d wIth eo
pIe, I cn e gtered tht te su ecmatter Is tha
kIhd of humn IedershIp In whIch men re meeIy
thepretetIorIeadershIInIseIf To tIsIccurteIy
tted theIndesuctIIe phrse otthe ood of ma
ter aIIsm whIch IuIIIooded IndustrIaI Ieaders usu
aIIy Ituerae In those who are dependeht on the.
Tht Is the ground oI eIng oI the hIgher eIeent
the argon n Its sIIps oI the tongue te argon ac
nwIedges that admnIstrtIon Is Is esence The
Intahuman IeeI whIch Is supposed to contrIutc to
the reestabIIshment oI the hman cIImate, pIaces
the word eeI esIde Intrhuman, togeter wIt
e assocIatIon oI and tho, whIch has a socI
scIntIcasweIIasahomeychaacter TheI eeIs ,how
6Q. Lhtstan bchtza, Gatanzta cstanspraOha,

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1 Q6, _. 6, . 1 UO.
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OIDu!u gue /es grcn des pensees prmiennent du c0eur
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y2. Carccss fotonc momcnt, Hcdcggcrsbows bs bandn
thc actatus on Idcnttct und L[6r6DZ:
But Ict s assumc !or a momcnt tbat dcrcncc s an cIcmcnt
addcd by our rcprcscntaton. Jhcn tbc ucston rscs . addcd
o what Jbc answcr s, to tbc cIstcnt. AI rIght. Bu hat
docs tbs mcan~thc cxstcnt Vhat cIsc docs t can but
uch a tbng as s? Jbus wc cntcr tbc suposcd addIn, thc
conccpton o! dcrcncc undcr bcng. But Bcng' says tscIf .
bcng whcb s cIstcnt Vbcrc wc wantcd to takc dcrcncc
as supposcd addtIon wc aIrcady awas nd what s cxstcnt
ad bcng n tncIr dcrcncc. It s thc samc story as Crmm's
faI taIc about tbc barc and thc bcdgchog . ''I'm hcrc aIcady.
( Hcdcggcr, dcD|t0t uDd L[ctcDZ j!!IIngcn, 1 g , p. 6o. )
Vbat s sad bcrc about so-caIIcd ontoIogcaI dccncc by
mcans o! a rathcr prImtvc bypost asIs o! thc copuIa, s sad
n ordcr t sb!t bc ontIogIcaI racy o! dcrcncc nto
bcng tscI!. Jhs s actuaIIy HcIdcggcr's mcthod. JnIs mcthod
rotccts tscI! by consIdcrIng pos sIbc contradIctIons as cIc
mcnts that navc aIrcady bccn consIdcrcd In thc partIcuar
bcss. Jhcsc arc !aIsc syIIogIss whch any IogIcIan couId
cbcck. Jbcsc !aIsc syIogsms arc prcctcd nto, and tbs
ustncdby, tbc ob cctIvc structurc o!that at whch tbc tnought
ams.
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pHIIoophy In whIch 8uch u0tOn appcar. n I
dec, thc conccp oI cuIturaI pHIOoQhy Is j 8t as
rIdIuIous a IDuI oI 8ocu pHIoOpHy. H0 DIuIOD
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tD0 V8OD O!QD0DOD0DuDIO uI0u8 O!8Ub Ctal0
ud]O8! CVCH DIO IDO80 of D0uICH] IhD uICs .
H tc 8IIuCu0 OI u!!_0O !0V0!8 tH0 pIac0 of tC
I8 uUO8I uDoOubIy a 0IIv0O ODC or thI rcon
a !O8OQH] DCD 0D Oy It80I Iu8tidIOu8y in tIs
spH0r0 ouId be 8 utI8h0O IH that whIch oIs
patrD0 as 0aym. ID0 8uH0 IOK0D l O!O
avoId thaI WDCD Hu8 D00D HuDO0O dwn DO0 IH0
name I cOD8tItuII0 proD0D8 , WHCD, of ouIse , OO
onIy e tubOIH!y gnoI0O y uch a QDo8pHy. eI
Og_0I K00Q8 IHuI D DDO e I IamIIar on IDC oc
han wIth HsserIs schcma of phIIosophIcIeIde c
dIsIpIInes, and, on thc ther, oIdIscIQIIDcshIch rc
dIrcctcd toward obj ccts both oI whIch scIpIIneshc
meItd ogehcr wIth thc IdeaIIstIc crItIcIsm IcIca
tIon But an ovcrtone oI thc word cuIturaI-phIIosohI
caI annotIaII tobc hcardI cdcggc. O deIames
that hIch stIcks IIe a parasIte to what Is sccondary
to IIc whIch has aIrcady bcen produccd. c acts
pccIsD toward any Iorm oI medatn, cvn In the
D whIchIsItscIIcsscntaIIymcdIatIon. Te oI
cIImate of thIs hostIIty to cuIturaI DIosopy Is tt
acadmIc cIImute ID whcD thcy admonIshe the ew


Ccorg SImmcI, on thc grounds that, at Icast In Intcn-
tIon, hc absorbed hImscII In that concretIon whIch thc
systcms werc Iorcvcr onIy promIsIng. Thus he trans-
grcsscd a tabooI tradItionaI phIIosophywhIch busIcs
ItseI,IInotwIththcIundamentaIthcmesofccIdcntaI
mctaphysIcs, at Icast th the ucstIon of their pos
sIbIty. rItIcIsm oI the IImItatons oI cuIturaI phI
Iosophy Is vcngcIuIIy IimItcd. The chcIcaIIy purc
conccpt oIphIIosophy, as thc Inury Into an unruIncd
essencc, undcrncath that hIch has onIy bccn madc
and posItcd by mcn, Is orth just as IIttIe as that
IImtcd cuIturaI phIIosophy. Thc subj ect area of thc
purchasno advantagc over cuIture, whethcr thIs purc
csscncc bc consIdcrcd as a truthfuIIy phIIosophIcaI
cIcmcnt, as somcthIng mcrcIy exIanatory, or as a
supportIng cIcmcnt. !t I s, rather, Iikc cuIurc, a dctcr
natIon oI rccctIon hIIc spccIaIstIc cuIturaI phI-
Iosophy absoIutIzcs thc Irm oI that whIch has bc-
comc, agnst that on whIch It Iccds, fundamentaI
otoIogy cmbczzIes Its own cuIturaImedIatIon, InsoIar
a t shIcs away Irom a spIrIt whIch Is concrctIzcd In
obcctIvIty. hatcvcr thc ossIbIIcs of naturaI phI
Iosophy may bc nowadays , prImaIncss now has thc
s amc pIacc the phIIosophIcaI atIas In whIch naturc
wa oncc rcstcrcd ThIs prImacss Is as much a
part, as not, oI that whIch IundamcnaI ontoIog
dcspIscs as cuIturc. uIturcIncIudcs cvcn thc matcrIaI
rastructurc of socIcty, n whIch uman work and
hough arcrootcd, d thc onIymcasbywhIchwork
bccomcs rcaI socIctaI wor. Is docs not mcan that
th contrast to c suprastructuc bccocs any Icss
hap. hosophIca naturc has to bc rcgardcd as hIs-
g

lOI], 3HO DsIO] 3s H3IuIC. DC CODIIsl DCIWCCH
[IUa! CXQCICHCCs 3HO CuIuI3 CXQCICHCC@ HCH
uHOO! HVCDICO ad h0c OI COIg, W3s OCOOg] H
IDu DdsI O IDC suQI3sIIuCIu\C, OCVsCO OJ IHC QuI
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3H OCO!Og]. DC CaICgOIC8 WDCD DC QOQuaI2Cd,
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O lDC )ugcnJsti|. !OCH I_HI! UadC uH O! uHdO!
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IuI, IO WHCH, DCdCHIa Ds OH QH!OgCJ O
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CXCICHCC O sODCIDHg dC\VCO uI IHs CaHHOI OC
3VOOCd JHO Das IO OC aKCH HIO COHsCOsHCss H
lCuHVCIsa!! DCd3ICd WO!O CVC\]IDHg uQCJuHCCd
H Q\Ua\] ICIU8 s Cu! Iu\a!!] QICOIUCd. VHOCVC\
WaIs IDC OIHCI as IO sIaII ID lHC UUHCHCC O
Cu!IuIC, H OIdCI IO O\C3K OuI IDIOugD I. uI uHOa
CIa OHIOOg] g!aO] sQaICs IsC ID3l , QJClCHO
gI Has a sIaIlHg QOHl sODCWHCIC OuIsC H ID3l
Wa suCH OHIO!Og] suCCuUOs IO Cu!IuI3 COJ|ODs
3 lDC DO\C IHC] ICCuI 3s sOC3 asQCCls O IDaI OH
lOOg] OWH QuII]. D!OsOQD] HVO!VCs ICI ! IDC
. L. radrIch CundoI!, Gc0rgc, d ad. , BeIn, : QO )
Q. 2bQ.
9 9
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lDC OIC_IOuDO DC O3!OHCss O lDCI OIOCI, lDC au-
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suCD as IDOsC OClWCCH IDC QIDaI]sCDOO ICaCDCI
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DCIWCCH lDC OCa! OQIDsD O lDC OC3O] WaI Da-
CDC aO IDC QDOsOQDCa IOWDH_ OI aI IOO auIO
CI3C CHIDusasIs, WDO WCIC OCCQ] 3IlIaClCO IO CHg
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DaVC alCu COHsCQuCHCCs H lDC OHIOO O auIDCD-
lCl] WD3l lDs OHIO!O_] 3I sI OaHs DIO IDC sQDCIC
O CuIuI3 DCOaIOD I DOW sDOVCs OICCl OH HlO
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O[QCO 3s lDC WOIO s D 3 gOO] OOO O HOHsCHsC,
lDC 3CH OID O aDguagC. aI Iaus CODQICssCO
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1 O O
OD lHCC IO KCCQ UCH aW0] !OU Ha| s O! -
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WHCD H IuID s HsIOC0! H HaIuC lHC DIaHg!D
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H HCD lDC OOj CClC sQIls COVCJCd O IDC CCOHODC
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QuaI O! lHOu_DI. Hs COH!usOH Has 0suD aHd CaH
OC OlICD d O! WC dO OI HCCd IO OCDOaH I aHd
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CCg_C gHI QCCCCs lHC aOsI0CIHCss O! CH0IIC
as uCH, WHCD Has CUICd IsC! O! 0H] C!aIOHsD
IO ls COHICHI OuI !IOU IDC aOCaDI 0OsIIHCss O!
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OU] IDC CXQCHdluC O! 0dVCIIsCUCHIs OsaQQC0CO
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d. Ibd.
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lDC HCWsQJQCI COUQ3HCs . uI COug_CIs CI|uC
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tO saythat Js, lmusthaVC atts dIsQOsa aD authCD!JC
aDd LCh d8COsCdDCss O! IsC!! D that CasC ODCs :Cl
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S 3H_u3gC l8C 8QC3K8 OIl, 38 8COOD C!8CWDCIC
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l3C ICsQOH8DI OI 3D]lDHg
DC thCy s thCLC aOD_sJdC CVCLyWhCIC, . . Oul
D suCh a maDDCL that t has aWays stOCH aWay WhCD-
CVC: LasCD QICssCs !OL a OCCsOD Ct OCCausC thC
thC QLCsCDts CVCL d_mCCt aDd dCCsOD as Its WD,
Jt OCQIVCs !hC QaItICua LasCJD O! ts aDsWCIaIIt.
hC thC CaH, as t WCLC, maDa_C tO haVC `thCm COD
staDt DVOD_ t. t CaH OC aHsWCLaOIC !O CVCIthJD_
DOst CasH, OCCausC It s DOt sOmCODC WhO DCCds tO
OCh !OL aDythD_ t Was aWas thC thC WDO
yg. bd. , p. zoB.

dIU Il, 3DU q6l Il C3D D6 S 3IU lD3l Il D3S D6CH `DO 0D6.
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lICulH_ aVCIJ_CHCss .
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sguarc bs CUHSCICHCC. ]
8z C1GC__C1, 6Dg 0Dd 116, QQ. i 6q 6g .

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lO lhC CQuVaCHCC !OIU, lhC CIlQuC O! QO!lCa CCOD
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uHd dClCIUHCs lhC ICalOHsHQs O ls DCUOCIs.
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8ClHC0S out OI 3 pIecc O 1hc Jea oj thc Cerman
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D nst nrIch
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DUS I LCULC C IDC QLOCSSL ID3I l DC D3OC CC3L,
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DC 3D DVOK_ 3DO 3W3KC_ OLCC, D IDS SCDSC
n 3 organIatIonaI, uncommonIy ontIc context such
entcnces use the argon o! authentIcIty In just the
ay In whIch HeIdegger portrays ItIn Cc1 unJ Zc:
as a characterIstIc eature o! IdIe taI The authorIty
to whIch In that ay the argon obIIes ItseII Is no
other than the authorIty oI the eIdeggerIan phIIoso-
phy ItseII. That In the reIevant chapter the author
onstantIy and rhetorIcaIIyrcpeats, t Is no ncroach
ent, Is meant to hIde precIseIy such u encroach-
ent nameIy, the oathnrIch hImseII uses the
ythIcaI wordon the socaIIed uestIon oI eIng.
ctIn the same breath the author concedes that no
denItephIIosophy couId todaybepIaced atthecenter
cthe nIcrsIy t Is as though the omInous uestIon
o!eInere beycndrItIcIsm. oeerutIy spu
he estIon oI eIng togcther Ih the chatte about
ha best be sent aay entIrcIy nrIch sIIIuIIy
B. Lrst Anch, Oc Idcc dc dcutschcn Uncrsdt und
dc Kcj dcr dcutschcn Uncrtdtcn, ( OaDstadt, t g6o ) ,
t tq.
1
Iatccs onto hc a that, In ormuIas IIc thato tc
uctIon coccIng thc ound ocIng, tc Innoccnt
stIIIhcar thc soundorcsIstancc agaInsth dIspIrItcd
atmsphcrcIn whIch tc umanItIcs arc today carrIcd
on human rIght o studcnts thcIr ncd or tc cs-
sctIaI, bccomcs bIurrcd In thc argon, In thc cI-
dcggcrIan csscnccmythoIogy o! cIng. hc spIrIt
hIhtcymIssIn hcunIvcrsitIcsIssIIctIycocrtcd
Into thc monopoIy o! an structIonaI systm whIh
or Its part, rIcd hcrcsy aganst thc spIIt whcn It
apparcdIn c orm orcason
sIn thc occptoIIdIcchattr, so In ttocadI
ncss to hand, wIch Is portraycd wIth symaty, and
whIh Is thchIIosophIcaI anccstrcss o shcItrcdncss
surIng cxpcrIcncc Is Intcrpctd Into Its opposIc.
t smc hIstorIcaI stagcs of agrIcuItrc, and sImpIc
wascconomy, productIon was ot adIcaIIy subordI-
natcd to ccangc and was ncacr to thc wrcrs ad
onsumcrs and thcIr cIatIonshIps to on anothcr
cc not totaIIy rcIcd hc Idca of somctIn undIs-
grcd, undcIormcd, a Idca hIch has t to c
atIcd, ouId hardIy hac bccn ccatcd Itut a
corytracoIsuch caccondItIos aItogh or
Ion pcrIods they probabIy auscd morc IcdIatc
sucrIg tc thosc cxposcd to such cndItIons than dId
apItaIIsm oncthcIcss, IdcntIyIngthought, scooId
cchangc, brough thc dIcrcntI atcd d to tc
IdcntIty o! thc conccpt ad hocd u thIs oc In-
noccnt IdentIt. hat HcgcI and a In thIr youh
ondmncd as aIIcnaon and rcatIon, an aaIt
hIch arc sponacousIy unItcd today, Is what
cIdggcr crpcs ontoIogIcaIIy as c a nIs
I
torIcaIIy, and,InItsIunctIonasabeIngormoIaseIn,
as somethIngbodIIy. hcIdeoIogyoIreadInesstohand,
and Its counterpart, strIps ItseI bare In the practIce
o thosedevotees oI the musIcaIyouth moveent, who
swear to It thata properddIe Is oe that addIerhas
rIgged up Ior hImseI. cc the artIsan ors oI pro
ductIon have been oertaken by technoIo, and are
superuous, the IntImacy whIch adhered to them has
become as worthIess as the doItourseI movemcnt
The uunctIonaI seIbeg oI thIngs , theIr reedom
rom thecompuIsIonoIIdentIty,whIchthc domInatIng
mInd Imposes, wouId be utopIa. t presupposes the
aItcratIon oI the whoIe onethcIess, the mIdst oI
our aIIembracIng IunctIon contet every ontoIogicaI
IIght on the remns oI socaIIed readIness to hand
gIIds that contet or Its sake the j argon o authen-
tIcIty speaks as though It were the voIce o men and
thgs thatare there Ior theIr own sake. hrough thIs
manoeuver, the j argon becomes aII the more a Ior
cthers, somethIngor pIanned andpedagogcaIIy deco
rated eectcontexts ndeed, the agncrIan

To be
erman means to do somethIng Ior Its own sake
cceIerated, In sIogan Iorm, the export o the erman
sIrIt. hatspIrIt competedsucessIuIIywIth the more
dvanced commodItythkIng o the est, through
the sIogans ImprImatur, whIch decIared that It was
nc commoty. That throws IIght on the artsycraItsy
cIementInthej argon. tprovIdesareugeorthe staIe
notIon that art shouId be brought bac to IIe, and
that thcre shouId bemore than art but aIsomorethan
ere sage he argo pursues artIsanshIp underthe

adow oI Industry as

areuy chosen asItIs cheap


O d
It gathes poducIons of kItschy II!ereformIng -
pus tatIIifhasuIdndrItseII, nd spae
th h hopIss tstIng groun of actaIition
nstad, Ianguage roIs p Its sIees d Its It be
nstood that rIght actIon, I n the rI gh pIac I
wot moe tan eectIon n that way a otempIa
tI attItude, wIthout any peceptIon o! he pI
whIch brIngs about cages smpathies a te moe
strIIngIy wIth he ere and now, the seIcIng o!
obIIgatIos pesentd wIthIn the gIen
eIdgg sees hImsIf forced, I n th naysi s of
curIosIty to IntImate somethIng of te hI toIcaI dy
naIc that necessarIIy dIssoIs statIc eItIonshIps
n toseratIonshIps the theory of eadIn to had
nourIshe tseIf he eas It to the gag to caII thsc
haI He sanctIons as an ontoIogIcaI possIIiy, tat
dIsstancIng whIc Is aIIowed by Its hyn tat
posIbIIty ta mn mIght raIs thmseIes abo te
mee ImmedIacy of te reproductIon of I o
IIe evertheIess, he sIIdes Into the deamIng o!
concIousness, whIch has been reIeased !om Im
prIsoment
3LC DCCOCS COHOCI tD tDC QOssOICs O tD SC-
1_ tDC WOIId mCLCy 3S t |oOks WD1C OHC uIICs ad
tKCS LCsI LasC sCCks WD3l JS 3 3W3 Q
OIOCL IO DH_ l COsC IO tsC!! B IDC W OOS
3SCD CIS lSC DC CaIICd aOH_ SOC D lDC
OKS O! tDC WOI!d D IDS kHd O! UCH_ I COHCCs
1ISC! WlD OCCOm_ Ld O! IsC as UCH_lDCWO!d
3Bd Ld O! Is UCH_ 3OH_bdC lD3t WhCD, H IDC COsCs
CLd3y aHHCL, s L3O-lOD3D
B. Hcdcggcr, Bcing ond 1mc, _. 21 .
I O _
DCH CUIOSl] D3S OCCOC ICC, DOWCVCI t COD
CCI8 t8C!lD SCCD_ 1Ol DOIOCI lO uDdCIstaD WH3l
8 8CCD lD3l 8 , lO COmC DlO 3 CD_ tOWaIds } DUl
D IOCI lO SCC. l SCCKS DOVCt O D OIOCI lO C3[
!LOm t 3DCW lO aDOtDCI DOCl]
I COCgCI, IDC a] IO ICC conscIousnes s QIC
CSIaO!SDO, HCVIaOC OuI I s as IIC CDDH IO
tDC DaH WDO S ICCO as aIC IDOsC WDO aC HaIJOWCO
IDCI C\CC o OutIC , those who dstrust, as atuI
O sDI], IDC DHO IDaI Is emancIpated !IOD QaXs
C CQuaICs CDaHCQaICO conscIousness wIth curIosIt.
S DaIICO lOWaIO CuOsI] s a!!CO IO Ds DaIICO IO-
W3IO DOO!I] OOID aIC CVCD DaDDCICO DIO thc DHO
D lDC IQC O!O s3]H_ sIa] H IDC countr and CaIH
OuI Vg DOHCS I!]. CHCIC Qs]CDOaHa]ss KHOS
lC C3SalOH lDICal 3_aHSl IDC CDOS SCXua HVCSl
3IOH IDC 3!C_CO!] Su[IaQS]CDOO_C! SIaHCC O IDC
OOS lS ID lD DIuIa! lD3lS HOHC O! ]OuI
uSCSS, OKCOH IDC CaslIaIO lDICaI . H lDC QuCs
OH O! CuIOSl] IDC lDHKC 3OuSCS lDKHg WIDOul
CuOSI lDC SuOj CCl WOuO ICD3H DQSODCO H 3
Ou IC[ClIOHCODQuSOD 3HO WOuO HCCI OQCH DD
SC!u[IO CICHCC. ICOuISC suCD aH CHgDICDDCHI
SDsHOI lDC WDO!C sIOI]. I s CQua!] uHlIuC that,
Ou_D COC_CIS aODOHlOHS 3OOuIIDCDC], IDa
SOCa SlaIC O! aaIS WDOsC S]DQIDs DC ICQIDaHOS
OS OCIICI l s OH] ID3l Ds OOj CCIOD IO CuIOSl]
lCDS !IOD Casa]H_ aI aD] QICC
CuLOl H3S DOtDD_ tO dO WlH DSCIVD_ CHlJtCs 3
WlD mVC!! at tDCm O OC 33CO lO
Bg. lbd.
1 1 O
thC [LDt O D0I uHdCIstaHdH_ s sOmCthH_ B WDICH
It has 1L HtCICst. 3IH61 l COHCC:Hs tsCt th a KDO
O! KHOB_, Out ust H OIdC: lO haVC KHOH.
n s Diqcrenz ess egeI cItIcIed cuIst

uch
moe 80uC_! ot as a state oI mI u a the
positIon oI te 00O coscIousness th regad to
the ded o ect
hC IVD_ sQI WhCh dWC!s JD a QhOsCQhy ICuLCs
DIdC tO C ICCasCd, tat t shOud DC bIOut tO DI1LD
D[ a ICatCd sQt. t Qasscs Dy, 3S 3D a1cH QCDcDOH,
ay tOICa COHduCt WDICD !IOn sOC Hd C! H-
tcICst maIChCs OIth tO 3D uHdcIstaHdL_ O! OQCHs
aBO t OOCs DOt :CVca Its HtCOI O thC VIDg 3[)1IL II
C sCCm JHOCICHt thal t nust sCIVc tO HaI

C tD
Ym3D_ COCCtOH O! munmCs aDd tDC _CDCIH haQs
O! 3CCIU6DI33 0Y ttsC!h3sOWCO 3W3q lHU_H th
haHOs CuS lO COCCl DC JCCC O KHOWCO_
The dIsageeabIe aspect oI curIosIty, as of greey na
tur as a whle, canno be gIossed ove u not
a pobIng agItatIon rather It Is somethIng hat e
actIveI nder he pressure of earIy cIIdhoodenIaI,
has emergedfrom tat denIaI adwhIch dIsrts tha
which once wanted t getIee Io the aIassae,
the Identca urIous peopIe are chacters osc
chIIdIsh IongIng Io the truth about the 0Xu! as
neer satIsed their IongIng Is a shab sbstItte
Th peson Iromhom that whIch concerns hi was
B. lbd.
By. G. V. I. cgcI, Vcrhc, ad. H. Gocknat ( 5tuttgaLt,
1 ggB ) , No. . U)80I20 0U8 dcm 1I8Ch0T )0U10 dcr
Ph/osophe und 0Td0r0 U]8Gl26 0u8 dcr ]cncnscr Zctt ( Oj-
jcrenzschrijt ) , Q. qO.

IthheId mIxes hImseI eIIIy Into what doe not con-
ern hIm. He ecomes enIousIy enraptured wIth I
!ormatIon oer matters In whIch he hImef shouId
notpIay aypart. hatIthereIatIon o aIIgreedInes
to ree deIre To HeIdeggers arrogance towrd the
meeIyontIc, the geneIso curIoItyIs IndIerent He
chaI up muIatIon to the auIto the mutIIated, a a
auIt of eItence In generaI HI eItentIaI ecuIt
become a heteronomouIy condItIoned actIIty tht I
trIed by curIoItyIdIe nowedge hIs I probIy
the orIgInI phIIoophIcI hItoy o the cIIch o cm
mItmet y denouncing a pureI ontoIocaI poI-
bIty accodg to hI own teachIng, eIdegger be
come the adocate o the unuIIIment of IIe Ie
the empty phrase oI Ideam, uthentIcIty I pro ect
g Its exIstentIaIIsm rIght om the begInng, sIde
Ith want, oer ad agaInt atIfctIon and aun-
dance n spIte o Its eager neutraIIty and dIstnce
rom socIety, authentIcIty thus tads o the sIde o
thecondtIons oproductIon,whIch, contrary to reason,
erpetuate want enHeIdegger aIIy caII home
Iessnes the thIrd essentIaI characterIstIc o th
henomenon,

he conj ure up the asuerIan eIe


ent. He does thIs y means of the demagogIcaIIy
roen technIue of aIIuIon, whIch eeps uIet about
that to whIch It expects secret conent. e peaure
o! mobIty becomes a cuse or the homeIes The op
posIte o eeryda aseIn, whIch I contantI up
rootIng ItseI

I oberIng entItIes and mareIIIng


88. HcIdcggcr, Bcng dnd 1mc, . z: y.
8g. lbid.
I I 2
ul lH0U,

IHO_D l 8 DOl 0I D] uD] D0aD IH0


COD0Q!alO OI 0H_ D QD!O8OQH] L Q2 lH0 IOOl-
! 088 DI0!!0Cu! CaII08 lH0 ]0!OW DaI OI 8O0OD0
WH uHO0IUD08 lH0 08IaD8H0O OIOCI.
OW O00Q! IOOl0O a!0 lH0 8C0la! 0CD0Dl8 D
00_0I8 a!88 O! aHlH0lCl 8 DOuIuI]
I0V0u!CO D H8 u80 O! !D_ua0 8 8 W!! ,
0O0__0I 8QQ!D8 lH0 luOODa! CuI0_] ! 8D
j 0Cl by O, O80 0DC0 i stce 0,
HO00, HCH 8 aD issue O IH8 Cl l 1D I ]
0_ 8 D 0aCH Ca80 H0 TH8 8 H0uDl I 8D
_H 8D 0Cll !OD a!! OH0I 08l0D D0D_
iHt0DO8, IIH0DOI, IO IOHI 0l0HC0 IIO D0H
uCH OIOo_Ca! u8 aD H8laDC0 OI 8Q0 a C80 OI
8O0 0H8 O 0l08 a8 lHH_8 lHal a!0 Q!080Hla-
hud This COH8ICIOH, WHCH8H8QI0OD] 0IK0-
_uaIO8 OOCIID0 O lH0 IIuD8uI0DC o IH0 80!,
WO!O K0 lO UuK0 O88D!0 a 8IalD_ OuI IU 8OC
0!D0DOD0H, H8 all0I8Va!H0O a8lH0DH0OaI0
gV0DD088 O lHC aCl8 O COCOH8O88 D IIaO IOu
0Q8l0DO!O_ 0l, aI lH0 8uD0 lD0, lH8 C!0UCDI oI
D0H_ 8 8HQQO80O IO D0 UOI0 HaD D0I0 uCl 1D lH
8 u0 DuHD0I u8 D0 0_O O 8Q0Cu!uV0 Oa!8 ODCC
Wa8. 0DDO lH0 aQ0I8OD0! 3 CoDO0ID0, DolHDg
DI0 8 HOOCD lHaD lD0 IaCI lHul a80iD CODSCOu
C8 D0 0DlIaHC0 OI ID8 IOIUH! u180O0_0I8 S0c18
gC. !bd. , Q. 21 .
g1 . !bd. , Q. .
g2. !bd.
g. Cf 5rcn Kcrcgaard, Lc bt0DkhcI ZDD 1OdC Ous
se!dotf, 1 ggq p. 1 C. ng!sh trasao b V. Lowrc, 6Gt
0HJ 116Db/tDg, 0Dd 1n6 OChD6$3 UDIO Ocoth Gatdcn t,
P. Y. , 1 g_q } . |

jdire. rom an abstact concept eIng tuns Into
somethIng absoIute and prImy, whIch Is not meeIy
posIted. The reason Io thIs IIcs In the !act that HeI-
deggereveaIs an eIementoIeIng and caIIsIt aseIn,
hIch wouId be not j ust some eIement oI eIng, but
the pue condItIon oI egaII thIs wIthout IosIng
an oI the chaacterIstIcs oI IndIvIduatIon, Iuness,
boness hIs Is the scheme that the j agon oows,
tentIonaIIyorunIntentIonaIIy, t othe poIntoInausea.
The j agon curesaseIn!rom the oundoImeanIng
Iessncss and summons saIvaon Iom the worId oI
Ideas Into aseIn. HeIdegge I ays thIs down once and
!oaIIIn the tItIe deed, which decIares that the person
ons hImseII. The fact that aseIn eIons t ItseII,
that It Is In cach case mIne, Is pIcked out from In
dIvIduation as the oIy generaI deItIon that Is IeIt
ove aIter the dIsmantIIng oI the transcedetaI sub
j ect and Its metahysIcs The rincipium indiuiJua-
/ionis stads as a prIncIpIe over and agaInst any ar
tIcuIar IndivIduaI eIemet. t the same tIme It Is that
essence. n the case oI the former eIement, the
egeIIan dIaIectIcaI unIty of the gencraI and the par-
tIcuI a Is tuned Into a reIatIon o possessIon Then It
Is gIven the rank and rIghts oI the phIIosophIcaI
aprIorI . ecause aseIn has in each case mineness
. one must aIays usc a persona| pronoun when
one ddresses It.

The dIstInctIon between authen-


tIcIty and InauthentIcItythereaI IerkegaadIan one
depends on hether o not thIs eIement

o! beIng,
aseIn, ccoses ItseI!, Its mIneness. ntII !urther
gq. Hcdcggcr, Bcng und 1mc, . O.
g_. Cf Ibd.
HOl0C, uulHCHlCl{ uHd HJulHCHlCt haVC Js H0I
CIl0IOH lHC OCCsOD WHCH lHC HdVduuI sUjCl
CHOsCs lsC! us ls OWD QOssCssOH. JHC su CCl, lHC
COD0CQl OI WHCH WJs ODCC CICJlCd H COHlIust l IC
hCalOH, lHus OCCOUus ICDud. `Cl Jl tHC s uUC mC
IChCulOH s sCOHCd al OOjCClCI H u IOID O! IJD-
_uu_C WhCH sDulJuOusI{ COUUls lHC s C CUu .
JHC _CHuIu COHCCQl OI UHCHCss , H WHCH ls IJD
_ua_C HsllulCs suOjCClVl Js u QOssCssO OI ls0!,
sOuds KC u VJIJHt OI UCuHHCss CIIH sIuH_.
VHJlCV0I IOIUCI{ WCDt uDdCI lHC HuUC OICXslCl JI
uHO cxisrcnrie|| HOW Hssls OH lHs H0W llC dCd OI
QOssCssOH. lHC IuCt tHJl l s ODtO!O_CJ , lHC 3!lCI-
HJlVC O JUlHCDCl{ ad HaulHCHlCl] dCCls lsC
aCCOId_ lO WHtHCI sOCOHC dCCdCs !OI HUsC OI
HOl. l lJKCs ls dCClVC, OCOHO ICJ slulCs OI aus,
IIOm lHC h_H! IOIUJ sCHsC O! OCOH_H_ O OCsC.
`Cl ls COHsCQuCCus H ICJIl{ aIC CXlIuC{ _IJC.
LHCu suCH uD OHlOO OI WHul s Os l ODl Has OCCH
JCCVCd, QHOsOQH{ DO IOH_uI hJs lO OOlHuI uOul
lH0 sOCCtu 3C HuluIu-hslOICJ OI H O lHs llC
dCd, WHCH dCC!uICs thut lHC HdVduu OWDsHDsCI.
buH u QhOsOQ] HCCO DO !OH_CI OC COHCCIHCO WlH
HO uI sOCCl uHd Qs]ChOO_ uOW J U0D lO OCHD
sC OI OCCODC HUsC, OI WhClHCI H lHC COHCCQl O
suH suIHCss lhC O!d C s CODCCDlIJtCO OHC DIC
lC. JHC sOCClJ ICIulOH, WHCH s3us sCI OH D
lh OCHll OI lhC suO CCl, s dC-sOCluCO lO uD
H-lsCI. JHC DdVduu, WHO HDsC CuD O OHC
IC] OH uH] hI QOssCssOH, hO!ds OD tO hsuI H Hs
CXlIC3 uOstI3CtDCs8 us lHC Jst, tHC suQQOsC D-
OuOC QOssCssOD. NCluQhsCs CHds D a sCIuO!C
L L

consoIatIon aItcr aII, onc stI rcmaIns what onc I s.


SInccmcndonot rcmaInhatthcy arebyany means,
ncther socIay nor bIoIogIcaIIy, they gratIfy thcm
scIvcs wIth thc staIc remaInder of seIf-dentIty as
somcthIng whIch gIves stInctIon, both In regd to
bcIng ad mcanIng. ThIs uIosabIc cIcmcnt, hIch
hasnosubstratumbutIts ownconccpt, thetautoIogIcaI
scIness of thc seIf, Is to prodc thc ound, as HeI
cggcr cas It, whIch thc authcntIcs posscss and thc
InathcntIcs Iack. Thc csscncc oI aseIn, I . c. , whats
more an Its mcrc exIstencc Is nothmg but ts seII-
ness It Is ItscIf. Thc uarreI wIth HeIdgger's Ian-
guagc Is not thc Iact that It Is pcrmeatcd, Ike any
phIIosophIcaIIanguagc, thguresfrom an cpIrIcaI
rcaIIty w

Ich It wouId kc to transccnd, but that It


trans!oms abad emp

rIcaI reaIItyInto transccndcncc.


HeIdegger s caefuI to have aIIbIs agaIns t the
charge of cpIstcmoIogIcaI sub ectIvIsm. ncncss, or
the seIf-sameness o! thc authntIcaIIy cxIstg scI,
Is to be scparated fro thc IdntIty o thc sbcct
thcrwIsc, thcsc wouId rcak throuh the dcaIIsm
of a thInkIng that cIaIms to bc a thInkIn of oIs .
ut HcIdcggcr s cng, t whIch, aftcr a, somc con
sdcrabIccrcatIvc actsarattrIbutcd,bccomcshe FIch-
tean absoIute cg. t appcars bchcadcd, as It were, I
contatto the tIadItIonaI, mercIy posItcd cgo 8 thc
dIstInctIon from Icht docs not hoId thc Istin-
uIshIn eIement, the fact that mIncness beIongs to
rcaI pcrsons, was not theI abstiactIyQreordaIcd pI-
cIpe, thIr ontoIogIcaI prImacy wouId be done for.
g6. Ibd , . 1 6B.
b
eahIIe, een the oIdIashIoed IdcaIst IdcntIty
dependd on Imts o Iact as condItons oI Its o
possIbIIIty, Isofar as It was precIseIy the uIty o the
reprsntatIons oI a coscIuss most urcog-
nIaIy aII thIs rIs agaIn I HIdegger s tught In
a reIntprtatIon that tus It Into th hIngc o hIs
whoe agumet . HeIdeggers poInt oI dpartur tus
agaInt possIbIe crItIcIsm, In the same mancr a
cgeIs once turned agaIst the phIIosophy oI ec-
on rItIcIsm Is aId to Iss a newIy dIscord I
redIscoered structure beyod the duaIIsm oact ad
esscnce, whIch wa stIII taught b Husse I tradI-
tIonaI IashI ot onIy HeIdggers phIIosophy, but
aIso the whoIe argon o authntIcIty that oIIos, de
pends o te stag o the eIaboatIon of tI struc
tur IspoIntedout a a very earIy stageIn ocin und
Zei|, whre HeIdegger deaIs wu the prImacy o
aeIn Idgger Interpret ub ectIIty as a oncpt
oI IndIerence essence ad uct one c Imacy
o asn s saId to be toIoId n th on ad It Is
to ontc, namI dtermId by xIstencc othe
wods xItnc denes sothIng In th ntue o
act somthIng x stt n the other had a
Is In ItsIf ontologIcaI, bcaus xIstec is thus
O0I0!DuV0 IoIt Thus omthIng COIIOCl!]
toub ctItIsIdatlyattIbutdtosubj ectivty
that It b ItsI act and raIIty and, Ic Ith thc
demand of tratIonaI phIosophy, that as onscIous
nesI ma factIcItpossbI s theI attr Itcomes
pue concpt, In contrast to IactIcIt It ccmes es
Q. d. , p. q.
J
senceandaIIy ussers eiJcs ec. gnstthe tradI
tIonaI docte o he su ct Is oue chaacter,
Ich Is aIso an absoIuteunIty eIore the aII Into I
IerenatIon cIaImstheanko8 ImportantdIscovery
o that reason edegge uscs an archaIng, scho
IatIc metho oth these chacterIstIcs oI he su-
t h acrIes to aseIn, as attrIutes, thout
consderg that they conct Ith the pcIpe o
cndIctcn hen they are attachedIn thIs ay c
ccrg to eIdegge, aseIn Is not mereIy ontIc,
hch ouId be tautoIogIcaI In regard to what Is
ped unde the concept o aseIn, ut It Is aIso
cntcIcgcaI. n thI predIcatIon o the ontIc and the
cntcIcgca, c the stdpoInt o aseIn thc aIsIty
cI eev eIement can erecogned he con
c the ontcIccaI canno b ttched to a su-
0 cntoIogIcaI wee ts ecatc o e a
precte hIch can attach tse to a con
t nd sne ant s crItc the ontoIogIcaI
co o estence o od, any posophy shoud
cauc to am thIs. The same hoIds tre Io
th nonactIcIty concepts, thcIr essentaIIty ThIs
esentIaIIty Is IocaIe In he reIatIon o the concept
to the IactIcIty that s synthsId In Itand neve
beIongs to It as eIdegge suggests as a uaIty oI
tseI o say hat ascIn Is ontIc c ontoIogicaI,
can, stIctIy speakg, not be uge at a, o what
s meant by estence I a sustratum. t Is IOI thIs
ason that the eanIng o ase Is nonconceptuaI
n contrast to thI, ontIc and ontoIogIaI aI0 x-
pressIonsorerentIorms OII00IOD and are thus
unaIe onIyInregard tthedenItIons oIu30D, orto
1 L B
the posItIon o such denItIons In theorynot
medIateIy, however, nregardtothemeantsubstratu
ItscI heIr pIace Is that o! conceptuaI medIatIon
eIdegger decIares thIs to be ImmedIacy sui geners.
aseIn thus suddnIy becomes a thIrd eIemet, Ith-
outregard to the fact that the dua character that cI
degger bends togther Into thIs thIrd can by o eans
be regarded dependenty from that whIch haens
conceptuaIIy to the sustratum n Idggr, he act
thatthereIsnothIng whIchmaIntaIns ItseIf IdntIcay
wIthou the categorIcaI unIty, and the fact tat thIs
categorIcaI unIty dosnotmantaIn ItseIf wIthothat
whIch It snthcsIessuch facts tae the form of the
eIemcntswhIcharetobedIstInguIshed. heseIments
n tuae the form o derIvatIves hreIs othIng
between heaven and earth that Is In ItseI! ontIc or
ontoIogIcaI rather, everythIng becomes hatItIs ony
by mans of the constIation Into hIch It I brought
b phIIosophy anguage had a meansformaIng thIs
dIerentIatIo when It soe of ontoIogIaI teorIes,
udgmnts and proofs Instead o somethIng ontoIogI
caI sans jaon. y means o! an ob ectIcatIon of thIs
Ind, such an eement wouId of cours aIready b
turedInto that ontIc agastwhIch thc lIteraI me-
Ig o ontoIogIcaI sapens ItseI the Iogs of s ome
thIng ntIc. fte Sein und Zei/ HeIdeggr tId to
Interpret the Cr/iue oj lure Keason In terms oI hI
pro ct ct prevIousIy, he had done somethIng ery
siIIartowhatantcrItIcIedIn theratIonaIIsIc orm
of ontoogy an amphIboI of the concepts of reec
tIon HIdegger may have mIssed the mt a bt It
Is to th advanage o hIs ro ect ccordig to usu

tcrmInoIoy, It Is obIous that thc conccpt that says
hatcsscntIaIIy bcIongs to somcthIng thatIs, Is onto
IccaI I, howccr, thIs bccomcs unnotIccabIy thc
ontoIogIcaI csscncc oI thc cIstcnt In ItscIf, thcn thc
csuItIs a conccptoIcIngthats prIor to thcconccpts
oI rcccon. t rs t thIs occurs Scin und Zcit
thrcugh thchypostasIs oI an ontoIogIcaI sphcc thatIs
thc nourIshmcntIoraIIoI HcIdcggcrs phIIosophy. Thc
amphIboIy rcsIdcs In thc IoIIowIng In thc conccpt of
thc subj cct two cIcmcnts o togcthcrthc subccts
o dcnItIon as somcthg cIstcnt, In whIch Iorm
It s tIIIcmaIns cdIn thc antIan IntcrIockIng oI thc
trasccndcntaI subj cctwIth thcunIty oI conscIosncss
[L sc, and, sccondIy, thc dcnItIon of subj cct as con
stItucnt o ccrythIg cIstcnt hIs togcthcrncss Is
unaoIdabIc In thc conccpt oI subj cct tIs an cprcs
sIon oI thc dIaIcctIc bctwccn subj cct and objcct In thc
subjcct ItscII, and cIdcncc oI Its own conccptuaIIt
Ithcut mcdIatIon subj cctIIty cannot bc brought to
cIthcr oIItsctrcmcs, hIchbcIongtodIcrcntgcncra.
ThIs aIorcmcntIoncdunaoIdabIIItybccomcsa ImagI
nary thIng by Irtu oI thc dccIcncy o thc ccncpt
mcdIatIon toward thc ImmcdIatc IdctIty oI c mcdI
atIng and mcdIatcdcIcmcnts . crtaInIyonc cIcmcnt Is
ntthoutthcothcr,butthctwo arcbyncmcansonc,
as cIdcggcrs undamcntaI thcsIs aIIcgcs n thcIr
IdcntIty, IdcntIty thIning ouId havc swaIIocd up
thc nonIdcntIcaI cIcmcnt, thc cstcnt, whIch thcword
ascIn Intcnds Thus HcIdcggc sccrctIy rcInstatcs
thc crcato uaIIty o thc absoIutc subj cct whIch as
spposcdIy aoIdcd, as It wcrc by startIng wIth mIc-
css In cach casc C notIon of thc doubIc charactcr
L 2 O
oIaseIn, as ontIc and ontoIoIcal, eQeIs aseInIom
ItseII ThIs Is HeIeers sused IdeaIIm O
dIaectIc n the uO ect between h eIstent an thc
cocept becomes beIn oI a hI her order ad thc
dacctc Is brouht to a haI. Vhateer aIses Ise
Ior reach behInd tc COHCCQIs O IC|-uO
ect an o ectIn order t gra oeth b-
sttIaI , doe nothn Oul IeIIy the ICsO!Va! l oI
the concets oI eectIon. t ree e ImossII
oI IeucIn one Into the other Into the IitseI hs
s lHC sIaHOa\O QD!OsOQDCa! Iorm oI uderhunde
acIt, DCH therepon occurs contnty c
aon. t vdIcate wthout authorIty a Itout
theoIo, maIHtaIHIng that hat Is oI esence Is reaI,
and by the ame token, thatthe estcnt Is eseti a ,
maninIuI, and utIed.
Ite oI eIdegeI's asertIon menes ad
coneuent auhentIct, IesuItH QuIC IdentIty. ow
trc thIs s CuH OC shown 0 ccnrraric. Vateer I
athenIc for Im, aII the categories oI the The ae
thoe In whIch a sub ect I not Itsef, I unidetIca
th ItseIf Thus Ior eampIe lhe calc_or] O
uei|en, as a gIvIg onescII over to the woId the suO-
ecl gIes IteII u to omethIg other, instead oI re
man wIth ItseIf and eIn knoingy I th
lulh. at was a necesary eIemet In the CX
perIenceofconscIousness, InHeeIanhenomnoIo,
become anathemaforHeIdeer, sIncche comresse
te epeence of conscIosness Into eIeerIenc
oweer, dentIty, the hoIIow kereI oI uch eIne
g8. IbiJ. , _. z:6.
gg. Ib
J.
I 2 I
ths takes the pIacc oI Idea. en the cuIt oI seIIness
Is reactIonary The concept oI seIIness Is here eIng
etcrnaIIed precIseIy at the momet In whIch It has
ready dIsIntegrated. atc ourgeIthInIngreIorms
ItseII Into naed seIIpreseratIon, Into the earIy our
geoIs prIncIpIe oI pnoa sese ccnsertare. ut ho
eer stubborny IsIsts on hIs mere sobcg because
eerythIng eIse has been ut oIromhIm onIy turns
hIs soeIng Into a esh. ut o and ed seIIness
onIy becomes, athe more, somethIng eternaI ThIs
Is the IdeoIoIcaI anser to the Iact that the current
state oI aaIrs Is eerywhere producIng an cgo ea
ncss hIch eradIcates the concept o! subj ect as In
dIIduaIty That eaness as weI as Its opposIte
arch Into eIdeggers phIIsophy. uthentIcIty Is
sposcdtocaImthcconscIousnesso!eaness, utIt
aIsoresembIes It yItthengsubj ectIsrobbedoIaII
denItIon, In the same ay as It Ioses Its attrIbutes In
reaIIty oweer, what Is done to men by the orId
ecomes thc ontoIogIcaI pIbIIIty oI the InauthentIc
Ity oI en rom that poInt It Is onIy a step to the
usuaI crItIcIsm oI cuIture, hIch seIIrIghteosIy pIcks
on shaIowness, supercIaIIty, and the groth o!mass
cIture.
The pretermInoIogIcaI se oI authentIc under
IInedhatwasesscntIaI to a thIng, In contrasttohat
as accIdentaI. hoeer Is dIssatIsed Ith sIIIy e
ampIesIrom textoos needs to deIIberate byhIseI!
thIs III heIp more than a deeIoped thcory to assure
hImo! hatIsessentIaI . hatIs cssentIaIIn phenom
ena, and hat Is accIdentaI , hardIy eer sprIngs
straIghtIorwardIy out o! the phenomena. n order to
L 2
e etcrmIned Its ob ectIvIty It has rt to be re
ected on sub ectIveIy crtaInIy at rst gIace It
seesmoreessentIaI to aworrthathehas toseIhIs
workIngower thatthemeansofroductIoonotbe
IohgtohIm thathcroducesmaterI aI goods than that
he Is a member of a suburan gardenIhg cub a
thogh the wokerhImsefmay thInk thattheIatter Is
more cssentIaI . However as soon as the uestIoh -
rects ItseIf to s cehtraI a cohcet as caItaIIsm ar
an thcverbaI denItIonsofaebers ays omethIng
etremeIy dIerent Irom each other. n any cases
the dIstIctIon between essentIaI and InessentIa e
tee authetIc and InauthcntIc IIes Ith th arI
tarIness of enitIon wIthout In the Ieast ImIg
the reIatIIy of truth. he reason for thIs sItuaIon
IIe In Ianguage aguge uses the term autentIc
In a oatIng manhcr he word aI oavers accorIhg
to Its eIgtIhess In the same way as ocasiona e
pressIons he Interest the authentIcItyf a once
enters Into th udgment aboutthIs cohcept. hatever
Is authentIcI thIsconcct asobecomes sonIuhde
the perspectIve of somethIng that Is dIereht from It
tIsneverpure In the cohcetItseIf. therIsethe de
cIIon about It degenrates Into haIrsII tIng t at
the same tIme the essentIaI eIemeht oI a thIng hasI ts
junJamentum in rc. ver and ags t ave ae,
nmInaIIsm Is the wrong to the degrec tht I t c
maIns bIInd toward te oectIve eIemeht oI meanIng
In words whIch enters Into the conuratIons o
Iguage an whIch changes there hIs eIemcnt o
o ectIvIty carrIesonanunresoIved struggIeIth ose
ats that mereIy sub ectIveIy ve meang. he cn

scIusncssI thIs objcctIvc cIcmcnt whatIs authcn
tIc as thc ImpuIsc o rcntanos whIc schoI cs
pccIaIIyoIHusscrI, and aIsocontrbutcdto cIdeggcs
doctInc oI athcntIIty hc csscncc oI a thIng Is not
anythg hatIsarbItrarIIymadcby sbcctIvcthougt,
Is nota dIstIIIcd unIty oI charactcrIstIs. n HcIdcggc
thIs bccomcs thc aua I thc authcntIc an cIcmcnt oI
c cnccpt bccomcs thc absoIuc conccpt Thc phc
ocnoIogIsts pInpot thc juH00D01uD in I0 as the
ptIcuIaIatIon cI csscnce ThIs patIcuIarIaon bc
cocs In ItscII thgIy IIc a I0S and can bc caIIcd
ponwIthoutrcgad tothc sbjcctIvcmcdIatIonoI the
ccnccpt nhIs own agumcntcIdcggcrwoIdIIc t
escapc usscs duaIIsm as wcII s thc whoIc dIsptc
c nomInaIIsm c rcaIns a Ibutay oI usscs
hocvcrInthcshortcIcuItcdcncIusIon thatImutes
thcauthcntIcImmcdIatcIytthIngs andthustunshc
authcntIc Into a spccIaI doma cncc thc substantI
atIon oIauthcntIcIty Its pomotIonto an cstcntIaIc
tc a statc I Ind. ycans o an acgcd Indcpcnd
cncc Irom thInIng, thc obj cctIvc mmcnt oI that
hIch Is csscntIaI aIscs ItscII to somcthIng hIghc
Inay It bccomcs absoIutc, thc SuDDuT O0HuH
ccr and agaInst thc rcIatIty o thc subcct, wIIc
sIuItcousIy It Is pcscntcd as prcIy dcscrIptIc
dIagnosI In thc manncr cI chcIcr anguagc ncvcs,
hIch may c suspcct tc thc athcntIcs as somctng
ccadcnt rcvoIt gaInst that substantIvatIn whIch
ths bcIaIIs thc authcntIcs IaorIc mott cIt,
ncss Is c gcncraI coccpt Io that whIch a tIng
Is t Is aIays thc susantIvIatIcn oI a chaaccrIs
c Thus IndustrIousncss Is c sustantIItIcn c
1 2 q
IDO80 CDuIuClI8lC8 IHut uQQ! IO u! HOu8tIO8 Q0O-
Q!0, DO WHCH tD0 HuV0 D CODDOH. CODIIu8
DW0V0I, uulH0HtCt DuD08 O uuIH0DI ID g u8
u 8Q0C CHuIuCt0I8C Out I0Uu8 !OIDu! I0uIVC
O CODtDt WDCD 8 DQu88CO H ID0 WOIO DOI D-
O00 I0j CCt0O D I0V0D WD0D tH0 WOIO u0O uO
j CCIV0, H0 WOIO 8u8DOtHDguOOulWDul u tDDg8
Dul Qu08IOH8 IH0 0Xl0Dt IO WHCD ID0 tHH I0u!08
WDt 8 QO8I0O D l8 COHC0QI, H0 IDDg IuDO8 D
1DQCt OQQO8lOD I WDut I U0I0 800D8 tO O0
, D
uD] Cu80 IH0 WOIO WOu!O I0C0V0 I8 D0u !IOD IH0
uuI WHCH I 8 u QI0OCut0 O! uI tH0 8u K0t,
D088, ICDQI8 OH0 IO D0!0V0 lDut tH0 WOIO u8 t !-
I0uO CODIuH IHut CODt0DIH ts0 H0 D0I0 Cat0gOI]
I0!ut1O8HQ 8 8H0O OuI uHO H I8 IuID Hl0O
u88OU0IDDg CODCI0I0 ID8!OgC lD0 8QICD0WOu!O
D0 tDul WDCD 8 u!IOg0IHI WDul l 8 DC D0!]
I0aI0O !uIO 8 DOI uIOC IDu ID ulCHIC ODC
WDO uI 0u8I 1D D8 DOO!0 Q0IOO utIuCD0 l8 QIO0I
O0a IO 0V0IIDDg, 0V0D lO tH0 HuDD08I IDIDg, uDO D
DOWu COD!u8CO H0 OOOWID ID0 QuI0 ug0CD0DID0-
IW00D tD0 IDHg aHO I8 O0u uI H IH0 D0 OI COD-
0UQOuI uulD0DlCl 0V0D u IOItuI0I Ou Qut u!!
8OII8 O CuD8 OI COUQ0D8tO IO tD0 Cl0Ht IHuI
C u8 8DQ u IIu0 IOIIuI0I
H0 QUuC O! IH0 CODC0QI OV0I IH0 tH D 8 HOW,
HIOugH ID0 u! uC0 O! uuID0HICl WlD H0088,
QusD0O DIO D0I0 O0tu HuI O0Iu! 8 u8 ulC u u8
Wus ID0 hac:cciras O! uD8 bCOlu8 !uI0 CDu8IsD,
HD DuO0 u uDV0I8u! OuI O IH0 DO88O!u!l O! IH0
!iesJa hacccciras ) , uDO Out O! I8 DOID0HguDV0
I8u!
UuO0 I u QuIugD O! uD ODIO!Og1Dg OI lH0 OHIC.
J
Thc taboo concernIng sub ectIve rcectIon Is useuI
t sub ectIvIsm authcntIcty, n thc tradItIonaI Ian
guagc c! phIIosophy wouId be IdentIaI wIth sub ec
tIvItyas such. ut thatay, unnotIced, sub ectIvI t
aIso ccomcs thc j udgc oI authentIcit. ce It I
dcnIcd y cj cctIvc detcrmInatIon, authcntIcItIs de
termIncd by thc arItrarcss o! thc subj et, hch Is
authcntIc to ItseI. he urIsdIctIonaI cIim o reason
whIch HusscrI stIII assertcd aIs awa uc o rc-
cctIon on such arbItess couId stIII e !ound In
C0IH uH0 Z0l Inthecocept opro ctIonhatconcept
ueuentIy aowcd the growth oI aII sorts o othcr
cntcIcgIcaI proctIons most cI thcm pIeasantIy wa
tcrcd down Ith cIcvcr stratcgy thc I ater HcIdcggcr
rcmodccdthcccncept n thcprc cctIonIthc phIIoso
phIIng suj cct somcthIng oI thc Irecdom o! thought
was prcscrcd. hc provocatIvc aspcct oI an opcnIy
macshItthccysnomrccmbarrassIngtocIdeggcr
than Is thc suspIcIon o! hubris. Thc armorcdman was
c conscIous c! hIs unprotcctcd pIaccs tha hc prc-
crrcd to asp a thc most vIoIcnt arrangcmcnt oI
argumcnts, rathcr than tocaII suj cctIvItyy Itsnamc
cpIastactIcaIIywIththcsucctIvcaspectoIauthcn
tIcIty Ior hIm authcntIcIty Is no Iongcr u IocaI cIc
mcnt edIatcd y subj cctIvIty but Is somethIng In thc
suj cct In ascIn ItseI!, somcthIng ob ectIcIy dIs-
cocraIc. Thc cbscrvIng subj cct prccrIbcs whatcvc
I authcntIc tc thc su cct as cscrcd It prcscrIcs
thc attItudc toward dcath. hIs dIspIaccmcntros thc
u cct c! ts momcnt o! Ircedom and spontancIty It
ccmpIctcIy !rcees IIc the HeIdcggcrIan statcs oI
mid itosomethIng lIe an atiuteofesustanc
0sCHCC. ated COu_ e-
mves um te livng hat wIch would ae tem
other than reied utentIity ich aCcdI to
dotrine is aslutcly uno etive, is DadC Into an o
et he eason Ior this Is that authentIity Is a DaH
ne o behavio tat is asced to te eig asu et
OItesu ect nottthe su ect as a relational Iactor
Thus l ecomes a possIIlity tat Is peed u and
IcordInedforthe su et wItut the su ecteIng
Ic lO OO nythIng aout it. udgment Is passed ac
cong to lHC IogIc o that oke aout thc COuChnaD
wo Is asked to cxplaIn why he eats hIs HOIs0 n
mercIIlIy n ho nswes that aItcr al lHC anIal
has takcn on ItscII to ccomc a horsc, and thcreorc
hus to un Thc catcgoy oI authentIcity whIch as at
st Introduced or a dcscrIptIvc purpose, uHd hCH
wed IIOn thc relatIvcly Innocnt ucstIn aout
what Is uulH0HlC somcthing, ow trns Into a
mythicalIy Imposcd tc or aII tht dist ance om
ntue whIch mks u ontoloal stte hatIll
Isc g on thc Iar sIdc OI thc exIstcnt, lHs destIny
InctIons us sOnClH_ merely naturelIke. es arc
pnIsed!ocIng lhs desty,oth ontolo gially and
nuralistIcall ul the samc tIe e dings o
cIdcggcrs cstential analysIs accordin to HCH
tc su cct Is authentIc Insar as l osscsscs ItselI,
gnt spccII praise to thc esn WHu Is sveeIly
t hIs own dIsposal as thug e werc hIs ow prop
ty hc has toaveea hihIsatthe smc tImc
an IntealIation and an aptheosIs o thc pInciplc
1 2 ]
cI domIatIon over nature an is he, who he i s,
prcIseIyIntcstIyIng tohIsown Dasein.
l00
The testi
ony o hIs beInghuman whIch constItutcs the ex
Istcnce oI an occurs through thc creatIon oI a
worId and Its ascent as much as though the destuc
tion cI It and Its decIine The testifying to humanity
and thus its authentIc completion occrs through thc
rccdom oI dccIsion. ThIs gasps necessty and puts
ItscII nder thc commItent o a supreme ode
l0l
That vey statcmentIs nobly meant ite in the spit
oI thc argon, as when a noncomissioned oce
bawIs out the weakness oI the esh utside oI te
tautology alI we can see hee is the ImratIe pull
yourseII together. t is not Io noting lHl In ie
gaard, e andater oI aII exIstentIaI hIosohy,
rIghtIIvIng Is dened entiely tems oI decIsion Il
hIs camp Ioowers are In agreement on that even the
dIaIetIcaI theoIogIans and te rnch eIstentIalIsts
ubcctIty ase ItseII, Is soght In the abslute
dIspos aI oI theIndIvIdual ver hIse, wIthoutregard
thc Iact that hc Is augt up In a determInIng ob
ctIvIty n erany these dctcrmInatIons oI oec
tIvIty arc IIIted by the sense oI bIigatIon to he
oand, as In the wordIetIsh soldIerly ThIs obIi
gaton Is totaIIy abs tract and thusconcretiesItseII ac
ccrdIng to the power structure o the oment.
hoor oI aII that thc exIstentIaI ontoIogIsts and the
phIosophcr oI exIstencc bury the hatchet oI dIcord
t oo. Hcidcggcr, H/dcr/n und da Wcscn dc Ochtung
( Munb, t gy) , p. 6.
: ot . Ibd.
2
CtOn t !DC t DC 8tICn_th tO DaC OCODS
UOCI lDC DOSl cXICDC COndOH8C o 003LD
OC8 !IOnhImnC88 dcCsIO COmC8
C88 UDIUC SlU3IODS WhC ncc ICCu 3bO
ulC 0cC tt uHdamCntaI tLat8 O! tIs
d oaCOD aIC ICaOC88OL L8, aOH_ a 8CD8C
oWDl s pssbc s V0 as ncss an IcsD
D. UCS ca C !Oua|Cd!OI th8 Hd acn
! I|s 6SSCDCC DO tI II C0V0I l C0DQIc|C CO
an ClIOD CIC O IU!CS. D l Ol CX
ImC l O LH0I6 appcas D0lU 3l 3D
l0a_g 0DG D

]0l0DI!3. '
he S[L ec H0VC l 0V0IU DjI0O_,
ee whn th don t otIce t O0-[0SS0SSI0D,
IImIted ad narrowd D no hJoom_ e3SI
h e0d0mo en woud be recocIed wi th
heI essI al denItIon II t Ie ame W!CD tIr
eIng litatI0S W0J0 D0 0D_0J ImoS0d o them
ThI wouId men 3 ha[[ reveral oI the doatIon
vc13lHJ0. 0W0V0J, nothIgS H0J0 unwadbthe
phIoSoph ad he ar_on oI ahenII a r0m
O Ight o comInto one s wn seIIcontrI Is hos
0O end t conIs Is sught rathe he cn
oIs are carrIed verDtO the eng oIase hs s
onc cordIng to he hary cusom I era deaI
Ism yhat cusm onc shouId not S[03K Jeedo
wIthouaddIng att S IdentIcaIwIh dt. ceone
etrapolaes Iro thc words oI em[IIca Iangage
wha 3uh0nIc3I Is as thsewrds athetI e3n
Ing, one seesha he mereIy estIngworIddetrmnes
O2. Y311 j3S[C)$, Von dc Vohrhcit, 1CV. . ( MunIch,
: gB) , p. qo. !13D53I10D. 3D1S work D3S DCCO D3DS3ICU
O Dg1SD Dj }. J. HCC, V. UD3CD, V. b\DD0, 1uth
und 5bo/, jrom V dcr Vuhrhc [ CW Y0rk_ Lgg
) . |
1
[
at on any specIc occasIon appIIes o those words
tatworId becomesthchIghestcuroIudgment over
at shouId and shouId not e. oday neverthcIes
a thIngI sessentIaIIy onIy thathIh ItIs Inthc mdst

o the doInantevII essenceIs somethIng neatIve
aragaph
_
O oI Scin und Zcit, entItled "Ire|imi-
nd Skctch o] |he Lxistentic|onoto|ogicc| S|ruc|urc
0j Dedth, wIthout the prInt even IushIngcon
taIns the s nence Howeve thce Is much that an
Impend Io aseIn as eIngInthewoI. nce
somebody atrIuted to a IocaI aphorIs Irom rank
Iurt the s ayInghatoeverIooks out oI he who
ecomes aware I many thIngs . HeIegger sketches
hIs conceptIon oI authentcIy ItselI as eing toard
death on ust thIs leveI. uch eIng shoul be oe
than mortaIIty dIsvaIued as somethIhg thgIym
pIrIcaI . ut he aIso takes great care OI he sa O
onoIogy to searate hIs eIng Irom sub ecIe re
ectIon on deah eIng oneseII does not rcsIde a
eceptIonal sItuaon oI the sub ect Iree IOU he
They I t Is no Iorm oI the sub ects conscIousnes
uthenIc beIng toward death Is no thInkg aout
death

an acIvIty whIch Is dIsIeasIng to the mo-


npoIIstIIIcsoer eeded In oupesent -
crIsIs Iess phIIosophy but more attentIon to thought
IcssIIeature butmorconccrnIorthIcte

hc
attItudewhIch he sappovcs oI
I O_ . Hcdcggcr, 0Hg 0Td 1HP, Q. qg,
1 o
. d. , Q. z6B.
I O_. d. , Q. _O_.
1 o. Hcdcggcr, 0I d0T UD0T8HU8 af H. . ,
1
9

9J
Q.
7
I _ O
lDDKS 3DOUI OC3ID, [ODOCLD_ OVCL WDC a DOW
IS [OSSDIy D3y [CLD3[S DC 3CIU3CO. COLSC
SUCD DLOOOD_ OVCL OC3lD OOS HOI Uy l3 3y LOD
l IS CD3L3CICL 3S a [OSSDly HOCCO I 33yS _CIS
LOOOCO OVCL 3S SODCIDD_ lD3I S COmD_ Ut D SUCD
LOOOD_ WC WC3KCD I Dy C3CU3IH_ DO C C lO
D3VC I 3l OUL OS[OS3 PS SOmCIDH_ [88DC, t S IO
8DOW 3S IIC 3S [OSSD O lS OSSDly IDC OlDCL
d CD_IOW3LOSOC3lD DaS IOSCOSCOCLSl3HO
_y lC OSSDly WDCD WC D3VC CD3L3lCLC 3HO
I S lO OSCOSC I 0s 0 Ossibi/itg, lDCD D SUCD C_
O3LOSOC3ID IDS [OSSDly DUSI DOl DC C3KCCO l
USI DC UDOCLSlOOO 0s ossibi|itg, l DuSl DC CUI
V3lCO cs c ossibi|itg, 3DO L DUSI ut u uith t ns o
p0ssibi/itg, H IDC W3y WC COD[OLl OULSCCS IOWOS
l.
eecon at ath Is anteIlecall dIspared
In the na f sethIng alIegely eeper, d Is re
pIe durnce lkewse a stre I Intra
slce. e shld ad tha the ocer larns t dIe
accrI t th tradItIon oI the cadet cos and ye
to ht e I Is better II he es n trobe IsII
about tha hc, hIs proIesso Is the ost Im
ptantthIhnettothekIIloIothers hcIscIst
IdIohad altoether toeve Irom cscousnes s
tht sacrIce wIch was proclImed Io thc s ake
rman spremc. The chace that sc s acrce
wouId reach he oal Ior whIch I was Icnded wa
Irom theosettodoubtIl Itwolnevaebcen
Ie to sure such a conscIous InspctIo n
tIonI Ialst IunctIor wrote, In a poleIcaI
I O. Hcdcggct, Bcng d 1imc, QQ. _O_ .
1
_
J
rItIon on ocIaI emcratIc phrase acrIcc
wI mke us Iree
e

eIdeer Is at one wIth tat


nthccIhth prIntIn oIWhct is Metcphsics 7 , whIch
ppeared In , he stIII rctaInswIthout ny op
potunIstIcItIatIontheIoIlowIn sentences
b3C1IHCC S lDC CX[CDOlU1C O DUD3D D3lU1C O1 lHC
[U1[OSC O Q1CSCLVD_ lHC l1UlH OCD_O1 lDC CXISlCDl.
1l S 1CC OD DCCCSSIlq DCC3USC l 1ISCS 1OD lDC 3DSS
U 1CCOOD. 1D b3C1IHCC lDC1C 3LSCS lDC HIOOCH lH3DKS,
WHCH 3ODC V3JU3lCS lH3l _13CCD lDCO1D U WDCD
CD_ H3S D lDOU_Dl lUYCO IlSC OVC1 lO lHC CSSCDCC
U D3D lH3l ID S 1C3lUD lU CD_ DC DI_Dl l3KC OVC
lHC _31OD_ U CID_
ez
evcrtheIess once uthentIcIty cnnoIongerbc eIther
thO cmpIrIcI condItIon oI ortaIIty nor thc succ
tIcreIatIn toIt, thenIt tus Into race t turns, as
Itwcre, IntoracIaI uIItyoIInardness whIchan
eIther has or does not havea uaIt aot whIc
nothInIrher cane statedthn that tatoIocall
there Is er partIcIpatIon In It. onseuetI In hIs
ddItIonal dscussIons oI death eIdegger Is IrrsIs
tbIy drIven O to tatologIca annrs o speaIng .
t death| Is the possIIIty oI the ImpossIIlIty oI
cvery way oI coportIng oneseII toard anthIngg oI
ecry wy oI IstIng thus perIectly sImply, the
possIbIlIty oI no Ionger eIstIng ne coId weII repIy
: oB. L. Hcbcrt Marcusc's ctIguc In j j
0Z0/j0I$ChD1q, III ( : gB ) , qo8.
: og. HcIdcggcr, V0$ $l 6t0]h$R 8tn cd. [ 113DKU1t
H. M. , : go) , Q. g. Our ans!aton. Tns work bas bccn trans
atcd nto ng!Isn by B. 1. C. Hu!I ad AIan CLK_ h0I S
m0I0jhg$CS7 n XSl6HC6 0Dd 6Dg, cd. Vcrncr Brock ( Cn
cag, J gg ) . |
: : o. Hcdcggc, 61g 0Hd 1D0, . oy.
2
a oncc that thInkIng aout the statcs oI beI, or oI
bcIng Is alays t autoogIal because these s t ates oI
bcIng ouIdbc nothIng other than thcselcs hcn
howecr te mere rccItatIon oI ords, Ith dIsregard
Ior any thInkIng predIcatc ouId hac to IIuIdae
thInng ItseII hc s trategIst guardedhImselI agaIst
drawIng tha concIusIon the phIIosophcr re I t
hovcr I n thc matcr at hand or thc sae oI I ts
o dIgnIty authcntIcIty oncc more trasIors theo-
retIcaI IackIndcermInabIIIty,Into thc dItate oI some
thIng that ust bc acccpted wIthou ucstoh. u
what ought to bc ore than merc ascIn sucks Its
bloo outoIthcmcrely eIstent outoI ust that cak-
nesswhIch cannotbe reduced to Its prc coct, but
whIhrathcrcleaest othenonconceptual ss tratum
hepuret autoIogy whIch propagatesthe concptwhIc
at te same tIme reIusg to dene that conptand
whIh Intead chaIcally repeats thc coceptIs
InteIgnce In theIormoIIoIene. he onccrnothc
argon, hIh aIways IsIsts on haIng a ncern Is
to euate essenceauthehtcItyw th theostbru
taI fact oI alI eertheless thIs repetI tIon cuIsIon
betrays a IaIIure the vIolnt mInd s IncaaIlIt o
capturIhg what t shouId thInk about I t anc
to rcaIn mInd
Iolecc Inhcres I n the nuIeus oI eggers
phIosophy as It does In the Iorm oI hIs I anagc
h oence IIes In th constellatIon Into hIch hIs
phIosoph oes selIprescratIon and dath. he
seIpreserIng prIncIpIc threatens Its subj ccts th
death asanu|/ima ranc, anaIreason andhen hs
death s uscd as the ery essencc oI that IncIpc
1
3 3
as the theodIcy odeath y no means a sImpIy
untrueway. segeIseesIt, theegooIIdeaIIs, whIch
posIts ItseI asoIuteIy, and InsIsts entIreI o ItseII,
tus IntoIts ow negatIon and resembIes death
HC1CO1C lDC Dq WO1K 3DO l3SK O _CDCI3 ICCOOD S
OC3H. 1l S OC3lD WDCH H3S DU DDC1 3DDCCC 3O U
HCDl SDCC l HC_3lCS lHC UDUHCO CCDlC1 O
SC, WDCD S 3DSOUlCq 1CC. HUS Jl S lDC COOCSl 3DO
OSl [3llUODUUS OC3lH, WDCH D3S DO DOIC HC3DD_
lH3H lHC CUllD_ U 3 HC3O O C3DD3_C, O1 3 ODK O
W3lC1. ''
egeI , dIsIIIsIoned the rench evoItIon, brought
up agaIst It aII these thIngs, as weII as what touched
c the vIoIent essence cI absoIutc seIness or eI-
degger those themes become not a motIc or rItI-
cIsm oI seI!ness ut somethIng unaoIdabe, thereIore
omcthIg whIchIs 3 commandment IoIenceIs com-
pIIcItywIthdeath, andnotonIysupercIaI. Thereha
aIways een a naturaI aIIance etwee the vIews
thateerythIg, evenonesseII, shouIdcome to aend,
and that o the other hand one shouId contIue to
oIIow hIs own IImIted Interest wIth a derogatory
hat the heII st as partIcuIarIty, as a Iaw o the
whoIe uIIIs ItseII I Its anIhIIatIo, so that IInd
ness whIch Is the subj ectIve accomament oI par-
tIcuIarIt has somethIng nIhIIIstIc about It, or aI Its
addIctIon to IIfe er sIne pInoa phIIosophy has
bee conscIous, In varIous dcgrees oI carIt oI the
I l I . Hcgc, V6IR6, VoI . II . h0D0D6D0/0g6 d6$ G65t6$,
[. q_q. jOur transIaon. Jbs work bas bccn tansIatcd nt
LngIs b ]. . 0JJC, 1h6 h6D0D6DO/0g 0j Hd ( London
and Pcw York, J gJ) . ]

_
4
IdentIty bctwccn seII and sclIprcservatIon. hat as
sertsI tseII In seIIprcscrvatIon, theego, Is atthes ac
tImc constItutcd by seIIpreservatIon its IdcntIt ccn
stItutedbyItsnonIdentItyThIs stIIIrevcrberatcsIn thc
most etremc Idealistic subIimatIoh thc antian de
ductIonoI thc catcgorIcs here the omnsInhIch
the IdentIty oI conscIousness prcsets ItscII and the
unIty of the conscIousncss whIch puts ItscII togcther
Irom tosc mocnts, rccIprocaIIy condItIon o an-
othcr, In cpposItIon to the deductIvc IntentIcnso
Ir as thcsc and not othcr momcnts re absoIutcy
gIcn. hc antIan I thIhk Is the onIy astract rcI
crenccoIntIn aprocssoIhoIdIngout and notsce
thg seIsucIentIn reIatIon tc thatprocess. Tc that
ctcnt it s aIrcady scII as seIIprcseratI I course
cIdegger In dIstInctIon Irom thc abstract trans ccn
dcntaI nty oI ant, Icrms hIs conccptIon oI scIIness
alonglincsrcIatedtHusscrls subj ecta sub ectthat,
though phenomcnolocally reduced apcs In the
bracketngoI Its empIrIcaI cxIstencc as a IuII s
cct th aII Its cperIcnccs ut the concretc seI
css eant y HcIdcgger is not to bc had thout te
cmpIrIaI actuaI subj ect It Is no pure pcssIbIIIt oI
the ontIc, but Is ItselI aIways, at thc same tIme, aso
ontIc eIIIscnIyInteIII gIbIIhre atIontthisccntent,
as It crc. It Is ImpossibIe o subract the onIc a
IeavcthcontoIgIcaI seIfas aremandcr ortopre sere
It as structre of hc ontic In gecraI t s secIss
oassert of socthIg sothInnedown ttiteIss
autetialIy o o so HcIdegge doaiIIy and
: : z. C!. Hcidcggcr, Bcng dnd 1ime, _Q. J 58, _O. AIso sec
abc, QQ. : : .


o
aInIy proIongs hIs conceptIon oI exstence as some
hIng In opposItIon to IdcntIty whIIc wIthout a rcak
hc ontInues thc tradItIon I he doctne oI Identty,
wIth hIs ImpIIcIt denIon oI he seII hrough Its own
preservatIon gast hIs InentIo ceraInIy he IaIIs
ac Into the preIstory oI sub ectIvty, Instead oI on
toIogIcaIIy dscosIng cstcnce as a pIma phenome
on IorItIsnosuch thIng utheappIIesthemostIn-
wardIy tauoIgIcaIreIatIon oI seII o seIIreservaon
as II Itwere, In anIan terms, a synthetc udgmen
t Is as though seIIpreseratIon and seIIhood dened
themscIes uaIItatIcIy through theIr antIthess,
dcah, whIch I s Intcrwned wh the meanIng oI seIf-
prescraIon
s soon as HeIdegger speaks out openy, hIs cate
ory o! asen as the earI perIod oI bourgeoI
tought Is dtermIned Its seIIpreservIng prIncIpIe,
and trough hc exIstent asscrIng oI IseII. n hIs
ownwords heprImyItcInccIstheaheadof
ItseII and thIs meansthat ce case aseIn cxss
or the sakc oI IseII
1I3
has no desrc Ior thIs Ior
tc sake oI ItseII to c undersood nauraIIsIcaIIy
ct thcIInguIstIcccho, asoncaspetoI hc mattr can
notbe erased Itcannotbe eradIcatdfroHeIdeggers
catcgoryoIcare, whIch accordIngtohImIsatwhIh
Iorms the toaIty oI aseIns structuraI whoIe

c
cordIng to hIs wIsh the eng oI the whoIeness ItseII
muste conceIed as estcntIaI phenomenon oI a
aseIn whIch s In each case ones o
,

and e
1 : . Hcdcggcr, cDg 0Dd 1Dc, . zyQ.
1 : q. bd.
1 : g. bd. , . z8q.
IstcntIal orentaIon must be won Irom thc partcuIr
ascIn In ucstIon. I that Ives the ontoloIcaI ey
positIon, In the socalled anaIysIs oI cstence, t selI
prcseratIon ut thcrcby thc samc posItIon I also
accorde to death. s a IImIt It not ony deteIes
cIdcggers conceptIon oI seIn, ut It coIncidcs, I
thc cousc oI the pro ectIng oI that conccptIon wIth
thc prIcIpIc oI abstract sclIhood, hIch Itas
absoIuteIyIntoItselIpersevcrIgInItscII. ooe c
takcaayanothersdyIg, ust asInantIan IaIIsm
nocgo can takcaay anothers epcreccs, hIsrcprc
scntatIons hc platItudc gIesmIneness Its cccssic
pathos utdeathbecomcs hecorc oI thc seII, a soon
as It reuces ItselI compIctely to ItselI nce seI has
cmptIeItselI oIaIluaI tIes onthc grounds thttey
are accdcntaI actual, then othIn Is lcIt but to pro
ounce that doubIy ptIIu truth that the seII as to
dIe IorI Is alrcady da

. cnce the cmphasIs I that


scntcnce eath is . " or the otoogy oI Sein unJ
Zcit, the IrreplaccaIe ualIty oI death turns It the
esscntIaI character oI su cctIvIty ItscII thIs fct dc
tcrmIns aIl thc othcr deermInatIons that Icad up to
thc doctrInc oI authentIcIty, whIch has not oIy Its
norm butIts IeaI In )cath cath bccomes the cssen
tIaI clment In aseIn. ce thought rccrsas
though to Its oundt the absoluteIy Isolaed In
dIvIdaIIty, thcn thcre rcmaIns nothIn tangiIe Ior
It ccet mor

aIty cvcrythIng clsc derIves onl Irom


the oId hIch Ior Hedcger, as or the IdeaIIsts, Is
I 1 . !d. L. 3SD PG01 bIC1DDC1_CIS 1 Q_2 C1IC1SD 01
61g 01d 17c_ JD DS GI5SC1t3tJ0D L6I V6I$t01C31c ToJ
[ L10CDD31DICHCD, 1 Q__ } .
J
_

seconday Ith death aseIn stands befoe I tseII
In ts ownmost pctetItyeg

cat c
cocs the epesentatIe o od o hom the eI
dege oISein unJ Zeit IeIt hImseI tobe too mde.
themoe It wouIdseemto hIm toc Iasphemous to
consIdeeenthe possIIIItyoIdoIng awaywIth death
eguntodeath, as an eIstentIaIe, Is epIIcItIy cut
o Iom the possIbIIIty oI any mee sic | ontIc doIn
ayth It Incc death as the eIstentIaI hoIonoI
aeIn, I scnsIdeed absoIute Itecomes the absoIute
I heomoanIcn heeIshee aeessIontothe
cIt oI death ths the agon has fom the begInnIng
goten aIong weII Ith mIIItary mattes ow as ea
e, thatansweIs aIId hIch HokheIme gac to an
enthusIastIc emaIe deotee oI HeIdeggers . he saId
thateIdeggehadnaIIy atIeast once agaIn pIaccd
mcnbeIedeath okheImereIed thatudendo
hadtaken are othat much bette. eath ahdaseIn
ar Idened death ecomes pre IdentIty as In an
cI

ten hIch can absoIuteIy not haen to an pe


onthcanoncseII.heanaIysIsoIexIstence gIdes
IckIy octhc mostImmedIatc and tIIaI aspec of
t reIatIn eec dcah and aseIn, theI sImpIe
ncnIdcntI th Iac a dcah dcoys eIn Iy
neates It ct or aII that, e anaIysIs oI cIstencc
dce no dIscnagc ItseIom tIIaIIty cath I te
ossII o th asoItc ImpossIbIty O aseIn
118
conda chooI cacc pc t In cdIn

8rngs Aukening. c chrcteristic uni0ershs cI


I Iy. Hcidcggcr, 8Tg 0T0 1D0, p. zQq.
1 b. 0., pp. zQq .
asen, as n the ase oI a mortaI, takes the pace
owhatmustdIe Thusdeaths manoeuvercd Into the
poston oI the athentIc aseIn Is dIsnctv
119
throuh te ontoIoIcaI whIch t Is ayway and the
anaIytcaI udment becomes te precIpItous pIIos
opheme he empty gencraIIty becomes the spcc
eIement I the conceptwhIIe to deah assomethn
stnctIveIyImpendn,
l20
a medaI ofhonor s ven
ormerIy, the cIturaIstorIcaI epcrInc oI the ab
sence oI ntoIoIcaI meann InspIred the moveent
! edeers phIosophIIn bt now such absence,
thebIndessoIthe nescapaIe, bccomes exactIy that
whchIsIckIn to HeIdeers theoryofdeath h tat
way hs touht brs out the oIIoness whc re
sounds Irm the aon as soon as oe nocks on t
autoIogy and nIhIsm Ind themseIves Into a oIy
aIIIace. eath is to bc experenced only as somethng
meanIss Thats aIIeed to e the meanIng thc
experIence oI death and, sce death cost tutes the
essence o aseIn, such Is aIso emeann oIseIn
eeIs etaphyscs , whIch cannot e roht bac
agaIn, d whch had ts posItIve absoIute I the
totaIty o neatIons, s here nterorIed to a den
sonIess oInt n sch a costructon t reduccd to
the egeIan fury oI dsapearance,
l2l
to th un
medated theodIcy oI annhIat
Throghout hstory dentIty thnkng has been
somethgdeathIy,somenthatdevours everythIng
denttyIsaIways rtuay outIor totaIty the e as
I l . Ct. Q. 2q.
I 2O. d Q. 2_.
I 2 I . Hcgc!, V6Ih6, 1, q__ .
1
_

thc IndctcrInatc poInt and thc IInceuaIIy In
detcrmnate bccaus t has no determInatIon outsIde
oI ItseIIare thcmseIves onc. n eIdegger as In
dealsm that whIch toIcratcs nothIg beond ItseIf
Is ndcrstood to be thc whoIc. hc Ieas trace whIch
wet beyod such IdentIt wouId be as unbearablc as
anone who InsIsts on hIs own IndIvIduaIIty Is to thc
IascIstnomatterwhatrcmotccornerothcworId
hcrcIorc not atcr a docs cIdcggcr s ontoIog
aspIrc to ccIudc cvcry kInd oI actcIt actIcIty
wouId gIvc thc IIc to thc IdcntIty prcIpIc wouId not
bc oI thcnaturc oI thcconccpt whIchorthc sakc oI
Its onIpotcncc wouIdIIk prccIscIy to gIoss ovcr thc
actthatItIs a conccpt dIctators ImprIson thosc who
caII them dIctators. cvcrthcIess thatIdcntIty whIch
trIctywouIdbcIdcntIcaIwIthnthIngmorcawIth
ItscII annIhIIatcs ItseII ItnoIonger goes orth to an
othc and II t Is no Ionger an IdentIty oI somcthIng
thcn as egeI s aw It Is nothIng at a hus totaIIty
Is aIso thc ovIng prcIple of HeIeggcrs observa
tIons about dcath. The appI to woeness as that
hIc Is constItutIvcIy prcestabIIshcd over Is parts
that whoIcncss whIch HeIdeggers preecssor chelcr
had aIrcady transpIantcd Into etapsIcs Irom a
cstaIt pschoIogy whIch was at rst rathcr unpre
tctIous . n prcIascIst ermany whoIcness was the
ottooI aII th caIots whowerc opposcd to the nIne
tccnthcenturywhIchtheIookedonsummarIIy asoId
ashIoned and donc awa wIth. Thc attack was par
1 zz. OccasIonaIy Hcdcggcr rcfcrs condcsccndIngy to
thc conccpt of totaIIt n othcr wrItcrs, but docs so onI to
QrovO thc supcrorty of hs OWD conccpt.
Iculary diected agaist psychoaaysIs It s tood c
enIIgtement I geeal. n those yeas acud he
tIme oI s t picatio of Sein unJ Zcir, h d
trIne cI he precedece cI the whoIe ove Its partsas
the det oI aI apoogetIc hInkIngust as today It
degs the adepts oI thc ago HeIdegg dIrectI
andopelyrepeatedthatIecI the the curetab
Its cI thught. That the askcI phIlcscpy Is tc etch
cutthe hole was fo HeIdgge as much a aIcIe cI
IaIth as the duty cI sysemmakIn once was to the
IdeaIIst
HUS 3IISCS lDC l3SK 0 [UllD_ 13SCD 3S 3 WOC
DlO 0UI 0IC-D3VID_. DIS SI_DIDCS , D0WCVCI, l3l VC
DUSI DISI O 3 I3ISC IDC UCSlOD O lDS CDlIS [0-
!CDU8IIq-0ICID_3-WD0C. PS OD_ a 13SCID JS , tHCIC
S D CVC] C3SC SODCIDU_ Sl OUlSl3DOD_, WHCH
13SCIH C3D DC 3DU WI DC. Ul lO lD3l WDICD S lDUS
OUISl3DUD__ IHC `CDU lSC DCOD_S. DC `COU 0
CH_ID-IHC-W0IU IS UC3lD. DIS CDU, WDICD DCOD_S t0
IDC [0ICDII3IIq-0J-CD_-ID3I IS IO S3q, lO CXISlODCC-
DIIS 3DG UCICJDIDCS ID CVCIq C3SC WH9ICVCJ l0l3DI_
JS [0SSIDC 0I 13SCID. '
he thoughtodeI fcr thIs asIn partIcuIa the good
estat cI esaIt heoy a Ioeruner of hatd
stadi agreemtbetweenIne and oe hs c
be destoyed by conscIousness as Iate. n Its n
the conceptIon beas wIh It the maks oI the sae
scIentI dIvIsio of labcr agaInst whIch Is cwn anI
echaIsIc aItude poIemIcIes . n that attItudc th
Inwdess cf IdIvIduaIs remaIns Intac, wIht re
gard tc sccIety eer a rounded unity csts e
iz. Hcidcggcr, cHg 0Hd 1Dc, p. zy6.
twccn sub cct and he surroundg world would be
aId to dcpcnd o thc sub ect t coId onIy bc whol
nc InsoIar as It scts ItscII In opposItIon to rcaty,
onrccctIngIy hrore aommodatIon oIal
omplIanc_ I he goal ve o a categor lIke tat
cI whoIencss whIch appcars to bc so athropologIal
cr cstcntI aI n a prIorI partIsanshIp toward thc
sbcctas ch Is cccIscdy the argon In thc namc
cI ma. Throgh thIs partIsanshIp attcntIon Is rc
movcd Irom thc uestIcn oI whcthcr rcaIIty, wIth
whIch mcnstbc mcdIatcIy at onc In ordcr cvcn
tc bccomc whocs thcmscIvcs, oI whcthcr thIs rcaIty
dcscrvcsbcIngat onc wIth oIwhcthcr In thc cnd thIs
rcaIty as hctcronomos ocs nct dcny thcm whcIc
ncs cI whcthcr thc whoIcncss Ica docs notIn Iact
cntrIbtc tc thc cpprcssIon nd to thc progrcssIve
atcmtIon cI thoscwhc arcwIthtpowcr s an cx
prcssIon oI thcwhcIc sItatIcn thc atomIatIn cIman
s aIsothc trth thcpoIntwoIdbc tochangc thc truth
angwIthIssItatIcn, and notIthInthIssItation
tc wrcst thc trth away, andto chargcI t up to thc Ir
gctIIncss oI bcIng, tc thc IorgctIncss oI those whc
rccognIc thc tth. cIcggcr IcIt a sight dIscomIort
abot an optImIsm that was sccrctIy proud oI havIng
provcn odIn thcIaoratory prod cIhavIng donc so
bythcdIsccvcroIthccstaItwhIchIss trcturcdprIor
tc aII thInng prcparatIon. ut cIdcggcs discom
!orthIdItscII awayIn thcrhctorIcaI, adInvoIntarIIy
cmI, cstIon cI whcthcr In cw oI dcath wc can
scak cIwhoIcncss. Thc thcsIs abctImmcatcIyprc
sccvcrcd ob ccvc structrcncss camc ust at thc
tImc whcn hc nccdcd It Ith thc hcIp oI a makcshiIt
lHOH_Hl COslIuClOD, H0 DIO_Hl lO_0lH0I lH0 O! _u-
lD lOuIO WHO0D088uCC0Ql0 WlDOul u08D
anO tH0 0Q0II0nc0 OI OuI !l0Iu!! OsCOlHuOus !0
HsWs an00I0DC0D0O0OD lH0 0!0ssO
cOIIt!0 0uID8lD0s8 , hs Is QI0Cs0!] ID0 OIK0D
D0s8 O! 0sl0C0, H0 susIO!OWD_ u 0_0
8CH0DuWHCH u!u8, D0 8luCK lO_0lH0I uDOslDHuD
Cu!!. I0suDuO!, O0ulH O!O DuK0 lH8 IOKDD0s 8
Into a WHO!0. InIIuO0, th InrmIty OI 0X8l0DC0
Ou!O 0DC!O80 1l u8 l8 V0] QIDCQ!0. bDC0 D0_ulV1l,
Ior u! ID0 DIOWIDKD_, 8 IuDOO, 0O0__0I lDDK8
u8l h _Ou . I QD!O8OQH] COu!O O0D0 lD0 stctrc
oIu80D ul a l WOu!O 0COD0 IOI H0I lO tIgs ul
oncc OIOkcn uDO WD!0, O0DICu WlD l80I D D
O0DlCu!uDO lHul WOu!O O! COuIs OIV0 onc n lO a
Oa!0cC WDCDDIOK0 tDIOu_D lH0 rOj0ct0OOnto_]
u0IDe ut In 0O0__0I, lHuDK8 lO lDul OoclrD0,
becom moIc 0V1O0Dl IHuD uDWH0I 0!80 that the
ncgatc u8 IH0 0880DC0, 8D! and nO!0CtCu!y
IuID8 DlO IH pOslV0e e CDuDD0!0O lO QH8OQH]
ID0 8C0DlCu!! uDO Q8]CDO!O_Cu!!] cIrcumscrcd
OOc0 OI WHO!0D088 lH0 uDllD088 D0lW00D lD O18
Q0I80O 08l0Dl uDO !0ulCu!!] DuIDODC D0D 8 I
!0Dl! lOll0 uQ l lD0 O0D I DCDuD18lC IDIkD_
the QDu! 8CuQ0_ul D0I0 D0Dg rstotlc. Dul tH
thougt8DOu!O D0 overcomeaoe oI0 otus
pect0XQI08on8 II0!088!] CODlD08 lO QIOC!uWu8
notIOI uDD0DlOOuOl0O 0V0D D] 0IO0g_0r 8uCH uD
ulllu0CI0uI0O, IOIHD, lH0 OOu!0DuOI lH0 DOO0ID
aDO lD0 8upIut0DQOru! . D0 IrratInaIstc Iackcy
uD_uu_0 oI lD0 IW0ntI0 QIutl!0d OD uDOul oOso!
nty H0 COD0ClOD OI 08lDl 0!0D0Dls lO tcr

4

whoc Is supposcd to bc thc mcanIng oI pcopIcIn rcal
IIIcas It Is art thc IashIc oI thc ]ugenJs|i|,
consoIatIon Is sprcd acsthctIcaIIy cvc h harsh cm
pIrIcaI worId o bc src cIdcggcrs anaIsIs oIdcath
carcIuII contcnts ItsclI wIth appIing thc wholcnss
catcgor to that oI ascIn instcad oI to IhIials
hc borrowingIro tc pschoIcgicaIthoroIwolc
ncss pas o aItcr aII ts grammatIcaI charactcr i s
thc rcnnciatIon oI an casaI argcntaton a rc
nucIaton which rcmovcs thc aIlcgcd whoIchcsscs
Iromnaturc, and tansfcrs thcm tc tc trahsccndcncc
oI cIng or thIs transccndcncc Is rcall nonc at aII
It docs not, In thc ahti ah wa go bcohd tc pos
sibIIIt oI cpcrIcncc, btrathcrbchavcs asthogh c
pcricncc Is ItscII ucdIatcd, IncontrovcrtIbIc, awarc
cI ItscII as II Itwcrc Iacc to fac wIth ItscIf ctIvc
bodII contact with phcnomcna ads thIs antintl
IcctuaIIsm.hcprIdcIncontrolIngphchomcnaInthcIr
undIsgurcd statc bascsItscII cpIcItIy cn a ccrtaIn
dgmcntaI claIm that thc worId Is dIvIdcd up Ito
thIngIy pcccs through an unravcng thcughtproccss
nc through thc structurc cI sccIcty. tIIIIn accord
wIh thc thcnrcIgnInguIcs oI thc tradc cIphIoscphy
thcrc Is somc taIk cI anaIysIs ut thIs tradc wouId
aIrcadyprcIcr todcnmcrcanalyIn.
Thc ccntraI chaptc oI Sein und Zei/ trcats a
scns possIbIIty oI cIngawhoIc, and cIgtowards
cath. hc ucstIon Is raIscdmcrcIy In a rhctor
IcaI IashIon, as wc can scc at onccwhcthcr thIs
cntity, as somcthIng cistg can cvcr bccomc acccs
iqq. d. , . zyd
L q q
IbIe In Is eIawhoIe

t Is obvIos that a p
IbIIIty oI Is entIys eawhoIe
136
coId cntra
dIct the seIIreservatIon whIch has een ontooICd
Ito cre eIdcger does ot lInger over te Iact
that InhIs on|oIgIca determInatIon oI carc as tha
whIch Iorms the otat oI aseIns stctural
whole hoeness was alread stIlated, throuh
the transos tIo oI thc IhdIvIduaI eIstent Into a
seIna heness hIh he then IussII proceed o
uncove c ca antIcIpate as Immhen| In cI
degerhathe ateranoneswth souch apom
tha th IacoI mort aIty does not a pII ecde the
possbIIt that mans Ic shoId rond ItscI out t a
whoIe as the IcaI and eIc conceptIon. eI
deer ma have ben Irced to the eort to grud
eIstetIal wholeness b he ndenIaIc Iact that c
IIIe oI InvIdals toda does wIthot whoIenes s
hoIeess Is supposed to srvIve esIte historIca
eperIece. or thIs urposc the whoIebeIng I the
cIstent, toward whIch eIdeers theory Is headIng
aoutoIwhIchconccrncmeresIn the aro
the wholebeIIs stInuIshed D thc approvedm
ner, Irom te mereIy cumuIatIeIy estent "j0r uhic|
nqthing is s|i|| ou|stcndin

T2
Thc later Is s aI to
haveheamekInoIeI asthosewhIch arrea
tha

to It Is contrased the totaIIt raIsed Into


I2_. d. _. g.
I2. d.
I 2y. d.
I2d. Cf. thc introduction to Bcnj in, bChtjI6D , p. XIJ .
I 2g. Hcidcggcr, 6Hg 0Hd 1T6, _. 2o.
I _O. d.
1
4
_
cxIstcntIaI wcIccss apar Irom thc cmpIrIcaIIy
IndIIdua IIc.
DC lO_ClDCLDCSS O 3D CDlly O lDC DO WDCD 3SCD
S D LUDDD_ lS COULSC UDt D3l COULSC D3S DCCD
COD[ClCO, S DO CODSllUlCO j 3 CODDUD_ [C
D_OD O CDllCS WDCD, SODCDOW 3DO SODCWDCLC, 3LC
LC3Oy-lOD3DO 3LC3Oy D lDCL OWD I_Dl D3l 3SCD
SDODO be lO_ClDCL ODy WDCD lS DlyCl D3S DCD
DCO U[ S SO 3L IOD lDC C3SC lD3l l S [LCCSCy lDCD
lD3l 3SCJD S DC OD_CL. PDy 3SCD 3W3yS CXSlS m
jUSl SUCD 3 D3DDCL ID3l lS `DOlCl DCOD_ lO I.
hat only appIIcs to th extnt that mortalIty i s
alreadythought togthrwIh th cocptofascIn
to t cxtcnt tat Is tat cIdcggcr s pIIosphy I s
prcsuposd or thcontologIst wholcIng cannotbc
the unIy o th whoIe contcntoraI lIfcbut alita
tIly mus t b a third thIg adthusunItywIIlnotb
sought In lf as socthIng harmoIous artIuIatcd,
and contInuous itsclf but wiI bc sought at that
poIntwIchdcIImItsIIfc andannIIIatcsIt aIongwIth
Its wholcncss s a nocstcnt or at Icast as an c
Istnt sui generis, outsId IIf thIs poInt Is oncc agaIn
otoIogIca ut thIs IackcItogthccss whIh bc
Iogs to such a modc oI togthrnssthIs bcIng
IssIng as stIIIoutstanngcannotbyanycans dc
nc cntoIogIcaII thatnotctwhIhbcongstoasc
asIpssIbIc dcath asIn docs nct hac aII thc k
oI cIng oI somcthIng rcatohandthIntc
orId.
132
cmcd Irom IactIIty dath bcomcs t
ntoIogIaI IoundatIon oI totaIIt. Thus It cccmcs
: : . Ibd. , Q. zby
1 z. Ibd. , QQ. 2o .
canIng cIcen In hc Is o that Ira
cnatIonwhIch, accordIn to onoIoaI opoah,
characcrIcs thc atoIcd consIousncss of the Iate
IdusrIaI ae. ThIs Is done accordIn to a haIt oI
thIn, nucstIoncd cIdcer, whIch e
dIatI cuates a structuraI whoIc wIth Its owna
InevcnIItwere thencatIonoI aIIcanIn hs
death, hc negatIon oase, I s dccIsIvcIy tted ou
wIth hc charactcrIstIcsoIeIn nsofaras dcah Is
the onoIogIcaI constItuent oasIn, death cnc a
Ive eIsence thc dIgnIty of totalIy "Jear/ as rhc end
oj Dascir, is Dasein`s cunmcsr pcssibi |i rq-ncn-rc|a-
ricna|, ccrrair anJ as inJcfnire ncr ro be cur-
srricJ. ' hus HeIegr gIves a egaive ner
to hIs own stain uestion the ueso hIh I s
onIy posed I oder t e refte
bO ODC D3S JVC 3D OlOOC3!y D3QQIOQ10l6 DlC1-
ICI3tJOD O 3SCDS DOlCl 0S SOmClDD_ S l!! OUt
Sl3O_, 3Dy OID! CICDCC IOD tDS lO 3SCD S
3C O lOl3Jly W DOl DC COIICCl. 1he phenomenon
the "not-get h0s been tcken ozer the

itse|j; no mme th0n the c0re-snucture in gener0|, cCn


it ser0e 0s higher uhich uou|d r|e 0gCinst
possibi|itg oj existent being-0-uho|e; indeed

CheCd-oj-itse|j is uh0t rst oj 0|| m0kcs such being-


toucrds-the-end possib|e. DC QLOD!CD O tDC [O8SDC
CJD_3WOC O tD3t CDlJty WDCD 63CH O S, S 3
COCt ODC CLC, 3S 3SCDS D3SC St3tC S COD
DCClCO WJlD OCtDlDC UttCOSt QOSSDty OL tD3l
CDlIty. '
I . f abovc . I q2 .
q. HcIdcggcr, Bcng und 1mc, . O .
I _. lbd.



tIogIcaIIy cstcccbccomcatctaIItybycan
ath wIch dIsrupts ascIn ontIcaII cat ho
ccs autcntIbccauscItIs rcmcvcdIro thchc
whIcInturnIs ustIcdby tc Iact thatthcrc cannot
b a o I dcat cIdcggcr crItIcI

s athInkabIc
raI attudcs toard dcath as manIIcstatIons o thc
hc or, accordIng to hIs wn vcrdIct onIy c hc
sca oI dcat as a rcguIarIy occurrIng tatc oI aI

us hc sIngIcs out Is authcntIc th as


scthIng that Is ctrcmcIy rcaI and attc s amc tImc
cyn aII IactIcIty Incc thcrc cannot bc a proy In
cat It bccomcs as unconcptuaI as thc purc Diesda
( hcecceitds ) . ts conccpt wouId prcccdc It and wouId
bccmcItsrcprcscntatIvc asIs tc casc In tc reIatIon
I an conccpttctatwhIcIsItscontcnt nthcsamc
bcath, hcwcvcr cIdcggcr sIandcrs IactIcIty wIch
aIonc aIIows Im to spcak oI tc ImpossIbIIity oI a
Ing a proy In dcath. c reason or thIs IIes In the
Iact that dcat as a gcncraI concept desIatcs the
dca oI aII and not oI each IdIIdaI onc. eat as
cvcn, IactuaI dcath Indecd 8 not t bc tc authcntIc
dcat hus ontoIogIcaI deat Is not aI tat tcrrIbIc
1D lDC [UDCDCSS WlD WDCD WC 3LC WlD ODC 3D
OlDCL D OuL CVCLyO3y D3DHC OC3IH S OWD 3S 3
DSD3[ WHCD S CODSl3Dy OCCULLH_3 C3SC O
OC3lD. bODCDC OI ODCL OCS , DC DC D0_DDO1L OL
SlL3D_CL [^chste oder |ernerstehende| . CO[C DO
31C HO 3CQU3Dl3DCCS O OULS 3LC `OyD_ Oay 3DO
DOULy. C3lD S CDCOUDl0LCO aS 3 W0OWD CVCDl
CCULID_ WlDD lDC-WOIO PS SUCD lLCD3DS D lDC H
ODS[JCUOUSCSS CD3L3ClC1SlJC O WD3l S CDCOUDlC1CO
l _. 0., Q. zQy.
JH 3D CVCIyO3] 3SDOD DC lDC] D3S 3!IC3d] OWCO
3W3 . . . a DlCIQICl3lOD O1 lDS CVCDl. l l3KS O
. . . CXQICSS I CSC D 3 W3 WHCH S DSl] -
DDJlCO, 3S J lO S3y, DC O lHCSC O3]S OD W!! CC lOO
D lDC CDO DUl I_Hl DOW l D3S DODD_ lO C WlD
US.
n D8 Cug0ID088 lO O8lDgu8D D0lW00D O0ulD u8 uD
0V0Dl uDO O0uID u8 8OU0lDng uuID0DC, eIdegger
OO08 OI luID D8 DuCK OD 8OQD8D8 .
DC 3ySS O lDC QDI3SC ODC dCS ICVC3!S UD
3D_UOUS lDC KDO O CD_ WDCD OC!OD_S lO CVCIy-
O3] C1D_lOW3IOS-CC3lD. D SUCD 3 W3 3I_
OC3lD S UDdC1SlOOO 3S 3D DOCDDlC ODClDH_ DCD,
3DOVC 3! , DUSl Ou!] 3VC IOD SODCWDCIC O1 OlDCI
DUlWDCH1S QIOIu3] /e/ee/ OI OC-
SC, 3DO S lDCICIOIC DO lDIC3l. DC CXQICSSD OD
OJC SQIC3dS 3DIO3d lDC OID1ODlD3l WD3l _ClS 1C3CDC,
3S l WCIC D dC3l S lDC `lDC] H 3SCI QUD!C
W3 O DlCIQICID_ 1l S S 3O lD3l `ODC OCS DCC3USC
CCyOC CSC 3DO ODCSC C3D l3 DDSC JHl S3D_
D3l `D O C3SC 1S Il DySC OI lS OHC IS e

1 8S
8] IDul O0uID u0Cl8 lH0 D0] u!I0uO Q!08uQ
QO808 u8 It were eOeggr 8 D]QO8lu88 O D0 e
8l0Dlu08 , IH0 OuIK 8O0 oI WHCD 8 u!Wu]8 |C D0]
buCH uD InterprettIon D0_0CI8 uO Iu!808 ID0 IuID
IHal IuK, IHI0uOuI0 u8 Du] D0 H8 lu 8 the
ul Iul O0ulD 8 a generaI O0l0IDulOH WD COD-
QI0D0DO8 D0 uI01 0gO u8 W0 u8 OD0 8 OWD I! 8OD0-
D0 8a]8, OD0 O08, D0 DCuO08 HU80I 0uQD0D8
: y. lbd. , pp. zQQy.
i B. Ibd. , p. zQy.
1
[
tIcIIy at best Howeer the ad onment oI death
ItIcIed by HeIdegger takes pIace the onc who
pe Is ctaIIy stIII IIowed to cotherwIse he
ouIdn t speak. esIdes, such umentatIon, set In
n by eIdegge neccssarII take pace thc
phecoInonsense andIn turn vesthcIIeto authen
cIt hIchIs tocrystaIe ItseInt phcreas I!It
ere te phIIosophes stone. I anythg ts theThey
ten It Is suh pro and contra. Thc occurrence
hIch eIong to obod partIcIar'" and whIch
Isnot hIghIyvaIuedbyHeIdegger denIteIybeIongs to
omeone accordIng to thc usage oI Ianguae. t be
ongs to hIm who dIes nI soIIpstIstIc phIIosoph
ouId cowIedge n ontoIocaI prIoty to m
deat ove and agaInst an other ve emotIonaII
omeone eIses death Is easIer to epeIencc thn oc
on The chopenhauer oI the !ourth book o! UC
Wor/J cs W/| cnJ 1Jec dIdnotmIss thIIact
1D DD, lOO, 3S D lDC UDlDDK_ 3DD3, lDCLC [LCVS
3 SCDSC O SCCULly 3S 3 [CLD3DCDl Sl 3lC, 3 SCCUly
WDCD SQLD_S LOD tDC DDCLDOSl CODSCOUSlD3l D3 S
D3lUC, lD3l DC DDSC S lDC WOLO. CC3SC O lS
SCCULly DO D3D S DOlCC3Dy DOlDCLCO Dy lDC IDOU_D
O CLt3D 3DO DCVCL OSl3Dl OClD DDl CVCLyODC COD
lDUCS lO VC 3S J DC WC1C lO VC ClC3y DS OCS SO
3 lD3l ODC COUO S3y lD3l DO ODC 3CID3y D3S 3 VD_
ODClOD 3DOUl lDC CCLlDIy O DS dC3lD. LlDCLWS
lDCLC COUO DOl DC SUCD 3 C3l JCICDCC DClWCCD DS
DOOO 3DO lD3l O lDC CODVCICd CLDD 3CD D3D,
DOWCVCL, LCCOCS lDS CCLlJDIy lDCOLClC3y 3DO D
DSH3ClODUlJKC 3Dy OlDCL lIUlD, WDCD S DOl US3DC D
I _g. d.

[ClCC, QUlS Il aSOC WlHOl luKID_ l DlO DS D_
CODSCOuSDCSS

O1 0O0__0 IDC D0 D0CODC8 u C!OuO DluI0 O


CCDCDI8 WDCD aI0 D0I! O0OO_Cu! IOOuClS OI ID
CCDuD_C IC!alOD8DQ. 0 DXIuI0 CODlaD8 DC
j0r O CODOO!0C0 8QC0CD08 aDO ODluuI08, a8 0 a8
Iu DuDl WCH OO08 DOI 1O0DI! lD0 OIDCI, DuI
OCDI08 t80!! l IDC OID0I, DICaK8 IHO_ ID0
CICC OI DSlIuC 80D0S8 aDO I0CO_D08 IH0 uIC D
lS D0OutOD D0 _0D0Ia CODOCDDulO OI D3l
SQDCI WDCD QD!O8OQD OuDOu8 CDOu_H Ca!0 -
lCI8uDj 0CIV1I, OQ08 IO OV0ICOD0 I0DCO CODSCOu8088
Dy C3S c! u U 8uDj CCI IDu S 8uQQO8CO] u
OCDC D I0CaIO CI D uID 8uCD a uCC
u8 II!C 8ODCIDDg UD0OuI0 aDO QDaI u8 S
ID_ C80 CO0__0I8 KC 80DICDC08 IuD D lD0
OOWDg C
C3lH JS 3SCIHS ounmost QOSSDIl CID_ lOaIOS
lHS [OSSl OSCOSCS lO uSC JlS ounnost QO-
lCD3lOI-CID_, D WDCH JlS VCI C_S lDC SSC.
CIC l C3H DCCODC naDCSl lO aSCJD lal JD
OJS HClIC QOSSDl O JlS OWD SC l HuS DCC
WICDCDCC aWa] OD lDC DCy. DS C3D lD3
uDlC3lIOH 3D 3CD CaD D3VC WICCDCO IISC 3Wa
IOD lDC `lDC aICad]

0alD D0COD08 H0 0880DC0 OI D0 I0a!H OI III
D8 OCCuIS D OQQO8OD lO lH0 HD0OaC, WDC S
CDaIaCI0I0O D lD0 IaCI DaI l S lH0I0, 0uIH lHS
1 qO. Artbur 5chopcnhaucr, C0Dl/C6 V6Ih6 1 D j)j
0DC6D, Grosshcrzog VIhcIm Lst Ausgab , Lcpg, n. d. ) ,
VoI . I . L6 V6/l 0/$ V//6 UDd VOI8t6//U1g p . y6.
1 qL . Hcdcggcr, 0Dg 01d 1T6, p.
I
CCCS SDCID_ IDI S uICu DCODO ID0 0X
SI0DI bu0O IIOD ID0 D0 I D0CODCS ID0 !uII0IS
8uD10 CuDICIQuII I D0COD08 ID0 uuID0DlC u-
IDCICI S O0uID D0 !OD0D0S8 OI ID0 DOVOuu
O0uID ID0 IuCI IDuI D8 DODI0!uIOD088 8D_!08 OuI
u80D uDIO I80!I,

D0CD08 ID0 8uD8IIuIuD OI 80!I-


D088 D8 uIIIuO0 OI IOIu! 80!I8uC0C D0COD0S
ID0 0II0D0 CODIDuIOD I ID0 8!I ID0COD08 uD Ur-
Dug0 OI O0uDC0 D S0IuDD0guIOD. 8 u DuII0I OI
IuCI uDSI1uC S0ID08S in ex|remis 8 IDuI gIDOD_ OI
ID0 IC0ID WDCD 8uS DOIDDg uI , , I DuS I
CDuIuCI0I0O D ID0 S uC DOIDDgD088 IDuI ID0 80!
0COD08 D O0uID uI CO0gg0I8 uDuu_0 DOW8 uQ
lD8 D0_uIV0 00D0DI IO IDuI WDCD 8 SuD8IuDIu
D8 IDCD 8 ID0 CODI0D IIOD WDCD Wu8 IuK0 ID0
S I0DCCO DOO0!IOI IDC IO1Du QIOC0OuI0OI ID0 1OD
VOuDIuI 0OC_gCIS OOCIIDC DCCODCS 8 CCg0-
SS OI ID0 IuC KC OCuID 8 IICC uDO DuI CO8I8
UI !I0 C S SDII0D WID 0uID uS IDuI WDCD 8
SuO8CO I OD0 uD8Oul0 I0DOV0O IIOD IDC uDVCISu
0CDuD_C I0uIOD8D 0I DC OOCS DOI I0u0 IDuI D0
CDuDS CuugDI uQ D IDC SuD0 IuIu CC!C u8 IDC C-
CDD_CI0uIOSDQ WDCD DSuD!DCS DI lDC DC]
DSOII S OCuID 8 uD8OuI0 0D IO IDC Su 0CI 18
ID0 OOC O u 1CCuIO. D OCOO_ 1uS0S I S
CuI0 II 0XCDuDg0 D8 O0O!Og O0Du8C8 0XCDuD0
DIO ID0 DOI0 O08QuIDg IOID OI 0IC1DI D8I0uO OI
CIIg IO O IOQ01 CXCDuDg0 0IID_ I Iu I80I
IQ0I] OI 0O0g0, u80D 8 DOI 8uC0Dl uD0
O uSII 1I80D0Cuu80OIIS 8DuDCIuD8IICu IOID.
tqz. 0.

rcdecms ItscI onIy In Its destructIon, whIch t ISC
Is tobe. he hIghcstmam of suh an attItd rcsuIts
In sayng that I Is so, ID3I ODC has to oD0yor In
posItIsIerms, thatODChas toadaptoncscI hIs Is
thc pahec commandment that hc must ODC] tuI
whIch Is . tIs not even IC3!] obcyIng orIn any casc
ascn does not havc a chocc. ICC8C] or ts ICu
son death Is so ontoIogca nregard to ascI onc
wcrc IOC3nondeooaIakInd othInkInghIch rc
duces IdcoIoy to the ero IIIt, then one woId DuV0
IO saythat cIdcggcrs thInkIng Is Dod0OoIca t
hIs operatIon ODCC 3g3D bomesIdeoIogy DCuu8C o
hscIamthatherccovcrs them0anIDg oasen hIs
haQQens ater thc ashIon f lOOu]8 aIk aout thc
Ioss o OCOOgI3K whIh taUp!0s OOWD OeOog]
but wouId Ike IO II3DQC do thc truh
sa]Ing "thc 'theg' Jces nc| permi| us |he courcge
n the jcce c[ Jecth, HeIdcggr acuaIIy Iys barc
ccrtaIn CCD0DIS o O0OOg], such as he ateQt to
Intcatc dcath Into ust that socIctaI Imannce
whIchD38noQOW0Iovcrdah. sImIIardeveopment
canbescen v0ynahsparodyThe LczcJ One
OUC o cdcgers IormuIas comc very to the
mcchansm o suDImaIIn dcath ut tptaIon
tranIIIIatIon, and aIIenatIon are dIstInIshIng
mks o lD0 kInd o eIng u0O 'jc||in faIDg
everyday 0DglOWuIO8O0ulD Is 3 CoDs aD eeing in
the jace oj Jea|h. IInatIon howevr, OgDaIes
a soaI reIatIonshp 0VCD If It Is D0 rcIatIonhI IO
OCuID 3D and the InstItutIons o pIet IproOuce
)q_. lbd. , p. zg8.
1 qg. lbd.



CODD0ICu ID0 uCODSCOuS W IO IOIg0I WDuI OD0
DuS to 0uI uDO0Dtu ODIOOg O IS OD0C
IuIC a0 nt D0C0SSuI IOI D8gDIS 0 thc IOOWDg
1H lS 3DHC1 lDC `lDCq [1OVIOCS 3 C0HSI0HI II0Tqu/-
/Z0t0 00uI d60Ih. Tl DOllOD, DOWCVC1, lDJS JS 3 l13D
QU3lJOD DOl UDq O1 DID WDO IS `OD_ DUl gUSl 3S
DUCD U1 lDOSC WHO `CODSOCDID. d CVCDJH lDC C 3SC
O 3 UCDJSC, lDC [UDC JS Sl DOl lO D3VC IlS UWD 3
QU1lq U[SCl Dq SUCH 3D CVCDl, O1 DC OISlU1DCO JD lHC
C31C1CCHCSS WlH WDICD Jl CODCCYS JlSC. 1DOCCO lHC
OqID_ U LlDC1S JS SCCH OlCD CDOU_H 3S 3 SOCJ0 JD
CUDVCDJCDCC, J DOl CVCD 3 COWD1J_Dl l3ClCSSDCSS,
3_3DSlWDJCD lDC [UDIC IS lO DC _U31OCO.'*
D ID0 SuD0 DuDD0I DS0DS u8S0SSO1 IuCK uI0uO]
CODCuO0O, about0OOu u!0I8 8uCO0, 0 OO08l
O that SOII O IDg 0O00I, WO OOCS not W3I
tO DuV0 anythIng to OO WID QS]CDOOg DuS S00D
tDOu_D ID0 CuCIOu DuIuI0 O! ID0 I0_IuO O!
O0uID 0 Du8 DS0I OO0 thIs D u Q8CDOgCu!
IuSDOD D0 D08Sag0 S COO0O D Sein unJ Zeit
Ul D lHS 0JD_ 3DO CCID_ T Ih6 j0C6 U OC3lH,
3SCJHS CVC1qO3qDCSS 3llCSlS 3l lDC VC1q `lHCq JlSC
31C3O D3S lHC OCJlC CD313ClC1 O 6Tg-I0U0I0S-
060Ih, CVCH WDCD Jl JS DUl C[JCJlj CD_3_CO JD `lHJDK
_ 3DOUl dC3lH. T8H T 0L6I0g0 8U6Igd0gH6SS, IhS
0H0S j0I6TI0/tg-j0I-6Hg 1hCh S H0T-I8/0I0T0/
0Td H0f I0 0 0uIStIjj6d, S C0TSI0TI/g 0T SSu6 j0I
0S6H. JhS S Ih6 C0S8 Dh6T IS C0HC6I S H0I0/g H
Ih6 H0d6 Dj 0T uTII0u/60 Hd[0I6PC6 I010I0S Ih6
uII8I0SI j0SS/Ig 0j exstence. '

tqg. Ibd. , pp. 2gd H.
Lq6. Ibd , pp. 2gd gg.
L
_

n spIt oI that, hc docs ot o Ia cnough HeIdeggc
cnnotmacsIcI andrcspcctc dcspa cboIcd
In that cramped n oy IIe ad In that stuId c
onpIcc, nc dIc sometIme b Itc
ycta commonpIcc wIch hc rIghtIy csIcs
hc commonpIacercprcsesor dspaIr heprcteta
tIon aaInst thc subIIatIng oI dcat wouId ave Its
pIacc u crItIcIs oI IIberaI IdeoIogy at crItIci
ouId proceed to rmInd us oI thc naturaIne hc
Is dened by cuIturc or in domInation cuItr ItII
popaatc tIs natuaIess t docs It by ca o
thathIc mitaes ItseII Ior the antitheIs natrc
nstead oI tIs HcIdcgger dos thc same as
ascI e deIends tc more brutal Iorm o eIng
ncgatIe aI ay OC. t IsposibIc totoIa sIaI
tatc in whichme ouIdno Iongcrhavc tobIc
dcath and mIght b abIe to cpcrIecc It In anthc
orm thanIear o eperIencc dcath D Iear I a ar
othccrudenaturaI state thatHeIdcgcr sdoctrInehs
ctcraIIcd I supranaturaIistIc tcrms cath Is u
IImatdbecauscoIabIIndeddrIvc IorsIpcseaon
Its teo Is atoI thc subIImatIon n a IIIc taIno
Ionc dIsgured, ha no Ioncr phIIs, In a Ic
thtouId o Iongc chcat mc out oI heIr ucI
s Ic men wouIdprobabIyo Iogrhave tohopc,
InaIn, that thIs Ic wouId Itc aII gIvc the what It
hadsoIarreIuscothcs amccastcyouIdnot
havc to Icar so grcatIy hat they wouId Iose I IIc
n mtcr how dcpIy thI car hadbec Ingaed
tcm om thc Iac that en subIImatc deah, onc
I q. bd zgg
b b
C3DDOt CODCuOC lDuI OCulD 8 l8C lDC uulDCHIC.
COC__CI 8 Cu8I O u u QO8lOH lO do ID8, u8 DC
S C3ICu HOI IO uIIIOuIC uutDCHct] to QCO[C WDO
OO HOl 8uOUuIC OCuID.
] UCu8 O u KHO OphIIosophIcaI ICuO3H sI_
COC__CI DU8C OCHC8 IDC ODIOO2H_ O OCulD
D8O3I u8 OCuID H Its certaInty, Is uu!IuIVC] 8u
[CIOI IO OIDCI QDCHOUCH3. C DuC uICuO] CDuI3C
lCICO IDC CVCI]Ou] 8luICOUHO whIch consIsts In
3D 3 O 8u[CIOIl] lDIC_uIO IO IDC CCIIuD 3CI O
OCuID3 superIorIty WDCD 8 uHXOus] COHCCIHC
WDC 8CCUH_] ICC IOU unXet]e n thIs 8l3lCO-
DDO, CVCI]Ou]HC88 uCOWCO_C8 u D_DCI CCII3Dl]
lDuD OHC whIch 8 onIy CUpIcu. ' DC D_DCI D
8[lC O lDC uOluIOD UuI8, Du8 IDC QIOVH_ OICC O
3 CODC88OH lDCOI] 8uHClOH8 OCuID DC partIsan O
3uIDCHICI] CODDI8 lDC 8 uUC 8H OWDCDDC uCCu8C8
lDC ninores gentcs, IDC C88CI QCOQ!C, O IDC DC. ]
UCuH8 O IDC authntIcIty O OC3lD u8 DC CC8 IOD I
uICVCI uHHOuHCC8 l8C! u8 D _DCI than UCIC em
pIIcaIcertaIty,In thIs attIIuOC u!sC! C!CuH8C8 OCuID
Ot8 USCI] uDO 8lCHCDIOUCH_uH uHDu8lC
IckIng O lDC OuCKCl. ThIs cCuH8In_ occurs H IDC
S3UC UuHHCI u8 u Vu_HCIuH Iove OI saIvatIondeath.
lD 8 8 8UuI I O lDC IntegatIon oI OCuID HIO
D]_CDC, O WDCD COC__CI uCCu8C8 IDC HuulDCHlC.
] UC8 O lD3I whIch 8 KCQl 8!CHI H lDC D_D
8l]uIOD O OCulD, COC__CI CCOUC8 an accompIc
o! WD3l 8 DOIIC H OC3ID. VCD D IC C]DCu U3
lCI38U O IDC O88CClOD IOOD, lD8 DOIIDCHC88 8
1qB. Ibd. , Q. Oz.
ICCO_D0ODOI0DODC8l!] uDO O0DOuDCCODOIC 8ID_]
IDaD H ID0 lIaO08 OI ODI!O_]. D0 uII0I8 KID0 8
DOIDD_ DuI lD0 8uQIu0QICa! CCIluDI] IHaI O0aH 8
8OD0IDD_ IHaI Da8 D00D C8ICDIa!!] QICOOaDCO lO
a80D. uII] uDIOuCD0O D] CXQ0ICDC0 a]8 OV0I
DlO IDaI WHCD I ODC0 Wa8 uDD0laQDOICu] QuIl]
uDIOuDCO D] OI. uI ] DO uDOCI8IaDOD_ C O0ulD
DC 8aO IO D0 QuIC 0ID0I 8 I uH]IDD_ uOClC
IDCI80, a lD0 8uVulOD QIOD808 OI I0_ WOuO
8DQ] C IOI_0II! OI CD_. OWCV0I, ID0] u D] O
DCaD8 D0CO0O. bOD0 OWCI OI_uD8H8 OO Dl OC D
lD0 8 aC 80H80 a8 ID0 D_HCI, OVOuuICO OD0 Hu8
D _DI OI OuI QOI0DIu, aDO _IOW D_, CODIO! OCI
OI_uDC QIOC08808 WC CaDDOI OO uWa] u IOIlOI WIH
ID0 IDOu_DI IDaI O0aID D_DI D0 0HDaI0O. uD 3
CDalOD O O0ulD u] D0 H_D!] DQIO0 0I
I CuD 0 IDOu_DIOI, uDO uCCOIOD_ lO CX8I0DI u ODlO!-
O_] IaI 8DuO C QO88O!0. D0 aIIO O! IDC
ODIOO_Ca O _DI OI OCuID DOW0V0I, 8 aO] I0
OuC0O lO DOIDD_ D] ID0 QO88I] IDaI 8ODCI_ Ca
CDaD0 I ODIC]aCCOIOD_ IO CO0__8 aD
_u_0 D8uI u8 CO0__CI CHl8 ID080 OQ08 aI
WDuI DQu8IOI8 QIODuD] Ca IDC IOOI, IDC uIDCIC
ODC 80a8 IOI a!IOI a! IDO8C WDO j u8 OOD u8
H0] 0uI oIID8 QO88I], D IDC I0IIuD IHuI DIDD_
WOuO DC WOI80 IHaD IH0 O8uQQ0aIaDC0 OI 0aID
8C0D CIDaIC I O u880 IDuI IDO8C aI0 IH0 aOCI8
O IH j aI_OD. D0 0a_CI088 IOWaIO IDC 0IIDI O
OCuI QIO!OD_8 IDC CODIDuD_ u8C O! OCuD u8 a IDICat
D u QO!ICa !0C OCuID uOVCIl8C8 IDC DCC88l O
W8. aDI WDO 8uD8uDCO DDOIlul] uO0 IH0
OCu8, OO DOI 0I DD8C u! IO IO8C O0QID8 D C
I

1
ohIng eIse ourIshes but the amatIon O what s
H too IamIIIar. I 0O0gg0I hadmade thc transItIon
ro the DOIguDC to the Orgc_ the exIstentIaI horI-
o oI deathWOuO havebeen IHOIOugH CHug0O HIs
hIlosoph, uDO 00IlHDg thtoats WlH It, down to
he Iast sewers O! 0IDuD !ulH nto cIDg_ COuO no
wherebemoreVuD0Iu0 IHuD In lH8 tansItIon. hat
unerstandIng wIth the exIstent whIch motIvatcs the
cIeatIon oI the exIstent to beIng thrIves OD the com
IIIty th death. n the metaphysIcs oI death there
coes to aheadaII thatevIItowhICHOuIg0O 8 socIety
a physIcaIIy condemned ItseII, by m0as O Its own
rocess o dcveIopment.
ThedoctrIneoIantIcIpatIon, whIchIstheathentIc
cng untc death, the pssIbIIIty oI t aIng the uho|e
o! aseIn Inadvance . . . In estencIImaer
that Is to say It IncIudes the possILIIty oI exIstIng as
3 whoIc otcntIaIIty-IorBeIng, nderhandedIy be-
comes a mode oI behaor. Thus It becomes what
cInguntodeath dIdnotwant to be andyethas to be
II anthIng more than a tautoIogy Is thereLy to be uI-
teed. AIthough nothIng Is saId about the dIerencc oI
thIs mode oI behavIor Irom thc Iact that one has to
dIc thIs behavIor Is expecIeO to acuIre dIgnIty Ly a
ceptIng such a necessIty speechIessIy uDO thot re
ectIon.
DUC1_3lUD, HOWCVC1, UDKC JD3UlHCDUC CD_lU-
01dS-dC3lH, OUCS DUl CV3OC lHC 3Cl lD0l OC3lH S
DC UUlSl1[_Cd DSlC3O, 3DUCQ3lOD 1CCS lSC
3CCC_UD_ lHS. HCD, Dq 3DlCJQ3lUD, UDC DCCODCS 1CC
1qQ. , 0[
OC S OWD CC3lD, ODC S IDCI3lCC IIOD ODC S OSlDCSS
D lOSC QOSSIOJlJCS WDC D3] 3CCCCDl3! lDSl
lDCSCCS uQOD ODC 3HOODCS OC3lCC D SUCD 3 W3j
lDal O lDC DSl lIDC ODC C 3UlDCDlC3] UDCIS3DC
3DO DOOSC 3DOD_ lDC 3ClC3! QOSSDlCS D_ 3DC3G
O Dal QOSSIOl] WDCD S DOl lO DC OulSlQCC lC
Q3ID CISCOSCS lO CSlCDCC lD3l lS ullCIDOSl QOSSID
l CS D _VD_ lSC UQ, 3DO lHUS l SD3llCS 3 ODC
lCD3OUSDCSS lO WD3lCVC CXSlCDCC ODC D3S 1C3CDCO.
ny rarely do HeIdeggcrs words contaIn s much
tiuth as these Iast ones . an's thInkIng abouthImse
as natre wouId sImuItacousIy mean a crItIcaI rc-
ectIo on the prIncIplc of scIf-preservatIon thc truc
IIfcwoIdbeonethatdoesotInsIstontenacIusness
to whtever cstence one has reached. !n hIs dcc-
tiInc of death, however, cIdegger extrapoIates such
amocfbchavIorIromaseIn, asthcposItIv mca
Ing of aseIn. e arms seIIabnegatIon as I
stance oI the seIf, and he spoIIs the InsI ght he hs
gaIncd. esIgnatIonbecomes an obstinacywhIch turns
thc dIssoIutIcn oftheseIfInto an nexbIy stoIc posIt
Ig of thc seIf. B means of reIentIess IdentIatIon
oftheIssoIuIon ofthe seIfth the seIf, seIfbecomcs
thc aboIuc posItIg ofthe negatIve prmcIpIe. the
ategoIes that HeIdegger then uses to expIaIn 8eIng
unto dcath e IInked wI obstmacy thc posIbIty
of deth Is supposed t be put up th That
whIch shouId be dIerent from domInatIo In-
exIity rases domiatIon to Its extieme. hc sub
j ect Is never so authentIc for HeIdegger as hat
i go. lbd.
L _ t . lbd. , Q. O_ .



hoIdIng out In whIch It endures an etreme of pai,
fIIowIng the eampIe oI the ego. ven he eIements
thwhichhecotrasts te stiening of the sefcar
nguIstIcracesof the doinationfthe seIf ecas
I t abreakIng ` In the sae wa tha aseinsub et
Is actuay IdentIed wIth death, 8einguntodath be
comes sub ect purewIII ntoIogicaIdecisiveness l
not ask what it dIes Io. The Iast word i ssoen
eIIness that remains unoved. This dstine aHC
uthentic dIscIosedness whIch i s attes ed in I
ItseIf by Its conscience reticent se|j-rcec|icn
u cnes cunmcsr 8ein-ui|rq, in uhich cnc
recdg jor anierqwe caI resoIuteness '`The eaI
IdeoIogIcaIIife wouId be thIs the courage obe afra d
onIy when this courage wouId no Ionge a to I
Ipate Into aII hat which has tobe Ieared
Thej argonoIauthenticItyisIdeoIog asInguage,
thout anyconsIderatIonoIspccIcconten Itassert
mcIng wIth the gestuc oI that dignIty whIch
cIdeggcr wouId Iike to dress up death Ignity too,
s oI IdeaIIstIc nature There was a tIme when thc
sb]ect thought ItseII a smaII divinIty, as wcII as a
IawgIvIng authorIty, sovereIgn In the conscIousncss of
Its wn Ireedom Such motIfs have been eIpated
from the dIgnIty oI the HeIdeggerIan tone
1D ND3t OlDC1 W3y, DOWCVC1_ COuO 3 DUm3D CVC1
O tHC W3y tO tHC [ID3OLm O lD3DD, lHC 3VO1
O CD OO DOl 3Dl D3D lDC DOIl O [OVC1 D
HC3DS O lDC O[CD [Dly O 1C3D_ lO CID_7 O1
c lH3t DODty O [OVCl CODCC0S D t lDC 1CCOO
L 2. Ibd , QQ Ob-
L Ibd , Q q
.
1 b O
O S3LDCC WDCD S lDC C3S1C O lS CSSCDCC. 3CC
DC3nS 3ICWC IOD lDC CXSlCDl On lDC W3y lO lDC
[ICSCIV3lOD O lDC 3VOI O 1Cn_. CVCIlDCCSS, S3C-
DCC 3D DC QICQ3ICO D lDC OIKH_ 3DO CCC_ jLei-
sten] WlDD lDC CXS lCDl, yCt SUCD 3ClOD C3D DCL U
tC S3C1IC . DC unCDl O S3C1DCC SlCS IOD
lDC uI_CDCy Ou O DCD lDC 3CIOD O CC1] DSlIC
D3D 1SCSCSSCDl3 DDKD_, lOO, S aH 3ClODD
DC3S O WDCD DC QICSCICS lDC 3CDCVCO 3SCD O1
lDC CSC13lOD O lDC O_l O CID_. D I_CC S
lDC CU3DDlWDCD OOCS HOt 3OWlSC ODCtCtCd,
H t DOOCD IC3dCSS O1 lDC 3ICWC D3luI O 3D]
S3C1DCC. b3CIDCC S 3l DOnC lDC CSSCDCC O tC CVCDl
D lDC O1n O 0H CVCHt DCD_ C3DS n3D OI C lIUlD
OD_ OI lDS IC3SOD S 3CCC OOCS HOt 3OW O1
C3C3lOD 3CU 3lOD 3W3]S ICOUCCS S3CICC lO
QUIQOSC OL QUI[OSCCSSCSS, WDClDCI SUCD [UIOSCS 3LC
SC _D OL OW bUCD 3 C3CU3lOD dS_UICS lDC 3lUIC
O SCIDCC. DC dCSIC OL U1QOSCS OSlO1lS lD C3L
O lDC COU13_C OI S3CIDCC, WDCD S D3ICO D 3D 3WC
WDCD 1C3O] C3IS 3nO WDCD D3S l3KCD uQOn lSC O
VC H lDC DC_DDOLDOOO O lD3l WDCD S OCSlIUC-
lDC

!n thec scntencs dIgnIt ertaIny pIays arolc as thc


It oILcIng, and notoImen et the soleIty I
tese sentences diers Irom the soIemnIty I secu
IarIzed Lurials only through s cnthusiasm r Irra-
tIonaI s acrIce. omLat pIots may hae sen
cxactI thIs waywhen they rcturned from a Ity j us
destrocdbbomLs anddrankchampagnetoteaI
oI thosc who did not return. inity was ner any
thIngmore han the attitudcf seIfprescrvatI aspI
Ing tobcmorc than that Th creature mImes thc crc-
I_q. cdcggcr Vu$ 1$I 6I0]g$h7, Q. q_.
I I
at gnIty cudaI category Is cdIated whIch
ourgccs soccty rcscnts posthumousIy for the IegItI
atI cf ts hIerachy. 8ourgeoIs socIety aIways has
ha c tendency to sdIeas Is cIearly sho by
dcIegatcd ocIaIs onIestIve occasIons, whenthey ap-
pea In aII he fasdIousncss of prcscrILed demeanor
eIdeggcr's dIgnityIs once again the shadowo sch a
borrowedIdeoIogy Thc subj ectwho founds his IgnIty
at east on the ythagorean cIaImuestionaLIe as It
may be-thatheIs a good cItIeh oa goodcounty is
repIaccd Is dIgnIty ves way to that respect which
thc sub ect can cIaIm Ly the mec fact that Iike al
others, he has to dIe. I this respect eIdegger Ih
voIuntarIIyprovestoLeadeocat. IdehtIcaioh ith
at hIch Is InevI tabe remans thc only cosoltioh
ofthIs phIIosophyof consoIaton ItistheIastidentity
The wornout prIncIpIe of the seIfposItIhg of the ego
whIch proudIy hoIds outI n preservIng I t s Iie at the
costof the others, Is given a hIgher valucLy means of
thc eath whIch extInIshes It hat was once the
portaI to cternaI IIfe hasLeen cIoscd for HeIdeggerIan
phIIosophy nstcad, thIs phIIosophy pays homage to
thc powcr and dImcnsIon oI thc

ortaI . Thatwhich i s
cmpt becomes the mystery of beIng
pcrmancntIy n ccstasy over sme numInous thng
whch Is reservcd In sIIence. !n thc case of acIturn
pcopc, It Is too oIten ImpossILIe to tcII hether-as
thcy wouId IIke one to bcIIcve-the depth of thc In-
wdness shudders at thc sight of anythIng profane,
or whether theIr coIdness has as IttIc to say to any-
thIng as anythInghasto saytoIt. ThcrestIspIcty, an
m tc morchuancInstcc thIsrcst Is the heIpIcssIy
8uI_H_ !CCH_ O QCOQIC WDO DuVC IO8I SODCDC IDC
OVCO lDC WOI8I H8IuHCC I 8 lC COHVCHlD IDul
SuHCIODS OCaID O]D0uD8 O IDC lDOu_Dl O OVDC W!
uDO dVHC _IaCCCVCH uICI IDCO!O_] Da8QHCO uWu.
Dul8 WDuI 8 OCH_ CXQOICO D uH_uu_C u WDuI
OCCODC8 IDC 8CCDu O IHC _OH O uuIDCHICI. l8
O_HD0O DuDD0I8D 8 u I0CIODuI] IC8QOH8C IOWuIO
IDC 8CCu aI2alOH O OCalD. uH_a_C Wl8 lO _u8
WDaI 8 C8CaQH_, WlDOuI DCCVD_ I OI HuH_ l
uKC OCalH OCCOUC8 lDC UCaHH_ O 8CD I3K0
D0uDD_ lDul OlD0I80 l WOU!O DaVC OH] 8OD
IDH_ IIaH8CuHdCHI. HC aSCHC88 O VH_ UCaHH
HOIDH_HC88u88D0lDD__ 8WHaICICaIC8 IHCID_u8I
D0Oul D8 ID0 )uenJsri| WaHlCO lO _V DCuH
H_, OI OI l80!!, lO u D0uDDg!088! 0Q0ICDC
O]UC0H8 a8lIuCIHC_alOD. I8CDUCIC0! U3DC8lO
Wa8 CD_IaV0O lO CI28CC 8 HCW laO!CI8 . OIDH_ O
lDC KO CuD uD] !OD_0I OC O!UIuI] C!CICO O
aIC DOuI_CI8 u80D Dul 8 WD UCuDH_ S IDIOWH
HIO dCuID. DC OIaDu8 O lDC ulCI O8CH CO8CO WIH
lDC ICC!] COUDIICd 8C!OC8IIuCIOH O C IDuI
Cuu_DI [ m IC aOIHI! O CODVCHIOH8 8 SC
C8lIuCIOH Wu8 a DCCC883I OCDI COH8CQuCC O
lC aCIOD, a8 I WCIC l8 uCHI CI l uS a
CuO CO8C I IDC [uI]D_ OCaID O u_HO8IC CICD0
lOD. ul lDC uDuIC OID COuO HOl IC8OVC DC Va
DaIuIC O 8uC aCIO DC SuOj CCIVC COD8OH_
UCaHH_ O 8COC8lIuCOD ICDHCO OOj CCIVC I
Oul CD8OulOH DC a8I OIO 8 8QOKCH O IuC
IOD DC WCuC lDC DOOu OCCODCS, IO 3 O
CCIa QCIQCCIVC, lDC!C88 C3D !COCCOUC CuD! uWuC
O D8 OWD DQOlCHCC. C DuS lO [u DDSC! Q H
SCUHCSS, lDC W8q lDC UlHlq 0 IDS SCHCSS SClS
1lSCU U_ 8S WD8l JS 8UlDCHlC, 8S CD_. DCIC JS 8D
1HV0UHl8Iq Q8I0Gq O CJGC__CY, Dq 8D 8UID0I WD0
DI0U_Dl 0IlD, OHC 8lCI 8DOIDCI, D0OKS WID lIlCS IKC
LnCuntc t tc 8HU LCuntc t
cn Ul lDJS 8U!D0I C8DDOI DC U8DCG OY DS
l D8S lO UC U8DCU OH lS DOGC, WDJCD lDDKS
JISC SD[CIOI lO SUCD GC[I8VICS . CGCg_CI, l0O, 0Hq
CDC0UDl0IS H0lHD_HCSS WID 3 DJ_DCI [IO[8CGCUlC 0
CH_. DC CGC__CIJ8H !OHC O V0JCC JS JDGCCG [IO[D-
CCCG bCDHCI`S USCUS5IOH 0 GI_Hl]. bCHICY SCCS Jl
8S SODCIDD_ SCCUOD_ ODCSC WJlDJD ODCSC, OI 8S 0
KJDU O1 SCCUID_.
1 WC H3VC H3Dq OCC3SODS lO ODSC1VC lHC 3CClCO _13CC
D lDC lHC3l1C 3DO H lHC D31OOH, lHC1C S 0SO OtCD
OCC3SOD O1 SlUOqD_ lHC CClCO O_Dlq D lHC C3DHCl
O HDSlC1S 0DO D lHC SlUO-1OODS O DCH O SCCDCC
[ DOl0Dq 3l UDIVCISICS ] . LUC CI_Dy S CODlCDl lO
[1CVCHl lHC OODID3lIOD O tHC 3CClODS, lO KCC[ lHC
DStDCl WlHD USl IlS, DUl lHC1C ODq WHC1C l [1C-
!CDUS lO DC D3SlC1 D lDC DVOUDl0q DOVCDCHlS , 0St
U_Hlq1C_U3lCS WlD 8D 1OD SCC[l1C CVCD !HC VOUl31
HOVCHCDlS, l O[[1CSSCS lHC O13 HOVCDCDlS , WHCH
WC1CS3C1CO tO UC O_Dl, 3S WC 0S lHC SCDSU3 HOVC
HCDlS, 3C OCSl1OqS 3 lHC DHC [3y O !HC C3lU1CS
Dj WHCD lHC SOU _C3HS O1lH U[OD lHC 3CC. 1l 8S
lSC HOl ODq 3_3IDSl 1CDC H3!U, DU! 0_0DSl SHD-
HSSVC D3lU1C, 3DO 1OCUOUSq SCCK lS _1C3lDCSS H
SHDgCCl_ D3lU1C lO lS yOKC, O1 HS UOCS DOl SUC
CCCU, D HOD_ l. PS t H3 VOWCO H3l1CO lO 3 lD3l
S C3C H3lU1C, l SW3lHCS lHC DOOj D OH_, HC3Vj-
_3tCO _31DCHlS, WHCH HOC lHC HUD3D SClU1C l
3f3jSCS tHC HDS D SU1CH31_D_ tHCD lD 3H
CDlS, 3H _OCS CVCH HC CD_lH O CUl_ lC H0f l
68CC lDS _l O 3tUC Dj 81C3

c
IUC O_Dl] OOCS DOl DUSH OI D3lUIC, DU oD O1
DIUl D3lUC, 1l 3W3S D3S 3D OQD ad 13D 3, CC-
D_ _C3DSD lS !OO, C3D d SC1CDl O DDC S C
DC U[OD lDC DIOW D COUCDl 3lS. 3SC OD
lDC CODlI3], [3CCS lS O_DI] D IDC DCS ! l S3_
S COSC, D]SlC1OUS, 3DO _U31OS IS C3lU1CS lH lDC
C31C O 3D 3ClO1 a lDC DUSCCS O lDC 3CC 31C OI-
DClCO, D3I3 3DO IIUC CXQICSSOD OS3[[CLS, 3O
lDC CDlC D3D S C 3 SC3!CO CllCI.
Ul 3SC O_Dl] S DOl 3W3]S W1OD_ IO CC[ lDC
D [!3] ! lS C3lHICS UDOCI SD3IQ SCQC, DC
C3USC l D_Dl DClI3] DO1C ID3D WOH!O DC OS1CO, 3
[ICC3UD lIUC OlD3S DOlIO CODSOCI. IUC O_l]
WSDCS OD lO UC, DOl O CODCC3 D3lU1C 3SC
O_Dl, OH IDC COlIuI, D3IUIC 1UCS IDC DO1 [OWC1
HH] lD DCC3SC l S CODlIO!CO OUlW3IO.

DC JDI3H, WDO DCCVCO D Ds JslC\s Os DCOD


DCIWCCD QICC 3HO O_Hl], COu!O sI! sCC ID8 s sOC-
IHH_ IO OC OCs\CO CC0UsC O IHJI, HOCVCI, IC _\CJI
IlCI C! sHO\I O IHC Hs_Hl lO WDCD C C3C
COsC. H s s lHC Hs_HI l0l dI] COHI0D8 COID
O I8 CC3dCHCC WIH |8C!. HC aClCJH OC OsC\C
WDCD DlC!!CClu3!s OCCODC aCCOQ!CCs O! IDI QOC\
WDCD lC] OOHI HJVC and WHCH lDC] sHOu! ICss
DC 3HI 3H O_DI] Ha! OsHlC_\JIC8 HIO lDC j aI
_OD O 3uIDCHICl] lD It _OCs lH0l Hu3Dl WDC
H38 ls D38C H3luIC DOI H sC\CCClOH but I8

CICHCC IO 3 suQQ\CssCd aHD0!I.


1gg. Ircdrch von bchIIcr, 5dm|chc Vcrhc ( Stuttgart,
i8: 8 ) , bcr Anmut und Vrdc, ` NOI v N, [l. , [Q. Q f.
[LngIsh cdUcn cdtcd b P. H OcIc, 1hc Vhs 5ch||c
( OstOn, t QOz ) , On Cracc and Ogty,` Q[. zt H. ]